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TRNG I HC CNG NGH SI GN

BAN KHOA HC C BN
B MN TON

BI GING

TON CAO CP C2
(H I HC)

TP H CH MINH 2009
LU HNH NI B
1

Li ni u
_____________________

p bi ging Ton cao cp C2 (H i hc) c bin son trn c s cng

mn hc ca Trng i hc Cng Ngh Si Gn; nhm p ng yu cu nng cao cht


lng ging dy trong giai on nh trng thc hin o to theo hc ch tn ch.
Tp bi ging ny cha ng ni dung m tc gi ging dy Trng i hc
Cng Ngh Si Gn v cc trng i hc khc. Tc gi by t lng cm n i vi cc
ng nghip Ban Khoa hc C bn - Trng i hc Cng Ngh Si Gn ng
vin, ng gp nhiu kin qu bu cho vic bin son.
Tuy vy, thiu st vn khng th trnh khi. Tc gi rt mong nhn c nhng nhn
xt gp ca qu ng nghip cho tp bi ging ny v xin chn thnh cm n.
Tp. H Ch Minh, thng 09 nm 2009
Tc gi

MC LC
CHNG 1. MA TRN V H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH
1. NH NGHA V K HIU ....................................................................................... 5
2. CC PHP TON MA TRN .................................................................................... 6
3. PHP BIN I S CP HNG CA MA TRN ........................................... 10
4. MA TRN KH NGHCH ........................................................................................ 14
5. PHNG TRNH MA TRN ................................................................................... 16
6. KHI NIM V H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH........................................ 17
7. PHNG PHP GAUSS GII H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH .............. 19
BI TP ........................................................................................................................... 25

CHNG 2: NH THC
1. NH NGHA V TNH CHT CN BN ............................................................ 31
2. NH THC V MA TRN KH NGHCH ......................................................... 37
3. QUY TC CRAMER.................................................................................................. 40
4. NH THC V HNG CA MA TRN .............................................................. 43
BI TP ........................................................................................................................... 44

CHNG 3: KHNG GIAN VCT


0. M U....................................................................................................................... 50
1. NH NGHA V TNH CHT CN BN ............................................................ 50
2. T HP TUYN TNH ............................................................................................ 52
3. C LP TUYN TNH PH THUC TUYN TNH .................................... 55
4. KHNG GIAN CON TP SINH C S V S CHIU................................ 59
5. KHNG GIAN DNG ............................................................................................... 63
6. KHNG GIAN NGHIM .......................................................................................... 65
7. KHNG GIAN TNG ............................................................................................... 66
8. TA V MA TRN CHUYN C S ............................................................. 69
3

BI TP ........................................................................................................................... 80

CHNG 4: MT S NG DNG TRONG KINH T


1. M HNH CN BNG TUYN TNH .................................................................. 87
2. M HNH INPUT-OUTPUT M ................................................................................ 88
BI TP ........................................................................................................................... 93

CHNG 5: CHO HA MA TRN


1. TR RING, VECT RING CA MA TRN..................................................... 95
2. CHO HA MA TRN ............................................................................................. 97
BI TP ......................................................................................................................... 102

CHNG 1

MA TRN V
H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH
1. NH NGHA V K HIU
1.1. nh ngha. Mt ma trn loi m n trn R l mt bng ch nht gm m dng, n ct
vi mn h s trong R c dng:
a11

a
A = 21
.....

a
m1

a12

...

a1n

a 22 ... a 2n
.
...... ... ......

a m2 ... a mn

Vit tt: A = (aij)mn hay A = (aij), trong aij R.


Ta gi:
aij: h s dng i, ct j ca ma trn A (h s ny cn c k hiu bi [A]ij)
(ai1 ai2 ... ain) : dng th i ca ma trn A;
a1j

a2j
: ct th j ca ma trn A.

.
a
mj

K hiu: Mmn (R) l tp hp tt c nhng ma trn loi mn trn R.


1.2. V du.

1 2

1 2 3

A =
M23 (R); B = 0 1 M 3 2 (R).

0 1 2
2 3

1.3. nh ngha. Cho hai ma trn cng loi A = (aij)mn v B = (bij)mn. Ta ni A bng B,
k hiu A = B, nu aij = bij, 1 i m, 1 j n.
1.4. nh ngha. (i) Ma trn khng loi mn, k hiu 0mn hay 0, l ma trn loi mn m
tt c cc h s u bng 0.
(ii) Mt ma trn vung cp n l mt ma trn loi nn (ngha l s dng = s ct = n). Trong mi
ma trn vung cp c mt ng cho chnh (gi tt l ng cho) gm cc h s aii, 1 i n.
Tp cc ma trn vung cp n trn R c k hiu l Mn(R).

(iii) Mt ma trn cho cp n l mt ma trn vung cp n m tt c cc h s nm ngoi ng


cho chnh u bng 0:
a11 0 ... 0

0 a 22 ... 0

.
A=
........................

0 0 ... a nn

(iv) Ma trn n v cp n, k hiu In hay I, l ma trn cho cp n m tt c cc h s nm trn


ng cho chnh u bng 1:

1 0 ... 0
0 1 ... 0
,
In =
.....................

1
0
1 neu i = j

ngha l In = (ij )nn vi ij l k hiu Kronecker: ij =

0 neu i j

(v) Mt ma trn tam gic trn (t.. ma trn tam gic di) l mt ma trn vung m tt c cc
h s nm pha di (t.. pha trn) ng cho chnh u bng 0. Nh vy,
A = (aij)nn l ma trn tam gic trn aij = 0, 1 j < i n;
B = (bij)nn l ma trn tam gic di bij = 0, 1 i < j n.
2. CC PHP TON MA TRN
2.1. nh ngha (php ly chuyn v). Cho A = (aij) l mt ma trn loi mn. Ta gi ma
trn chuyn v ca A, k hiu AT, l ma trn loi nm, c c t A bng cch xp cc dng
ca A thnh cc ct tng ng, ngha l
a11 a12 ... a1n
a11 a 21 ... a m1

a
a
... a 2n
a
a
... a m2
A T = 12 22
.
A = 21 22
............................
...........................

a m1 a m2 ... a mn
a1n a 2n ... a mn

Nh vy, [A T ]ij = [A] ji .


1 6 0
1 1 4 5
1 8 4
.
2.2. V d. Vi A = 6 8 0 1 ta c A T =
4 0 3
0 4 3 6

5 1 6

2.3. nh ngha (php nhn v hng vi ma trn). Cho ma trn A = (aij)mn v s thc
. Ta nh ngha A l ma trn c t A bng cch nhn tt c cc h s ca A cho , ngha l
A = (aij)mn.
Nh vy, [ A]ij = [A]ij .
3 4

1 6 8

2.4. V d. 2
=
.
0 1 3 0 2 6
2.5. K hiu. A := (1)A = ( aij)mn
T nh ngha, ta d dng kim tra c cc tnh cht sau:
2.6. Tnh cht. Vi A = (aij) v , R ta c
1) ()A = (A).
2) (A)T = AT .
3) 0.A = 0 v 1.A = A.
2.7. nh ngha (php cng ma trn). Cho hai ma trn cng loi mn: A = (aij)mn v
B = (bij)mn. Ta nh ngha tng hai ma trn A v B, k hiu A + B, l ma trn loi mn m cc
h s c c bng cch ly tng ca cc h s tng ng ca A v B, ngha l
A + B = (aij + bij)mn.
Nh vy, [A + B]ij = [A]ij + [B]ij .
2.8. K hiu. A B := A + (B) v gi l hiu ca A v B.
2.9. V d.

2 3 0 1 0 4 3 3 4

+
=
.
1 2 3 7 8 3 8 10 6

T nh ngha, ta d dng kim c cc tnh cht sau:


2.10. Tnh cht. Vi A, B, C Mmn(R) v , R, ta c
1) A + B = B + A (tnh giao hon);
2) (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (tnh kt hp);
3) 0mn + A = A + 0mn = A;
4) A + (A) = (A) + A = 0mn;
5) (A + B)T = AT + BT;
6) (A + B) = A + B
7) ( + )A = A + A;
8) ()A = (A) = (A).
2.11. nh ngha (php nhn ma trn). Cho hai ma trn A v B c tnh cht: S ct ca
ma trn A bng s dng ca ma trn B. C th, A = (aij) loi mn v B = (bij) loi np. Ta nh
ngha tch ca hai ma trn A v B, k hiu AB, l ma trn C loi mp nh bi:
7

1) V loi: C c loi mp.


2) V h s: C c h s dng i, ct j c tnh bi cng thc:

c ij =

a ik bkj .

k =1

Ni cch khc, h s dng i, ct j ca AB c c bng cch nhn cc h s dng i ca ma


trn A vi cc h s tng ng ct j ca ma trn B ri ly tng ca chng:

2.12. Ch . Tch ca hai ma trn ch tn ti khi s ct ca ma trn trc bng s dng ca


ma trn sau. Ta ghi nh kt qu v loi ca ma trn tch thng qua k hiu hnh thc:
(mn)(np)= (mp).
1

3
2 1

1, C =
, ta c
1
0

3 1

1 2 1

, B = 2
2.13. V d. Vi A =

3
1
2

1 3
10 5 5
1 3
1 2 1

1 2 1

2 6
AB =
= 5 5 0 ;
2 1 =
; BA = 2 1
3 1 2
11 8
3 1 3 1 2 0 5 5
3 1

1 3
5 1

2 1

BC = 2 1
= 5 2 ;
3 1 1 0 5 3

2 1 1 2 1 1 3 4
CA =

.
1 0 3 1 2 1 2 1

nhng AC v CB khng xc nh.


c

2.14. Tnh cht. Vi AMmn(R); B, B1, B2Mnp(R); C Mpq(R); D1, D2 Mqn(R), ta


1) ImA = A v AIn = A. c bit, vi A Mn(R), ta c
InA = AIn = A.
2) 0pmA = 0pn v A0nq = 0mq. c bit, vi A Mn(R), ta c
0nnA = A0nn = 0nn.
8

3) (AB)T = BTAT.
4) Php nhn ma trn c tnh kt hp, ngha l
(AB)C = A(BC).
5) Php nhn ma trn c tnh phn phi i vi php cng, ngha l
A(B1 + B2) = AB1 + AB2,
(D1 + D2)A = D1A + D2A.
Chng minh. Ta chng minh cc tnh cht 1), 3) v 4). Vic chng minh cc tnh cht cn
li dnh cho c gi.
1) Vi A Mmn (C), cc ma trn ImA v AIn u c cng loi vi A. Hn na, vi mi
1 i m, 1 j n, ta c

[Im A]ij =
[A In ]ij =

k =1
n

k =1
n

[Im ]ik [A]kj = ik [A]kj = [A]ij,

[A]ik [In ]kj = [A]ik kj = [A]ij.

k =1

k =1

Suy ra ImA = A = AIn.


3) Vi A Mmn (R); B Mnp (R), ta c:
-

AB loi mp nn (AB)T loi pm.

BT loi pn, AT loi nm nn BTAT loi pm.

Vy hai ma trn (AB)T v BTAT c cng loi. Vi mi 1 i p, 1 j m, ta c


[(AB)T ]ij = [AB] ji =
T

k =1

k =1

k =1

[A] jk [B]ki = [A T ]kj [BT ]ik = [BT ]ik [A T ]kj = [BT A T ]ij .

Suy ra (AB) = B A .
4) Vi A Mmn (R); B Mnp (R); C Mpq (R), ta c
-

AB loi mp nn (AB)C loi mq.

BC loi nq nn A(BC) loi mq.

Vy hai ma trn (AB)C v A(BC) c cng loi. Vi mi 1 i m, 1 j q, ta c


[(AB)C]ij =
=

l =1

k =1

[AB]ik [C]kj = ( [A]il [B]lk )[C]kj = [A]il ( [B]lk [C]kj )

k =1
n

k =1 l =1

[A]il [BC]lj = [A(BC)]ij .


l =1

Suy ra (AB)C = A(BC).


2.15. Ch y. 1) Php nhn ma trn khng c tnh giao hon, ngha l thng thng ta c
AB BA (xem V d 2.13).

2) Nhiu tnh cht quen thuc ca php nhn gia cac s thc khng cn ng i vi
phep nhn ma trn, chng hn:
0 1

0 1

0 0

2
Vi A =
; B = 0 0 ; C = 0 = 0 0 , ta c A = 0; AB = 0; AB = AC, nhng A,
0
0

B u khc 0 v B C.

2.16. nh ngha (lu tha ca ma trn vung). Vi AMmn(R) v k l s nguyn


khng m, ta t

In

A = A...A
k

neu k = 0;

neu k > 0.

V php nhn ma trn khng giao hon nn ni chung i vi ma trn ta khng c cc


hng ng thc tng t nh cc hng ng thc v s. Tuy nhin ta d dng chng minh c
kt qu sau:
2.17. Tnh cht. Vi A, B l cc ma trn vung cng cp tho AB = BA th vi k nguyn
dng ta c
k 1

A B = (A B) A k r 1Br ,
k

r =0

(A + B) =

Crk A k rBr .

r =0

3. PHP BIN I S CP HNG CA MA TRN


3.1. nh ngha. Cho A = (aij)mn. Ta gi php bin i s cp trn dng (t.. php bin
i s cp trn ct), vit tt l BSCTD (t. BSCTC) trn A, l mt trong ba loi bin i
sau:
1) Loi 1:

i hai dng (t. ct) cho nhau.

K hiu :

di dk (t.. ci ck) ch php i hai dng (t.. ct) i v k (i k).

2) Loi 2:

Nhn mt dng cho mt s khc 0.

K hiu:

di := di (t.. ci := ci ) ch php nhn dng (t. ct) th i cho s 0.

3) Loi 3:

Cng vo mt dng (t.. ct) mt bi ca dng (t. ct) khc.

K hiu:
di := di + dk (t.. ci := ci + ck) ch php cng vo dng (t. ct) th i bi
( R) ln ca dng (t. ct) k i.
Vi l mt php bin i s cp, k hiu (A) ch ma trn c t A qua .
3.2. nh ngha. Cho A v B l hai ma trn cng loi. Ta ni A tng ng dng vi B,
k hiu A ~ B, nu B c c t A qua hu hn php bin i s cp trn dng no . Vy
10

A ~ B Tn ti cc php BSCTD 1,..., k sao cho:


1
k
A
A1
...
Ak = B .

3.3. Nhn xt. Quan h tng ng dng l mt quan h tng ng, ngha l cc tnh
cht sau c nghim ng:
(i) A ~ A.
(ii) A ~ B B ~ A.
(iii) A ~ B v B ~ C A ~ C.
Tnh cht (i) v (iii) l hin nhin. Tnh cht (ii) c suy t nhn xt nu A c t A qua
mt php BSCTD th t A ta tm li c A qua php BSCTD cng loi. Tht vy,
di dk
A
A

di dk
A
A
1
di := di

d i : = d i

A A

A
A

di := di + d k
A
A

di := di dk
A
A

3.4. nh ngha (Ma trn dng bc thang v ma trn dng bc thang rt gn). Cho A
= (aij) l mt ma trn loi mn trn R. Ta ni:
a) A c dng bc thang nu A c dng sau:

trong k1 < k2 <...< kr v a1k , a 2k ,..., a rk 0 , ngha l A tha hai tnh cht sau:
1

1) Cc dng khc 0 lun lun trn cc dng bng 0 ca A.


2) Trn hai dng khc 0 ca A, h s khc 0 u tin ca dng di bao gi cng bn
phi ct cha h s khc 0 u tin ca dng trn.
b) A c dng bc thang rt gn (hay c dng rt gn theo dng tng bc) nu tnh cht sau
c tha:
1) A c dng bc thang.
2) Cc h s khc 0 u tin trn cc dng khc 0 ca A u bng 1.

11

3) Trn cc ct c cha cc s 1 l cc h s khc khng u tin trn cc dng khc 0, tt


c cc h s khc u bng 0, ngha l A c dng nh trong (i) v a1k = a 2k = ... = a rk = 1 ,
1

hn na, ngoi tr cc h s 1 ny, trn cc ct k1, k2,.., kr tt c cc h s cn li u bng 0.


3.5. V d. Xt cc ma trn:
1

0
A=
0

2
0

5 4 2

3 1 7
0 0 4

0
0

0
B=
0

3 2 1

0 4 2
1 0 3

0 0 0

0
C=
0

0 10 0 0

1 3 0 0
0 0 1 2

0 0 0 0

0
D=
0

3 0 2 7

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

0
0

Ta thy:
A c dng bc thang nhng B khng c dng bc thang.
C c dng bc thang rt gn nhng D khng c dng bc thang rt gn (D ch c dng
bc thang).
3.6. Thut ton tm ma trn dng bc thang v ma trn bc thang rt gn ca ma
trn A = (aij)mn
Qua cc bc sau, ma trn A s c bin i thnh ma trn dng bc thang tng ng
dng vi ma trn A:
Bc 1: i:=1, j:=1.
Bc 2: Nu i> m hoc j > n th kt thc.
Bc 3: Nu aij = 0 th sang Bc 4. Nu aij 0 th thc hin cc php BSCTD sau:
d k := d k

a kj
a ij

di

vi

k > i. .

Sau i := i+1, j := j+1 v quay v Bc 2.


akj 0 vi mt
Bc 4: Nu akj = 0 vi mi k > i th j := j + 1 v quay v Bc 2. Nu
k > i no th chn mt k nh vy v thc hin php BSCTD: di dk v quay v Bc 3.
Ch . a ma trn A v dng bc thang rt gn, Bc 3 ta cn thc hin cc php
bin i sau:
d k := d k
d i :=

a kj
a ij

di

vi

1 k n; k i

1
di
a ij

3.7. nh l. Cho A l mt ma trn loi mn trn R. Khi tn ti duy nht mt ma trn


bc thang rt gn RA sao cho A ~ R. Ta gi R l ma trn dng bc thang rt gn ca A v s
lng dng khc 0 ca R l hng ca ma trn A, k hiu r(A) hay rank(A).
12

3.8. Nhn xt. 1) Nu A = (aij) l ma trn loi mn th r(A) min{m, n}.


2) Hng ca ma trn A cng bng s lng dng khc 0 ca bt k ma trn dng bc thang
no tng ng dng vi A (khng nht thit rt gn).
3.9. V d. Tm mt ma trn dng bc thang R tng ng dng vi ma trn:
1 7 1 3 0

1 7 1 2 2

A=
.
2 14 2 7 0

6 42 3 13 3

T xc nh hng ca A.
Gii.
1

d 2 : = d 2 d1
d 3 : = d 3 2d1
0
A

d 4 : = d 4 6d1
0

0
5
d3 1
2
0

d4 : = d4

7 1 3 0 d4 : = d4 3 d2 1
2

0 2 5 2
0

0
0 0 1 0

0 3 5 3
0
1

0 2 5 2
0 0
1
0

0 0 5/2 0

0 2 5 2
=R
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

Ta c A R v R c dng bc thang vi 3 dng khc 0 nn A c hng l r(A) = 3.


3.10. V d. Tm ma trn dng bc thang rt gn ca ma trn:
1 7 1 3 0

1 7 1 2 2

A=
2 14 2 7 0

6 42 3 13 3

Gii.
1

d 2 : = d 2 d1
d 3 : = d 3 2d1
0
A

d 4 : = d 4 6d1
0

d1 : = d1 + d 2
7 1 3 0
1
2
3

d4 : = d4 d2
0 2 5 2
2
0

1
0
0 0 1 0
d 2 : = d 2
2

0 3 5 3
0

7 0 1 / 2 1

0 1 5/2 1
0 0 1
0

0 0 5/2 0

1
d1 : = d1 d 3
1
2
5

d2 : = d2 d3
0
2

5
0
d4 : = d4 d3
2

7 0 0 1

0 1 0 1
= R.
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0

Ta thy R c dng bc thang rt gn v A ~ R. Suy ra R chmh l ma trn dng bc thang rt


gn ca A.
13

4. MA TRN KH NGHCH
4.1. nh ngha. Cho A l mt ma trn A vung cp n. Ta ni A kh nghch nu tn ti
ma trn B vung cp n sao cho AB = BA = In. Khi ma trn B c gi l ma trn nghch o
ca A, k hiu A1.
4.2. Nhn xt. Nu A kh nghch th ma trn nghich o B ca A l duy nht v Tht vy,
gi s ma trn C vung cp n cng l ma trn nghi5cg o ca A, ngha l AC = CA = In. Khi
C = CIn = C(AB) = (CA)B = InB = B.
4.3. Nhn xt. 1) Nu ma trn A c mt dng hay mt ct bng 0 th A khng kh nghch.
Tht vy, nu A c dng th i bng 0 th ma trn AB cng c dng th i bng 0 nn AB In.
Tng t, nu A c ct th j bng 0 th ma trn BA cng c ct th j bng 0 nn BA In.
2) Ma trn n v In kh nghch v In1 = In.
3) Nu ma trn A kh nghch th ma trn nghch o A1 cng kh nghch v (A1)1 = A.
4.4. Mnh . (i) Nu ma trn A kh nghch v R, 0 th ma trn A cng kh
nghch v
(A)1 =

1 1
A .

(ii) Nu ma trn A kh nghch th ma trn AT cng kh nghch v


(AT)1 = (A1)T .
(iii) Nu A, B l hai ma trn kh nghch c cng cp th ma trn tch AB cng kh nghch
v:
(AB)1 = B1A1 .
Tng qut hn, nu A1,..., Ak l cc ma trn kh nghch c cng cp th ma trn tch A1...Ak
cng kh nghch v (A1...Ak)1 = Ak1...A11.
Chng minh. (i) Ta c
1 1

(A)( A ) =

( 1 A 1 )(A) =

Suy ra (A)1 =

1
( )(AA 1 ) = 1.In = In

1
( )(A 1A) = 1.In = In

1 1
.
A

(ii) Ta c
14

T
1 T
1
T
T
(A )(A ) = (A A) = (In ) = In
1 T T
1 T
T
(A ) (A ) = (AA ) = (In ) = In

Suy ra (AT)1 = (A1)T .


(iii) Ta c
1 1
1
1
1
1
(AB)(B A ) = A(BB )A = AIn A = AA = In
1 1
1
1
1
1
(B A )(AB) = B (A A)B = B InB = B B = In

Suy ra (AB)1 = B-1A1 . Trong trung hp tng qut, ta d dng chng minh c bng qui np
theo k ng thc (A1...Ak)1 = Ak1...A11.
4.5. nh l. Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n. Cc khng nh sau tng ng:
1) A kh nghch.
2) A c hng r(A) = n.
3) A ~ In.
4) Tn ti cc php BSCTD 1, ..., k bin ma trn A thnh ma trn n v In.
Hn na, khi cng qua chnh cc php BSCTD 1, ..., k , ma trn n v In s bin
thnh ma trn nghch o A1, ngha l:
Nu
th

1
k
A
A1
...
A k = In

1
k
In
B1
...
Bk = A 1 .

4.6. Ch . Trong thc hnh, xt tnh kh nghch ca ma trn A vung cp n v tm A1


(nu c), ta tin hnh nh sau: Xp In bn phi ma trn A: (AIn) v dng cc php BSCTD
bin i ma trn ny theo hng a A v dng bc thang rt gn R:

1
p
(A In )
(A1 B1 )
...
(A p Bp )
....

