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Study plan

Monday, March 10, 2014

12:04 AM

Also read NIOS material for science

Environment Page 1

Screen clipping taken: 3/10/2014 12:09 AM

Environment Page 2

Main Organisation
Monday, March 10, 2014

12:12 AM

Screen clipping taken: 3/10/2014 12:13 AM

Environment Page 3

Environment terminologies
31 March 2016

13:04

Ecology- study of ecosystem, interaction among organisms and between organisms


and its physical environment

Ecosystem- no of biotic and abiotic components in a state of interaction


Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem
Related by food chain- complex food chain- food web
Position of organism- trophic level- diagrammatic representation-ecological pyramid
and can be of 3 types
Pyramid of numbers- upright or inverted
Pyramid of Biomass- upright(tree ecosystem) or inverted (aquatic ecosystem)
Pyramid of Energy- upright (only 10% energy transfer takes place from one
trophic level to another
Productivity- rate of generation of biomass or energy generated by ecosystem per unit
area. -depends upon moisture and sunlight
Ecological Niche- by Grinel- functional area or position- 3 factors accounting for
adaptation of community
Structural adaptation
Function Adaptation
Species behaviour
Ecological Equivalent- different species residing in similar environment conditions in
different geographical regions eg Emu, Ray, Ostrich, Great Indian Bustard, Gorilla,
Chimpanzee, Oranguton, Gibbon
Biotic Community -several species in a given area
Ecotypes- Individual within same species highlighting different traits and adopted to a
particular set of cond eg Caucosoids, Mongoloids, Negroids- Homo Sapiens
Lion, Tiger, Cheetah, Puma- Cat species
Ecophene- type of distinction- which distinguishes functional response of a species to
a particular condition and these species are distinct apart- never go for breeding
Eg south bear and grizzley bear- different response while hunting
Frogs of hot region doesn't breed with that of temperate region.
Environment Page 4

Frogs of hot region doesn't breed with that of temperate region.


Eco-indicators - dominant species generally plants - measure of environment factor
employed by ecologists
Eg- yellowish colour of leaves - Cu & Zn contamination

Eutreuberia plant

Polluted water

Carrisa

Soil erosion

Fish catla-catla

Industrial pollution

Climax- stabilised situation - indicator of high complexity in an ecosystem


Biological Clock Ecological Succession- changes in ecological community over time
Primary- primitive stage till climax
Secondary- if living community already exist eg after fire or flood
Autogenic succession- if the existing community causes its own
replacement
Allogeneic succession- if due to external factors
Monoclimax- single species climax eg wheat in winters
Polyclimax- multiple species moving towards climax- eg savanna grasslands

Environment Page 5

Water

06 April 2016

11:08

Ground water Zone of Aeration- gaps in soil filled with water and air
Zone of saturation- only water
Water table is the boundary b/w above 2 zones
3 types of groundwater
Meteorological- because of Rainfall
Connate- b/w 2 bedding planes or 2 impermeable rocks
Juvenile water- formed at the time of formation of igneous rocks due to cooling down
of water vapours into water
Surface water
Lentic habitat- stagnant water body, about 2/3rd of the fresh water
2 zones- Euphotic and Profundal separated by compensation level
Holomictic lakes- circulation throughout water column
Meromictic lakes- no complete circulation- primary water mass doesn't mix with
lower portion. Deeper stratum is seperated from the upper stratum by salinity
gradient called chemocline
Demictic lakes- Miz twice a year- autumn and spring
Monomictic lakes- dont freeze as the temp doesn't fall below 4 oC
Polymictic lakes- mixing every few days or daily
Amictic lakes- have year round ice cover or never mix
Lotic habitat- running water body
Deltas and estuaries

Environment Page 6

Ocean zonation and associated ecology


06 April 2016

12:13

Political Zonation

UNCLOS- maritime disputes and demarcates maritime boundaries


International sea bed authority- mineral exploration- HQ- Kingston, Jamaica
International maritime organisation- control pollution, surveillance and monitoring, rules and
guidelines for tourism, dismantling of ships and aircraft carriers, piracy security and marine
organisms

Biological zonation

- Littoral- shallow water, low and high tide zone


- Pelagic- from littoral till open sea
Till C-Shelf- Nerictic - zone of big marine animals like shark also called sub littoral
Marine Ecology
- Pelagic realm Entire water mass further bifurcated into Nerictic and Oceanic.
Nerictic-200m, photic zone, low salinity, less turbulent motions and more plant nutrition.
Therefore highest no of fish and marine life
Oceanic- separated from Nerictic zone by the edge of continental shelf and has depth
of >200m till abyssal plain. Uniform temp and salinity. Upper part photic. Life decreases
with depth
0-200mtr- Phalagic zone
200-500 mtr- Epipelagic zone- phytoplanktons, zooplanktons, seaweeds, big animals
1000-2500- Mesopelagic- zone of ooze (Sediments) - Calcicarious ooze- remains of
bones of shark
4000m- Bathypelagic- Silicious ooze- octopus, bacteria (Both aerobic and anaerobic)
6000m- Abyssal Pelagic- zone of benthos-organisms which live on base of oceanic
floor- dont respire through O2 (anoxic) but take energy of earth- poisonous and
very sensitive- in both littoral and pelagic zones
- Benthic realm
Ocean bottom and populated by organisms- Littoral and Deep sea
Littoral- b/w high tide level and low tide level. Rich in primary food for marine animals,
home for isopods, gastropods and crustaceans. Uniform low temp and persistent
darkness. Organisms decreases away from the coast
Deep sea zone- mostly carnivores. Energy from thermal winds and live on remnants of
dead orgs of upper zones- zone of detritus
Marine Vegetation
- Algae
most primitive of all plant life and 1st to appear on earth. Photosynthesis, no roots, stems
2 types- epiphytic(grow on plants) and epizoic (grown on animals)
4 major class Blue Green- primitive- Trichodesmium, Filamentous, Trichodesmium is in form of sticks in
red sea- responsible for her red colour. Uses- carbon sink, nutrient supplement, industrial
water treatment, aquaculture, 3rd gen bio-fuel
Green Algae- only in shallow water upto 10m , Green colour, abundance of chlorophyll,
common in tropical oceans- eg Ulva/sea lettuce, Penicillus, Neptune shaving brush
Brown algae- colour-brown (green chlorophyll marked by yellow and brown pigments), in
cooler waters, near rocky coasts of higher altitudes eg Kelp, Sargasso- good source of
iodine and potash
Red algae- wide range of colours, most beautiful, multi-cellular, in sub-tidal zone, high
source of Ca and Mg, Agar-agar extracted from red algae (ice-cream)- stabilizing agent
in food- colourless, tasteless jelly like substance; found in deep sea- able to do
photosynthesis with blue light

Environment Page 7

PEMBA

Ecosystem and Ecology


07 April 2016

19:57

Open and closed systems


Biotic and abiotic components
Food chain and food web

Holism: Ecology as a basic division of biology attempts to define & explain pattern within
and among organisms in a hierarchical manner and at each level or organisation
Herbivores: angulates (pure herbivore) & rodents (omnivorous)

Environment Page 8

Organisms and Population


06 June 2016

08:27

Organism and its environment

Temperature
Mango

Not in temperate countries

Tuna fish

Not beyond tropical latitudes - oceans

Snow leopards Not in Kerala forests

Eurythermal: Wide temperature tolerant


Stenothermal: narrow range of temp tolerance
Plants do not maintain internal temperature

Light
Controls foraging, reproductive and migratory activities

Popliulation Attributes

Population growth
- Natality
- Mortality
- Immigration
- Emigration
Growth Models
- Exponential growth
- Logistic growth
Population Interaction