Trong qu trnh bin i c th xy ra hai trng hp:


Trng hp 1: Tn ti p sao cho trong dy bin i trn, ma trn Ap c t nht mt
dng hay mt ct bng 0. Khi A khng kh nghch.
Trng hp 2: Mi ma trn Ai trong dy bin i trn u khng c dng hay ct
bng 0. Khi ma trn cui cng ca dy trn c dng (InB). Ta c A kh nghch v A-1 = B .
4.7. V d. Xt tnh kh nghch ca A v tm A1 (nu c):
1

2
a) A =
3

5 4 7
7 8 12

8 14 19

1 2

2 1
b) A =
3 0

4 1

15

3
1

0
2 1

0 3

Gii. a) A I4

2
=
3

d1 : = d1 2d 2 0
0

d3 : = d3 d 2 0
d1 : = d1 + d 4
d2 : = d2 d4

d3 : = d3 d 4

0
0

2
5

3
4

7 8
8 14

0 7 6
1 2 1
0
1 1
0 2 3
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

4 1 0 0 0 d 2 : = d 2 2d1 1

7 0 1 0 0 d3 : = d3 3d1 0
12 0 0 1 0 0

19 0 0 0 1 d 4 : = d 4 4d1 0
5 2 0 0 d 1 : = d 1 7d 3 1

2
1 0 0 d 2 : = d 2 + 2d 3 0

1 1 1 0 0

4 0 0 1 d 4 : = d 4 2d 3 0

2
3 4 1
1 2 1 2
1 1 0 3
0 2 3 4

0
1
0
0

0 0 1 12

1 0

0 1
0 0

1
1

0
0

0
0
1
0

7 0

4 1 2 0
1 1 1 0
2 2 2 1

0 10 7 9 1

0 2 3 4 1
= (I4B)
0 1 3 3 1

1 2 2 2 1

V (AI4) (I4B) nn A kh nghch v ma trn nghch o ca A l:

A 1

1 2

2 1
b) ( A I ) =
3 0

4 1

3 4
1 0
2
1
0 3

1 2 3 4

d3 : =d3 2d2
0 3 5 8

d4 : = d4 3d2
0 0 3 5

0 0 3 5

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

10 7 9 1

2 3 4 1
=B=
1 3 3 1

2 2 2 1
0 d 2 : = d 2 2d 1

0 d 3 : = d 3 3d 1
0

1 d 4 : = d 4 4d 1

1 2
1 0
3
4

0 3 5 8 2 1
0 6 7 11 3 0

0 9 12 19 4 0

0 0
1 2 3 4

2 1 0 0
0 3 5 8
d : =d d

0 0 3 5
1 2 1 0

2 3 0 1
0 0 0 0
4

1 0 0
2 1 0
1 2 1
1 1 1

0
0

0 0

0 0
1 0
0 1

= (R1B1)

Vy A ~ R1 v R1 c mt dng bng 0 nn A cng khng kh nghch.


4.8. nh l. 1) Vi A l ma trn bt k, r(AT) = r(A).
2) Vi A Mmn (R); B Mnp (R), r(AB) min{r(A), r(B)}.
3) Vi A Mmn (R) v cc ma trn kh nghch P Mm(R), Q Mn(R), r(PAQ) = r(A).
5. PHNG TRNH MA TRN
5.1. nh l. Cho cc ma trn A Mn (R) kh nghch v B Mnp (R), C Mmn (R). Xt
cc phng trnh ma trn AX = B v YA = C. Khi
1) AX = B X = A1B.
16

2) YA = C Y = CA1.
Chng minh.
1) AX = B A -1 (AX) = A -1B (A -1A)X = A -1B In X = A -1B X = A -1B .
2) YA = C (YA)A -1 = CA -1 Y(AA -1 ) = CA -1 YIn = CA -1 Y = CA -1 .
5.2. Ch . Trong nh l trn, nu ma trn B c s dng khc n th hin nhin phng
trnh AX = B v nghim. Tng t, nu ma trn C c s ct khc n th phng trnh YA = C v
nghim.
5.3. V d. Cho hai ma trn:
3 2
0
1 2
1 1 0

2 1 2 3
0 1 1 0
A=
; B=
3 2 1 5
0 0
1 1

4 3 1 3
0 0
0
1

a) Chng t A kh nghch v tm A1.


b) Tm ma trn X tha AXA = AB.
c) Tm ma trn X tha A2XA2 = ABA2.
Gii. a) Tng t nh trong V d 4.7 ta tm c
47 81 50 29

3 5 3 2
1
A =
1
2 3 2

29 50 31 18

76 47 27
44

2
1
1
-1 1
b) AXA = AB XA = B X = BA =
.
17
27 47 29

29
59 31 18

47 34 131 21

1
8
3 2
2
2
2
1
c) A XA = ABA AX = B X = A B =
.
2 1
1
5

29 21 81 13

5.4. H qu. Cho cc ma trn A Mn (R) kh nghch v B Mnp (R), C Mmn (R). Khi
(i) Nu AB = 0 th B = 0;
(ii) Nu CA = 0 th C = 0.

Chng minh. (i) Nu AB = 0 th B l nghim ca phng trnh ma trn AX = 0. Theo


nh l 5.1 phng trnh trn ch c nghim X = 0 nn B = 0.

17

(ii) Nu CA = 0 th C l nghim ca phng trnh ma trn YA = 0. Theo nh l 5.1


phng trnh trn ch c nghim Y = 0 nn C = 0.
6. KHI NIM V H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH
6.1. nh ngha. 1) Mt h phng trnh tuyn tnh trn R gm m phng trnh, n n s l
mt h c dng:

a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + ... + a 1n x n = b1
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

....................................................
a m1 x 1 + a m2 x 2 + ... + a mn x n = b m

(1)

trong
aij, bi R: Cc h s;
x1, x2,..., xn : Cc n s nhn gi tr trong R.
Mi b s (x1 , x2 ,..., xn) = (1 , 2 ,..., n) Rn tha tt c cc phng trnh trong (1)
c gi l mt nghim ca (1). Khi h c nghim ta cn ni h tng thch.
2) Ma trn
a11 a12 ... a1n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2n

A = (aij)mn =
...........................

a m1 a m2 ... a mn

c gi l ma trn h s v tri ca h (1).


Ma trn
b1

b2

B=
...

bm

c gi l ma trn h s v phi ca h (1).


Ma trn

a11 a12 ... a1n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2n
(AB) = ..........................

a m1 a m2 ... a mn

b1

b2
...

bm

c gi l ma trn b sung (hay ma trn m rng) ca h (1).


18

Khi , h (1) c vit di dng ma trn nh sau:


AX = B

(2)

trong
x1

x
X = 2 : Ma trn ct cc n s
...

xn

6.2. nh ngha. Vi cc k hiu trong nh ngha 6.1, ta ni


1) H (1) v (2) l h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht nu B = 0, ngha l b1 = b2 = ... =
bn = 0.
2) H (1) v (2) l h phng trnh tuyn tnh khng thun nht nu B 0, ngha l tn ti
1 j m sao cho bj 0.
6.3. Nhn xt. Mt h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht bt k lun lun c nghim v
n nhn (0,0,...,0) lm mt nghim, gi l nghim tm thng. iu ny khng ng i vi cc
h khng thun nht.
7. PHNG PHP GAUSS GII H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH
Trong phn ny ta s cp n phng php Gauss gii h phng trnh tuyn tnh:
AX = B
x1
b1

b
x
trong A = (aij)mn; B = 2 ; X = 2 .
...
...

xn
bm

7.1. Nhn xt. Ta bit khi gii mt h phng trnh tuyn tnh, cc php bin i sau
y cho ta cc h tng ng:
1) Han i hai phng trnh cho nhau.
2) Nhn hai v ca mt phng trnh cho mt s khc 0.
3) Cng vo mt phng trnh mt bi ca phng trnh khc.
Tng ng vi cc php bin i trn l cc php BSCTD i vi ma trn b sung.
Nhn xt trn tng ng vi kt qu sau:
7.2. nh l. (i) Nu A ~ R th AX = 0 RX = 0.
(ii) Nu (AB) ~ (RB) th AX = B RX = B.
Nhn xt rng nu ma trn A c dng bc thang th vic gii h phng trnh tuyn tnh
AX = B rt n gin v khi ta ch cn ln lt tnh cc n da vo cc phng trnh t pha

19

di ln. T nhn xt ny v t nh l 7.2 ta tm c phng php Gauss gii cc h


phng trnh tuyn tnh nh sau:
7.3. Phng php Gauss
Bc 1: Vit ma trn b sung (AB) cua h (sau khi sp xp cc n theo mt th t no
).
Bc 2: Dng cc php BSCTD bin i ma trn (AB) cho n khi A bin thnh ma
trn dng bc thang R, ngha l
(AB) ... (RB),
trong R c dng bc thang.
Bc 3: Vit li h phng trnh tuyn tnh RX = B ng vi ma trn b sung (RB), sau
gii h ny bng cch ln lt tnh cc n da vo cc phng trnh t pha di ln. Nghim
ca h ny chnh l nghim ca h cho.
7.4. Phng php Gauss-Jordan. Tng t nh phng php Gauss nhng Bc 2 ta
bin i ma trn (AB) cho n khi A bin thnh ma trn dng bc thang rt gn (khi vic
tnh cc n Bc 3 s n gin hn rt nhiu).
7.5. Nhn xt. i vi h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht AX = 0, theo nh l 7.2,
Bc 2 ta ch cn bin i ma trn A thay v (A0).
nh l sau y m t tp nghim ca mt h phng trnh tuyn tnh tng qut.
7.6. nh l (Kronecker Capelli). Xt h phng trnh tuyn tnh AX = B gm m
phng trnh, n n s. t r1 = r(A) v r2 = r(A|B). Khi
(i) Nu r1 < r2 th h AX = B v nghim.
(ii) Nu r1 = r2 = n th h AX = B c duy nht mt nghim.
(iii) Nu r1 = r2 < n th AX = B c v s nghim vi bc t do l nr1, ngha l c nr1 n
c th nhn bt c cc gi tr no cho trc trong R, gi l nr1 n t do, v r1 n cn li c
tnh qua cc n t do trn.
7.7. Nhn xt. 1) V ma trn b sung (A|B) c t A bng cch ghp thm ct B nn r1 r2
1+ r1. Do iu kin r1 < r2 tng ng vi r2 = 1+ r1.
2) C nhiu cch chn n t do, nhng thng thng, ta chn cc n t do l cc n khng
ng u trong cc phng trnh ca h rt gn RX = B' sau cng (v khi ta c th d dng
tm c cc n cn li bng cch chuyn cc n t do sang v phi).
3) i vi h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht AX = 0, trng hp (i) khng xy ra v
khi ma trn A v ma trn b sung (A|0) lun c cng hng.
Sau y l cc v d s dng phng php Gauss v minh ho cho nh l KroneckerCapelli.
7.8. V d. Gii cc h phng trnh tuyn tnh sau trong R:

20

x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 + 4 x 4

x 2 + 2x 1 + 2x 3 + 3x 4
a) 3x + 2x + 2x + x
2
4
3
1
4 x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 + x 4

=7
=6
=7
= 18

x 1 + 2x 2 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 1

x 1 + 3x 2 13x 3 + 22x 4 = 1
b) 3x + 5x + x 2x = 5
2
3
4
1
2x 1 + 3x 2 + 4 x 3 7x 4 = 4

x 1 2x 2 + 3x 3 4 x 4 = 2

3x 1 + 3x 2 5x 3 + x 4 = 3
c) 2x + x + 2x 3x = 5
1
2
3
4

3x 1 + 3x 3 10x 4 = 8
Gii. a) Ta vit li h phng trnh theo th t ca cc n:
x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 + 4 x 4

2x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3 + 3x 4

3x 1 + 2x 2 + x 3 + 2x 4
4 x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 + x 4

=7

=6
=7
= 18

Vit ma trn b sung (AB) v bin i bng cc php BSCTD ta c:


1

2
(A|B) =
3
4

2 3 4 7 d 2 : = d 2 2d 1

1 2 3 6 d 3 : = d 3 3d 1
2 1 2 7
3 2 1 18 d 4 : = d 4 4d 1

1 2
3
4
7

0 3 4 5 8
0 4 8 10 14

0 5 10 15 10

1 2
3
4
7

d2 : = d2 d3 0 1
4
5
6 d 3 : = d 3 + 4d 2

0 4 8 10 14

0 5 10 15 10 d 4 : = d 4 + 5d 2

1
d 3 :=
d 3 0
10
d3 d4

2
1
0
0

3 4
4 5
1 1
8 10

6 d 4 : = d 4 8d 3
2

10

0
0

0
0

1 4 5 6
0 8 10 10

0 10 10 20

2 3 4 7

1 4 5 6
= (R|B)
0 1 1 2

0 0 2 6

Vy h cho tng ng vi h sau:


x1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 + 4x 4 = 7

x 2 + 4x 3 + 5x4 = 6

x
x
2
+
=
3
4

2x 4 = 6

x1

x2

x3
x4

=2
=1
=5
= 3

Suy ra h cho c duy nht mt nghim l:


(x1, x2, x3, x4) = (2, 1, 5, 3).
b) Ta vit ma trn b sung ca h cho v bin i bng cc php BSCTD:

21

1
(A|B) =
3
2

1
d3 : = d3 + d2 0

d 4 : = d 4 + d 2 0

2 3
3 13
5
3

1
4

1 d 2 : = d 2 d1

1 d 3 : = d 3 3d 1
2 5
7 4 d 4 : = d 4 2d 1
5
22

1 2
3
5
1

0 1 10 17 2
0 1 10 17 2

0 1 10 17 2

1 10 17 2
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0

Vy h cho tng ng vi h sau:


x1 + 2x 2 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 1

x 2 10x 3 + 17x 4 = 2

Chn x3 = , x4 = , ta tnh c:
x2 = 2 + 10x3 17x4 = 2 + 10 17

x1 = 1 2x2 + 3x3 5x4 = 5 17 + 29

Vy h cho c v s nghim vi hai n t do:


(x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 ) = (5 17 + 29, 2 + 10 17, , )

vi , R ty .
c) Ta vit ma trn b sung ca h cho v bin i bng cc php BSCTD:
1 2 3
4
2 d 2 : = d 2 3d 1

3 5
1
3 d 3 : = d 3 + 2d 1
3
(A|B) =
2
3
5
2 1
3
0
3 10 8 d 4 : = d 4 3d 1

1 2 3
4

d 2 d 3 0 3 8 11

0 9 14 13

2
0 6 6
1 2 3 4
d4 : = d4 d3
0 3 8 11

0 0 10 20

0
0 0 0

1 2
3
4
2

0 9 14 13 9
0 3
8
11 9

0 6
6
2
2

2
d 3 : = d 3 + 3d 2
9

2 d 4 : = d 4 + 2d 2

1 2 3 4

0 3 8 11
0 0 10 20

0 0 10 20

9
18

Vy h cho tng ng vi h sau:


x1 2x2 + 3x3 4x4 = 2

3x2 + 8x3 11x4 = 9

10x3 20x 4 = 18

0=2
22

9
18

20

H ny v nghim. Do h cho ban u cng v nghim.


7.9. V d. Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh tuyn tnh sau theo tham s mR:
3x1 + 5x 2 + 3x 3 4x 4 = 1

2x + 3x 2 + x 3 + x 4 = 0
a) 1
5x1 + 9x 2 + 6x 3 15x 4 = 2
13x1 + 22x 2 + 13x 3 22x 4 = 2m

x1 + x2 x3 + 2x4 = 1

x1 + 2x2 3x3 + 4x4 = 2


b)
x1 x2 + 4x3 x4 = m
4x + 3x x + mx = m2 6m + 4
2
3
4
1

Gii. a) Vit ma trn b sung (AB) v bin i bng cc php BSCTD ta c:


3

2
(A|B) =
5

13
d 2 : = d 2 2d1 1
d 3 : = d 3 5d1 0

d 4 : = d 4 13d1 0

5 3 4
3 1
1
9 6 15
22 13 22

0 d1 : = d1 d 2
2

2m

11

10

4 13 43

1 2 2 5 1

1
0
2 3 1
5 9 6 15 2

13 22 13 22 2m

1 2 2 5
1
1
d := d d

2 3
2
3
2 0 1 3 11
3
0 0 1 1 1

2m 13 d 4 : = d 4 4d 2 0 0 1 1 2m 5

1 2 2 5
1

d 4 : = d 4 d 3 0 1 3 11
2
= (R|B)
1

0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 2m 4

Vy h cho tng ng vi h sau:


x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 5x4 = 1

x2 3x3 + 11x4 = 2

-x 3 x 4 = 1

0 = 2m - 4

(1)

Ta bin lun nh sau:


1) 2m 4 0 m 2: Khi h (1) v nghim nn h cho cng v nghim.
2) m = 2: H (1) tng ng vi h sau:
x1 + 2x 2 + 2x 3 5x 4 = 1

x 2 3x 3 + 11x 4 = 2

- x 3 x 4 = 1

Chn x4 = ta tnh c:
x3 = 1 x4 = 1

x2 = 2 3x3 + 11x4 = 1 + 14
x = 1 2x 2x + 5x = 1 21
2
3
4
1
23

(2)

Vy khi m = 2, h cho c v s nghim vi mt n t do:


(x1 , x2 , x 3 , x4 ) = (1 21, 1 + 14,1 , )

vi R ty .
b) Vit ma trn b sung (AB) v bin i bng cc php BSCTD ta c:
(A|B) =
1
1 1 1 2
d 2 : = d 2 d1

d := d d
2
3
1
1 2 3 4
3
1 1 4 1

m

2
4 3 1 m m 6m + 4 d 4 : = d 4 4d1

1
d 3 : = d 3 + 2d 2 0

d 4 : = d 4 + d 2 0

1
1 1 1

1
2
0 1 2

0 2 5
m 1
3

2
0

1
3
m

8
m
6m

1 1
2
d := d d
1
4
3
1 2
2
4

m
1
+
0 1
1

0 1 m 6 m2 6m + 1

0
0

1
1 2
2
=
m +1
0 1
1

0 0 m 7 m2 7m
1 1

Vy h cho tng ng vi h sau:


x1 + x2 x3 + 2x4 = 1

x2 2x 3 + 2x 4 = 1

x3 + x4 = m + 1

(m-7)x 4 = m2 7m

(1)

Ta bin lun nh sau:


1) m 7 0 m 7: Khi h (1) cho ta:
x4
x
3

x2
x1

=m
= m + 1 x4 = 1
= 1 + 2x 3 2x 4

= 3 2m

= 1 x2 + x3 2x4 = 1

Suy ra khi m 7 h cho c duy nht mt nghim l:


(x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x4 )=(-1, 3-2m, 1, m)

2) m = 7: H (1) tng ng vi h sau:


x1 + x 2 x 3 + 2x 4 = 1

x 2 2x 3 + 2x 4 = 1

x3 + x4 = 8

Chn x4 = ta tnh c:
x3 = 8 x4 = 8

x2 = 1 + 2x3 2x4 = 17 4
x = 1 x + x 2x = 8 +
2
3
4
1

Vy khi m = 7, h cho c v s nghim vi mt n t do:


24

(2)

(R|B)

(x1 , x2 , x 3 , x 4 ) = (8 + ,17 4, 8 , )

vi R ty .
7.10. nh l. H phng trnh tuyn tnh AX = B, trong A l mt ma trn vung cp
n, c duy nht mt nghim khi v ch khi A kh nghch. Khi nghim tng ng l X = A1B.
Chng minh. () Gi s h AX = B c duy nht mt nghim. Khi theo nh l
Kronecker-Capelli r(A) = r(A|B) = n. Suy ra A kh nghch theo nh k 4.5.
() Suy t nh l 5.1.
7.11. H qu. Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n. Khi
(i) H phng trnh tuyn tnh AX = 0 c duy nht mt nghim khi v ch khi A kh
nghch.
(ii) H phng trnh tuyn tnh AX = 0 c v s nghim khi v ch khi A khng kh
nghch.
Chng minh. (i) Suy t nh l 7.10.
(ii) i vi h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht AX = 0 khng xy ra trng hp v
nghim nn (ii) c suy t (i).

BI TP
1. Tnh
4 1

6 8 1 0
a) 2 5

1 2 2 3 5 4

8 6
1 2 3 4

2 2 3 1 0 5 4
3
0

2
1
b)

1
5 1 6 7 1 0 2 3 1 0

3 5

2. Tnh An vi n nguyn dng:


cos sin
a) A =

sin cos

1
sin
0

0
cos
b) 1
sin cos
0

1 0 1
c) A = 0 0 1
1 0 1

1 1 0
d) A = 0 1 1
0 0 1

25

0 1

0 0

n
n n
3. Cho cc ma trn A =
, B =
. Chng minh rng vi mi n 2, (AB) A B .
0 0
1 0

4. Tm tt c cc ma trn X tha:
1 5

4 1
a)X 0 2 =

3 3 2 3

1 2
2 1 1 1
b)X
. X .
=

2 3
1 1 1 0

2 1
1 1 1 1
. X X .
=

1 2
1 1 1 1

c)

1 2
1 3 1 2
. X .
=

3 4
1 3 2 4

d)

5. Tm tt c cc ma trn X vung cp 2 tha:


a) X2 = 0.

b) X2 = I2.

c) X2 = X.

6. Cho A, B l hai ma trn vung cp n.


a) Gi s A2 = In. Tnh Ak vi k nguyn dng.
b) Gi s A2 = A v B = 2A In. Tnh Ak v Bk vi k nguyn dng.
c) Gi s A2 = O v B = A + In. Tnh Bk vi k nguyn dng.
7. Cho A, B l hai ma trn vung cp n.
a) Gi s A3 = 0 v AB = BA. Tnh (AB)3.
b) Gi s k l s nguyn dng tha Ak = 0. Chng minh rng Am = 0 vi mi m k.
c) Gi s AB = 0. Chng minh rng (BA)m = 0 vi mi m 2. Ch ra rng iu trn c th
khng ng vi m = 1.
d) Gi s A3 = B4 = 0 v AB = BA. Chng minh rng vi mi , R, ta c (A + B)6 =
0.
8. Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n sao cho tn ti s nguyn dng k tha Ak = 0.
a) Chng minh ma trn B = In A kh nghch v B1 = In + A + A2 +...+ Ak1.
b) Suy ra ma trn C = In + A cng kh nghch v tm C 1.
9. Cho A, B l hai ma trn vung cp n. Gi s ma trn C = In + AB kh nghch. Chng minh
rng ma trn D = In + BA cng kh nghch v ta c
D1 = In BC1A.
10. Kim tra tnh kh nghch v tm A1 (nu c):

26

a) A = 6 1

2
2

2 1 1

4 2
3 2 4

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
d) A =
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

4
5 11 13

b) A = 3

c) A = 2 7

3 2
1 2

2 1 2 3
e) A =
3 2 1 2

1
2 3 2

3
1 1 2

3 1 1 2
f) A =
2 3 1 1

1 2 3 1

11. Cho hai ma trn:


1 1

3 1
A=
2 3

1 2

1 0 0

1 1 0
B=
0 1 1

0 0 1

3 23
;
7 1

3 1

0
0

a) Chng t rng A kh nghch v tm A1.


b) Tm ma trn X tha A2XA = ABA;
c) Tm ma trn Y tha AYA2 = ABA
12. Tm tt c cc ma trn X tha:
1 2 3

6 9 8
a) 2 3 4 =

3 4 1 0 1 6

3 5
b)
X
1 2

1 3 1

2 3 1

4 5 2 =
5 7 3 4 5 2

13. Gii cc phng trnh sau:


x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 2x 4

2x 1 x 2 2x 3 3x 4
a) 3x + 2x x + 2x
2
3
4
1
2x 1 3x 2 + 2x 3 + x 4

2x 1

3x 1
c) 5x 1

4 x 1

=1
=2
= 5
= 11

5x 2 + 3x 3 + x 4 = 5

7x 2 + 3x 3 x 4 = 1

9x 2 + 6x 3 + 2x 4 = 7
6x 2 + 3x 3 x 4 = 8

x1

x1
b) x
1
x1

x 2 + 2x 3 3x 4 = 1

+ 4x 2 x 3 2x 4 = 2

4x 2 + 3x 3 2x 4 = 2
8x 2 + 5x 3 2x 4 = 2

2x 1 2x 2 + x 3 x 4 + x 5 = 1

x 1 + 2x 2 x 3 + x 4 2x 5 = 1
d) 4 x 10x + 5x 5x + 7x = 1
2
3
4
5
1
2x 1 14 x 2 + 7x 3 7x 4 + 11x 5 = 1

14. Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh sau theo cc tham s m R:

x 1 2x 2 + x 3 + 2x 4 = m

= 2m + 1
a) x 1 + x 2 x 3 + x 4
x + 7 x 5x x = m
2
3
4
1

x1 + 2x 2 3x 3 + 4x 4 = 1

2x1 + 4x 2 7x 3 + 9x 4 = 2
b)
5x1 + 10x 2 17x 3 + 23x 4 = 1
3x1 + 6x 2 10x 3 + mx 4 = 13 m
27

=m
x 1 2x 2 + x 3 x 4 + x 5
3x1 + 4x 2

2x 1 + x 2 x 3 + 2x 4 2x 5 = 3m
2x1 + 3x 2
c) 3x 2x x + x x
d)

= m+1
2
3
4
5
1
5x1 + 6x 2
2x 1 5x 2 + x 3 2x 4 + 2x 5 = m 1
3x1 + 5x2

+ 4x3 17x4 = 11m + 7

+ 2x3 12x4 = 8m + 5

+ 8x3 27x4 = 18m + 10

+ 2x3 + (m 20)x4 = 13m + 8

HNG DN V P S
22 35
9 4

1a. 2 31 27 20 ;
10 2 9 8

75 41 18 65 34

64 13 125 113 ;
1b.) 49
89 216 67
75 127

cos2
sin cos cos

cos
n
sin
n
n
2
sin 2
sin ; A n = 0 (n 3);
2a)A =
2b) A = sin cos
sin n cos n

cos
sin
1

2 0 2

n
n2
2c)A = 2
1 0 1 (n 2);
2 0 2

1 n

2d)A n = 0 1
0 0

n(n 1)

n
.

1 0 n
n
3. (AB)n =
; A = 0; B = 0.
0 0

21
4
3
6
+

2
;
4a)
7

2 + 3 + 6
2

4b) I2

a
0 0

5a)X =
(c tuy y ); X = a 2
c 0

b
(a tuy y, b 0);

28

1 1
4c)
;
1 1

4d) Khong co X.

a
1 0

5b)X = I2 ; X =
(c tuy y ); X = 1 a 2
c 1

b
(a tuy y, b 0).

a
0 0
1 0

5c)X = 0; X = I2 ; X =
; X =
(c tuy y ); X = a a 2
c 1
c 0

b
(a tuy y, b 0).
1 a

6a) Ak = In nu k chn v Ak = A nu k l.
6b) Ak = A vi mi k v Bk = In nu k chn; Bk = B nu k l.
6c) Bk = kA + In.
7a) (AB)3 = 0.
8a) Kim chng ( In A)(In + A + A2 +...+ Ak 1) = In.
8b) C 1 = In A + A2 ...+ (1) k1Ak1.
9. Kim chng In + BA)(In BC1A) = In.
10a)A

10 14
9

1
=
0 10 10

50
22 32
30

10b)A

12 6 6
1

=
18 11 1 ;

60

18 1 11

10c) Khng kh nghch

10d) A1 = (1/4)A.

1 2 3 2

1 2 1 2 3
10e)
;
18 3 2 1 2

1
2 3 2

9 13 2 1

1 1 9 13 2
,
10 f )
1 9 13
51 2

1 9
13 2

11a)A 1

108

32
=
19

13

17 9
5

76

21 ;
;
14

125

37
11b)X =
22

15

108 17 9 76

140 22 11 97

11c)Y =
13
2
0
7

1
1 5
6

29

26 85
7

23

16

10

76

21
;
14

1
12a)X =
1

1
1

1
1

12b)X =

1 2

2 1

14
8

2
.
1

13a)(2 / 3, 43 / 18,13 / 9, 7 / 18).

13b)(8, 0, 0, 3).

13c) V nghim

2 1 1 1
1
5
13d)( + , + + , , , ).
3 3 6 2
2
6

14a) m 3/5: V nghim; m = 3/5: V s nghim: (

1 1
4 2 2
1
+ ,
+ + , , ) .
3 3
3 15 3
3

14b) m 14: V nghim; m = 14: V s nghim: (5 2, , 4, 4) .


14c) m 1: V nghim. m = 1 V s nghim (

13 1
1
7 1
1 9 1
1
- + , + , + , , ) .
8 2
2
8 2
2 8 2
2

14d) m 1: V nghim; m = 1: V s nghim (2 4 + 3 , 3 + 2 + 2, , ) .

30

CHNG 2

NH THC
1. NH NGHA V TNH CHT CN BN
1.1. nh ngha. Cho A = (aij) l mt ma trn vung cp n vi h s trong R. Ta nh
ngha nh thc (determinant) ca A, k hiu detA hay A|, l s thc c c bng quy np
theo n nh sau:
a) Vi n = 1 th A c dng A = (a). Ta t detA = a.
a

b) Vi n = 2 th A c dng A =
c

a 11

c) Vi n = 3 th A c dng A = a 21
a
31

det A = a 11

a 22
a 32

a 23
a 33

b
a
.Ta t detA =
d
c
a 12

b
= ad bc.
d

a 13

a 23 . Ta t
a 33

a 22
a 32

a 12

a 21

a 32

a 13

a 33

+ a 31

a 12

a 22

a 13

a 23

= a11 (a 22a 33 a 23a 32 ) a 21 (a12a 33 a13a 32 ) + a 31 (a12a 23 a13a 22 )


d) Tng qut, gi s nh thc ca cc ma trn vung cp (n 1) c nh ngha. Vi
mi cp (i; j), 1 i, j n, gi A(i;j) l ma trn vung cp (n 1) c c t A bng cch xo
dng i, ct j. Phn b i s ca phn t aij nh bi
det A(i; j)
c ij = (1)i + j det A(i; j) =
det A(i; j)

Ta nh ngha:
det A =

ai1ci1 .
i =1

1.2. V d. Ta c
a)

cos

sin

sin

cos

= cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 .

31

neu i + j chan;
neu i + j le.

2
b)

1 2

3 5
4 1

5 4
1 2
1 2
3
+ (4)
4 =2
1 2
1 2
5 4
2
= 2 5.2 4. ( 1) 3 1.2 ( 2)( 1) 4 1.4
= 2.14 3.0 4.14 = 28.

( 2) 5

1.3. Qui tc Sarrus. Trng hp n = 3, ta c th tnh nh thc ca cc ma trn vung cp


3 theo Qui tc Sarrus nh sau:

Theo , nh thc bng tng cc tch s ca tng b 3 s trn cc mi tn + tr i tng cc


tch s ca tng b 3 s trn cc mi tn . Hoc:

Theo , nh thc bng tng cc tch s ca tng b 3 s c ni bi cc ng c nh


du + tr i tng cc tch s ca tng b 3 s c ni bi cc ng c nh du ( y
cc ng ni l cc on thng hoc cc tam gic).
2 1 2
1.4. V d. Tnh: det A = 3 5 4 .
4 1 2

Gii. Ta tnh nh thc theo quy tc Sarrus:

detA = 2.5.2 + 1.4(4) + (2).3.(1) (2).5.(4) 1.3.2. 2.4.(1)


= 20 16 + 6 40 6 + 8 = 28.
1.5. nh l. Cho A = (aij)nn l mt ma trn vung cp n vi h s trong R. Vi mi i, j,
gi cij l phn b i s ca h s aij. Khi ta c
32

(i) Cng thc khai trin detA theo dng i:


n

a ik cik .

det A =

k =1

(ii) Cng thc khai trin detA theo ct j:


n

a kjckj .

det A =

k =1

1.6. V d. Tnh nh thc:

det A =

1 2

4 1
1

2 4

0 2

Gii. Khai trin nh thc theo dng 2 ta c:

det A =

2
0

1 2
0 4

1
0

4 1 2 4
1 0 2
1

= (1)

2+ 3

2 1 1

1 1
2 1
4 4 1 4 = 4 (1)3+1
+ (1)3+ 3

1 4
4 1

1 0
1

= 4(3 + 2) = 4.

1.7. H qu. (i) Nu ma trn vung A c mt dng hay mt ct bng 0 th detA = 0.


(ii) Nu A l mt ma trn tam gic (t.. di) th detA bng tch cc phn t trn ng
cho ca A, ngha l
detA = a11.a22 ... ann.
Ni cch khc,
a11
0

a12

a 22

... a1n

... a 2n

..... ...... ... ......


0
0 ... a nn
a11
0

a12

a 22

= a11a 22 ...a nn ;

... a1n

... a 2n

..... ...... ... ......


0
0 ... a nn

= a11a 22 ...a nn .

Chng minh. (i) Ch cn khai trin detA theo dng hay ct bng 0.
33

(ii) Khai trin detA theo ct 1 (t.. dng 1) v qui np theo n.


1.8. Mnh . Cho A, B l hai ma trn vung c cng cp n. Khi
(i) det(AT) = det(A);
(ii) det(AB) = (detA) (detB);
(iii) det(Ak) = (detA)k vi mi k 1;
(iv) Nu A kh nghch th detA 0 v det(A1) =

1
.
det A

Nhn xt. Thng thng ta c


det(AB) det(A) + det(B);
1.9. nh l. Cho A l mt ma trn vung, l mt php bin i s cp trn dng v
A= (A). Khi
(i) Nu thuc loi 1 (di dk, i k) th detA' = detA.
(ii) Nu thuc loi 2 (di : = di, 0) th detA' = detA.
(iii) Nu thuc loi 3 (di : = di + dk, i k) th detA' = detA.
1.10. Ch . 1) Ta thng pht biu (ii) trong nh l 1.9 di dng: Nu nhn mt dng
ca ma trn A cho mt s tu th nh thc tng ln ( y tu , khng nht thit khc
0 v khi = 0 ta lun c detA = 0 = detA).
2) Cc php bin i s cp trn ct i vi ma trn A tng ng vi cc php bin i s
cp trn dng ca ma trn chuyn v AT. Do ta c cc kt qu tng t nh nh l 1.9 khi
thay dng bng ct.
1.11. H qu. (i) Tha s chung ca cc h s trn cng mt dng (t. ct) ca mt nh
thc c th a ra ngoi du nh thc.
(ii) Nu ma trn A c hai dng (t.. ct) t l nhau th detA = 0.
1.12. H qu. Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n:
a11

...
A = a i1

...
a n1

... a1 j
... ...
... a ij
... ...
... a nj

... a1n

... ...
... a in .

... ...
... a nn

Khi
1) Nu thay dng i ca A: ( a i1 ... a ij ... a in ) bi dng:

( bi1 + ci1

... bij + c ij ... bin + c in

th

34

a11

...

...

a1 j

...

...

...

a1n

...

a11

...

... a1 j ... a1n

...

bi1 + c i1 ... bij + c ij ... bin + c in = bi1


...
...
...
...
...
...
a n1

...

a nj

...

a nn

a11

...

...

...

...

...

...
...

bij
...

... bin + c i1
... ...
...

a n1 ... a nj ... a nn

... a1 j ... a1n


...

...

...

...

...
...

c ij
...

...
...

c in
...

a n1 ... a nj ... a nn

a1 j
b1 j + c1 j

...
........
2) Nu thay ct j ca A: a ij bi ct: bij + c ij th

...
........
a nj
bnj + cnj

a11

... b1 j + c1 j ... a1n


...

...

a i1

...

bij + c ij

...
...

...

...

...

a11

...

...

... a in = a i1
... ...
...

a n1 ... bnj + cnj ... a nn

... b1 j ... a1n


...

...

...

...

bij

... a in + a i1
... ...
...

...

...

...

a11

a n1 ... bnj ... a nn

...

... c1 j ... a1n


...

...

... c ij

...

...

...

...

... a in
...

...

a n1 ... cnj ... a nn

Nh nh l 1.9 ta c th tnh nhng nh thc phc tp bng cch a v nhng nh


thc n gin hn qua nhng php bin i s cp trn dng hay ct. Trong thc hnh cc php
bin i sau lm cho nh thc n gin hn:
1) em cc tha s chung ca cc h s trn cng mt dng hay trn cng mt ct ra ngoi
du nh thc.
2) Chn mt h s thun li nht trong nh thc (thng l h s c tr tuyt i dng
nh nht) ri dng cc php bin i s cp kh cc phn t khc nhau trn dng hay trn
ct cha phn t , sau khai trin nh thc theo dng hay theo ct tng ng.
3) Dng cc php bin i s cp (trn dng hay trn ct) sao cho trong nh thc mi c
cha nhiu s 0 hoc xut hin cc dng, ct trn c th a tha s chung ra ngoi du nh
thc.
1.13. V d.
1
3
7
1 3
7
1 1
7
1 1
7
d 2 : = d 2 d1
1) 2
6 8 = 2 1 3 4 = 2.3 1 1 4
6 0 0 11
5 12
4
5 12 4
5 4
4
5 4
4
= 6(11)(1)2 + 3

5 4

= 594

35

2)

2
3

3 4
5 2

5
4

5
4

4
2

2 d 4 : = d 4 + 2d1 5
3
0

= 1(1)

2 +1

3
5

19 16
44 27
8

d 2 : = d 2 d1

2 3 4 5
0 19 16 7
d
:
=
d

2d
1 8 6 1 1
6
1
1
2 1 8
4
8

3 2 d 3 : = d 3 2d 2 0 44 27 3
3 13
0 8
3 13

7
27 3
44 3
44 27
3 = 19
+ (16)
7
3 13
8 13
8
3
13

= 19.(342) 16.(548) 7.84 = 2858

1 1/ 2 1/ 3
6 3 2
3 3 2
1 1 1
1
3) 1 / 2 1 / 3 1 / 4 = . .
6 4 3 =
3 4 3
6 12 60
2160
1/ 3 1/ 4 1/ 5
20 15 12
10 15 12
c3 : = c3 c2

3 3 1
3 1
1
1
1
0 1 0 =
=
2160
2160 10 3 2160
10 15 3

36

d2 : = d2 d1

3 3 2
1
0 1 1
2160
10 15 12

1
5)

1 1 1

a
b
c d3 : = d3 + d2
a
b
c
= (a + b + c) a b c = 0
b+c c+a a+b
a+ b+c a+ b+c a+ b+c
1 1 1

x a a a
6)

a x a a
a a x a

x + 3a a a a
x + 3a x a a

c1 : = c1 + c2 + c3 + c4

x + 3a a x a

a a a x
1
= (x + 3a)

m+2

xa

xa

1 x a a

= (x + 3a)

1 a x a

x + 3a a a x

0 xa

m+1
1
7) m 2 m 3

1 a a a

2
1
m 1

1 a a x

= (x + 3a)(x a)3

d3 : = d3 + d2

m+1
1
2
m+1
1
2
m2 m3 1 = m m2 m3 1
2m

m 3 1 2
m 3 1
m 3 1
m m 4 m 4 1 = m.1.(1)3+3
= m(m 4)
m4 m4
1
1
c2 : = c2 c3
0
0
1

c1 : = c1 2c3

= m(m 4)(m 2).

2. NH THC V MA TRN KH NGHCH


Trong phn ny ta kho st mi kin h gia nh thc ca ma trn vung v tnh kh
nghch ca ma trn .
2.1. B . Cho A = (aij) l mt ma trn vung cp n. Ta c
n

ckiakj = ij det A,

(1)

k =1

trong cki l phn b i s ca phn t aki.


Chng minh. Nu i = j th (1) l cng thc khai trin detA theo ct j.
Xt i j. Khi ij = 0. Mt khc v tri ca (1) chnh l khai trin nh thc theo ct j ca
detA, trong A l ma trn c t A bng cch thay ct i bng ct j. V A c 2 ct bng nhau
nn detA = 0 v (1) c tha.
2.2. nh ngha. Cho A = (aij) l mt ma trn vung cp n v C = (cij) l ma trn cc phn
b i s. Ta gi ma trn chuyn v CT ca C l ma trn ph hp ca A, k hiu bi adj(A).
2.3. nh l. Ma trn vung A kh nghch khi v ch khi detA 0. Hn na, khi
A1 =

1
adj(A).
det A

37

Chng minh. () Suy t Mnh 1.7.


() Xt ma trn tch adj(A)A, theo B 2.1 ta c
[(adj(A)A]ij =

[adj(A)]ik akj =

k =1

ckiakj = ij det A.

k =1

Suy ra adj(A)A = (detA)In. Do nu detA 0 th


1

adj(A) A = In ,

det A

iu ny chng t A kh nghch v A1 =

1
adj(A).
det A

2.4. H qu. Ma trn vung cp 2


a b
A=

c d

kh nghch khi v ch khi ad bc 0. Khi


A 1 =

d b
1

.
ad bc c a

Chng minh. Ta c detA = ad bc v ma trn ph hp ca A l


d b
adj(A) =
.
c a

S dng nh l 2.3 ta suy ra iu cn chng minh.


2.5. V d. Xt xem cc ma trn sau c kh nghch khng v tm ma trn nghch o tng
ng:

1 3
a)A =

4 2

5
2 2
b)A = 5 3 8
19 13 14

1 3 6
c)A = 1 4 10
1 5 15

Gii. a) Ta c
det A =

1 3
4 2

= 10.

V detA 0 nn A kh nghch v theo H qu 3.4 ta suy ra

38

A 1 =

1 2 3
.
10 4 1

b) Ta c
2
det A = 5

2
3

5
8

c1 : = c1 c2

19 13 14 c3 : = c3 2c2

0
2

2
3

1
0 2 1
d : = d3 3d2
2 1
14
= 0.
2 3 14 = 2
4 2
6 13 40
0 4 2

V detA = 0 nn A khng kh nghch.


c) Ta c
1 3 6
1 3 6
d2 : = d2 d1
1 4
det A = 1 4 10
0 1 4 =
= 1.
2 9
d3 : = d3 d1
1 5 15
0 2 9

V detA 0 nn A kh nghch. Ta c:
A1 =

1
adj(A)
det A

trong :
T

c11 c12 c13


10 5 1
10 15 6

adj(A) = c21 c22 c23 = 15 9 2 = 5


9 4
c

6 4 1
1 2 1

31 c32 c33
v
+1

c11 = (1)1+1
c21 =
c31 = +

4 10
1 10
1 4
= 10; c12 =
= 5; c13 = +
=1
5 15
1 15
1 5

5 15
3

4 10

= 15;

c22 = +

= 6;

c32 =

1 15
1

1 10

= 9;

c23 =

= 4; c33 = +

1 3
1 5
1 3
1 4

= 2
=1

Suy ra
A

10 15 6
1
adj(A) = 5
9 4 .
=
det A
1 2 1

2.6. Nhn xt. nh l 2.3 cho ta mt tiu chun kh hu hiu kim tra tnh kh nghch
ca mt ma trn vung. Tuy nhin, i vi cc ma trn vung cp ln, vic tm ma trn nghch
o theo phng php ny kh phc tp v khng hiu qu bng phng php dng cc php
BSCTD trnh by trong chng 1.
39

3. QUY TC CRAMER
Trong phn ny ta ng dng nh thc kho st cc h phng trnh tuyn tnh c s
phng trnh bng s n
AX = B

(1)

trong A = (aij)nn l ma trn vung cp n v B = (bj) l ma trn loi n1.


Vi mi 1 j n, gi Aj l ma trn c t A bng cch thay ct j bi B, ngha l
b1 a12 ... a1n
a11 b1 ... a1n
a11 a12 ... b1

b2 a 22 ... a 2n
a 21 b2 ... a 2n
a 21 a 22 ... b2

.
A1 =
;A =
;...; A n =
........................... 2 ...........................
...........................

bn a n2 ... a nn
a n1 bn ... a nn
a n1 a n2 ... bn

t
= detA,
j = det(Aj), 1 j n.
Khi ta c quy tc Cramer sau y:
3.1. nh l. (i) H (1) c duy nht mt nghim khi v ch khi 0. Khi
xj =

, 1 j n.

(ii) Nu = 0 v j 0 vi mt j no th (1) v nghim.


Chng minh. Theo chng minh ca nh l 2.3 ta c
adj(A) A = In.
Suy ra X = adj(A)AX = adj(A)B v do
xj = [adj(A)B]j1 =

k =1

k =1

[adj(A)]jkbk = bkckj

= det(Aj) = j.

(i) Nu 0 thi ma trn A kh nghch nn h (1) c duy nht mt nghim. Mt khc, khi
t chng minh trn ta suy ra
xj =

, j = 1, 2, ..., n.

(ii) Nu = 0 v tn ti 1 j n sao cho j 0 th khng th c xj tha xj = j nn (1) v


nghim.
3.2. Ch . i vi h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht c s phng trnh bng s n
AX = 0 th h c nghim duy nht l X = 0 nu = detA 0), v c v s nghim nu = 0.
40

Khi gii v bin lun mt h phng trnh tuyn tnh dng (1), nu xy ra trng hp = j = 0
vi mi j th h c th v nghim, c th c v s nghim, v xc nh c tp nghim ta
phi dng phng php Gauss.
3.3. V d. Gia3i h phng trnh tuyn tnh:
x1 + x 2 + x 3 = 11

2x1 6x 2 x 3 = 0
3x + 4x + 2x = 0
2
3
1

Gii. Ta c
1

11 1
1
6 1
= 2 6 1 = 2 8 3 = 11 ; 1 = 0 6 1 = 11
= 88 ;
4
2
3 4
2
3 1 1
0 4
2
1 11 1
1 1 11
2 6
1+ 2 3 1
2 = 2 0 1 = 11(1)
= 77; 3 = 2 6 0 = 11(1)1+3
= 286 .
2 2
3 4
3 0 2
3 4 0

Vy h cho c duy nht mt nghim nh bi:

x
=
= 8
1

= 7
x 2 =

= 26
x 3 =

3.4. V d. Gii v bin lun h phng trnh sau theo tham s m R:


(m 7)x + 12y 6z = m

10x + (m + 19)y 10z = 2m


12x + 24y + (m 13)z = 0

(1)

Gii. Ta gii v bin lun h (1) theo quy tc Cramer:


m7
12
= 10 m + 19
12

24

6
10
m 13

1
12
= (m 1) 1 m + 19
1
= (m 1)

24

c1 : = c1 + c2 + c3

6
10
m 13

d2 : = d2 d1
d3 : = d3 d1

m 1
12
m 1 m + 19
m 1

24

6
10
m 13

1 12
(m 1) 0 m + 7

6
4

m7

m + 7 4
= (m - 1)(m2 - 1)
12 m 7

41

12

m
12
m 12
6
6
2
1 = 2m m + 19 10 d2 : = d2 2d1 0 m 5
0
24
m 13
0
24
m 13
=m

m5
2
= m(m2 18m + 17)
24
m 13

m7 m
6
m7 m
6
2 = 10 2m
10 d2 : = d2 2d1 4 2m 0
2
12
0 m 13
12
0 m 13
= m(1)1+ 2

4 2m
2
= 2m(m2 15m + 14)
12
m 13

m7
12
m
m7
12 m
3 = 10 m + 19 2m d2 : = d2 2d1 4 2m m 5 0
12

= m(1)1+3

24

12

24

4 2m m 5
= 36m(m 1)
12
24

Ta c
= 0 (m - 1)(m2 - 1) = 0 m = 1

Bi ton c chia thnh cc trng hp sau:


a) m 1: 0 nn h (1) c duy nht mt nghim nh bi:
x =

1 m(m2 18m + 17) m(m 17)


=
=

(m 1)(m2 1)
m2 1

y=

2 m(m2 15m + 14) m(m 14)


=
=

(m 1)(m2 1)
m2 1

z=

3
36m(m 1)
36m
=
= 2
2

(m 1)(m 1) m 1

b) m = 1: = 0, 1 = 36 0 nn h (1) v nghim.

c) m = 1: = 1 = 2 =3 = 0. H (1) tr thnh
6x + 12y 6z = 1

10x + 20y 10z = 2


12x + 24y 12z = 0

v d thy h ny v nghim.
42

3.4. H qu. H phng trnh tuyn tnh c s phng trnh bng s n AX = B c duy
nht mt nghim khi v ch khi detA 0.
3.5. H qu. H phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht c s phng trnh bng s n AX = 0
c v s nghim khi v ch khi detA = 0.