Environment Page 9

Ecosystem
07 April 2016

23:19

Ecosystem Chracteristics

Link with other ecosystem


Structural complexity- species combination and their linkages
Resilience
Anthropogenic resilience
Complexity of equatorial RF
Coral reefs
Dynamic stability

Energy and productivity

Primary production- amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over a
period by plants during photosynthesis
Net PP decreases with altitude
Productivity can be expressed as
- Gross pp- rate of production of organic matter during photosynthesis
- Net pp- minus the respirational losses
- Net community productivity
- Secondary productivity
Secondary production- growth and reproduction at 2nd trophic level, max when
BR of population and GR of individuals in ppln is highest

Decomposition

- Decomposition is largely an oxygen-requiring process


- Rate depends upon the chemical composition of detritus and climatic factors- slower if
rich in lignin and chitin and quciker if rich in nitrogen and water soluble substance

Energy efficiency

- Generally inefficient
Plants use 5% of solar energy
Small energy passed at next trophic level
Mobile animals at and above TL-2 hence more energy losses
- Efficiency with which different parts of an ecosystem use available energy is termed as
ecological efficiency. Ratio b/w energy flow at different points along the FC & is
expressed as a %. Highly imp to compare the 2 different ecosystems
saprophytes are not given any place in ecological pyramids

Environment Page 10

Food and feeding relationship


07 April 2016

20:00

2 main functions of food


- For new tissues and repairing worn out tissues
- Sustaining the life processes
Types of food chain
- Grazing food chain
Phytoplankton- zooplankton-fish-big fish-whales/shark
Grass/algae-deer-lion-eagle/vulture
Big chain in the aquatic ecosystem is due to small size of phytoplanktons and
zooplanktons
- Detritus food chain
Starts from dead and decaying organic matter of animals
Detritus feeders(termites, earthworm, etc) and decomposers (bacteria, fungi etc)
- Scavengers that feed on dead plants or animals hence can be herbivore of carnivore
- Saprophytes- plants-counterpart of scavengers- nourishment from dead plants and
animals eg fungi
- Supplementary food chain-formed by parasites(feeds on host w/o killing- inside the
body-endoparasites and outside- ectoparasites and scavengers
Bio-accumulation- normal and essential process for growth and nurture of organisms vitamins and minerals but problem arises when toxic matter enters the food chain.
Bio-magnification- when the accumulation is larger than that occurring in the inorganic,
non-living environment or in case of animals in the food that they eat

Environment Page 11

Feedback mechanism
08 April 2016

09:00

For analysing pollutant level within an ecosystem


i/p o/p- nutrients and energy- any change will reflect in the misbalance in the equilibrium.
Adjustment occurs through feedback mechanism.
2 types of feedback links
- Positive- amplifies and reinforce the initial change in the system. Bigger changes tends
to destroy the stability eg dinosaur
- Negative- promotes opposite changes to +ve feedback. Suppresses changes to the
ecosystem promoted by external factors. Two mechanisms of self-regulation
Ecosystem resistance- ability of ecosystem to withstand or resist variation
Resilience- speed with which it restores
- Eg eq rainforest must resistance but less resilience however the aquatic ecosystem
shows less resistance and more resilience due to high reproduction rate

Environment Page 12

Ecological succession
28 March 2016

13:02

'Clements'
1. Definite order of succession and can be predictable
2. Succession ends in a state called climax
3. It is due to climate and in 1 climatic region can have only 1 climax

SERE: entire set of communities that successively change in a given area


SERAL Stage: any intermediate stage
Hydrarch succession- wetter areas, series progress from hydric to mesic conditions
Xerarch succession- in dry areas, progress from xeric to mesic conditions
Pioneer species that invade bare area
Primary succession- water- phytoplanktons- small plants- tress- land
Secondary succession- invading species depend on the condition of the soil
Autogenic and allogenic successions

Environment Page 13

Biogeochemical cycles
08 April 2016

09:16

Energy- unidirectional
Nutrients- closed system
If living organisms involved then biogeochemical cycle
Some basic features:
All cycle operate as closed system
System as a whole doesn't lose nutrients
Driven by solar energy and linked with water cycle(water soluble)
Consists of reservoirs and pathways
Reservoirs 2 types- non-biological and biological
Weathering of rocks releases CO2
Pathways- biological process and physical processes
2 rates- flow rate and flux rate hence speed dependent upon the physical and
chemical properties of the nutrient
Residence time

Environment Page 14

Carbon cycle
08 April 2016

10:06

Most imp BGC cycle


Mostly energy flow
Small atmospheric pool (active both in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems)
Other reservoirs: living or dead organisms, oceans, oceanic crust, soil, fossil fuels, forests
and their biomass, sediments and rocks
If reservoirs are degraded then the energy flow outside their reservoir or in the atmosphere
Stored in sediments in 3 forms:
- Elemental- coal
- Refractory organic material- dark coloured humus
- Carbonates: limestone and chalk

Environment Page 15

Phosphorus cycle
08 April 2016

10:36

Slowest and simplest cycle


Biotic components, soil and water
Limiting factor in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem
Wide variety of biological functions- roles in nucleic acid, cell membranes & skeleton
system
Central role in the energy transfer process of photosynthesis and respiration in cell via
molecules such as ATP
Reservoirs
- Rocks and natural phosphate deposits
- During geological era- accumulated into oceanic sediments and over 10s of millions of
years converted into sedimentary rocks
- Release P under influence of weathering, leaching and erosion
- As Guyano deposits in the oceans : Peru has world largest deposits of P and Guyano's
major diet is fish which consume good amt of P
Cycle
- Absorption
- Assimilation
- Incorporation of phosphates in organisms
- After death - inorganic- transformed into other compounds by chemical processes and
some are immobilised in the body of microbes
- P from terrestrial ecosystem-escapes to lakes and seas
- Aquatic- rapid recycling through planktons
Sediments in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem
- Reacts within soil - produce insoluble compounds which can't be used by plants
- In sea a large part is deposited in shallow sediments
- Some is acquired by aquatic org but large part is lost
- Major part is the Guyano bird in movement of P from sea to land
- Amt available for an organism depends primarily on the rate at which these elements
move through organic phases of the cycle.
Human impact
- eutrophication

Environment Page 16

Nitrogen cycle
08 April 2016

11:12

For protein synthesis


ReservoirsAir
Soil
Water
Living organisms

Amt of fixed N2 in the soil is 0.03%


N2 fixation
Atm fixation
Biological fixation
Industrial fixation
Ammonification: N2 to ammonia
Nitrification: ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ions
Nitrosomas(ammonia in the soil and convert it to nitrite ions) and nitrobacter(nitrite to
nitrate) collectively called nitrifying bacteria
Denitrification: nitrate to N2
Bacteria- pseudomonas
Human impact

Conversion of forest into cropland

Decrease in soil content

Open defecation, sewage waste, industrial


waste, fertilizers,

Eutrophication

In ground water

Health problems

Timer lumbering
- Fertilizers

Automobile release

Heavy outflow from forest ecosystem

Disturbs balance b/w fixation and


denitrification
Pollutants in atmosphere form toxic
pollutants

Environment Page 17

Sulphur cycle
08 April 2016

12:43

Nutrients for plants in form of sulphates


Reservoirs
Tied organically and inorganically in sediments
Pyrite rock
Cycle: not abundant in atmosphere but prominent in polluted areas
- Absorption and assimilation by plants
- Into animal tissues via food chain
- Decomposition into inorganic matter by microbes under anaerobic and aerobic
condition
- Sedimentary rocks formation by inorganic sulphur compounds
- Gaseous phase of sulphur cycle
Decomposition by microbes
- Thiobacillus is a chemo-synthetic bacteria found in terrestrial ecosystem
- Chromatium and chlorobium are photosynthetic bacteria present in aquatic ecosystem
Sources of S
- Natural: volcanos, sea sprays, weathering of rocks, microbial activity
- Anthropogenic emissions: majorly by coal burning and other fossils
Impact on humans
- Acid rain, effects plants (acidic aerosols)

Environment Page 18

Remediation
08 April 2016

09:49

To detoxify any region


Phyto-remediation and bio remediation
To solve toxicity lend over biosphere by using bacteria, fungi, algae and plants
I

Environment Page 19

Ecosystem services
08 April 2016

09:51

Term derived from millenium ecosystem assessment report


Out of all the services- regulating services is most imp at the time of high pollution and
climate change

healthy forest ecosystems purify air and water, mitigate droughts and floods, cycle
nutrients, generate fertile soils, provide wildlife habitat, maintain biodiversity,
pollinate crops, provide storage site for carbon and also provide aesthetic, cultural and
spiritual values

Environment Page 20

Policies/schemes/projects
Monday, March 10, 2014

12:13 AM

Screen clipping taken: 3/10/2014 12:13 AM

Environment Page 21

Environmental laws
Monday, March 10, 2014

12:14 AM

Screen clipping taken: 3/10/2014 12:14 AM

Environment Page 22

Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981


06 June 2016

17:50

Amended in 1987 to include noise as a pollution

Environment Page 23

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974


06 June 2016

17:55

Environment Page 24

Central Pollution control board


07 June 2016

15:34

laid down under The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and The Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
also coordinates enforcement and implementation of Rules framed under the
Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 with state pollution control boards/pollution
control committees.

Environment Page 25

National park, Protected area, sanctuary, biosphere


reserve
28 May 2015

21:56

Protected area

- Under wildlife protection act 1972


- core effort- biodiversity conservation, limited human
intervention
NP- Category 2 PA
to develop wildlife and its environment, rights of the
people are regulated. All activities prohibited unless
allowed Declared by state govt
requires legislation
Ecological, geomorphological and natural significance
WS activities allowed unless prohibited
Declared by state govt
BR Areas of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem
internationally recognised within the framework of
Man and Biosphere Prog of UNESCO and are not
formed to the guidelines of WPA,1972 and have one
or more national park or WS under it, aim to conserve
the ecosystem
World network of biosphere reserve

Ecologically Sensitive zones

- Identified areas around Protected Areas and wildlife


corridos- Under EPA,1986

Environment Page 26

UNESCO updated biosphere list


28 April 2016

11:29

Added 20 new sites


Total no of 669 across 120 countries

Environment Page 27

List

19 May 2016

19:09

Asola Bhatti Sanctuary


Kaziranga NP- Assam
Bhiterkanika

Haryana
(Gurgaon)
Assam

Largest fresh water turtles in NE India, one


horned rhinoceros

Odisha

Salt water crocodile

Desert National Park

RJ- Jaisalmer

Silent valley NP

Kerela
River Bhavani-

Eravikulam

Sepahijala wildlife
sanctuary
Chinnar wildlife
sacntuary

Kerala

TripuraAgartala

Bandhavgarh NP

Elephants

(Kerala)-Idukki

Western Ghats

Soor Sarovar Bird


Sanctuary

Great Indian Bustard

Endangered Asian Elephants and vulnerable


Indian bison

UP -Agra
MP- Umaria

Tiger

GJ-Bhavnagar-

Blackbuck,

Bandipur NP

KN - Mysore-

Corbett NP

Kumaon-UK

Tigers

Gir NP

GJ

Asiatic Lions

Nagarhole NP

Mysore- KN

Aka Rajiv Gandhi NP- tiger

Odisha

Elephant- tiger

Blackbuck NP
Keoladeo NP (Also
wetland)
Hemis NP

Ranthambore NP
Simlipal

Sunderbans

Bharatpur- RJ

J&K (Ladakh)
RJ

WB

Leopard, elephant, sloth


World heritage site (HQ-Paris)- Syberian Crane

Largest and leopard


Tiger

Periyar NP

Kerala

Elephants, Periyar lake

Manas Sanctuary

Assam

One horned rhino

Valley of flower
Namdapha

Pachmarkhi

Chandraprabha

Wild Ass Sactuary

Bhimbandh Sanctuary

UK
AP

MP
UP

GJ

World heritage site

Elephant tiger, Panther

Barking deer, bison, tiger


Tiger, Panther

Bihar
Environment Page 28

Bhimbandh Sanctuary

Bihar

Dudhwa NP

UP

Deer, tiger

Silent valley

Kerala

Lion tailed Macaque

Churu RJ

Black buck

Hazaribagh

Jharkhand

Gandhi Sagar

MP

Sariska NP

RJ

Tal Chapar
Kanha NP

MP

Rajaji

UK

Great Himalayan NP

Barking deer

Tiger, crocodiles, Nil

Max tiger population, Barasingha

HP

World heritage- blue sheep, Snow leopard

Keibul Lamjao

Manipur

Loktak lake- sangai or dancing deers

Wayanad WS

Kerala

Tiger

Parambikulam tiger
reserve

Kerala

Tiger

Dachigam NP

J&K

Hangul/Kashmiri

Namdapha NP

Arunachal

Red Giant flying squirrel

Mouling Np

Arunachal

Red Panda

Panna NP

MP

Tiger

Palamu NP

Jharkhand

Tiger

Indravati

Chattisgarh

Tiger and wild buffalo

Betla NP

Dalma WS

Jharkhand
Jharkhand

Nagarjuna NP

AP

Banerghatta NP

Karnataka

Dr Salim Ali bird


sanctuary
Chandra Prabha NP

Bison, Elephant, tiger, leopard


Elephant
Tiger

Goa

Tiger

UP

Biosphere reserves- 18 in India


Rann of Kutch

GJ

Desert

Indian wild ass

Sundarbans

WB

Gangetic delta

Bengal Tiger

Mannar

TN

Coast

Cold Desert

HP

Nanda devi

UK

Dihang-dibang

Arunachal

Nilgiri

Pachmarhi biosphere
Seshachalam

Dugong, sea cow

Western
himalaya

Snow Leopard

TN, Kerala,
KN

Western Ghats

Nilgiri Tahr, lion tailed


macaque

MP

Semi arid

AP

W.Him

Eastern Him

Eastern ghats

Environment Page 29

NA

NA

Giant Squirrel

Simlipal

Odisha

Deccan peninsula Gaur, Tiger

Manas

Assam

East him

AchanakamarAmarkantak
Khan

MP

Maikala Hills

Environment Page 30

Golden langur

Agasthyamala BP
01 June 2016

01:17

Recently, Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve was included in the World Network of


Biosphere Reserves of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO).
It is situated at the southern-most end of the Western Ghats and spreads over two
southern states Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It covers Peppara and Shendurney wildlife
sanctuaries and parts of the Neyyar sanctuary in Kerala and the Kalakad Mundanthurai
Tiger Reserve of Tamil Nadu.
The reserve is named after Agastya Mala peak that rises up to almost 1868 meters
above sea level, in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. However, Anaimudi peak does not lie
in the reserve.
It is home to rare animals which include the tiger, Asian Elephant, and Nilgiri Tahr. It
is also home to the Kanikaran tribe, one of the oldest surviving ancient tribes in the
world.

Environment Page 31

BIO Fertilizer
21 July 2015

12:49

Environment Page 32

The environmental cost of subsidies


21 January 2016

10:20

Context:-

Impact of subsidies on environment.