4. NH THC V HNG CA MA TRN


4.1. nh ngha. Cho A = (aij)mn l mt ma trn loi mn vi h s trong K. Vi mi b k
s (i1, i2,..., ik) v (j1, j2,..., jk) (1 k min{m, n}) tho:
1 i1 < i2 <..< ik m v 1 j1 < j2 <...< jk n,
ta gi

M=

a i1 j1

a i1 j2

... a i1 jk

a i2 j1

a i2 j2

... a i2 jk

...

...

a ik j1

a ik j2

...

...

... a ik jk

l nh thc con cp k ca A sinh bi cc dng i1, i2,..., ik v cc ct j1, j2,..., jk.


4.2. V d. Ma trn
2 2
5

A = 5 3 8
19 13 14

c tt c 9 nh thc con cp 2 l:
2 2 2
5 2
5 2 2
2
5 2
5 5 3
5
8
3
8
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
5 3 5 8 3 8 19 13 19 14 13 14 19 13 19 14 13 14

4.3. V d. Xt ma trn
1

0
R=
0

2 3 4 5

0 2
1 5
.
0 0 2 4

0 0 0 0

Ta thy R c dng bc thang vi 3 dng khc 0 nn R c hng r(R) = 3. Ma trn R c tt c 4


nh thc con cp 4 v tt c chng u bng 0 (v c dng cui bng 0), tuy nhin R c mt
nh thc con cp 3 khc 0, chng hn

43

1 3 4
0 2
1 = 4.
0 0 2

V d trn minh ha cho kt qu tng qut sau;


4.4. nh l. Cho A l mt ma trn khc 0 vi h s trong K. Khi hng ca A l r(A) =
k, trong k l s nguyn dng ln nht sao cho tn ti mt nh thc con cp k ca A khc 0.
4.5. H qu. Gi s ma trn A c hng r(A) = k. Khi
(i) Mi nh thc con cp h > k ca A u bng 0.
(ii) Vi mi 1 h k, tn ti mt nh thc con cp h ca A khc 0.

BI TP
1. Tnh nh thc cc ma trn sau:
1 2 3
a) A = 2 3 5
5 3 4

3 4
1 1 2 3
1 2

2 2 0 2
1 4
3
2

b) A =
c) A =
4 1 1 1
3 4 1 2

3 2 1
1 2 3 0
4

3 3 5 8

3 2 4 6
d) A =
2 5 7 5

3 5 6
4

1/2 5
2
3 / 4

2
1
3/2
8
e) A =
5 / 6 4 / 3 4 / 3 14 / 3

2 / 5 4 / 5 1 / 2 12 / 5

3 6
3
10 2 6

16 3 3 2
5
12 2
f) A =

6 5 5 3 6
12
8 10
15
30 4 15

2. Tnh nh thc cc ma trn sau:


1 x1

a) A = 1 x 2
1 x
3

x12

x 22
x 23

1 a a3

d) D = 1 b b3

1 c c3

a + b ab a 2 + b2

b) B = b + c bc b2 + c2

c + a ca c2 + a 2

1 a bc
c) C = 1 b ac
1 c ab

1 a2

e) E = 1 b2

1 c2

a
f) F =
a

44

a3

b3

c3

d a a

b b b
b b c

d c d

x
g) G =
y

x y

0 z y
0 z x

y x 0
0 1 1 1

2
2
1 0 a b
j) L =

2
0 c2
1 a
1 b2 c 2 0

x
h) H =
x

x x b

a b x
b a x

x x a

1 a b ab

1 a' b a'b
i) K =
1 a b ' ab '

1 a ' b ' a ' b '

3. Khng tnh nh thc, chng t cc nh thc sau y bng 0:


sin 2 cos 2 cos 2
a) sin 2 cos 2 cos 2
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2

sin cos sin( + u)


b) sin cos sin( + u)
sin cos sin( + u)

(a + b) 2
c) (c + d) 2
(u + v) 2

ab a 2 + b 2
cd c 2 + d 2
uv u 2 + v 2

4. Khng cn tnh nh thc, hy chng minh


a b

ax + by + c

a b

a + bx ax + b c
a b c
2
b) u + vx ux + v w = (1 x ) u v w
r + sx rx + s t
r s t

a) u v ux + vy + w = u v w
r

a+b

rx + sy + t
b+c

c+a

a b

c) u + v v + w w + u = 2) u v w
r+s

s+t

t+r

5. Khng tnh nh thc, hy gii cc phng trnh sau:


1
5 x2
a)
2
2

2
3
2
3
3 5 x2
3
4

4
4
=0
1
1

1
2
3
4
t +1
2
t+3
4
b)
=0
1
t+3 t+4 t+5
1
3
4
5

6. Ta c 1798, 2139, 3255 v 4867 u l bi s ca 31. Khng tnh nh thc, hy chng minh
D cng l bi s ca 31, trong :
1
2
D=
3
4

7
1
2
8

9
3
5
6

8
9
5
7

7. Kho st tnh kh nghch v tm ma trn nghch o tng ng ca cc ma trn sau:


2 3 2
a) A = 6 0 3
4 1 1

3 1 0

b) A = 1 1 2
1 1 1

45

2 5 7

c) A = 6 3 4
5 2 3

1 / 2 1 / 3
1

d) A = 1 / 2 1 / 3 1 / 4
1 / 3 1 / 4 1 / 5

1 a
0
0

0
1 a
0
e) A =
0
0
1 a

0
0
1
0

8. Gii cc h phng trnh sau bng quy tc Cramer:


2x1 x 2 2x 3 = 5

a) 4x1 + x2 + 2x3 = 1
8x x + x = 5
2
3
1

3x 1 2x 2 = 7
b) 3x 2 2x 3 = 6
3x 2x = 1
1
3

9. Gii v bin lun theo tham s m R cc h phng trnh sau:


= m 1
(2m + 1) x 1 mx 2 + (m + 1) x 3

a) (m 2) x 1 + (m 1) x 2 + (m 2) x 3 = m
(2m 1) x + (m 1) x + (2m 1) x = m
1
2
3

=2
x 1 + x 2 x 3

b) x 1 + mx 2 mx 3
=2
(1 + m) x + 2mx mx = 3 + m
1
2
3

x + y + (1 m)z = m + 2

c) (1 + m)x y + 2z = 0
2x 2my + 3z = m + 2

d) (m 5) x + (m 2) y 3z = 2m

=m
(m + 1) x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3

e) (m 2) x 1 + (m 3) x 2 + x 3 = m
(m + 2) x + 3x + (m 1) x = 2m
1
2
3

(3m + 5) x + (m + 2) y + (m + 1)z = m
f) (4m + 5) x + (m + 2) y + (2m + 1)z = m
(3m + 5) x + (2m + 1) y + 2z
=m

(m + 2) x + 2y + z

=m

(m + 5) x + 2y + (m + 3)z = 3m

(2m + 1) x 1 + (m 2) x 2 + (m + 2) x 3 = m 1
g) (2m 1) x1 + (2m 5) x 2 + mx 3
= m 1
(3m + 4) x + (m 2) x + (2m + 5) x = m 1
1
2
3

10. Cho h phng trnh tuyn tnh:


x 1 + 2x 2 + ax 3 = 3

3x 1 x 2 ax 3 = 2
2x + x + 3x = b
2
3
1

a) Xc nh a h c nghim duy nht.


b) Xc nh a, b h c v s nghim v tm nghim tng ng.

46

HNG DN V P S
1a) 0

1b) 128

1c) 900

1d) 66

1e) 1

1f) 6 5(3 3 4 2)

2a) (x2 x1)(x3 x1)(x3 x2).

2b) (a b)(b c)(c a)(ab + bc + ca).

2c) (a b)(b c) (c a).

2d) (a b)(b c) (c a)(a + b + c).

2e) (a b)(b c)(c a)(ab + bc + ca).

2f) a(b c)(c a)(b d).

2g) (x + y + z)(x + y z)(x y)2.

2h) (a b)2(a + b + 2x) (a + b 2x).

2i) (a a)2(b b)2.

2j) (a2 b2 c2)2 4b2c2.

3a) Ct 2 = ct 3 ct 1.

3b) Ct 3 = (cosu)ct 1 + (sinu) ct 2.

3c) Ct 1 = ct 3 + 2ct 2.
4. Dng H qu 1.12.
5a) x = 1; x = 2.

5b) t = 0; t =1.

6. Dng php bin i c4: = c4 + 10c3 + 100c2 + 1000c1.

3 5
9

1
7a)
18 6 18

72

6 14 18

3 1 2

1
7b) 3 3 6
6

0 2 2

9 36
30

7d) 36 192 180


30 180 180

0
7e)
0

8a) (1, 1, 2).

a a2
1
0

a
1

8b) (5, 4, 3).

9a) m 0 v m 1: H c duy nht mt nghim:

47

a3

a2
a

1 1
1

7c) 38 41 34
27 29 24

2m2 2m + 1 m
2m2 2m + 1
,
,

;
m(m 1)

1
m(m

1)

m = 0 hay m = 1: H v nghim;
m = 1: H c v s nghim: (2 + , ,

5 5
) .
3 3

9b) m 0 v m 1: H c duy nht mt nghim:

1 m 1 m
,
2,
;
m
m

m = 0: H v nghim;
m = 1: H c v s nghim: (2 , , 0) .
9c) m 0 v m 6 / 2 : H c duy nht mt nghim:
3(m + 2) (m + 2)(m + 3) (m + 2)(2m + 3)
,
,

;
2
2m2 3
2m2 3
2m 3

m = 6 / 2 : H v nghim;
m = 0: H c v s nghim: ( 4 3, , 2 + 2 ) .
9d) m 0 v m 1: H c duy nht mt nghim:

m2 6m 20 m2 + 19m + 5 2m2 7m + 30
,
,

;
2
2
2

m
1
m
1
m
1

m = 1: H v nghim;
2
3

1
6

m = 0: H c v s nghim: ( , , ) .
9e) m 0 v m 2 v m 4: H c duy nht mt nghim:
m2 7m + 7

2m2 8m + 5
m2 1
,
,

;
(m 4)(m 2) (m 4)(m 2) (m 4)(m 2)

m = 2 hay m = 4: H v nghim;

48

m = 0: H c v s nghim: (7, 5, ) .
9f) m 0, m 1 v m 2: H c duy nht mt nghim:
m
m
m
,
,

;
m + 2 m + 2 m + 2

m = 2: H v nghim;
m = 0: H c v s nghim: (3 / 5, , ) .
1
3

m = 1: H c v s nghim: (, + 2, ) .
9g) m 1 v m 3: H c duy nht mt nghim: (1, 0, 1);
m = 1: H c v s nghim: (, 0, ) .
m = 3: H c v s nghim: (, 2 + 2, ) .
m = 3: H c v s nghim: (, 2 , 6 + 5) .
10a) a 21/2;
10b) a = 21/2; b = 3; (1 +

3
,1 6, ) .
2

49

CHNG 3

KHNG GIAN VCT


0. M U
Trong phn ny ta s a mt v d m u v khng gian vct.
Xt V l tp hp tt c nhng vct trong khng gian. Ta bit rng trn V c mt php
ton cng (+) cc vct v mt php nhn (.) v hng vi cc vct. Nhng tnh cht sau y
c kim trc tip t nh ngha: vi u, v, w V v , R ta c
1. u + v = v + u ;
2. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w);
3. 0 V, u + 0 = 0 + u = u ;
4. (u) V : (u) + u = u + (u) = 0;
5. ( )u = ( u);
6. ( + )u = u + u ;
7. (u + v) = u + v ;
8. 1.u = u.
Tp V vi php ton cng cc vct v php nhn v hng vi cc vct c cc tnh cht trn
c gi l mt khng gian vct trn R.
By gi nu ng nht cc vct trong khng gian vi cc ta ca chng (trong h trc
ta trc chun no ) th c th xem tp V gm cc vct trn nh l tp hp R3. Khi
php ton cng cc vct v php nhn v hng vi cc vct c din t trong R3 nh sau:
Vi u = (x1, y1, z1), v = (x2, y2, z2) l hai phn t ca R3 v R, ta c:
u + v = (x1 + x2, y1 + y2, z1 + z2);
u = (x1, y1, z1).
Ch rng khi 0 c ng nht vi phn t (0, 0, 0) v u c ng nht vi phn t (
x1, y1, z1). D thy rng khi thay cc vct u, v, w trong khng gian bng cc ta tng
ng ca chng th cc tnh cht 18 vn cn nghim ng. Do ta ni R3 l mt khng gian
vct trn trng R vi cc php cng v php nhn v hng nh trn.
1. NH NGHA V TNH CHT CN BN
Trong Phn 1 ta a ra mt s v d c th v khng gian vct. Sau y ta s nh
ngha khng gian vct mt cch tng qut.

50

1.1. nh ngha. Cho V l mt tp hp khc . Ta ni V l mt khng gian vct trn R


nu trong V
i) tn ti mt php ton cng vct, tc l mt nh x
VVV
(u, v) u + v
ii) tn ti mt php nhn v hng vi vct, tc l mt nh x
FVV
(, u) u
tha cc tnh cht sau: vi u, v, w V v , R:
1.

u + v = v + u;

2.

(u + v) + w = u + (v + w);

3.

0 V, u + 0 = 0 + u = u;

4.

(u) V, (u) + u = u + (u) = 0;

5.

()u = (u);

6.

( + )u = u +u;

7.

(u + v)u = u + v;

8.

1.u = u.

Khi ta gi
mi phn t u V l mt vct.
mi s R l mt v hng.
vct 0 l vct khng.
vct (u) l vct i ca u.
Sau y ta s a ra vi v d c bn v khng gian vct.
1) Tp Rn = {u = (x1, x2, ..., xn)xi R, 1 i n} vi php ton cng vct v php
nhn v hng vi vct nh bi:
u + v = (x1 + y1, x2 + y2, ... , xn + yn),
u = (x1, x2, ..., xn),
vi u = (x1, x2, ..., xn), v = (y1, y2, ..., yn) V v R, l mt khng gian vct trn R vi
vct khng l 0 = (0, 0, ... 0) v vct i ca vct u = (x1, x2, ..., xn) l (u) = ( x1, x2, ...,
x n)
2) Tp V = Mmxn(R) gm cc ma trn mxn vi cc h s trong R l mt khng gian vct
trn R vi php cng vct l php cng ma trn thng thng v nhn v hng vi vct l
php nhn thng thng mt s vi ma trn, trong vct khng l ma trn khng v vct
i ca A = (aij) l (A) = (aij).
3) Vi mi s nguyn n 1, tp hp
51

Kn[x] = {p(x) = anxn + ... + a1x + a0 ai R, 0 i n}


gm cc a thc theo x bc khng qu n, vi cc h s trong R l mt khng gian vct trn R
vi php cng vct l php cng thng thng cc a thc v php nhn v hng vi vct l
php nhn thng thng mt s vi mt a thc. C th, vi p(x) = anxn + ... + a1x + a0 V,
q(x) = bnxn + ... + b1x + b0 K[x] v R,
p(x) + q(x) = (an + bn)xn + ... + (a1 + b1)x + (a0 + b0),
p(x) = (an)xn + ... + (a1)x + (a0).
Vct 0 tng ng l a thc 0.
4) Vi I l mt khong trong R, tp cc hm s xc nh trn I:
F(I, R) = {f: I R}
l mt khng gian vct trn R, vi php cng vct l php cng hm thng thng v php
nhn v hng vi vct l php nhn thng thng mt s vi mt hm. C th, vi cc hm f,
g v s thc ,
(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) , x I,
(f)(x) = f(x),x I.
Vct 0 tng ng l hm hng 0.
1.2. Mnh . Cho V l mt khng gian vct trn R. Khi vi mi u V v R
i) u = 0 ( = 0 hay u = 0).
ii) (1)u = u.
T y v sau, ta dng k hiu V ch mt khng gian vct trn trng R.
2. T HP TUYN TNH
2.1. nh ngha. Cho u1, u2, ..., uk V. Mt t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2,..., uk l mt
vct c dng:
u = 1u1 + 2u2 + ... + kuk
vi i R (1 i k).
2.2. Tnh cht. 1) u l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, ..., uk khi v ch khi phng trnh
1u1 + 2u2+ ... + kuk = u
c nghim (1, 2, ..., k) Rk.
2) Tng ca hai t hp tuyn tnh, tch ca mt s vi mt t hp tuyn tnh cng l cc
t hp tuyn tnh (ca u1, u2,..., uk). Tht vy,
k

i =1

i =1

i =1

1u i + 1u i = ( i + i )u i ;

iu i =
i =1

( i )u i .
i =1

3) Vct khng 0 lun lun l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, ..., uk v


52

0 = 0u1 + 0u2 + ... + 0uk.


4) Mi vct ui, 1 i k l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, ..., uk v
ui = 0u1 + ... + 0ui1 + 1ui + 0ui+1 + ... + 0uk.
Tng qut hn, mi t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2,...,uj (1 j k) u l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1,
u2, ...,uj, uj+1,..., uk v:
1u1 + 2u2 +...+ juj = 1u1 + 2u2+...+ juj + 0uj+1 +...+ 0uk
5) Mi t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2,... ,uk-1, uk u l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, ..., uk1
khi v ch khi uk l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2,..., uk1.
2.3. H qu. Cho u1, u2, ..., uk l k vct trong Rn vi uj = (u1j, u2j, ..., unj),1 j k:
u1 = (u11, u21 ..., un1);
u2 = (u12, u22 ..., un2);
................................
uk = (u1k, u2k ..., unk).
Khi vct u = (b1, b2, ..., bn) Rn l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, ..., uk khi v ch khi h
phng trnh tuyn tnh UX = B c nghim X, trong
u11 u12 ...

u
u 22 ...
U = 21
..... ...... ...

u n1 u n2 ...

u1k
b1
1

u 2k
b
;B = 2 ;X = 2 .
...
...
......



u nk
bn
k

( d nh, ta ni ma trn U c c bng cch dng u1, u2, ..., uk thnh cc ct, cn ma trn B
c c bng cch dng u thnh ct).
Chng minh. Ta c u l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, ..., uk khi v ch khi phng trnh
1u1 + 2u2 + ... + kuk = u

(1)

c nghim (1, 2, ..., k) R . D thy rng


(1) (u111+u122+...+ u1kk, u211+u222+...+ u2kk,..., un11+un22+...+ unkk)
= (b1, b2, ..., bn)
u111 + u12 2 + ... + u1k k = b1
u + u + ... + u = b

22 2
2k k
2
21 1
UX = B
....................................................
u n11 + u n2 2 + ... + u nk k = bn

vi U, B v X nh trong pht biu ca h qu.


2.4. V d. Trong khng gian R4 cho cc vct:
u1 = (1, 1, 1, 1);
u2 = (2, 3, 1, 0);
u3 = (1, 1, 1, 1);
u4 = (1, 2, 1, 1)
53

Tm iu kin vct u = (a1, a2, a3, a4) l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca:


a) u1, u2, u3;
b) u1, u2, u3, u4.
Gii a) Theo H qu 2.3, u = (a1, a2, a3, a4) l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, u3 khi v ch
khi h U1X = B1 c nghim X, trong
a1
1 2 1
1

a2
1 3 1

U1 =
; B1 =
; X = 2 .
a3
1 1 1

3
a
1
0
1

Ta kho st h trn bng phng php Gauss:


1 2 1

1 3 1

(U1 |B1 ) =
1 1 1

1 0 1

1 2 1
a1

a2
0 1 0

0 3 2
a3

0 2 2
a 4

a1

a1 + a 2
0

0
a1 + a 3

0
a1 + a 4

2 1 a 1

1 0 a1 + a 2

0 2 4a1 + 3a 2 + a 3

0 2 3a1 + 2a 2 + a 4

2 1 a1
1 0 a1 + a 2

0
0

2 4a1 + 3a 2 + a 3

0 a1 a 2 a 3 + a 4

iu kin h U1X = B1 c nghim l:


a1 a2 a3 + a4 = 0 hay a1 + a4 = a2 + a3.
Vy u = (a1, a2, a3, a4) l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, u3 khi v ch khi
a1 + a4 = a2 + a3.
b) Tng t, u = (a1, a2, a3, a4) l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, u3, u4 khi v ch khi h U2X
= B2 c nghim X, trong :
a1
1
1 2 1 1
a

1 3 1 2
, B = 2 , X = 2 .
U2 =
2
a3
3
1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1
a4
4

Ta c
det U 2 =

1
1

2
3

1 1
1 0

1
1

1
2

1
1

1
1

1
0

2
1

1
0

0 3
0 2

2
2

1
1

0 1

3 2
= 3 2 0 = 3 2 0 =
= 6 .
0
0 2
2 2 2
0 2 0
2

V detU2 0 nn h U2X = B2 lun lun c nghim X. iu ny chng t mi vect u =(a1, a2,


a3, a4) R4 u l t hp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, u3, u4.

54

3. C LP TUYN TNH PH THUC TUYN TNH


3.1. nh ngha. 1) Cho u1, u2, ..., uk V. Xt phng trnh
1u1 + 2u2 + ... + kuk = 0

(1)

Nu (1) ch c nghim tm thng 1= 2 =...= k = 0 th ta ni u1, u2, ..., uk (hay {u1,


u2, ..., uk}) c lp tuyn tnh (trn K).
Nu ngoi nghim tm thng, (1) cn c nghim khc th ta ni u1, u2, ..., uk (hay {u1,
u2, ..., uk} ) ph thuc tuyn tnh (trn R).
Ni cch khc,
1) u1, u2, ..., uk c lp tuyn tnh khi v ch khi vi mi 1, 2, ..., k R ta c
1u1 + 2u2 + ... + kuk = 0 1 = 2 = ... = k = 0.
2) u1, u2, ..., uk ph thuc tuyn tnh khi v ch khi tn ti 1, 2, ..., k R khng ng
thi bng 0 sao cho
1u1 + 2u2+ ... + kuk = 0.
3.2. V d. Trong khng gian R3 cho cc vct:
u1 = (1, 2, 3); u2 = (2, 5, 1); u3 = (1, 1, 8).
Ta c
1) u1, u2 c lp tuyn tnh v
1u1 + 2u 2 1 (1, 2, 3) + 2 (2, 5, 1) = (0, 0, 0)
1 + 2 2 = 0

(1 + 2 2 , 21 + 5 2 , 31 2 ) = (0, 0, 0) 21 + 5 2 = 0 1 = 2 = 0.
3 = 0
1
2

2) u1, u2, u3 ph thuc tuyn tnh v


1u1 + 2u2 + 3u3 1 (1, 2, 3) + 2 (2, 5, 1) + 3 (1,1, 8) = (0, 0, 0)
(1 + 22 + 3 , 21 + 5 2 + 3 , 31 2 8 3 ) = (0, 0, 0)
1 + 22 + 3 = 0
1 + 22 + 3 = 0

21 + 5 2 + 3 = 0
2 3 = 0

3 8 = 0
1
2
3

(1)

v h (1) c nghim khng tm thng.