Subsidised diesel:-

The idea to give a subsidy on diesel for farmers who use diesel-run pump-sets to irrigate their fields
has led to a damaging impact on the environment.
The number of cars running on subsidized diesel has multiplied over the years and contributed to
the deteriorating air quality.
The lowering of oil prices has allowed India to eliminate the subsidy on diesel.
Subsidized Electricity:-

Most Indian states provide electricity at very cheap rates.

The finances of distribution companies in many of these states are entirely wrecked.

To improve the situation, the Union government has recently announced a number of measures
under the UDAY (Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana) scheme, which wont be successful unless the
underlying causeslow tariffs, power thefts, large subsidy billsare addressed.
The political economy sustains large-scale power theft in many parts of India.
The majority of farmers receive electricity either free or at dirt cheap rates.
Non-payment seldom invites punishment.

Minimum support for water intensive crops:-

Low power tariffs, subsidized diesel and the provision of minimum support price for certain waterintensive crops have together led to unrestrained exploitation of groundwater.
Subsidised Rail Travel:-

Any hike in passenger tariffs by the Indian Railways, for instance, is followed by an uproar by the
opposition parties.

Since passenger trains dont earn enough, they are cross-subsidized by revenues from freight trains.
The freight tariffs, as a result, are high and uncompetitive, which in turn has caused business to
move to roads.
This diversion of traffic to road also leads to increase in pollution.

It is said that the energy consumption of Railways is about 75-90% less for freight traffic when
compared to road. The carbon dioxide emission is about 80% less than road.
Free market opposes subsidies:-

Environment Page 33

The traditional opposition to subsidies has come from the proponents of free markets.
Subsidies distort markets and lead to inefficient outcomes.
Environmental impact:-

These examples show that subsidies also cause significant environmental damage.

In India, there is a significant overlap between people who advocate subsidies in the name of the
poor and those who fight for the protection of the environment.
It is time they began looking at the harmful environmental impact of subsidies which can lead to
correct pricing of resources.

Environment Page 34

Green norms for textile sector


04 February 2016

05:54

Zero liquid discharge


Major centers Tirupur and Ludhiana
ZLD- effluent treatment plants require huge initial capital investment as well as high recurring
expenditure making it commercially non-viable

Environment Page 35

Vermicompost for soil fertility

04 February 2016

06:28

Environment Page 36

Earthworms usage-100% organic inputs


Vermiculture technology-high quality compost
Rich in organic carbon, worm mucus, enzymes, N,P,K
Increases soil fertility
Reduces fertilizer use
Easily absorb by plants root
PKVY, RKVY and MIDH

Sabarimala-plastic free
05 February 2016

17:00

In Periyar Tiger reserve (Tiger + Elephant) --Kerala

Environment Page 37

Snowflake Coral reefs


05 February 2016

17:02

Snowflake coral in Thiruvananthapuram (Kovalam) and Kanyakumari (Enayam)

Context:-

Colonies of snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei) is an invasive species recently documented off the coast of
Thiruvananthapuram and Kanyakumari.
They could pose a serious threat to the marine ecology of the region.

What is a snow flake coral?

It is known to inhabit reefs and underwater structures such as shipwrecks and piers, attaching itself
to metal, concrete and even plastic.
It is a native of the tropical Western Atlantic and the Caribbean, C.riisei was first reported as an
invasive species from Hawaii in 1972.
Since then, it has spread to Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines.

In India, it has been reported from the Gulf of Mannar, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gulf of
Kutch and Goa.

Threat:-

With its capacity to thickly settle and occupy a variety of surfaces, C.riisei can destabalise the marine
ecosystem.
He fears it will crowd out other species like corals, sponges, algae, ascidians that contribute to the
rich marine biodiversity of the region.
Kerala university of fisheries and ocean studies

Environment Page 38

CORAL-NASA survey
10 March 2016

22:03

COral Reef Airborne Laboratory (CORAL)- aims to survey the conditions of the major reefs of
the world through remote sensing
Ratio of Algae to coral is an indicator of reef conditions
NASA developed PRISM- Portable remote Imaging Spectrometer

Environment Page 39

Coral bleaching
25 March 2016

21:57

are currently working on the role of Mycosporinelike Amino Acids (MAA) in


preventing coral bleaching in the reefs of Lakshadweep Archipelago.
Coral bleaching is considered as a stress response of corals to a few biotic and abiotic
factors. Increased solar irradiance (photo synthetically active radiation and ultraviolet
band light) is an important factor.
MAA are small secondary metabolites produced by organisms that live in
environments with high volumes of sunlight. Besides protecting cells from mutation
due to UV radiation, they also boost cellular tolerance to desiccation and salt and heat
stress
Coral reefs are considered valuable source of pharmaceutical compounds from which
drugs for the treatment of cancer, HIV, cardiovascular diseases, ulcers, and other
ailments are extracted, highlighting the medicinal value of corals, the researchers
noted.

- A/c to a journal- the net coral growth is 7% more in the absence of ocean acidification
- Ocean acidification due to CO2 dissolved in oceans and forms carbonic acid

Environment Page 40

Areas

08 April 2016

17:00

i) Gulf of Mannar;
ii) Gulf of Kutch;
iii) Lakshadweep; and
iv) Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Environment Page 41

MM hills and Cauvery wildlife sanctuaries-Karnataka


07 February 2016

17:06

Environment Page 42

Mission Bhageeratha
09 January 2016

18:01

The drinking water project might put Khammam, Adilabad in conflict with forest rights
Exercise is on to identify locations where the pipelines would cut across lands on which the
rights of the tribals and forest dwellers have been recognised as per the Scheduled Tribes and
Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act.
to conduct gram sabha and obtain consent from the villagers for acquiring land.
Authority to divert land for public purpose is vested with central govt
DC's to certify that all requirements have been fulfilled
If tribal lands are involved, alternative land or compensation will be offered

Environment Page 43

Organic farming
04 March 2016

20:07

Environment Page 44

Organic tag to boost Sikkim's cardamom exports


04 March 2016

20:07

Environment Page 45

Organic honey
14 February 2016

10:06

Girijan Co-operative Corporation (GCC) with support of Integrated Tribal Development Corporation
(ITDA), Rampachodavaram-AP

Environment Page 46

1st organic block panchayat


14 May 2016

04:04

Alathur

Environment Page 47

Noise pollution, whales on the shore


16 February 2016

19:59

ZnO is placed around the blowhole to keep the airways clear and sometimes
tents are placed over the pen to provide additional protection from the sun
Satellite markers are tagged to track long term progress

Environment Page 48

GM Crops
17 February 2016

10:12

Bt gene- has insecticidal (Bt toxin) property gets activated in alkaline medium

+ve

Increases agri productivity


- Drought resistant crop/ salinity resistant, weed killer/resistant crop eg Roundupready
soyabean crop (herbicide tolerant crop- Glyphosate)
Protection against pest, insects etc
- Pest of cotton- bullworm, Brinjal- fruit and shoot borer

-ve

Terminator seeds
Copyright
More water usuage
Toxicity of food cycle

Govt appointed Basudev Acharya committee


-

No linkage of GM and productivity


Farmer suicides
Insects and pests developing resistance
Terminator seeds
Impact over food cycle
No National regulatory body for GM research and development
Federalism

GM labelling of food products


Infinite moratorium over field trials of GM crops
Prevention of mixing of crop
No hurry as world has not implemented in food crops

Technical expert committee by SC

Mechanism to control

- Cartagene protocol for bio-safety- to restrict movement of LMO and GMO


- Genetic Engg appraisal committee-to provide consult over filed trials
- Biodiversity Act-2002

06/02/16

- countrys first genetically modified (GM) food crop, mustard, the Genetic Engineering
Appraisal Committee (GEAC) on Friday decided to put on hold any decision on it for now.
- The GEAC, the apex body to accord approval for largescale use and commercial release of
genetically modified organisms in India, discussed safety issues of GM mustards application,
but refrained from taking a final decision.
-

Environment Page 49

GM Mustard
09 May 2016

23:20

CIC arbitrator on RTI request had asked the Environment Ministry to make public all
the data pertaining to the safety of GM Mustard
GM Mustard is likely to be the 1st transgenic seed available in the farmers field
GM Cotton is the only transgenic crop available to farmers in the field
GM Mustard
Technology involves a complex of genes sourced from soil bacterium which makes it
easier for seed developers to easily develop hybrid varieties of mustard, generally a
self -pollinating plant.
Terminator seeds
Increase yield by 25%
Dept hasnt made a copy of the bio-safety dossier which details the GM mustard
variety's performance available publicly

Environment Page 50

Whitefly
27 May 2016

23:49

There is large-scale crop damage from whitefly infestation this year, especially in northern
India.
There are over 250 Bt cotton hybrids on the shelf in North India. More than 90 per
cent of these are susceptible to whitefly and leaf-curl.
Reasons and spread:
Rains were scarce and intermittent, farmers resorted to excessive irrigation and urea
application that promoted fresh vegetative growth and allowed whiteflies to
proliferate.
The problem was worsened by over-spraying of pesticides.
Other reasons are delayed sowing, persistent drought coupled with hot and cloudy
conditions.
The early-sown crop is less susceptible, as the mature leaves are not preferred by
whiteflies.
The whitefly menace was not witnessed in Maharashtra. Although Telangana did
report some incidence, it was much less severe than Punjab.
What is Whitefly?
It is a small (1-2 mm) white coloured insect affecting cotton, and also occurring on
vegetables and other crops in tropical and sub-tropical regions
The whitefly sucks sap from the phloem or living tissue carrying organic nutrients,
causes yellowing and upward curling of the leaves.
Control measures:
The best approach is to select methods causing least disturbance to beneficial
insects that can control the whitefly naturally.
Therefore, broad-spectrum insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids and mixtures
should be strictly avoided.
It is better to rely initially on water sprays, followed by soap sprays, sprays with
preparations of neem oil, castor oil, fish oil and rosin soap.

Environment Page 51

Endosulfan victims
20 February 2016

23:51

Banned Pesticide aerial spray on Mangoes in Kerala caused death and severe health problems to
many

Environment Page 52

New frog species Frankixalus jerdonii in north East


26 February 2016

23:06

Environment Page 53

Konkan Mega project- Environment degradation


28 January 2016

22:47

a thermal power plant among other industries, the contentious 9,900-MW Jaitapur nuclear
power plant and one of the biggest oil refineries in the world (Green Refinery) are proposed
almost adjacent to each other within a 50-km radius.
Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) report, it is proposed to have both forward and
backward integration by developing jetty- based industries such as a bauxite benefication
plant, a steel plant and gas or coalbased thermal power plant, sugar refineries, a container hub
and tank farms directly or through joint ventures and acquisitions
green refinery a joint venture with the Bharat Petroleum, the Indian Oil and Hindustan
Petroleum Corporation Limited on the Vijaydurg plateau in north Sindhudurg district
north of this proposed project lies the Madban plateau, which is being acquired to set up the
9,900 MW Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project (JNPP).

Environment Page 54

Environmentalism
Monday, March 7, 2016

11:37 AM

concern about the environment

turning point two


the book -silent spring by Rachel Carson (1962 US) acted as the major turning point for the
wave of environmentalism in the modern period
1973- Report "limits of growth" by American scientist on behalf of body of intellectuals Club of
Rome. Conclusion
studying parameters - population size, pollution and resources and so on
conclusion in every possible case the earth collapses, final limits to the process of
economic growth-though these limits are not in real future.
the role of technology os to postpone these limits- these limits cannot be eliminated as
earth is a finite planet in terms of material and resource base
major turning point in wave of environmentalism
Cornucopians - extremely optimistic, every problem has a solution, future technology can
solve the present problems
refers to present concern of humanity for the protection of nature is manifestations being
- EIA
- sustainable assessment
national parks

Environment Page 55

Wetlands
10 March 2016

17:13

Kozhikode (kerala)

Issues with wetland


Illegal land reclamation activities
Non-degradable waste in the area
Study by Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM)-- threat with
rampant human encroachment and land conversion attempts
Unscientific channelising of water flow

Environment Page 56

States get greater role in wetland management


24 April 2016

15:53

- Water and land are state subjects


- National Plan for conservation of Aquatic ecosystem- policy framework and support to
the states
- Theme of world wetland day-wetlands for our future - sustainable livelihoods
- 80 per cent of paddy cultivation is directly or indirectly dependent on wetlands in
India.
- Imp source of fresh water to mankind

Major pressures on wetlands include


- fragmentation of hydrological regimes,
- siltation from degraded catchments,
- pollution,
- spread of invasives, species and over-harvesting of resources
- three wetlands namely Tso Morari in Laddakh, Mansar- Surinsar in Jammu and Wullar
in Srinagar were identified from Jammu and Kashmir

Environment Page 57

Western Ghats issue


12 March 2016

08:46

Environment Page 58

Environment Page 59

Report by WWF and IUCN


26 May 2016

20:04

WG are threatened by harmful industrial activities


Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Sundarbans, and the serial sites of Western Ghats have
been listed as being under threat
Western Ghats support the single largest population of endangered Asian elephants
and vulnerable Indian bison.
Harmful activities include oil and gas exploration, extraction, mining and illegal logging
report concludes that nearly half of all natural World Heritage Sites, including the
Grand Canyon and the Great Barrier Reef, are threatened by industrial activities.
Data was drawn for IUCN world heritage outlook
threat to these ecosystem services and the communities that depend on them.

Environment Page 60

Coastal management
07 June 2016

18:28

2011 Coastal Regulation Zone notification gives powers to States to check commercial
development along coasts. A committee headed by Shailesh Nayak, former secretary
of the Ministry of Earth Sciences, was convened in 2014 to examine problems faced by
States in complying with regulations.
There were amendments to the CRZ law since January 2015 that had possibly
facilitated heavy constructions and coastal roads etc.

Environment Page 61

'Green Worms'- waste management NGO


12 March 2016

09:51

Environment Page 62

Haryana demarcates Mangar Bani forest area


13 March 2016

11:56

Steps towards protecting Aravali mountain ranges


500 mtr around the forest as "No construction zone"

Environment Page 63

National Policy on Biofuels


Tuesday, March 15, 2016

7:20 PM

Ministry of New and Renewable energy


Objective:
The salient features of the National Policy on Bio-fuels are: non-edible oil seeds in waste /degraded / marginal lands.
Contract farming
An indicative target of 20% blending of bio-fuels, both for bio-diesel and bio-ethanol, by 2017 has
been
proposed.
Minimum Support Price (MSP) for non-edible oil seeds
Minimum Purchase Price (MPP)
research, development and demonstration with focus on plantations, processing and production of
bio-fuels, including Second Generation Bio-fuels.
Financial incentives, including subsidies and grants, may be considered for second generation biofuels.
A National Biofuels Coordination Committee, headed by the Prime Minister, will be set up to
provide policy guidance and coordination.
A Biofuel Steering Committee, chaired by Cabinet Secretary, will be set up to oversee
implementation of the Policy.
MNRE has taken several initiatives on various aspects of biofuel development. An exercise has been
initiated with scientific agencies ICAR, CSIR, DBT, DRDO, NOVOD Board on collection, screening
and identification of elite germplasms of jatropha and on processing and end use technologies.
The objective is to generate and make available elite planting materials for plantations. The scientific
agencies and the private sector have identified 25 superior genotypes/accessions of Jatropha for
further multiplication for demonstration at various sites in potential States.
An Indo-US MoU has been signed on Biofuels with focus on joint R&D, particularly on second
generation Another initiative with research institutes and industry is on for development of high efficiency
engines for use of SVO for stationary applications.