3.3. Nhn xt. Cc vct u1, u2, ... , uk ph thuc tuyn tnh khi v ch khi tn ti vct ui
ph thuc vo cc vct khc theo ngha vct ui c biu din di dng t hp tuyn tnh
ca cc vct uj, 1 j i k, cn li. Tht vy,
1) Nu u1, u2, ... , uk ph thuc tuyn tnh th c 1, 2, ... , k K khng ng thi
bng 0, gi s i 0, sao cho

ju j = 0 . Khi u i
j =1

55

1
i

ju j .
j i

2) Nu c ui sao cho u i =

ju j
j i

th

ju j = 0 ,
j =1

trong i = 1 0, iu ny

chng t u1, u2, ... , uk ph thuc tuyn tnh.


By gi xt cc vct u1, u2, ... , uk trong Rn
u1 = (u11, u21 ..., un1);
u2 = (u12, u22 ..., un2);
................................
uk = (u1k, u2k ..., unk)
Cc vct u1, u2, ..., uk c lp tuyn tnh khi v ch khi h phng trnh tuyn tnh UX = 0 ch
c nghim tm thng X = 0, trong
u11 u12 ...

u
u 22 ...
U = 21
..... ...... ...

u n1 u n2 ...

u1k

u 2k
.
......

u nk

Ta c
H UX = 0 ch c nghim tm thng X = 0

Ma trn U c hng l r(U) = k.

Ma trn A = UT c hng l r(A) = k (do ma trn chuyn v ca U c cng hng vi U).

Nhn xt rng ma trn U c c bng cch dng u1, u2, ..., uk thnh cc ct, nn ma trn UT c
c bng cch xp u1, u2, ..., uk thnh cc dng. T y ta suy ra h qu sau:
3.4. H qu. Cho u1, u2, ... , uk l k vct trong Kn. Gi A l ma trn c c bng cch
xp u1, u2, ..., uk thnh cc dng. Khi
u1, u2, ... , uk c lp tuyn tnh A c hng l r(A) = k.
3.5. Thut ton kim tra tnh c lp tuyn tnh ca cc vct trong Rn
Trong thc hnh, ta kim tra tnh c lp tuyn tnh ca cc vct u1, u2,..., uk trong Rn
nh sau:
Bc 1: Lp ma trn A bng cch xp u1, u2, ..., uk thnh cc dng.
Bc 2: Xc nh hng r(A) ca A.
1) Nu r(A) = n th u1, u2, ... , uk c lp tuyn tnh.
2) Nu r(A) < n th u1, u2, ... , uk ph thuc tuyn tnh.
Ta thng c th ha Bc 2 trn nh sau: Dng cc php BSCTD a A v dng
bc thang R. Khi
3) Nu R khng c dng 0 th u1, u2, ... , uk c lp tuyn tnh.
56

4) Nu R c t nht mt dng 0 th u1, u2, ... , uk ph thuc tuyn tnh.


Trng hp k = n, ta c A l ma trn vung. Khi c th thay Bc 2 bng Bc 2 sau
y:
Bc 2: Tnh nh thc detA.
5) Nu detA 0 th u1, u2, ... , uk c lp tuyn tnh.
6) Nu detA = 0 th u1, u2, ... , uk ph thuc tuyn tnh.
3.6. V d. Trong khng gian R5 cho cc vct:
u1 = (1, 2, 3, 5, 1);
u2 = (1, 3, 13, 22, 1);
u3 = (3, 5, 1, 2, 5);
u4 = (2, 3, 4, 7, 4);
Hy xt xem u1, u2, u3, u4 c lp tuyn tnh hay ph thuc tuyn tnh.
Gii. Lp ma trn A bng cch xp u1, u2, u3, u4 thnh cc dng:
1
1
A=
3

2 3 5 1
3 13 22 1
5 1
2 5

3 4 7 4

Dng cc php BSCTD ta c


d 2 : = d 2 d1 1 2 3
5
1
1

d 3 : = d 3 3d1
d : = d3 + d2 0
0 1 10 17 2 3

0 1 10 17 2
0
A

d 4 : = d 4 2d1 0 1 10 17 2 d 4 : = d 4 + d 2 0

V A R v R c dng 0 nn u1, u2, u3, u4 ph thuc tuyn tnh.


3.7. V d. Trong khng gian R3 cho cc vct:
u1 = (2m + 1, m, m + 1)
u2 = (m 2, m 1, m 2)
u3 = (2m 1, m 1, 2m 1)
Tm iu kin u1, u2, u3 c lp tuyn tnh.
Gii
Lp ma trn A bng cch xp u1, u2, u3 thnh cc dng

57

2 3 5 1

1 10 17 2
=R
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0

m+1
2m + 1 m

A = m 2 m 1 m 2 .

2m 1 m 1 2m 1

Ta c
2m + 1 m
det A = m 2 m 1

m +1
m m
m 2 = 0 m 1

2m 1 m 1 2m 1

m+1
m 1 m 2
= m(m 1)(m + 1).
m2 =m
m 1 2m 1
m 1 2m 1

Do
u1, u2, u3 c lp tuyn tnh det A 0 m(m1)(m+1) 0 m 0; m 1.
3.8. V d. Trong khng gian Rn, xt B0= {e1, e2,..., en}, trong
e1 = (1, 0 , 0, ..., 0);
e1 = (0, 1 , 0, ..., 0);
................................
en = (0, 0, ..., 0, 1);
Khi B 0 c lp tuyn tnh v khi xp cc vct e1, e2,..., en thnh cc dng, ta c ma trn
n v, hin nhin c hng bng n.
3.9. V d. Trong khng gian Mmxn(R) gm cc ma trn mxn vi cc h s trong R, xt
tp B 0 = {Eij| 1 i m, 1 j n}, trong Eij l ma trn loi mn c tt c cc h s u bng
0 ngoi tr h s dng i ct j bng 1. Ta thy B 0 c lp tuyn tnh v

aijEij = 0
i, j

(ma tran 0) a ij = 0, i, j.

3.10. V d. Trong khng gian Rn[x] cc a thc theo x bc khng qu n vi cc h s


trong R, tp hp B 0 = {1, x, ..., xn} c lp tuyn tnh v mt a thc bng a thc 0 khi v ch
khi tt c cc h s u bng 0, ngha l
a0 + a1 x + ... + a n x n = 0 (a thc 0) a0 = a1 = ... = a n = 0.

3.11. V d. Trong khng gian cc hm s thc F(R,R), chng t cc hm sau c lp


tuyn tnh: sinx, cosx, tgx, ln(1 + x2).
Gii. Gi s hm 0 l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca cc hm cho
sinx + cosx + tgx + ln(1 + x2) = 0, x R

(1)

Ta s chng minh = = = = 0. Tht vy,


Cho x = 0 trong (1) ta c = 0.
= 0. V nu 0 th v tri ca (1) dn v khi x /2, mu thun.
H thc trn tr thnh
sinx + ln(1 + x2) = 0.
58

Ly o hm hai v ta c
cos x +

2 x
= 0.
1 + x2

Cho x = 0 ta suy ra = 0, t = 0. Ta chng minh = = = = 0. iu ny chng t


cc hm cho c lp tuyn tnh.
4. KHNG GIAN CON TP SINH C S V S CHIU
4.1. nh ngha (khng gian vct con). Cho W l mt tp con khc ca V. Ta ni W
l mt khng gian vct con ca V, k hiu bi W V, nu W vi php cng vct v php
nhn v hng vi vct c hn ch t V, cng l mt khng gian vct trn R.
4.2. nh l. Cho W l mt tp con ca V. Khi cc mnh sau tng ng:
i) W V.
ii) W v vi mi u, v W v R, u + v W v u W.
iii) W v vi mi u, v W v R, u + v W.
Hn na, c th thay iu kin W trn bng iu kin 0 W.
4.3. V du.1) W = {0} v V l cc vct con ca V. Ta gi y l cc khng gian con tm
thng ca V.
2) Trong khng gian R3, ng thng (D) i qua gc ta O l mt khng gian con ca
R . Tht vy, gi v = (, , ) l vct ch phng ca (D). Khi phng trnh tham s ca
(D) l:
3

(D): x = t; y = t; z = t vi t R.
Do (D) = {t(, , ) | t R} = {tv| t R}. D thy rng tnh cht iii) trong nh l 4.2 c
tha i vi (D), do (D) l mt khng gian con ca R3.
3) Trong khng gian R3, mt phng (P) i qua gc ta O l mt khng gian vct con
ca R3. Tht vy, gi v1 = (1 , 1 , 1 ); v2 = (2 , 2 , 2 ) l hai vct ch phng ca (P). Khi
phng trnh tham s ca (P) l:
(P): x = t11 + t22 ; y = t11 + t22 ; z = t11 + t22 vi t1, t2 R.
Do
(P) = {(t11 + t22, t11 + t22, t11 + t22) | t1, t2 R}
= {t1(1, 1, 1) + t2(2, 2, 2) | t1, t2 R} = {t1v1 + t2v2| t1, t2 R}.
D thy rng tnh cht iii) trong nh l 4.2 c tha i vi (P), do (P) l mt khng gian
con ca R3.
4.4. nh l. Giao ca mt h tu cc khng gian con ca V cng l mt khng gian
con ca V.
4.5. Ch .. Hp ca hai khng gian con ca V khng nht thit l mt khng gian con
ca V (xem phn bi tp).
59

4.6. nh l . (Khng gian con sinh bi mt tp hp. Tp sinh) Cho tp hp


S = {u1, u2, ..., un} V.
t < S > l tp hp tt c nhng t hp tuyn tnh ca cc vct trong S, ngha l
< S > = {u = 1u1 + 2u2 + ... + nun | i R, 1 i n}.
Khi < S > l mt khng gian con nh ca V c cha S. Ta gi
1) < S > l khng gian con sinh bi S., cn c k hiu l < u1, u2,..., un >.
2) S l tp sinh ca < S >.
Chng minh. t
W = < S > = {u = 1u1 + 2u2 + ... + nun | i R, 1 i n}.
Ta chng minh W = < S > qua hai bc sau:
1) W l khng gian con ca V.
Chn u0 l mt vct trong S. Ta c 0 = 0u0 W, do W . Mt khc, vi mi vct
u, v trong W
u = 1u1 + 2u2 + ... + nun,
v = 1v1 + 2v2 + ... + mvm
vi ui, vj S v i, j R (1 i n, 1 j m), v vi mi R, ta c
u + v = (1)u1 + ... + (n)un + 1v1 + ... + mvm.
Vy u + v cng l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca hu hn cc vct trong S, do u + v W.
Theo nh l 4.2 W V.
2) W l khng gian con nh nht cha S.
Cho u l mt vector bt k trong S. Ta c u = 1u W. Vy W cha S. Mt khc, cho W
V v S W. Khi mi vct trong S u l thuc W nn do tnh cht ca khng gian con,
W cha tt c cc t hp tuyn tnh ca cc vct trong S, ngha l W cha tt c cc vct c
dng u = 1u1 + 2u2 + ... + nun. T W W. Ni cch khc, W l khng gian con nh nht
cha S.
4.7. V d. Xt li V d 2.4. Ta c
< u1, u2, u3 > = {1u1 + 2u2 + 3u3i R, 1 i 3}
= {(a1, a2 , a3 , a4) a1 + a4 = a2 + a3}.
< u1, u2, u3, u4 > = {1u1 + 2u2 + 3u3 + 4u4i R, 1 i 4} = R4.
4.8. V d. Trong khng gian Rn, tp hp B 0= {e1, e2,..., en} nh trong V d 3.7 l mt
tp sinh ca Rn v
< B 0 > = {1e1 + 2e2 +...+ nen |1, 2 ,..., n R }
= {1(1, 0 , 0, ..., 0) + 2(0, 1 , 0, ...,0) +...+ n(0, 0, ..., 0, 1) |1, 2 ,..., n R}
= {(1 , 2 ,..., n) |1, 2 ,..., n R} = Rn.
60

4.9. V d. Trong khng gian Mmxn(R) cc ma trn mxn vi cc h s trong K, tp hp


B0 = {Eij| 1 i m, 1 j n} nh trong 3.9 l mt tp sinh ca Mmxn(R) v

< B 0 >= { a ijEi j |a ij {= {(a ij )|a ij {= Mmn ( ).


i, j

4.10. V d. Tp hp B 0 = {1, x, ..., xn} l mt tp sinh ca khng gian Rn[x] cc a


thc theo x bc khng qu n. Tht vy,
< B 0 > = {a01 + a1x +...+ anxn |a0, a1 ,..., an R}
= {a0 + a1x +...+ anxn |a0, a1 ,..., an R} = Rn[x],
4.11. nh ngha. Mt tp hp con B ca khng gian vct V c gi l mt c s ca
V nu B l mt tp sinh ca V v B c lp tuyn tnh.
4.12. B . Gi s V sinh bi m vct V = < u1, u2, ... , um >. Khi mi tp hp con
c lp tuyn tnh ca V c khng qu m phn t.
4.13. H qu v nh ngha. Nu V c mt c s B hu hn gm m vct B = {u1, u2,
... , um} th mi c s khc ca V cng hu hn v c ng m vct. Khi ta ni khng gian
vct V hu hn chiu trn R v m c gi l s chiu (dimension) ca V trn R, k hiu bi
dimRV = m hay, n gin hn, dimV = m.
Chng minh. Gi s B = {v1, v2,..., vn} l mt c s khc ca V. Khi B l mt tp
hp con c lp tuyn tnh ca V = < u1, u2, ... , um> nn theo B 4.12 n m. Tng t ta c
m n v do m = n.
4.14. V d. 1) Theo cc V d 3.8 v 4.8 Rn l khng gian vct hu hn chiu trn R
vi dim Rn = n do Rn c mt c s l B 0 = {e1, e2, ..., en} trong
e1 = (1, 0, 0,..., 0)
e2 = (0, 1, 0,..., 0)
............................
en = (0, 0,..., 0, 1)
Ta gi B 0 l c s chnh tc ca Rn.
2) Theo cc V d 3.9 v 4.9 Mmxn(R) l khng gian vct hu hn chiu trn R vi
dimMmn(R) = mn vi c s B 0 = {Eij | , 1 i m, 1 j n}, trong Eij l ma trn loi mn
ch c mt h s khc 0 duy nht l h s 1 dng i ct j. Ta gi B 0 = {Eij | , 1 j m, 1 i
n} l c s chnh tc ca Mmxn(R).
3) Theo cc V d 3.10 v 4.10 khng gian Rn[x] gm cc a thc theo x bc khng qu
n vi h s trong R, l khng gian vct hu hn chiu trn R c dim Rn[x] = n + 1 vi c s
B 0 = {1, x,... xn}. Ta gi B 0 = {1, x, ... xn} l c s chnh tc ca Rn[x].
4.15. H qu. Cho V l mt khng gian vct hu hn chiu vi dimV = n. Khi
i) Mi tp con ca V c nhiu hn n vct u ph thuc tuyn tnh.
ii) Mi tp con ca V c t hn n vct khng l tp sinh ca V.
61

Chng minh. V dimV = n nn V c mt c s B gm ng n vct.


i) V V sinh bi tp B gm ng n vct nn khng nh i) c suy ra t B 4.12.
ii) V trong V tn ti tp B c lp tuyn tnh gm ng n vct nn khng nh ii) cng
c suy ra t B 4.12.
4.16. nh l. Cho V l mt khng gian vct hu hn chiu vi dimV = n. Khi
i) Mi tp con c lp tuyn tnh gm n vct ca V u l c s ca V.
ii) Mi tp sinh ca V gm n vct u l c s ca V.
4.17. C s ca khng gian Rn. V dim Rn = n nn mi c s ca Rn phi gm ng n
vct. Hn na, theo nh l 4.16 vi B = {u1, u2, ... , un} l mt tp con gm n vct ca Rn, ta
c:
B = {u1, u2, ... , un} l mt c s ca Rn

u1, u2, ... , un c lp tuyn tnh

detA 0, trong A l ma trn c c bng cch xp u1, u2, ... , un thnh cc dng (do
3.5).
4.18. V d. 1) Trong khng gian R4, cc vct
u1 = (1, 1, 1, 1); u2 = (2, 3, 1, 0); u3 = (1, 1, 1, 1); u4 = (1, 2, 1, 1)

to thnh c s ca R4 v
1 1 1 1
2 3 1 0
= 6
1 1 1 1
1 2 1 1

(Xem V d 2.4).
2) Trong khng gian R3, cc vct
u1 = (2m + 1, m, m + 1)
u2 = (m 2, m 1, m 2)
u3 = (2m 1, m 1, 2m 1)
to thnh mt c s ca R3 khi v ch khi m 0, 1 (xem V d 3.7).
4.19. nh l (v c s khng ton vn). Cho V l mt khng gian vct hu hn chiu
v S l mt tp con c lp tuyn tnh ca V. Khi , nu S khng phi mt c s ca V th ta
c th thm vo S mt s vct c mt c s ca V.

62

4.20. nh l. Cho V l mt khng gian vct hu hn chiu sinh bi S. Khi tn ti


mt c s B ca V sao cho B S. Ni cch khc, nu S khng phi l mt c s ca V th ta c
th loi b ra khi S mt s vct c mt c s ca V.
5. KHNG GIAN DNG
5.1. nh ngha. Cho ma trn A = (aij) loi mn vi h s trong R
a11

a
A = 21
.....

a m1

a12
a 22

... a1n

... a 2n
.
...... ... ......

a m2 ... a mn

t
u1 = (a11, a12, ... , a1n);
u2 = (a21, a22, ... , a2n);
..................................
um = (am1, am2, ..., amn)
v WA = <u1, u2, ..., um>. Ta gi u1, u2, ..., um l cc vct dng ca A, v WA l khng gian
dng ca A.
5.2. nh l. Nu A v B l hai ma trn tng ng dng th WA = WB, ngha l hai ma
trn tng ng dng c cng khng gian dng.
5.3. Cc tm s chiu v c s ca khng gian dng. V cc vct dng khc 0 ca mt
ma trn dng bc thang lun lun c lp tuyn tnh (do 3.5) nn chng to thnh mt c s ca
khng gian dng. T y ta suy ra cch tm s chiu v mt c s ca khng gian dng ca ma
trn A nh sau:
Dng cc php BSCTD a A v dng bc thang R.
S chiu ca khng gian dng WA bng s dng khc 0 ca R (do bng r(A)) v
cc vct dng khc 0 ca R to thnh mt c s ca WA.
V d. Tm s chiu v mt c s ca khng gian dng ca ma trn:

1 2 1 1

2
5
1
4

A=
5 11 2 8

9 20 3 14
Gii. Dng cc php BSCTD ta c

1 2 1 1 1


2 5 1 4 0

A=
5 11 2 8 0


9 20 3 14 0
63

2 1 1

1 3 2
= R.
0 0 1

0 0 0

R c dng bc thang vi 3 dng khc 0. Do dimWA = 3 v mt c s ca WA l


{(1, 2, -1, 1); (0, 1, 3, 2); (0, 0, 0, 1)}.
5.4. Thut ton tm s chiu v c s ca mt khng gian con ca Rn khi bit mt
tp sinh:
Gi s W = <u1, u2, ..., um> Rn (u1, u2, ..., um khng nht thit c lp tuyn tnh).
tm s chiu v mt c s ca W ta tin hnh nh sau:
Bc 1: Lp ma trn A bng cch xp u1, u2, ..., um thnh cc dng.
Bc 2: Dng cc php BSCTD a A v dng bc thang R.
Bc 3: S chiu ca W bng s dng khc 0 ca R (do bng r(A)) v cc vct dng
khc 0 ca R to thnh mt c s ca W.
5.5. V d. Tm mt c s cho khng gian con ca R4 sinh bi cc vct u1, u2, u3, u4
trong :
u1 = (1, 2, 1, 1); u2 = (3, 6, 5, 7); u3 = (4, 8, 6, 8); u4 = (8, 16, 12, 20)
Gii. Khng gian W sinh bi u1, u2, u3, u4 l khng gian dng ca ma trn A c c bng
cch xp cc vct ny thnh cc dng

1 2 1 1 1 2


3 6 5 7 0 0

A=
4 8 6 8 0 0


8 16 12 20 0 0

1 1

1 2
= R.
0 1

0 0

Do W c dimW = 3 vi c s {(1, 2, 1, 1); (0, 0, 1, 2); (0, 0, 0, 1)}.


Nhn xt. V dimW = 3 , hn na, c th kim chng u1, u2, u3 c lp tuyn tnh nn ta
cng c {u1, u2, u3} l mt c s ca W.
:

5.6. V d. Tm mt c s cho khng gian con ca R4 sinh bi cc vct u1, u2, u3 trong
u1 = (1, 2, 1, 3); u2 = (2, 4, 3, 0); u3 = (3, 6, 4, 4).

Gii. Khng gian W sinh bi u1, u2, u3 l khng gian dng ca ma trnA c c bng
cch xp cc vct ny thnh cc dng
1 2 1

A = 2 4 3
3 6 4

3 1 2 1 3

0 0 0 1 6 = R .
4 0 0 0
1

W c dimW = 3 v c s {v1, v2, v3}, trong


v1 = (1, 2, 1, 3); v2 = (0, 0, 1, 6); v3 = (0, 0, 0, 1).
Nhn xt. Trong v d trn ma trn dng bc thang R khng c dng 0 nn u1, u2, u3 c
lp tuyn tnh, v do {u1, u2, u3} cng l mt c s ca W.

64

6. KHNG GIAN NGHIM


6.1. V d minh ha. Cho W l tp tt c cc nghim thc (x1,x2,x3,x4) ca h phng
trnh tuyn tnh thun nht
x1 + 2x 2 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 0

x1 + 3x 2 13x 3 + 22x 4 = 0
(1)

3x1 + 5x 2 + x 3 2x 4 = 0
2x1 + 3x 2 + 4x 3 7x 4 = 0

Ta gii h (1) bng phng php Gauss


1

1
A=
3

2 3 5

3 13 22

2
5 1

3 4 7

0
0

2 3 5

1 10 17
0 0
0

0 0
0

Vy h cho tng ng vi h sau:


x1 + 2x 2 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 0

x 2 10x3 + 17x4 = 0

Chn x3 = , x4 = , ta tnh c:
x1 = 17 + 29

x 2 = 10 17

Vy h (1) c v s nghim vi hai n t do:


(x1 , x2 , x 3 , x4 ) = (17 + 29,10 17, , )

vi , R ty . Do
W = {(17 + 29,10 17, , )| , } = {(17,10, , 0) + (29, 17, 0, )| , }
= { (17,10,1, 0) + (29, 17, 0,1)| , } =< (17,10,1, 0); (29, 17, 0,1) > .

t u1 = (17,10,1,0); u2 = (29,17,0,1). Ta c W = <u1, u2>, hn na u1, u2 c lp tuyn tnh


v
u1 + u 2 = 0 (17,10,1, 0) + (29, 17, 0,1) = (0, 0, 0, 0)

(17 + 29,10 17, , ) = (0, 0, 0, 0) = = 0.

Suy ra {u1, u2} l mt c s ca W v dimW = 2.