Environment Page 64

biofuel_poli
cy

Biofuel

15 March 2016

18:34

Ref pic

Biodiesel- Soyabean (edible oil seed)


Vegetable oil= fatty acid

Jatropha Curcus- non cultivated crop, can grow anywhere- oil cake is used
Being poisonous not grazed by animals. Govt must provide subsidies and MSPs for such crops since it
is not a cash crop to motivate farmers to grow such crops
Cellulosic ethanol- doesn't endanger food security (from wood, grasses, and inedible parts of plants)
Molasses- Used to make alcoholic drinks
US and Brazil- largest producer of Biodiesel and Bioethanol (Maize and sugarcane used)
Flexfuel policy (bio fuel policy)

Bio-Ethanol-

ethanol from biomass-

Sugar contatining material

sugarcane, sugar beet, sweet sorghum

and cellulosic ethanol

Baggase, wood waste, agricultural and forestry residues

& starch containing materials Corn, Cassava, algae, maize

Bio-diesel- methyl or ethyl ester

Methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids produced from vegetable oil both edible and non-edible or even
animal fat of diesel quality
Bio diesel can be produce with castor

Other bio fuel


- Biomethanol, bio-synthetic fuel

1st gen bio-fuel From food and edible crops


2nd gen

Non-edible food crops


Ethanol- switchgrass

Diesel- Jatropha Curcus


Jatropha curcus:
- Promoted under National Biofuel policy of India
- After oil extraction the leftover cake is used as a biological manure and also herbal insecticide
- Animal deterrent crop
Bio diesel can be produce with castor
Bio petrol- maize, cassava and sugarcane

Environment Page 65

Analysis

18 January 2016

10:00

Ministry of new and renewable energy

National biofuel policy of India- 2009

will decrease pollution and encourage a diversion in the sugar industrys output away from
sugar and towards ethanol,
Diversification of agriculture into energy, power and bio-plastics

Implications for auto-industry

Widely used in Brazil and US where fuels are available at pumps as E10, E15, E85 (no reflecting
the proportion of ethanol
Give advantage to the players who are already in flex fuel market over the indigenous players

Problems if run on existing engines

Oxidation-gum sediments accumulate-choking


Also reacts with rubber causing degradation
Additional variant for manufactures cost burden

Impact on other industries

Most reliable source of ethanol is sugarcane


Govt current policy mandates 5% blending, in reality it is 2% and target for 20% for both bio
diesel and bio-ethanol by 2017
Sugar industry has excess supply problem hence govt wants to increase the blending
proportion to help sugar mills
A/C to McKinsey and Co suggests 5 million MT can be diverted to ethanol production
Other sources of Ethanol rather than increasing acreage under sugarcane
Cellulosic ehtanol made from baggase or sugarcane tops
Improved farm practices
Planting HYV of cane

Social and environmental impacts

Cleaner environment
Food security problems, farmer's livelihood and environment including water usage
Produce using non-food feedstock on wastelands thereby allowing India to stay clear of
traditional food versus energy security debate
But food crops land have been encroached in the past
Water shortages

NEED

Issue to be addressed- storage capacity for ethanol and reforming tax structure so transport of
ethanol across states doesn't became expensive
Special dispensing units at petrol pumps

Environment Page 66

1st 2G ethanol plant


25 May 2016

02:50

In Kashipur, Uttarakhand
Suitable for converting all types of agricultural residues to ethanol in less than 24
hours

Environment Page 67

Evergreen forest
16 March 2016

15:27

Sikkim and Tripura w/o evergreen forest

Environment Page 68

Art of living under NGT scanner


21 March 2016

09:56

Environmentalist Manoj Misra- World cultural festivals not to be organised on the flood
lands associated Yamuna jiye abhiyaan.
NGT chairperson- Swatanter Kumar issue notice to DDA

Environment Page 69

Regional Environment conservation


27 March 2016

09:34

Experts who have worked on the China successful pollution control measures have said
India should learn from China's mistake and put in place regional and national level action
plans quickly and not to wait for 10 years.
- Coal based power plant account for 60% of the PM2.5 and regional action plan was
demanded
- An online platform for each province of China was created where the air quality data,
including industrial units in the area is available to the public via an app.
- A FYP with specific targets for pollution reduction was also drawn up in 2013.

Environment Page 70

Mediterranean Biomes
28 March 2016

11:14

Most scattered biome of the world.


Major areas
Areas around Mediterranean sea
Californian US
Central Chile in S.America
S and S-W Aus
Cape province in S.Africa
Common climatic elements
West facing coastal location in lower middle latitudes (30-40)

India's Climate
Summer: Hot and wet
Winter: Cold and dry

Mediterranean Type climate


Summer: Hot and Dry (if conditions continue for 12 months then they would have been deserts
Winter: Cool and wet
{these conditions are for their latitudes}
But they are the orchids gardens, wine exporters, intensely cultivated
These areas during their respective summers are under the influence of trade winds and being on the
west these areas do not get moisture but during winters these areas come under the influence of moist
westerlies and get good amount of ppt. This change is because of the shift of pressure belts and the
associated wind system with the apparent movement of the Sun in the sky.

Environment Page 71

Tundra biome

28 March 2016

11:39

>65 degrees N latitude


Tundra in

Finnish barren land or desert and in

Russian marshy land(area with bad drainage)

Finnish is applicable in winter season and the Russian term applicable in the summer season (Very
beautiful that these are termed as Arctic Prairies.
Inherently the weakest biome or the most fragile biome as it lacks diversity.
Most continuous of all biomes as it occurs almost unbroken in the northern margins of continents in
N.Hemisphere
Includes northernmost parts of Canada, Alaska, Northern Scandanavia, Greenland, Iceland, Syberia and
Spitsbergen island
V.long winters (9-10 Months)- v.severe (temp <-35 C) and are also very dark
Short-Summers (2-3 Months) and relatively warm. Temp may rise to 10 C because of long day length
and continuous insolation. However the Sun's rays are very inclined so that there is a very diffused
heating.
Annual ppt <=25 cms (equivalent to that in deserts mostly during summers)
Permafrost**
Refers to permanently frozen subsoil (within <1m depth from earth surface)
When the upper ice cover melts during summer, the subsoil stills remain frozen and because of bad
drainage it results into marshy conditions/wetland.
From being a sheet of ice/cold desert during winter season, the tundra biome transforms itself into a
beautiful landscape during summer season and is referred to as "Arctic Prairies".
Summer isotherm of 10 C marks the begn and 0 C marks its limit on the poleward side
Bush tundra corners the coniferrous tree belt, it consists of short height trees like Alders, Junipers, Willows.
Next to this is the Grass Tundra which consist of Lichens, Mosses, Sedges and Rhodododendrons
The vegetation is well adaptive to withstand extreme cold and survive on minimum moisture. It can also
remain alive beneath the snow in winter.

Environment Page 72

Bugyal's in Uthrakhand is a
representation of Tundra like vegetation
(Rododendrons)- ecologically fragile
area.

Desert biome
28 March 2016

12:21

Annual ppt <=25 cms.


Most admirable Adaptations of life in the to physical environment.