Ta gi W l khng gian nghim ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht (1) nh trong
nh ngha tng qut sau:
6.2. nh l v nh ngha. Cho ma trn A = (aij) loi mn vi h s trong R
a11

a
A = 21
.....

a m1

65

a12
a 22

... a1n

... a 2n
...... ... ......

a m2 ... a mn

v SA l tp tt c cc nghim (x1,x2,...,xn) ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht AX = 0,


ngha l tp tt c cc nghim ca h

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n x n = 0


a x + a x + ... + a x = 0
21 1
22 2
2n n

...............................................
a m1 x1 + a m2 x2 + ... + a mn xn = 0
Khi SA l mt khng gian con ca Rn. Ta gi SA l khng gian nghim ca h phng trnh
tuyn tnh thun nht AX = 0.
Xt li V d minh ho 6.1 ta thy SA c mt c s l {u1, u2} vi u1 = (17,10,1,0); u2 =
(29,17,0,1). D thy
u1 c suy t nghim tng qut bng cch chn = 1, = 0.
u2 c suy t nghim tng qut bng cch chn = 0, = 1.
Ta gi {u1, u2} l mt h nghim c bn ca (1). Kt qu trn c suy t kt qu tng qut sau:
6.3. Thut ton tm s chiu v mt c s ca khng gian nghim
tm s chiu v mt c s ca khng gian nghim SA ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh
thun nht AX = 0, ta tin hnh cc bc sau:
Bc 1: Gii h AX = 0 tm nghim tng qut.
Bc 2: Tm mt h nghim c bn ca h AX = 0 nh sau: Gi s nghim tng qut ca
h AX = 0 c s n t do x k , x k ,..., x k . Vi mi 1 i s, chn x ki = 1; x k j = 0; j i, ta
1

c nghim u k i . Khi { u k , u k ,..., u k } l mt h nghim c bn.


1

Bc 3: Khng gian nghim SA c dimSA = s v nhn h nghim c bn


{ u k , u k ,..., u k } lm mt c s.
1

6.4. Nhn xt. C th tm h nghim c bn bng cch tch cc tham s nh trong V d


minh ha 6.1.
7. KHNG GIAN TNG
7.1. nh l. Cho W1,W2,..., Wn l cc khng gian con ca V. t
W = { u1 + u2 + ... + unui Wi, 1 i n}.
n

Khi W l khng gian con ca V sinh bi U Wi . Ta gi W l khng gian tng ca W1,W2,...,


Wn, k hiu bi W1 + W2 + ... + Wn hay

ng

i =1

Wi .

i =1

7.2. H qu. Vi W, W1, W2,..., Wn l cc khng gian con ca V, hai mnh sau tng
66

i) W1 + W2 + ... + Wn U.
ii) Wi U vi mi 1 i n.
7.3. H qu. Cho W1, W2,..., Wn l cc khng gian con ca V vi Wi = <Si >. Khi
n

Wi =< U Si > .
i =1

i =1

7.4. V d. Trong khng gian R4 cho cc vct


u1 = (1, 2, 1, 1);

v1 = (1, 3, 3, 3);

u2 = (3, 6, 5, 7);

v2 = (2, 5, 5, 6);

u3 = (4, 8, 6, 8);

v3 = (3, 8, 8, 9);

u4 = (8, 16, 12, 16); v4 = (6, 16, 16, 18).


t W1 = < u1, u2, u3, u4 > v W2 = < v1, v2, v3, v4 >. Tm mt c s v xc nh s chiu ca
mi khng gian W1 + W2 v W1W2.
Gii. 1) W1 l khng gian dng ca ma trn
1 2 1 1
1
3 6 5 7
0

A1 =

4 8 6 8
0

8 16 12 16
0

2
0
0
0

1
2
2
4

1
1

0
4

0
4

8
0

2
0
0
0

1
1
0
0

1
2
.
0

Do W1 = < (1, 2, 1, 1); (0, 0, 1, 2) >.


2) W2 l khng gian dng ca ma trn
1 3 3 3
1 3 3 3
1
2 5 5 6
0 1 1 0

0
A2 =
3 8 8 9
0 1 1 0
0

6 16 16 18
0 2 2 0
0

3
1
0
0

3
1
0
0

3
0
0 .

Do W2 = < (1, 3, 3, 3); (0, 1, 1, 0) >.


3) Theo H qu 7.3 khng gian W1 + W2 sinh bi cc vct
(1, 2, 1, 1); (0, 0, 1, 2); (1, 3, 3, 3); (0, 1, 1, 0).
W1 + W2 l khng gian dng ca ma trn
1

0
A=
1

2
0
3
1

1
1
3
1

1
1

2
0

0
3

0
0

2
0
1
1

1
1
2
1

1
1

2
0

0
2

0
0

2
1
0
0

1
1
1
1

1
1

0
0

0
2

2
0

Suy ra W1 + W2 c s chiu l 3 v mt c s l
{(1, 2, 1, 1); (0, 1, 1, 0) ; (0, 0, 1, 2)}.
67

2
1
0
0

1
1
1
0

0
.
2

4) Ta c: u W1 W2 khi v ch khi tn ti i R, 1 i 4, sao cho


u = 1 (1, 2,1,1) + 2 (0, 0,1, 2)

u = 3 (1, 3, 3, 3) + 4 (0,1,1, 0)
u = 1 (1, 2,1,1) + 2 (0, 0,1, 2)

(1 , 21 , 1 + 2 , 1 + 22 ) = (3 , 33 + 4 , 33 + 4 , 33 )
u = 1 (1, 2,1,1) + 2 (0, 0, 2, 4)

1 = 3 ; 21 = 33 + 4 ; 1 + 2 = 33 + 4 ; 1 + 22 = 33
u = 1 (1, 2,1,1) + 2 (0, 0,1, 2)

1 = 2 = 3 = 4 =
u = (1, 2, 2, 3) vi

Suy ra W1W2 = {(1,2,2,3)| R} = < (1,2,2,3) > c s chiu l 1 v mt c s l {(1, 2, 2,


3)}.
7.5. V d. Gi W1, W2 ln lt l tp hp cc vct (x1, x2, x3, x4) trong R4 tha cc h
phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht

x 1 + x 2 2x 3 = 0
(W1 ) :
x 1 x 2 2x 4 = 0

(W2 ) : x 1 = x 2 = x 3

Tm mt c s v xc nh s chiu ca mi khng gian W1 + W2 v W1W2.


Gii. Ta c
x + x 2 2x 3 = 0
x x 3 x 4 = 0
1
1) (W1 ) : 1
2x 2 + 2x 3 2x 4 = 0
x 2 x 3 + x 4 = 0
(x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 ) = ( + , , , ); , .

Suy ra W1 = {( + , , , )| , } =< (1, 1, 1, 0); (1, 1, 0, 1) > .


2) (W2 ) : x1 = x 2 = x 3 (x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 ) = (, , , ); , .

Suy ra W2 = {(, , , )| , } =< (1,1,1, 0); (0, 0, 0,1) > .


3) Theo H qu 7.3 khng gian W1 + W2 sinh bi
B = {(1, 1, 1, 0); (1, 1, 0, 1); (0, 0, 0, 1)}.

W1 + W2 l khng gian dng ca ma trn


1 1 1 0
1 1 1 0

A = 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 .
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1

Nh vy, B c lp tuyn tnh, do B l mt c s ca W1 + W2 v ta c dim(W1 + W2) = 3.


4) Khng gian W1W2 l khng gian nghim ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht
68

x1 x 3 x 4 = 0
(W1 )

x 2 x 3 + x 4 = 0 (x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 ) = (, , , 0); .

(W
)
2
x = x = x
3
3
1

Suy ra W1 W2 = {(, , , 0)| } =< (1,1,1, 0) > c s chiu l 1 v mt c s l {(1,


1, 1, 0)}.
Trong cc v d 7.4 v 7.5 ta thy
dim(W1 + W2) + dim(W1W2) = dimW1 + dimW2.
ng thc trn cng ng trong trng hp tng qut nh c ch ra trong nh l sau.
7.7. nh l. Cho W1, W2 l hai khng gian vct con hu hn chiu ca V. Khi W1 +
W2 l khng gian con hu hn chiu ca V v
dim(W1 + W2) = dim W1 + dim W2 dim(W1 W2).
8. TA V MA TRN CHUYN C S
8.1. nh l. Cho B = {u1, u2, ..., un} l mt c s ca khng gian vct V trn R. Khi
vi mi u V phng trnh
1u1 + 2u2 + ... + nun = u

(1)

lun lun c duy nht mt nghim. Gi (10 , 02 ,..., 0n ) l nghim ca (1). Ta t

[u]B

10
0

= 2
....
0
n

v gi y l ta ca u trong c s B. Nh vy,

[u]B

10
0

= 2 u = 10u1 + 20u 2 + ... + n0 u n
....
0
n

Chng minh. Phng trnh (1) c nghim do c s B sinh ra V. Ta s chng minh


nghim l duy nht. Tht vy, gi s
u = 1u1 ++ .. + nun = 1u1 + 2u2 + .. + nun.
Khi
(1 1)u1 + (2 2)u2 + ... + (n n)un = 0
nn do tnh c lp tuyn tnh ca B ta c
1 1 = 2 2 = ...= n n = 0
69

hay
1 = 1, 2 = 2 , ..., n = n.
iu ny chng t nghim ca (1) l duy nht.
8.2. Ch . To ca mt vct trong c s B = {u1, u2, ..., un} ch c ngha khi qui
nh th t gia cc vct trong c s . Ta cn gi l c s uc sp v thng dng k
hiu (u1, u2, ..., uk) ch c s c sp ny.
T dnh ngha v t H qu 2.3 ta suy ra ngay h qu sau:
8.3. H qu. Gi s B = (u1, u2, ..., uk) l mt c s ca W Rn trong
u1 = (u11, u21 ..., un1);
u2 = (u12, u22 ..., un2);
................................
uk = (u1k, u2k ..., unk).
Khi vi mi u = (b1, b2 ..., bn) W, ta c
[u]B

b1

b
= X UX = 2 ,
....

bn

trong
u11 u12 ...

u
u 22 ...
U = 21
..... ...... ...

u n1 u n2 ...

u1k

u 2k
......

u nk

l ma trn c c bng cch dng u1, u2, ..., uk thnh cc ct.


8.4. Nhn xt. 1) i vi c s chnh tc B 0 = (e1, e2, ..., en) ca khng gian Rn, ta co
vi mi u = (b1,b2,...,bn) Rn,
[u]B0

b1
b
= 2.
....

bn

Ni cch khc, ta ca vct u trong c s chnh tc B0 ca Rn chnh l ma trn ct tng


ng ca u. iu ny c suy t H qu 8.3 vi nhn xt rng khi dng cc vct e1, e2, ..., en
thnh cc ct ta c ma trn n v cp n.
2) i vi c s chnh tc B 0 = (E11,..., E1n,..., Em1,..., Emn) ca khng gian Mmn(R) cc
ma trn loi mn h s trong R v A = (aij)mn ta c
70

[A)]B0

a11

a1n

=
.
am1

a
mn

3) i vi c s chnh tc B 0 = (1, x, ..., xn) ca khng gian Rn[x] cc a thc theo x bc


khng qu n, ta c
p(x) = an x n + ... + a1 x + a0 K n [x], [p(x)]B0

a0
a
= 1.
...

an

8.5. V d. Trong khng gian R3, cho cc vct


u1 = (1, 2, 1); u2 = (1, 3, 1); u3 = (2, 5, 3).
a) Chng minh B = (u1, u2, u3) l mt c s ca R3.
b) Tm ta ca vct u = (a, b, c) R3 trong c s B.
Gii. a) Ma trn A c c bng cch xp u1, u2, u3 thnh cc dng c nh thc khc 0.
Tht vy,
1 2 1

1 2 1

detA= 1 3 1 = 0 1 0 = 1 .
2 5 3 0 1 1

T y, theo 4.17 B = (u1, u2, u3) l mt c s ca R3.


b) Vi u = (a,b,c), ta c
[u]B

1
= 2 1u1 + 2 u2 + 3u3 = u UX = B

3

trong
1
1 1 2
a


U = 2 3 5 ; B = b ; X = 2
1 1 3
c

Ta gii h trn bng phng php Gauss

71

(2)

1 1 2 a 1 1 2

(U|B) = 2 3 5 b 0 1 1 2a + b
1 1 3 c 0 0 1 a + c

1 + 2 + 23 = a;

2 + 3 = 2a + b;
(2)

3 = a + c.

1 = 4a b c

2 = a + b c
= a + c
3

Vy vi u = (a,b,c), ta c:
[u]B

4a b c

= a + b c .
a + c

8.6. V d. Trong khng gian M2(R), xt W = < A1, A2, A3 >, trong
1 1
2 1
0 1
A1 =
; A2 =
; A3 =

.
2 1
3 2
2 0

a) Chng minh B = (A1, A2, A3) l mt c s ca W.


8 0
c thuc W khng. Nu c, hy tm to ca A trong
0 8

b) Xt xem ma trn A =
c s B.

Gii. a) Ta ch cn chng minh B = (A1, A2, A3) c lp tuyn tnh. Tht vy,

1 A1 + 2 A 2 + 3 A 3 = 0
1 1
2 1
0 1 0
1
+ 2
+ 3
=
2
1
3
2
2
0

0
1 + 2 2 = 0

2 + 3 = 0
1
1 = 2 = 3 = 0.
2

+
3

+
2

=
0
1
2
3
2 = 0
2
1

iu ny chng t B = (A1, A2, A3) c lp tuyn tnh v do l mt co s ca W.


a) Xt phng trnh

72

1 A1 + 2 A 2 + 3 A 3 = A
1 1
2 1
0 1 8 0
1
+ 2
+ 3

2 1
3 2
3 0 0 8
1 + 22 = 8
1 = 6
+ = 0
1

2
3

2 = 1
21 + 32 + 33 = 0
= 5
3
1 22 = 8
V phng trnh trn c nghim nn A W. Khi to ca A trong c s B chnh l nghim
ca phng trnh trn, do
[A]B

6
= 1 .
5

8.7. V d. Trong khng gian R2[x], xt cc vct


g0(x) = 1; g1(x) = x + 5; g2(x) = (x + 5)2
a) Chng minh B = {g0, g1, g2} l mt c s ca R2[x].
b) Tm ta ca vct p(x) = a2x2 + a1x + a0 trong c s B.
Gii. a) V dimR2[x] = 3 nn theo nh l 4.16 chng minh B = {g0, g1, g2} l mt c
s ca R2[x] ta ch cn chng t B c lp tuyn tnh. Tht vy, gi s
0g0(x) + 1g1(x) + 2g2(x) = 0.
Khi
0 + 1(x + 5) + 2(x + 5)2 = 0, x R.
t y = x + 5 th y c th nhn mi gi tr trong R nn
1 + 1y + 2y2 = 0, y R.
Suy ra 0 = 1 = 2 = 0. iu ny chng t B c lp tuyn tnh.
b) Xt p(x) = a2x2 + a1x + a0 = 0. Ta c

73

[p(x)]B

0
= 1 0 g 0 (x) + 1g1 (x) + 2 g 2 (x) = p(x)

2
0 + 1 (x + 5) + 2 (x + 5)2 = a2 x 2 + a1x + a0
2 x 2 + (1 + 102 )x + 0 + 51 + 252 = a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0
2 = a 2

1 + 102 = a1
+ 5 + 25 = a
1
2
0
0
0 = a0 5a1 + 25a2

1 = a1 10a2
= a
2
2

Vy
[p(x)]B

a 0 5a1 + 25a 2

= a1 10a 2
.

a2

8.8. nh l v nh ngha. Cho V l mt khng gian vct c dimV = n v hai c s


ca V
B 1 = (u1, u2, ..., un); B 2 = (v1, v2, ..., vn).
Vi mi 1 j n, t
p1j

p2 j

[v j ]B1 =
, 1 j n,
...

pnj

v P l ma trn vung cp n c cc ct ln lt l [v1 ]B ,[v 2 ]B ,...,[vn ]B , ngha l


1

p11

p
P = 21
...

pn1

p12

p22
...

pn2

... p1n

... p2n
.
... ...

... pnn

Khi P kh nghch v l ma trn duy nht tha

u V, [u]B1 = P[u]B2
Ta gi P l ma trn chuyn c s t B1 sang B2, k hiu PB

B2

. Nh vy,

u V, [u]B1 = PB1 B2 [u]B2 .

74

8.9. Mnh . Cho V l mt khng gian vct hu hn chiu v B 1, B 2 , B 3 l ba c s


ca V. Khi

i) PB

ii) PB

B1
1

B3

= (PB

= PB

B2 )

B 2 PB 2 B 3 .

Chng minh. 1) Theo nh l 8.8 ta c ma trn PB

B2

kh nghch v vi mi u V,

[u]B1 = PB1 B2 [u]B2

nn
[u]B 2 = (PB 1 B 2 ) 1 [u]B 1 .

T y, do tnh duy nht ca ma trn chuyn c s t B2 sang B1 ta suy ra


PB2 B1 = (PB1 B2 )1 .

2) Theo nh l 8.8 ta c vi mi u V,
[u]B1 = PB1 B2 [u]B2

[u]B2 = PB2 B3 [u]B3

nn
[u]B1 = (PB1 B2 PB2 B3 )[u]B3

T y, do tnh duy nht ca ma trn chuyn c s t B1 sang B3 ta suy ra


PB1 B3 = PB1 B2 PB2 B3 .

8.10. H qu. Cho B 1= (u1, u2, ..., un); B 2 = (v1, v2, ..., vn) l hai c s ca khng gian
R . Gi B0 = (e1, e2, ..., en) l c s chnh tc ca Rn. Khi
n

i) PB0 B1 l ma trn c c bng cch dng cc vct u1, u2, ..., un thnh cc ct.
ii) PB1 B0 = (PB0 B1 )1 .
iii) PB1 B2 = (PB0 B2 )1PB0 B2 .
vi) Nu qua mt s php BSCTD ma trn PB 0 B1 bin thnh ma trn n v In th cng

chnh qua nhng php bin i ma trn PB

B2

s bin thnh ma trn PB

BSCTD
(PB0 B1 PB0 B2 )
(In PB1 B2 ) .

8.11. V d. Trong khng gian R3, cho cc vct


u1 = (1, 2, 1); u2 = (1, 3, 1); u3 = (2, 5, 3).
75

B2

, ngha l:

a) Chng minh B = (u1, u2, u3) l mt c s ca R3.


b) Tm ma trn chuyn c s t B sang c s chnh tc B 0 ca R3.
c) Tm ta ca vct u = (1,2, 3) theo c s B.
Gii. a) Trong V d 8.5 trn ta chng minh B = (u1, u2, u3) l mt c s ca R3.
b) Ta tm ma trn chuyn c s t B sang c s chnh tc B0= {e1, e2, e3} ca R3.
Cch 1: Dng nh ngha: PB B 0 = ([e1 ]B

[e2 ]B

[e3 ]B ) .

tm cc ta [e1 ]B ; [e2 ]B ; [e3 ]B , trc ht ta tm ta [u]B vi u = (a,b,c) l


mt vect ty trong R3. Nhc li rng, trong V d 8.5 trn ta tm c
4a b c

= a + b c
a + c

[u]B

p dng kt qu trn ln lt cho cc vect e1 = (1,0,0); e2 = (0,1,0); e3 = (0,0,1), ta c:

[e1 ]B

4
1
1



= 1 ;[e2 ]B = 1 ;[e3 ]B = 1 .
1
0
1


Suy ra:
PB B0

4 1 1

= 1 1 1
1 0 1

1
Cch 2: Dng tnh cht: PB B0 = (PB0 B )

V B0 l c s chnh tc ca R3 nn ma trn PB

c c bng cch dng cc vect

u1, u2, u3 thnh cc ct


PB0 B

1 1 2

= 2 3 5 .
1 1 3

Suy ra ma trn chuyn c s t B sang B0 l

PB B0 = (PB0 B )

1 1 2
= 2 3 5
1 1 3

4 1 1
= 1 1 1 .
1 0 1

76

c) V B0 l c s chnh tc ca R nn vi u = (1,2,-3) ta c [u]B


3

[u]B = PB B0 [u]B0

1

= 2 . Suy ra
3

4 1 1 1 5


= 1 1 1 2 = 4 .


1 0 1 3 4

8.12. V d. Trong khng gian R3 cho cc vct ph thuc tham s mR:


u1 = (1, 1 + m, 2);u2 = (1, 1, m); u3 = (1 m, 2, 3).
a) Tm iu kin B(m) = (u1, u2, u3) l mt c s ca R3.
b) t B1 = B(1) v B2 = B(1). Chng t B1 v B2 l hai c s ca R3. Tm cc ma
trn chuyn c s t B1 sang B2 v t B 2 sang B0 trong B0 = (e1, e2, e3) l c s chnh tc
ca R3. Hy tm [u]B ; [u]B vi u = (1, 0, 1).
1

Gii. a) Lp ma trn A bng cch xp u1, u2, u3 thnh cc dng


1+ m 2
1

A= 1
1
m
1 m
2
3

Theo 4.18 B (m) = (u1, u2, u3) l mt c s ca R3 khi v ch khi det A 0. Ta c

det A =

1+m

1
1m

1
2

m
3

= (m + 2)

m 1

1m

0
=

m+2 m+2

1
1m

1
2

m
3

0
=

1
m 1
1m
1

m+2
m
3

= (m + 2)(m2 2m) = m(m + 2)(m 2).

Do B(m) l c s ca R3 khi v ch khi m 0 v m 2.


b) Cc gi tr m = 1 hay m = 1 u tha iu kin ca cu a) nn B1 = B(1) v B2 = B(
1) l hai c s ca R3. Ta c
B1 = B(1) = {(1, 2, 2); (1, 1, 1); (0, 2, 3)};
B 2 = B(1) = {(1, 0, 2); (1, 1, 1); (2, 2, 3)}.
Do
PB0 B1

1 1 0
1 1 2

= 2 1 2 ; PB0 B2 = 0 1 2 .
2 1 3
2 1 3

Suy ra
77

PB2 B0 = (PB0 B2 ) 1 =

5 1 4
1
4 1 2 .
3

2 1 1

PB1 B2 = (PB0 B1 ) PB0 B2

1 1 0
= 2 1 2
2 1 3

Vi u = (1, 0, 1), ta c [u]B

1 1 2
1 3 2 1 1 2
3 4 2
0 1 2 = 1 2 3 2 0 1 2 = 1 6 7 4 .