Environment Page 73

Laurentian Type
28 March 2016

12:27

Also called as Cool temperate east coast type


Because of its presence in the Eastern part of N.America.
Only seen in northern hemisphere. As south America gets tapered too much in these
latitudes

Environment Page 74

Warm temperate east coast type


28 March 2016

12:45

China type/ Temperate monsoon type

Environment Page 75

Monsoon: The word monsoon comes from arabic


word Mausim which means season and monsoon
means seasonal reversal of winds.
4 principal monsoon regions of the world
- South Asia
- East Asia
- West Africa
- Northern Australia
All are tropical areas
Broadly due to shifting of pressure belts.
Tropical areas exhibit the best monsoons as these
areas have significant shift of pressure conditions
with the movement of sun in the sky.

Ozone depletion

31 March 2016

11:14

Formation
Troposphere- CO, NO, volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. Harmful - causes smog
Stratosphere- under natural conditions when O2 breaks up in presence of UV rays. O3 is useful as it
absorbs the UV rays of the sun.
Balance b/w rate of formation and destruction of O3 The chapman cycle (construction and
destruction of O3 )
Due to ozone depleting substances ODS (CFCs, NO) the destruction of O3 has increased. Catalyses O3 + O
= 2O2
The concentration is measured in Dobson units. If the conc goes below a certain level it is termed as
ozone hole.
Construction required the UV rays hence maximum construction is in the tropical region.
Why Antartica has greater depletion compared to artic as well
Due to greater polar stratospheric clouds developed due to cold conditions and has a large ice
crystals -> binds the CFCs and chlorine is released
Cl + O3 -> ClO + O2
ClO + O -> Cl + O3
This nascent Cl again catalyses the reaction further.
Antartica is much cooler than the artic due to less landmass especially in summer season hence
the clouds are formed under more colder condition and have much larger ice crystals
The ozone absorbs the UV rays and the temp of the layer increases leading to the reduction in the
amount of ice crystals in the polar stratospheric clouds. If the conc of ozone is less- less UV absorbedmore ice crystals and the cycle continues and the process accelerates
Cold conditions - High pressure and the aloft low pressure and attracts the converging winds. At poles
called the polar vertex (over arctic as well as antartica). Much stronger in the Antartica. Arctic has two
vertex- Greenland and the Syberian
Vertex is surrounded by the Jet Streams and prevent the warm winds entering the vertex.
Again colder conditions- ice crystals
Prevalent in the months of the sep and oct (UV rays requires for CFCs breakup).
Effects
- UV radiations shorter than UV-B are almost completely absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere.
- UV-B damages DNA and mutation may occur, aging skin, damage to skin cells, inflammation of cornea
(snow- blindness), cataract

Internationals measures

Vienna convention in 1985 entered into force in 1988


PBT- underground test permitted and NO and NO2 are prevented but later in the Vienna
convention the use of CFCs must be minimised. No legal obligation for the use of CFCs
Montreal (Canada) protocol (for ozone depleting substances)
Legally binding treaty to reduce the production and consumption of ODS
Exceptions- medicinal uses

Result estimated2050 cons of the O3 over Antartica would go back to pre-90 level.
HFCs not included.
Later witnessed that these are not depleting the ozone but a very harmful greenhouse gas and
1200x more effective than the CO2
Binding on both the developing and the developed.

Environment Page 76

Polar vertex is also the reason for cold


conditions in N. America and Europe
- Meandering path of Jet streams and
the boundary will decide the cold
conditions
Arctic oscillation Index-

Kyoto is for green-house gases- No CFCs


- Only on developed countries
- Hence these nations wanted to put
HFCs in the montreal protocol.
- Initially India resisted but later on
agreed for the HFC's in the montreal
protocol

Monetreal protocol

31 March 2016

11:48

Agreed in 1987 and came into force in 1989.


Multilateral Fund
The main objective of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol is to assist
developing country parties to the Montreal Protocol whose annual per capita consumption and
production of ozone depleting substances (ODS) is less than 0.3 kg to comply with the control measures of
the Protocol. Currently, 147 of the 196 Parties to the Montreal Protocol meet these criteria (they are
referred to as Article 5 countries).
It embodies the principle agreed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in
1992 that countries have a common but differentiated responsibility to protect and manage the global
commons.

The Fund is managed by an Executive Committee with an equal representation of seven industrialized and
seven Article 5 countries, which are elected annually by a Meeting of the Parties. The Committee reports
annually to the Meeting of the Parties on its operations. The work of the Multilateral Fund on the ground
in developing countries is carried out by four Implementing Agencies, which have contractual agreements
with the Executive Committee:
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), through the UNEP DTIE OzonAction Programme.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
World Bank.
Up to 20 percent of the contributions of contributing parties can also be delivered through their bilateral
agencies in the form of eligible projects and activities.

The fund is replenished on a three-year basis by the donors. Pledges amount to US$2.1 billion over the
period 1991 to 2005. Funds are used,
for example, to finance the conversion of existing manufacturing processes, train personnel, pay royalties
and patent rights on new technologies, and establish national ozone offices.

Environment Page 77

ODS are used in refrigeration, air


conditioning, fire fighting, electronics,
foams, aerosol fumigation application

Bees vanishing- UN report


03 April 2016

17:46

To do something before the food supply suffers- UN scientific mega report warns
>20,000 species of pollinators
2/5 of invertebrates like bees and butterflies are on path towards extinction
With backbone are slightly at better position
Reasons
Not enough diversity and wild flowers for pollinators to use as food; pesticide
use, habitat loss to cities; disease, parasites and pathogens; and global warming.
risks are largely driven by changes in land cover and agricultural management
systems, including pesticide use.

Environment Page 78

App to spot animals during safari


04 April 2016

12:19

Environment Page 79

Low carbon lifestyle- Environmental minister


04 April 2016

16:57

- Solar inverters, CFLs, adequate car tyre pressure


- Switching off the car at red light- reduce annual emissions by 85-122 kg,
- Yoga instead of treadmill- 446 kg CO2

Environment Page 80

great inidan bustard


Wednesday, April 13, 2016

6:26 PM

Environment Page 81

Art of living
21 April 2016

11:30

- Yamuna flood plains exploited


- The Union Ministry of Culture, the Uttar Pradesh and Delhi governments, the Sangeet
Natak Akademi, the Lalit Kala Akademi and other organisations that have supported
the three-day extravaganza should worry that they have lent their credentials to the
creation of a large and destructive footprint for the river.
- NGT found that the organisation even failed to submit the detailed project report
- The only option for the Foundation should be to meet the full cost of scientific
restoration, consistent with the polluter-pays principle. Having claimed the
participation of 3.5 million people from 155 countries, it should not be difficult for the
organisers to mobilise the funds needed to restore the ecology of an invaluable part of
the countrys natural heritage

Environment Page 82

Fresh fire lines- Tirumala hills


21 April 2016

16:36

- India's forest is ranging from Alpine to deciduous to rain forest. Before the human
urbanisation the FF was the result of drought and heavy wind system but in the recent
years, FF are the result of both natural and man-made factors.
- Britishers introduced the culture of monoculture, introduced the Pine which are highly
inflamable. Also in case of Eucalyptus
- Because of el-nino, resulting into aridity which further resulting into further
accumulation of biomass which under the effect dry winds resulted into forest fires
- But the man-made factors like mining, camping, garbage accumulation, smoking,
shifting cultivation in tribal blocks, burning of agricultural fields by the tribal and the
highways from the jungles and illegal lumbering
- helps produce richer grazing lands by bringing about better botanical diversity on the
ground,
- Also in search of fodder