2 1 3 3 0 3 3 2 1 3 3 6 6 3

1

= 0 . Do
1

[u]B 2 = PB 2 B 0 [u]B 0

[u]B 1 = PB 1 B 2 [u]B 2

5 1 4 1
1
1
1

= 4 1 2 0 = 2
3
3 1
2 1 1 1

3 4 2 1
3
1
1
1 1 1

= 6 7 4 2 = 12 = 4
3
3 9 9 3 3
6 6 3 1

8.13. V d. Cho W l khng gian con ca R4 sinh bi cc vect:


u1 = (1, 2, 2, 1);
u2 = (0, 2, 0, 1);
u3 = (2, 0, 4, 3)
a) Chng minh B = (u1, u2, u3) l mt c s ca W. Tm iu kin vct u = (x1, x2, x3,
x4) thuc W. Khi , tm [u]B.
b) Cho v1 = (1, 0, 2, 0); v2 = (0, 2, 0, 1); v3 = (0, 0, 0, 3). Chng minh B = {v1, v2, v3}
cng l mt c s ca W. Tm ma trn chuyn c s t B sang B .
Gii. a) Vi u = (x1, x2, x3, x4), ta c:
u W Phng trnh u = 1u1 + 2u2 + 3u3 c nghim
H phng trnh tuyn tnh UT = B (1) c nghim,
trong
1

2
U=
2

0 2
x1
1

x2
2 0

;B =
; T = 2
x3
0 4

3
1 3
x4

Ta gii h trn bng phng php Gauss

78

2
2

1 0 2

1 0 2

x1
x1
0 2 x1

2 0 x2
0 2 4 x2 2x1
0 1 5 x4 x1

0 0 6 x2 2x4
0 0 0 x 3 2x1
0 4 x 3

0 0 0 x 2x
1 3 x4
3
1
0 1 5 x 4 x1

1
1 2 3 = x1

5
x
x

2
3
4
1
(1)
2
6 3 = x 2 2x 4

3
0 =x3 2x1

x3

3x1 x2 + 2x4
3
6x1 + 5x 2 4x4
=
6
x2 + 2x 4
=
6
= 2x1
=

Nu chn x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = 0 th h (1) ch c nghim tm thng nn B c lp tuyn


tnh. M B l mt tp sinh ca W theo gi thit, nn B l c s ca W.
iu kin vect u = (x1, x2, x3, x4) thuc W l h (1) c nghim, iu ny tng ng
vi x3 = 2x1. Khi nghim ca h (1) chnh l to ca u trong c s B
3x1 x2 + 2x4

6x1 + 5x2 4x4

[u]B =
.

x2 + 2x4

b) Ta thy cc vct v1, v2, v3 u tha iu kin x3 = 2x1 nn theo cu a), cc vect ny
thuc W. Mt khc, d thy rng B = {v1, v2, v3} c lp tuyn tnh nn B cng l c s ca
W (do dimW = | B |= 3 = | B |). Dng kt qu cu a) ta c
[v1 ]B

1

= 1 ;
0

[v 2 ]B

0

= 1;
0

Suy ra
PB B

1 0 2

= 1 1 2 .
0 0 1

79

[v 3 ]B

2

= 2 .
1

BI TP
1. Trong khng gian Rn (n 3), xt xem tp W gm cc vect (x1, x2, ..., xn) tha cc iu kin
sau, c l khng gian con ca Rn hay khng?
a) x1 + 2x2 0;

b) x1 + 2x2 = 0;

e) x12 + x 22 = 1 ;

f) x12 + ... + x 2n = 0 ; g) x1 x2 + x3 + ... + (1)n1xn = 0.

c) x1 + 2x2 = x3;

d) x1xn = 0;

2. Xt khng gian R4. Trong cc trng hp sau, t:


W1 = <u1, u2, u3, u4>

W2 = <v1, v2, v3, v4>.

Xt tnh c lp tuyn tnh ca u1, u2, u3, u4 v ca v1, v2, v3, v4. Tm c s, s chiu cho W1,
W2, W1+W2, W1W2; sau b sung vo c s ca W1W2 mt s vect c mt c s
ca R4. Tm iu kin vect u = (a1, a2, a3, a4) thuc v W1, W2.
a) u1 = (1, 0, 1, 0); u2 = (2, 1, 4, 4); u3 = (3, 1, 5, 4); u4 = (6, 2, 10, 4);

v1 = (1, 1, 1, 1); v2 = (1, 2, 5, 8); v3 = (3, 5, 11, 17); v4 = (1, 0, 3, 6).

b) u1 = (1, 2, 1, 3); u2 = (2, 5, 4, 0); u3 = (4, 9, 6, 6); u4 = (1, 1, 1, 9);

v1 = (1, 1, 2, 1); v2 = (1, 1, 1, 9); v3 = (2, 4, 7, 5); v4 = (1, 3, 4, 17)

3. Trong cc trng hp sau y, t:

Wi = (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) R 4

x1

x
A i X = 0, X = 2 , i = 1, 2.
x3

x4

Hy tm c s v s chiu ca W1, W2, W1+W2, W1W2:


1

2
a) A1 =
3

4
1

b) A1 = 1
3

2 1 3
1

4 3 11
2
; A2 =
4
6 4 14

8 5 17
5
2

5
1

3 13 22
2
; A2 =
3
5 1
2

3 4 7
5

1 1 0

2 1 5
4 3 5

5 6 5
5

2 9 13
3 14 19

5 23 30

4. Xt khng gian R4. Trong cc trng hp sau t: W1 = <u1, u2, u3, u4>

80


x1

W2 = (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) R 4| A i X = 0, X = 2 .
x3

x4

Tm iu kin vect u = (x1, x2, x3, x4) thuc W1. Tm c s v s chiu ca W1, W2, W1 +
W2, W1W2.
a) u1 = (1, 2, 1, 1); u2 = (1, 3, 0, 4); u3 = (0, 1, 0, 1); u4 = (2, 5, 1, 1);
1

1
A=
2

1
2

5
7

2
3 12 3

4 14 4

b) u1 = (1, 1, 0, 2); u2 = (2, 1, 3, 1); u3 = (1, 0, 3, 1); u4 = (3, 1, 6, 0),


2 4

1 2
A=
3 6

5 10

3
1

3
.
4 12

6 18

5. Cho u = (a, b); v = (c, d) l hai vect ca R2 sao cho:


ac + bd = 0, a2 + b2 = c2 + d2 = 1.
a) Chng minh B = {u, v} l mt c s ca R2.
b) Tm ta ca vect w = (x, y) theo c s B.
6. Trong cc trng hp sau, t: W = <u1, u2, u3>. Chng minh rng B1= (u1, u2, u3) v B2 =
(v1, v2, v3) l hai c s ca W. Tm ma trn chuyn c s t B1 sang B2. Tm iu kin vect
u = (a, b, c, d) thuc W v xc nh [u]B ;[u]B trong trng hp ny:
1

a)

b)

u1 = (3, 6, 2, 3);

v1 = (2, 5, 2, 0)

u2 = (1, 2, 2, 0);

v2 = (6, 11, 6, 6)

u3 = (2, 3, 2, 3);

v3 = (4, 7, 2, 6)

u1 = (1, 2, 1, 1);

v1 = (2, 4, 2, 3)

u2 = (2, 6, 3, 2);

v2 = (5, 14, 7, 7)

u3 = (3, 8, 4, 4);

v3 = (8, 22, 11, 6)

7. Trong cc trng hp sau chng t B1= (u1, u2, u3) v B2 = (v1, v2, v3) l hai c s ca R3.
Tm cc ma trn chuyn c s t B1 B0, B2 B0, B1 B2, B2 B1 (B0 l c s chnh
tc). Cho u = (1, 2, 3), [v]B

1

= 1 . Tm v v [u]B 1 ;[u]B 2 ;[v]B 2 .
2

81

a)

b)

u1 = (1, 2, 2);

v1 = (1, 0, 2)

u2 = (1, 1, 1);

v2 = (1, 1, 1)

u3 = (0, 2, 3);

v3 = (2, 2, 3)

u1 = (2, 1, 3);

v1 = (4, 1, 5)

u2 = (1, 2, 3);

v2 = (1, 0, 3)

u3 = (2, 1, 0);

v3 = (2, 1, 2)

8. Trong cc trng hp sau chng t B1= (u1, u2, u3, u4) v B2 = (v1, v2, v3, v4) l hai c s ca
R4. Tm cc ma trn chuyn c s t B1 B0, B2 B0, B1 B2, B2 B1 (B0 l c s
chnh tc).

[v]B 1

Cho u = (1, 1, 1, 1),

[u]B 1 ;[u]B 2 ;[v]B 2 va [w]B 1 .

a)

b)

u1 = (1, 2, 3, 4);

v1 = (1, 1, 0, 0)

u2 = (1, 3, 5, 7);

v2 = (0, 1, 1, 0)

u3 = (2, 6, 9, 13);

v3 = (0, 0, 1, 1)

u4 = (4, 11, 17, 25).

v4 = (0, 0, 0, 1)

u1 = (1, 1, 0, 0);

v1 = (1, 2, 3, 4)

u2 = (0, 0, 1, 1);

v2 = (2, 1, 4, 3)

u3 = (1, 0, 0, 4);

v3 = (3, 4, 1, 2)

u4 = (0, 0, 0, 2);

v4 = (4, 3, 2, 1)

0
0


1
1
= va [w]B 2 = . Tm v, w v
0
0


1
1

9. Trong cc trng hp sau, t B = B(m) = (u1, u2, u3). Tm iu kin B l mt c s ca


R3, khi tm [u]B . t B1 = B(m1) v B2 = B(m2). Chng t B1, B2 l hai c s ca R3 v tm
ma trn chuyn c s t B1 sang B2 v t B 2 sang B1. Cho bit:
[v]B 1

1
1


= 0 va [w]B 2 = 0 .
1
2

Tm v, w v [v]B va [w]B .
2

a)

b)

u1 = (m7, 10, 12);


u2 = (12, m+19, 24);
u3 = (6, 10, m13).
u1 = (m+2, m5, m+5);
u2 = (2, m2, 2);

u = (m, 2m, 0)
m1 = 0
m2 = 2
u = (1, 1, 1)
m1 = 2
82

u3 = (1, 3, m+3);

m2 = 5

HNG DN V P S
1a) Khng l khng gian con;

1b) L khng gian con;

1c) L khng gian con;

1d) Khng l khng gian con;

1e) Khng l khng gian con;

1f) L khng gian con;

1g) L khng gian con;


2a) u1, u2, u3, u4 ph thuc tuyn tnh; dimW1 = 3 vi c s {(1,0,1,0); (1,1,2,4); (0,0,0,4)};
v1, v2, v3, v4 ph thuc tuyn tnh; dimW2 = 2 vi c s {(1,1,1,1); (0,1,4,7)};
W1 + W2 = R4 c dim(W1 + W2) = 4 vi c s chnh tc B0.
dim(W1W2) = 1 vi c s l {(2,1,5,8)}.
3a 4a 2 + a 3 = 0;
(a1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 ) W1 1
6a1 7a 2 + a 4 = 0.
(a1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 ) W2 a1 + 2a 2 a 3 = 0.

2b) u1, u2, u3, u4 ph thuc tuyn tnh; dimW1 = 2 vi c s {(1,2,1,3); (0,1,2,6)};
v1,v2, v3, v4 ph thuc tuyn tnh; dimW2 = 2 vi c s {(1, 1,2,1); (0,2, 3,8); (0,0, 0,2);};
W1 + W2 = R4 c dim(W1 + W2) = 4 vi c s chnh tc B0.
dim(W1W2) = 1 vi c s l {(1,1, 1, 9)}.
3a 2a 2 + a 3 = 0;
(a1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 ) W1 1
15a1 6a 2 a 4 = 0.
(a1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 ) W2 a1 3a 2 2a 3 = 0.

3a) dimW1 = 2 vi c s {(2,1,0,0); (2,0,5,1)};


dimW2 = 2 vi c s {(5,0,5,1); (1,1,0,0)};
dim(W1 + W2) = 3 vi c s {(2,1,0,0); (0,2,10, 2);(0,0,5,1)};
dim(W1W2) = 1 vi c s l {(12,7,5,1)}.
3b) dimW1 = 2 vi c s {(1,0,17,10); (0,1,29,17)};
dimW2 = 1 vi c s {(1,10,1,1)};
dim(W1 + W2) = 3 vi c s {(1,0,17,10); (0,1,29,17);(0,0, 306, 179)};
dim(W1W2) = 0 vi c s l .
83

4a) Mi vect u = (x1, x2, x3, x4) u thuc W1.


dimW1 = 4 vi c s chnh tc B0.
dimW2 = 2 vi c s {(0,1,0,1); (3, 2,1,0)};
dim(W1 + W2) = 4 vi c s chnh tc B0.
dim(W1W2) = 2 vi c s l {(0,1,0,1); (3, 2,1,0)};
3x1 + 3x2 x3 = 0;

4b) (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) W1

x1 + 3x2 x4 = 0.

dimW1 = 2 vi c s {(1,1,0,2); (0,1, 3, 3)};


dimW2 = 2 vi c s {(2,1,0,0); (0,0,3,1)};
dim(W1 + W2) = 3 vi c s {(1,1,0,2); (0,1, 3, 3); (0,0,3,1)};
dim(W1W2) = 1 vi c s {(2,1,3,1)}

5a) Dng 4.17.

5b) [u]B =

dx cy
1

.
ad bc bx + ay

6a) u = (a, b, c, d) W 18a 6b 3c 4d = 0;


2a + 2b c
10a + 6b c

1
1
[u]B = 6a + 2b + 3c ;[u]B = 2a 2b + 3c ;
1
2
4
8

8a 4b
4a 4c
1 1 1
1 0 1

1
PB B = 1 1 1 ; PB B = 0 1 1 .
1
2
2
1
2
1 1 1

1 1 0

6b) u = (a, b, c, d) W b 2c = 0;
[u]B

PB

8a 2b 2d
70a 26b + 2d

1
1
=
b 2d ;[u]B =
42a + 12b + 12d ;

2
2
42

2a + 2d
14a b 8d

B 2

1 1 4
10 6 5

1
= 1 0 5 ; PB B =
3 6 9 .

2
1
21
1 2 2

2 3 1

84

7a) PB

B0

1 3 2
5 1 4

1
1
= 2 3 2 ; PB B = 4 1 2 .
2
0
3
3

0 3 3
2 1 1

3 4 2
1 8

1
1
PB B = 6 7 4 ; PB B = 2 7
1
2
2
1
3
3

6
6
3

2 2
1
5
1
1
v = (0,7, 9);[u]B = 2 ;[u]B = 4 ;[v]B
1
2
2
3
3
3
1

10

8 .
1
29

1
= 25 .
3

3 6 5
3 4 1

1
1
7b) PB B = 3 6 4 ; PB B = 3 2 2 .
1
0
2
0
3
3

3 3 3
3 7 1
19 12 10
7
8 2
1
1

PB B = 14 9 8 ; PB B = 2
1 4 .
1
2
2
1
3
3

1
6 6 3
10 14
8
1
8


1
v = (5, 3, 0);[u]B = 7 ;[u]B = 7 ;[v]B = 3 .
1
2
2
3
4
2

14

2 0 1 1
1 0 0 0

1 1 0 0
1 2 3 1
8a) PB B =
; PB B =
.
1
0
2
0
2 3 0 1
1 1 1 0

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 1
1 1 2 4

1 5 4 1
3 4 8 15

PB B =
;P
.
=
1
2
5 3 1 1 B 2 B 1 6 9 17 32

2 0 2 1
10 16 30 57
4
1
5
2




5
0
19
6

v = (5,14, 22, 32); w = (0,1, 1,1);[u]B =


;[u]B =
;[v]B =
;[w]B = .
1
2
2
1
4
1
41
2




0
0
73
1

8b) PB

B0

0 2 0

1 0 0 2
=
2 2 2 0

4 4 1

1 2 3 4
0

0
1 2 1 4 3
;P
.
=
0 B 2 B 0 30 3 4 1 2

1
3 2 1
4

85

4
3 7 17 8
2 8
6

8 2 4
1 6
1 1 1 10 6
=
PB B =
;P
.
1
2
2 2
6 14
2 B 2 B 1 30 1 1 11 4

0 2
5 19 25 3
7 3
1
1
3
2


2
1
1 5
1 1
.
v = (0, 0,1, 3); w = (6, 2, 2, 4);[u]B = ;[u]B =
;[v]B = ;[w]B =
1
1
2
2
2
4
15 2
6 1


5
0
1
11

m(m 17)

9a) m 1; [u] = 2
m(m 14)
m 1

36m
1

13 24 12
15 24 12

1
PB B = 20 39 20 ; PB B = 20 37 20
1
2
2
1
3
24 48 25

24 48 27
1
37

v = (1, 0,1); w = (17, 30, 34);[v]B = 0 ;[w]B = 60 .


2
1
1
74

m+2

9b) m 0; 1; [u] = 2
2m 1
m 1

3
6 8 6
33 14
9
1
1

PB B = 16 15 9 ; PB B =
37 6 21

1
2
2
1
2
40

6 6 8
3 6 19
1

v = (3, 0, 2); w = (9, 6, 26);[v]B

3
9

1
= 2 ;[w]B = 17 .
1
5
11
2

86

CHNG 4

MT S NG DNG TRONG KINH T


1. M HNH CN BNG TUYN TNH
1.1. Bi ton. Xt m hnh kinh t th trng vi n loi hng ha vi cc n gi ln lt
l P1, P2,..., Pn c cc hm cung v hm cu l
QSi = ai1P1 + ai2P2 + ... + ainPn + ai ;
QDi = bi1P1 + bi2P2 + ... + binPn + bi
(1 i n). Nhn xt rng cc h s aij, ai, bij, bi tha cc iu kin sau:
aii > 0 v aij 0 vi mi 1 i j n (v QSi l hm tng theo Pi, khng tng theo Pj vi
mi i j).
bii < 0 v bij 0 vi mi 1 i j n (v QDi l hm gim theo Pi, khng gim theo Pj vi
mi i j).
Hy xc nh cc n gi P1, P2,..., Pn ti im cn bng th trng.
1.2. Li gii. Ti im cn bng th trng ta c:
QSi = QDi vi mi 1 i n.
Do ta c h phng trnh tuyn tnh sau:
(a11 b11 )P1 + (a12 b12 )P2 + ... + (a1n b1n )Pn = b1 a1
(a b )P + (a b )P + ... + (a b )P = b a
21
21 1
22
22 2
2n
2n n
2
2

........................................................................................
(a n1 bn1 )P1 + (a n2 bn2 )P2 + ... + (a nn bnn )Pn = bn a n

(1)

Gii h (1) vi iu kin Pi 0, QSi 0 (1 i n) ta tm c cc n gi ti im cn bng th


trng.
1.3. V d. Th trng c 3 loi hng ho vi hm cung v hm cu ln lt l:
QS1 = 18 P1 P2 P3 45;

QS 2 = P1 + 13P2 P3 10; v
Q = P P + 10 P 15.
1
2
3
S3

Q D1 = 6 P1 + 2 P2 + 130;

Q D 2 = 2 P1 7 P2 + P3 + 220;
Q = 3P 5 P + 215.
2
3
D3

Tm cc n gi ti im cn bng th trng.
Gii. Ti im cn bng th trng ta c:
QSi = QDi vi mi 1 i 3.
Do ta c h phng trnh tuyn tnh sau:
87

18P1 P2 P3 45 = 6P1 + 2P2 + 130

P1 + 13P2 P3 10 = 2P1 7P2 + P3 + 220


P P + 10P 15 = 3P 5P + 215
2
3
2
3
1

24P1 3P2 P3 = 175

3P1 + 20P2 2P3 = 230


P 4P + 15P = 230
2
3
1

Gii h trn bng qui tc Cramer vi iu kin Pi 0, QSi 0 (1 i 3):


24 3 1
= 3 20 2 = 6835
1 4 15

175 3 1
1 = 230 20 2 = 68350
230 4 15

24 175 1
2 = 3 230 2 = 102525
1 230 15

24 3 175
3 = 3 20 230 = 136700
1 4 230

Nghim ca h l:
P1 =

1 68350

102525
136700
=
= 10; P2 = 2 =
= 15; P3 = 3 =
= 20.

6835
6835
6835

Khi :
QS1 = 18P1 P2 P3 45 = 100 > 0

QS2 = P1 + 13P2 P3 10 = 155 > 0


Q = P P + 10P 15 = 160 > 0
1
2
3
S3

Vy n gi ti im cn bng th trng l (P1,P2,P3) = (10, 15, 20).


2. M HNH INPUT-OUTPUT M

2.1. Bi ton. Xt m hnh kinh t gm n ngnh kinh t vi ma trn h s u vo l:


a11 a12 ...

a
a 22 ...
A = 21
..... ...... ...

a n1 a n2 ...

a1n

a 2n
......

a nn

trong

a ij 0; a ij 1 (*)
i =1

Vi mi j, cc h s a1j, a2j,..., anj ln lt l tr gi ca cc lng hng ha ca cc ngnh


kinh t th 1, 2,..., n (l cc nguyn liu u vo) dng sn xut mt lng hng ha
ca ngnh kinh t th j tr gi 1 v tin t.
Bn cnh n kinh t trn, tn ti mt ngnh kinh t m m lng nhu cu hng ha ng vi
cc ngnh kinh t th 1, 2,..., n ln lt l d1, d2,..., dn.
Hi cc ngnh kinh t trn cn sn xut bao nhiu lng hnh ha m bo sn xut v
p ng c nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m?
88

2.2. Li gii. Gi x1, x2,..., xn ln lt l tr gi cc lng hng ha ca cc ngnh kinh t


th 1, 2,..., n cn sn xut. iu kin: xj 0 vi mi 1 j n Khi
Lng hng ha chi ph ca ngnh kinh t th i phc v cho sn xut l
ai1x1 + ai2x2 +...+ ainxn.
Lng hng ha m ngnh kinh t th i sn xut c (sau khi tr chi ph sn xut) l
xi (ai1x1 + ai2x2 +...+ainxn).
Nh vy, m bo sn xut v p ng c nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m ta phi c
h sau:

x1 (a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn ) = d1


x (a x + a x + ... + a x ) = d
2
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

........................................................
xn (a n1 x1 + a n2 x2 + ... + a nn xn ) = d n

(1)

Ta c:
(1 a11 )x1 a12 x2 ... a1n xn = d1
a x + (1 a )x ... a x = d

22 2
2n n
2
(1) 21 1
........................................................
a n1 x1 a n2 x 2 ... + (1 a nn )xn = d n
a12 ... a1n x1 d1
1 a11


a 21 1 a 22 ... a 2n x2 d 2

.....
......
...
...... .... ....


a n2 ... 1 a nn xn d n
a n1
(In A)X = D (2)

trong

x1

x
X = 2 : Ma trn sn lng ca n ngnh kinh t.
....

xn

d1

d
D = 2 : Ma trn nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m.
....

dn

Ch rng vi iu kin (*), ma trn In thng kh nghch, nn t (2) ta suy ra nghim ca


bi tan l
89

X = (In A)1 D

2.3.V d. Xt m hnh Input Output m gm 3 ngnh kinh t vi ma trn h s u vo l


0,3 0,2 0,3

A = 0,1 0,1 0,1 .


0,1 0,2 0,1

a) Nu ngha kinh t ca h s a33 = 0,1.


b) Tm nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m, bit sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t trn l (150, 120,
160).
c) Tm mc sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t trn, bit ngnh kinh t m yu cu mt lng
sn phm tr gi (10, 25, 15).
Gii. a) a33 = 0,1 l tr gi lng nguyn liu hng ho ca ngnh 3 phc v cho ngnh 3 sn
xut mt lng hng ho ca tr gi 1 (n v tin t).
Gi x1, x2, x3 ln lt l tr gi cc lng hng ha ca cc ngnh kinh t th 1, 2, 3 cn
sn xut. iu kin: xj 0 vi mi 1 j 3. Khi
(I3 A)X = D

(1)

trong

1 0 0 0, 3 0, 2 0, 3 0,7 0, 2 0, 3

I3 A = 0 1 0 0,1 0,1 0,1 = 0,1 0, 9 0,1


0 0 1 0,1 0, 2 0,1 0,1 0, 2 0, 9

x1

X = x2 : Ma trn sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t.
x
3

d1

D = d 2 : Ma trn nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m.
d
3

90

x1 150
b) Gi thit cho ta X = x2 = 120 . T (1) ta suy ra:
x 160

0,7 0, 2 0, 3 150 33

D = (In A)X = 0,1 0, 9 0,1 120 = 77


0,1 0, 2 0, 9 160 105

Vy nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m l (33, 77, 105).


d1 10
c) Gi thit cho ta D = d 2 = 25 . t C = In A. H (1) tr thnh CX = D.
d 15
3
0, 7 0, 2 0, 3
T C = I3 A = 0,1 0, 9 0,1 ta tnh c
0,1 0, 2 0, 9

0,7 0, 2 0, 3
7 2 3
0 16 60
d1 := d1 + 7d3 1
1
det C = 0,1 0, 9 0,1 = 3 1 9 1
0 11 10
d2 := d2 d3 1000
10
0,1 0, 2 0, 9
1 2 9
1 2
9
=

16 60
1
= 0, 5.
(1)1(1)3 +1
11 10
1000

V detC 0 nn C kh nghch v
C1 =

1
adj(C)
det C

Ta c
T

C11 C12 C13


0,79 0,1 0,11
0,79 0, 24 0, 29

adj(C) = C21 C22 C23 = 0, 24 0, 6 0,16 = 0,1 0, 6


0,1
C

0, 29 0,1 0, 61
0,11 0,16 0, 61

31 C32 C33

v
+1

C11 = (1)1+1
C21 =

0,1 0,1
0,1 0,9
0,9 0,1
= 0,79;C12 =
= 0,1;C13 = +
= 0,11;
0,2 0,9
0,1 0,9
01 0,2

0,2 0,3
0,2

0,9

= 0,24;C22 = +

0,7 0,3
0,1

0,9
91

= 0,6;C23 =

0,7 0,2
0,1 0,2

= 0,16;

C31 = +

0, 2 0, 3

= 0, 29; C32 =

0, 9 0,1

0,7 0, 3
0,1 0,1

= 0,1; C33 = +

0,7 0, 2
0,1

0, 9

= 0, 61.

Vy,
1

0,79 0,24 0,29


158 48 58
1
1
1

adj(C) =
0,1 0,6 0,1 =
20 120 20 .
=

det C
0,5
100 22 32 122
0,11
0,16
0,61

Suy ra
158 48 58 10 73 / 2
1
(1) CX = D X = C D =
20 120 20 25 = 35 .

100

22 32 122 15 57 / 2
1

Vy sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t trn l (73/2, 35, 57/2).


Ch . Ta c th gii cc cu b, c nh sau: Ta c:
0,7x1 0, 2x2 0, 3x3 = d1

(1) 0,1x1 + 0, 9x2 0,1x 3 = d 2


0,1x 0, 2x + 0, 9x = d
1
2
3
3

(2)

b) Gi thit cho ta: x1 = 150; x2 = 120; x3 = 160. Th vo (2) ta suy ra: d1 = 33;

d2 = 77; d3 =

105. Vy nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m l (33, 77, 105).


c) Gi thit cho ta: d1 = 10; d2 = 25; d3 = 15. Th vo (2) ta c h:
0,7x1 0, 2x2 0, 3x3 = 10
7x1 2x2 3x3 = 100

0,1x1 + 0, 9x2 0,1x3 = 25 x1 + 9x2 x3 = 250


0,1x 0, 2x + 0, 9x = 15
x 2x + 9x = 150
1
2
3
2
3

Gii h (3) bng Qui tc Cramer:

7 2 3
1 9 1 = 500;
1 2

7 100 3
2 = 1 250 1 = 17500;
1 150

100 2 3
1 = 250 9 1 = 18250;
150 2

7 2 100
3 = 1

9 250 = 14250.

1 2 150

Suy ra nghim ca (3) l

92

(3)

1 18250 73

x1 = = 500 = 2 > 0

2 17500

=
= 35 > 0
x2 =
500

3 14250 57

x 3 = = 500 = 2 > 0

BI TP
1. Th trng c 3 loi hng ho vi hm cung v hm cu ln lt l:
QS1 = 12 P1 P2 120;

QS 2 = P1 + 14 P2 P3 140;
Q = P + 16 P 200.
2
3
S3

QD1 = 8P1 + P2 + P3 + 220;

QD 2 = P1 9 P2 + P3 + 240;
Q = P + P 12 P + 300.
1
2
3
D3

Tm cc n gi ti im cn bng th trng.
2. Th trng c 3 loi hng ho vi hm cung v hm cu ln lt l:
QS1 = 10P1 P2 20;

QS2 = 12P2 P3 5;
Q = P + P 5.
1
3
S3

QD1 = 9P1 + P2 + P3 + 100;

QD2 = P1 10P2 + 277;


Q = P 8P + 235.
2
3
D3

a) Tm cc n gi ti im cn bng th trng.
b) Nu c trong mt n v thi gian ngi ta phi xut i 10 n v hng th 1; 8 on v
hng th 2 v nhp v 5 n v hng th 3, th cc n gi ti im cn bng th trng s l
bao nhiu?
3. Xt m hnh Input Output m gm 3 ngnh kinh t vi ma trn h s u vo l
0,1 0,3 0,2

A = 0,4 0,2 0,3 .


0,2 0,3 0,1

a) Nu ngha kinh t ca h s a13 = 0,2.


b) Tm nhu cu ca ngnh kinh t m, bit sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t trn l (280, 450,
390).
c) Tm mc sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t trn, bit ngnh kinh t m yu cu mt lng
sn phm tr gi (118, 52, 96).
4. Xt m hnh Input Output m gm 3 ngnh kinh t vi ma trn h s u vo l
93

0,1 0, 3 0, 2

A = 0, 4 0, 2 0,1 .
0, 2 0, 3 0, 3

a) Nu ngha kinh t ca h s a23 = 0,1.


b) Tm mc sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t trn, bit ngnh kinh t m yu cu mt lng
sn phm tr gi (110, 52, 90).
c) Tm mc sn lng ca 3 ngnh kinh t trn ng vi lng sn phm yu cu ca ngnh
kinh t m tr gi (124, 66, 100) bit rng nh ci tin k thut, ngnh 1 tt kim c
25% nguyn liu ca ngnh 2.

HNG DN V P S
1. (20, 20, 20).
2a) (9,39; 14,58; 29,33)

2b) (10, 15, 30).

3a) a13 = 0,2 la tr gia lng hang hoa nguyen lieu cua nganh 1 phuc vu cho nganh 3 san
xuat mot lng hang hoa cua tr gia 1 (n v tien te).
3b) (39, 131, 160).

3c) (300, 320, 280).

4a) a23 = 0,1 la tr gia lng hang hoa nguyen lieu cua nganh 2 phuc vu cho nganh 3 san
xuat mot lng hang hoa cua tr gia 1 (n v tien te).
4b) (

89440 78980 101960


,
,
).
331
331
331

4c) (

51270 41230 57890


,
,
).
179
179
179

94

CHNG 5

CHO HA MA TRN
1. TR RING, VECT RING CA MA TRN
1.1. nh ngha. Cho ma trn A Mn(R) v vct u = (x1, x2, ..., xn) Rn, ta nh ngha
a11

a
Au = 21
.....

an1

a12 ... a1n

a22 ... a2n


(x ,x ,...,xn)
...... ... ...... 1 2

an2 ... ann


= (a11x1 + a12x2 + ... + a1nxn,a21x1 + a22x2 + ... + a2nxn,...,an1x1 + an2x2 + ... + annxn)

Ta ni s thc l mt tr ring ca ma trn A nu tn ti vect u = (x1, x2, ..., xn)


R \{0} sao cho Au = u.
n

Khi vect u c gi l vect ring ca A ng vi tr ring .


3 0

1.2. V d. 1) Cho A =
, ta c
0 1
3 0
A(1, 0) =
(1, 0) = (3.1 + 0.0, 0.1 + 1.0) = (3, 0) = 3(1, 0).
0 1

Do = 3 l mt tr ring ca A v u = (1,0) l mt vect ring ng vi tr ring = 3.


2) Xt ma trn khng 0 Mn(R). D thy 0 c tr ring = 0 v mi u Rn\{0} u l
vect ring ca 0 ng vi tr ring = 0 (v 0u = 0).
3) Ma trn n v In Mn(R) c tr ring = 1 v mi vect u Rn\{0} u l vect
ring ca I ng vi tr ring = 1 v Inu = u = 1.u.
1.3. Nhn xt. 1) Vect ring phi l vect khc 0.
2) Nu u l vect ring ca A th tr ring tng ng vi n l duy nht.
3) Nu u v v l cc vect ring ng vi tr ring th u + v cng l vect ring ng vi
tr ring ( R).
1.4. Khng gian ring
Cho ma trn A Mn(R) v R l mt tr ring ca A. t
V() = {u = (x1 , x2 ,..., x n )

A u = u} ,

ngha l V() gm vect 0 v tt c cc vect ring ca A ng vi tr ring . Khi , theo Nhn


xt 4.3, V() l mt khng gian con ca Rn. Ta gi V() l khng gian ring ca A ng vi tr
ring .
1.5. nh ngha. (a thc c trng) Cho ma trn A Mn(R). a thc
95

a11

A () = det(A In ) =

a 22

a12

...

......
a nn

...
......
... a nn

a 22 ...

.....
a nn

a1n

a 2n

c gi l a thc c trng ca ma trn A.


3 3 2
1.6. V d. Cho ma trn thc A = 1 1 2 .Tm a thc c trng ca A.
0 0 4

Gii. a thc c trng l


3

A () =

1
0

1
2 = (4 )
0
4

= (4 )( 2 4) = ( 4)2 .

1.7. nh l. S thc l tr ring ca A Mn(R) khi v ch khi l nghim ca a thc


c trng A().
Chng minh. Xt A = (aij)nxn Mn(R). Khi vi u = (x1, x2,..., xn), ta c
a11 a12 ...

a
a 22 ...
Au = u 21
..... ...... ...

a n1 a n2 ...

a1n

a 2n
(x , x ,..., x n ) = (x1 , x 2 ,..., x n )
...... 1 2

a nn

(a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + ... + a1n x n , a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + ... + a 2n xn ,...,


a n1 x1 + a n2 x 2 + ... + a nn x n ) = (x1 , x2 ,..., x n )

(a11 )x1 + a12 x 2 + ... + a1n x n = 0

a x + (a 22 )x 2 + ... + a 2n x n = 0
21 1
.....................................................
a x + a x + ... + (a )x = 0
n1 1
n2 2
nn
n

(1)

Ma trn h s ca h phng trnh (1) chnh l A In. H phng trnh thun nht (1) c
nghim khng tm thng khi v ch khi det(A In) = 0, ngha l l nghim ca a thc c
trng A().
1.8. Nhn xt. Khng gian ring V() ca ma trn A ng vi tr ring chnh l khng
gian nghim ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht (A In)X = 0.
T nh l trn ta suy ra thut ton sau:
1.9. Thut ton tm tr ring, vect ring v khng gian ring ca ma trn
1) Lp a thc c trng A() = |A In|.
2) Gii phng trnh A() = 0 tm cc tr ring ca ma trn A.
3) ng vi mi tr ring , khng gian ring V() l khng gian nghim ca phng
trnh (A In)X = 0.
96

3 3 2

1.10. V d. Cho ma trn thc A = 1 1 2 .Tm tr ring v vect ring ca A.


3 1 0

Xc nh c s, s chiu ca cc khng gian ring tng ng.


Gii. 1) a thc c trng:
3

A () =

1
3

= (4 )

1 2
1

d1 : = d1 + d 2

4 4
1
3

1
1

c2 : = c2 c1

4
1
3

2
2

2
= (4 )( 2 + 4).
2

1) Tr ring:
A () = 0 (4 )( 2 + 4) = 0 = 4. Do ma trn A ch c mt tr ring 1 = 4.

2) Khng gian ring V(1) ng vi tr ring 1 = 4 l khng gian nghim ca h


1 3 2

(A 1I3 )X = 0 (A 4I3 )X = 0 1 3 2 X = 0
3 1 4

x1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 = 0

x1 3x 2 2x 3 = 0
3x x 4x = 0.
1
2
3

1 3 2
1
1 0 1
3
2

0
0 0 1 1 .
1 3 2 0
3 1 4
0 10 10
0 0 0

Vy

x x3 = 0

(A 1I3 )X 1
x 2 + x 3 = 0

x3 =

x 2 =
x =
1

H trn c nghim tng qut (x1, x2, x3) =( , , ) vi R ty . Vy


V(1)={(,,)| R}= <(1,1,1)>.
Suy ra V(1) c dim V(1) = 1 vi c s {(1,1,1)}.
2. CHO HA MA TRN
2.1. nh ngha. Ma trn A Mn(R) gi l cho ha c nu A ng dng vi mt ma
trn cho, ngha l tn ti ma trn kh nghch P Mn(R) sao cho P1AP = D vi D l mt ma
trn cho. Khi ta ni ma trn P lm cho ha A v D l dng cho ca A.
1 1
. Ta thy A khng phi l ma trn cho. Ta s ch
2

2.2. V d. Xt ma trn A =
0
ra rng A cho ha c. Tht vy, t

97

1 1
1 1
1
P=
P =
.
0 1
0 1

Ta c
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
P 1 AP =

=
=D
0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2

vi D l ma trn cho, do A cho ha c.


Vn c t ra l nhng ma trn no th cho ha c v cch xc nh ma trn P
lm cho ha A nh th no? nh l sau y tr li cu hi :
tha:

2.3. nh l. Ma trn A Mn(R) cho ha c khi v ch khi hai tnh cht sau c
1) a thc c trng A() c phn tch thnh tch cc a thc bc 1:
r

A () = (1)n ( 1 ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ...( k ) k .

2) Vi mi tr ring i (1 i k), khng gian ring V( i ) c dim V( i ) = ri (= s bi ca


i trong A()).
Hn na, khi gi Bi l c s ca V(i) (1 i k) v lp ma trn P bng cch ln lt
dng cc vect trong B1, B2 ,.., Bk thnh cc ct, ta c P lm cho ha A v:
1

...
0

0
...
P 1 AP =
0
...

0
...

...

...

... ....

0 1 0
0 0 2

... ...

... ...

0
0

0
0

0
0

... ...

0
0

0
0

...

...

...

...

... ...

...

...

...

0 2

...

... ...

...

...

...

...

0 k

... ...

... ...

... ...

...
0

0
...

0
...

0
...
k

2.4. H qu. Nu A l ma trn vung cp n v c n tr ring phn bit th A cho ha


c.
2.5. Thut ton cho ha ma trn:
Cho A Mn(R).
Bc 1: Tm a thc c trng A().
Nu A() khng th phn tch c thnh tch cc a thc bc 1 th A khng cho
ha c v thut ton kt thc.
Trng hp ngc li, phn tch A() thnh tch cc a thc bc 1:
98

A () = (1)n ( 1 ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ...( k ) k

v chuyn sang Bc 2.
Bc 2: Tm cc tr ring i cng vi cc s bi ri tng ng (1 i k).
Bc 3: Vi mi 1 i k, tm c s Bi v s chiu dimV(i) ca cc khng gian ring
V(i):
Nu tn ti 1 i k sao cho dimV(i) < ri th A khng cho ha c v thut ton
kt thc.
Trng hp ngc li, ngha l dimV(i) = ri vi mi 1 i k th A cho ha c,
v chuyn sang Bc 4.
Bc 4: Lp ma trn P bng cch ln lt dng cc vect trong B1, B2 ,.., Bk thnh cc
ct, ta c P lm cho ha A v P1AP c dng cho nh trong nh l 5.3.
2.6. Nhn xt. Do mi khng gian ring u c s chiu dng nn nu i l nghim
n ca a thc c trng th lun lun c dimV(i) = 1(= ri). Do , nu ch cn bit A c cho
ha c hay khng (m khng cn tm ma trn P lm cho ha A) th Bc 3 ta ch cn so
snh cc s chiu dimV(i) vi cc s bi ri ng vi cc tr ring i c s bi ri > 1.
2.7. V d. Cc ma trn sau y c cho ha c khng?
3 4 2
a) A = 2 4 2
2 1 1

3 0 0
b) A = 0 2 0
0 1 2

2 0 2
c) A = 0 3 0
0 0 3

3 3 2
d) A = 1 1 2
3 1 0

Gii. a) a thc c trng ca A l


A () =

3
4
2
1
4
2
1
4
2
c1 : = c1 c 3
d 3 : = d 3 d1
2
2
4 2
0
4 2
0
4
1 1
1 1
1
2
1+
0
3

= (1 )

2
4
= (1 )( 2 3 + 2) = ( 2 1)( 2).
1
3

Ta c
A() = 0 = 1, = 1, = 2.
Vy c 3 tr ring phn bit l , 1 v 2. V A l ma trn vung cp 3 v c 3 tr ring phn bit
nn A cho ha c.
b) a thc c trng ca A l
3
A () =

0
0

2
0
= (3 )(2 )(2 ) = ( 3)( 2)2 .
1
2

Ta c
99

A() = 0 = 3 (bi 1), = 2 (bi 2).


Vy A c 2 tr ring 1 = 3 (bi 1), 2 = 2 (bi 2).
kho st tnh cho ha ca A ta ch cn xt dimV(2) ng vi tr ring 2 = 2 (bi 2)
(khng cn xt dimV(1) v tr ring 1 = 3 l nghim bi 1).
Khng gian ring V(2) ng vi tr ring 2 = 2 l khng gian nghim ca h:
2 0 0

(A 2I3 )X = 0 (A 2I3 )X = 0 0 0 0 X = 0
0 1 0

2x1 = 0

x 2 = 0

(1)

H (1) ch c 1 n t do nn dimV(2) = 1 < 2 (= s bi ca 2). Do A khng cho ha c.


c) a thc c trng ca A l
2
0
2
A () =
0
3
0
= (2 )(3 )(3 ) = ( 2)( 3)2 .
0
0
3

Ta c
A() = 0 = 2 (n), = 3 (bi 2).
Vy A c 2 tr ring 1 = 2 (bi 1), 2 = 3 (bi 2).
kho st tnh cho ha ca A ta ch cn xt dimV(2) ng vi tr ring 2 = 3 (bi 2)
(khng cn xt dimV(1) v tr ring 1 = 2 l nghim bi 1).
Khng gian ring V(2) ng vi tr ring 2 = 3 l khng gian nghim ca h:
1 0 2

(A 2I3 )X = 0 (A 3I3 )X = 0 0 0 0 X = 0 x1 2x 3 = 0.
0 0 0

(1)

H (1) c 2 n t do nn dimV(2) = 2 (= s bi ca 2). Do A cho ha c.


d) a thc c trng ca A l (xem V d 4.10)
A()= ( 4)(2 + 4).
Ta thy trong R[x], A() khng th c phn tch thnh tch cc a thc bc 1. Do
A khng cho ha c.
2.8. V d. Cho ha ma trn thc A sau y:
3 2 0

A = 2 3 0 .
0 0 5

Tnh An vi n l s t nhin.
Gii. 1) a thc c trng ca A l
100

3 2
0
3 2
0
A () = 2 3
= (5 )
= (5 )( 2 6 + 5) = ( 5)2 ( 1).
2 3
0
0
5

2) Tr ring: Ta c
A() = 0 = 5 (bi 2), = 1 (bi 1).
Vy A c 2 tr ring 1 = 5(bi 2), 2 = 1(bi 1).
3) Khng gian ring:
Khng gian ring V(1) ng vi tr ring 1 = 5 l khng gian nghim ca h:
2 2 0

(A 1I3 )X = 0 (A 5I3 )X = 0 2 2 0 X = 0 2x1 2x 2 = 0


0 0 0

x2 =

x3 =
x =
1

H trn c nghim tng qut (x1, x2, x3) =(, , ) vi , R ty . Vy


V(1) = { (, , )|, R}={(1,1,0) + (0, 0, 1)|, R}= <(1, 1,0); (0, 0,1)>.
Suy ra V(1) c dim V(1) = 2 (= s bi ca 1) vi c s B1 = {(1, 1,0); (0, 0,1)}.
Khng gian ring V(2) ng vi tr ring 2 = 1 l khng gian nghim ca h:
2 2 0

(A 2I3 )X = 0 (A I3 )X = 0 2 2 0 X = 0

0 0 4

2x1 2x 2 = 0

2x1 + 2x 2 = 0

x3 = 0

x2 =

x1 =

x3 = 0

H trn c nghim tng qut (x1, x2, x3) = (, , 0) vi R ty . Vy


V(2) = { (, , 0)| R} = { (1, 1, 0)| R} = < (1, 1, 0) >.
Suy ra V(2) c dim V(2) = 1 vi c s B2 = {(1, 1, 0)}.
V cc khng gian ring ca A u c s chiu bng s bi ca cc tr ring tng ng
nn A cho ha c.
Lp ma trn P bng cch ln lt dng cc vect trong B1 = {(1, 1,0); (0, 0,1)} v B2 =
{(1, 1,0)} thnh cc ct:
1 0 1

P = 0 0 1 .
1 1 0

Khi ta c
5 0 0

P AP = 0 5 0 .
0 0 1

(3)

tm An , ta ly tha n hai v ca (3):


101

5n
5n
5 0 0
0 0
0 0

1
1 n
n
n
n
(P AP) = 0 5 0 P A P = 0 5 0 A = P 0 5n 0 P 1 .
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 1

1 0 1
1 1 0

1
1
Vi P = 0 0 1 . ta tm c P = 0 0 2 . T ta c
2

1 1 0
1 1 0

5n

An = P 0
0

0
5n
0

0 P 1
1

1 + 5n

2
1 5n
=
2
0

1 5n
2
1 + 5n
2
0

0 .

5n

BI TP
1. Tm tr ring v vect ring ca cc ma trn sau:
4 5 2
a) 5 7 3
6 9 4

1 1 0
b) 0 1 0

5 3 2

1 0 2
c) 0 3 0
0 0 0

0
1 0 0

1 1 4 8

d)
.
2 4
7 4

1
1 8 4

2. Kho st tnh cho ha c ca cc ma trn sau:


2
a) 0
0

1
d)
0

0 0

1 0
2 2
0 0 0

0 0 4
1 0 4

0 1 1

0 0 1
b) 1 0 3
0 1 3

0 0 0
c) 1 0 9
0 1 6

1 4 2
e) 3 4 0
3 1 3

40 56 63
f) 56 100 126 .
28 56 75

3. Cho ha cc ma trn sau y:


3 4 2
a) 2 4 2
2 1 1

8
3 4

b) 22 21 44
12 12 25

102

8 26 13
c) 26 31 26
26 52 47

1 4 8
d) 4 7 4 .
8 4 1

2 1 1

4. Cho ma trn A = 1 2 1 . Tnh A100.


1 1 0

HNG DN V P S
1a) Tr ring: 0; 1. Tp cc vect ng vi tr ring 0 l {(,2,3)| R\{0}}, ng vi tr ring
1 l {(,,)| R\{0}}.
1b) Tr ring: 2; 1. Tp cc vect ng vi tr ring 2 l {(0,0,)| R\{0}}, ng vi tr ring
1 l {(3,0,5)| R\{0}}.
1c)Tr ring: 0; 1; 3. Tp cc vect ng vi tr ring 0 l {(2,0,)| R\{0}}, ng vi tr
ring 1 l {(,0,0)| R\{0}}; ng vi tr ring 3 l {(0, ,0)| R\{0}}.
1d) Tr ring: 1; 9; 9. Tp cc vect ng vi tr ring 1 l {(40,,8, 9)| R\{0}}, ng
vi tr ring 9 l {(0, 2, , 2)| R\{0}}; ng vi tr ring 9 l {(0, , 2, )| ,
R, 2 + 2 > 0}.
2a) Cho ha c;

2b) Khng cho ha c;

2c) Khng cho ha c;

2d) Khng cho ha c;

2e) Cho ha c;

2f) Cho ha c.

1 1 2
1 0 0

3a) P = 0 2 3 ; P AP = 0 1 0 ;
1 2 1
0 0 2

2 1 2
1 0 0

3b) P = 11 1 0 ; P AP = 0 1 0 ;
6 0 1
0 0 1

1 2 1
18
0
0

3c) P = 2 1 0 ; P AP = 0 21
0;
2 0 1
0
0 21

103

2 1 1
9 0 0

3d) P = 1 2 0 ; P AP = 0 9 0 .
2 0 1
0 0 9

1 0
1 1 1
1 0 0

100
= P 0 2100
4. P = 1 1 1 ; P AP = 0 2 0 ; A

2 1 0
0 0 3

0 0

0 P 1 .

3100

-----------------------------------------

104