Geographical distribution
- Western himalayas- excessive monoculture and increasing aridity
- Western Ghats- mainly b/w KN and Kerala because of Chinook wind system which are
highly dry resulting into fires during spring season
- The region of Javadi, Shevoroy hills because of aridity and anthropogenic activities
- NE India because of shifting cultivation and parts of Aravalis
Suggestion
- Intensification of Forest Management Scheme (IFMS)- component of the scheme
include forest fire control and management. strengthening of infrastructure.
survey, demarcation and working plan preparation. protection and conservation of
sacred groves. conservation and restoration of unique vegetation and ecosystems.
control and eradication of forest invasive species. preparedness for meeting
challenges of bamboo flowering and improving management of bamboo forest.
- As per the National Disaster policy govt should work upon both preventive and
mitigating factors
- Preventive- move towards vulnerable mapping for the entire forest region with the
help of NTRO (National Technical Research Organisation) for the services of UAV and
with the ISRO and NRMS (National Natural resource management system), we should
provide the regular surveillance and monitoring
- With the help of forest officials and local people both for awareness and as the 1st
point of action at the time of forest fire
- effective intervention of community- led van panchayats (forest councils) in
preventing fires.
- Environment education to local residents
- Use of biomass alternatives
- Reducing the clearing of Oak trees
- AP model- Tree line- Seshachalam hills
- High alert system b/w SDRF and NDRF, flying squad for regular monitoring during the
time of aridity and drought
- Convergence and linkage b/w NDRF, forest officials, army, local police.
- Water tanks construction in the highly sentisitive areas and also taking the help of
coast guard helicopters.
- Govt should also work in coherence with states in regulating the safaris and tourism
- NGT's responsibility - demarcating the no manned zone forest especially in arid areas
Environment Page 83

- NGT's responsibility - demarcating the no manned zone forest especially in arid areas
- Conservation is highly essential- source of ecosystem services, carbon sink,
biodiversity, food, fodder, fibre, fruits and timber.
- Conservation of forest is the integral component of A-48 and A-21, hence the
responsibility of state to conserve the forest both as per national and international
obligations

CHipko movement
Chandi Prachar
Gora Devi
sunderlal Bahuguna
Paduram hedge - appiko movement

- To tackle forest fires

- Deploying 200 staff at hilltops and base camps in the Sri Venkateswara NP
- Also tackle red sandal smugglers
Forest fires
Natural
- Due to fallen leaves
Man-made-tourism
Soln
Bifurcating the forest into small stretch
Removing the trees- tree line

Environment Page 84

Uttarakhand fires
26 May 2016

18:09

National Disaster Response Force were deployed for Kumaon and Garhwal regions and
6,000 forest staf struggled to contain the flames
Two IAF helicopters to join
Mi-17 stationed near Bhimtal lake and spray water
NDMA- to guide the state
Pine trees- leaves oil content
most numerous in the Garhwal and Kumaon regions

Environment Page 85

Mitigating arctic warming


21 April 2016

18:32

can be reduced by 0.2 degrees C by 2050 by cutting down emissions of short-lived


climate forcers black carbon, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic
compounds, organic carbon and tropospheric ozone The study was published recently
in Nature Climate Change.
Short-lived climate forcers are particulate matter of various kinds emitted into the
atmosphere by natural and anthropogenic sources and which stay in the atmosphere
for at most a period of one month. Cutting down their emissions can bring in results
quickly. They are unlike carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which stay in the
atmosphere for years.
Black carbon and ozone precursors lead to warming, while sulphur-rich and organic
carbon-rich emissions form sunlight- scattering aerosols that have a cooling effect, or
negative radiative forcing. Ozone precursors (CO, NOx and VOCs) affect climate
through the formation of ozone, a potent greenhouse gas and cause warming.

Environment Page 86

GIS enabled fauna list


21 April 2016

20:18

Environment Page 87

Global nitrogen footprint


22 April 2016

11:14

United States, China, India and Brazil are responsible for 46 percent of the world's
nitrogen emissions
The international collaboration led by the University of Sydney traced the flow of
emissions from 188 countries, noted a trend for increased nitrogen production and
found wealthy nations largely responsible for pollution abroad caused by local
consumption.
only way N2 could be turned into a reactive form like ammonia or nitrous oxide (also
known as laughing gas) was either by bacteria, lightning and legumes.

Environment Page 88

Environment issues and health effects


22 April 2016

13:52

Rem: amount of radiation that causes the same amount of biological injury in man as that
resulting from the absorption of a given amount of X-ray
Lead
Mercury
Fluorine
DDT

Lead in paints
Transfat

High caffeine
Pesticide in human
blood

Gastrointestinal troubles
Neuromuscular effect
CNS effects

In the areas of Kolkata, Mumbai, Karwar, North Koel

Dental fluorisis, stiffness in joints, knock knee syndrome

Pesticide, depress the activity of estrogen and testostreone,


interferes with egg shell formation
CNS and brain

Addition of H to oils (prevents from turning rancid and ensures longer


shelf life)
heart diseases, non-communicable diseases
In energy drinks, sugar gives energy the caffeine gives the feeling of
energy

Disease caused by environmental degradation


Minamata
disease

By methly mercury in the industrial wastewater

Itai-Itai

Mass cadmium(mining companies) poisoning, softening of bones and


kidney failure

Yokkaichi asthma Sulphur dioxide (burning of petroleum)


Blue baby

High nitrate contamination in ground water-> decrease oxygen carrying


capacity- fertilizers and pesticides

Pneumoconiosis

Coal miner- black lung disease, deposit of coal dust

Silicosis

Silica in the lungs of workers in silica industry

Asbestosis

Emphysema
Sick building
syndrome

Lung disease in the asbestos industry

Breaking down of sensitive tissue of lungs due to air pollution and


smoke of cigarette
Poor indoor air quality

Environment Page 89

Ulsoor lake- Bengaluru


22 April 2016

18:35

It is usually a direct result of reduced dissolved oxygen level in the water. While algae in the
lake release oxygen into the water during daytime, it uses up dissolved oxygen during night
time along with the fish creating a big drop in the dissolved oxygen levels. So, most fish kills
are observed in early mornings,

Environment Page 90

Kundanahalli lake- bengaluru


26 May 2016

19:26

Environment Page 91

Illegalities on the Kutch coast


22 April 2016

19:26

- NGT imposed fine of 25 cr on Adanis (port infrastructure and mining giant)


- Quashed the 2013 environmental approval for the expansion of Hazira port in GJimpact fishing livelihood and expansion requires prior approvals
- This lesson is most critical for the Environment Ministry that routinely determines not
just project approvals but cases of non-compliance of laws as a trade-of between
development and its environmental consequences.
- With responding to the legal issues with bureaucratic negotiation rather than legal
principles the ministry undermines own protocol of impact assessment expert
appraisal and grant of conditional clearances that is mandated by law
- Govt unwilling to take tough stand on the habitual environment offenders
History of abuse
- APSEZ was legally challenged because the construction activities had been initiated
prior to the grant of environmental approval impacting the pastoralists and the fisher
communities
Economic growth and unlawfulness
- GJ govt issued show cause notice to 53 polluting units that have discharged effluents
into Kolak and Damanganga river estuaries in Vapi, a chemical industrial hub
- Many other eg
- Where activists were able to generate evidences of non-compliance of the projects
that result in the life threatening pollution and loss of economic opportunity and
damage to the environment

Environment Page 92

Vultures nest decline in Wayanad


23 April 2016

08:12

Environment Page 93

World cultural festival

24 April 2016

16:04

Environment Page 94

Carcinogen and microplastics


28 April 2016

09:16

In the cosmetic products entering the food chain


Lawyer asked to impose fines on the defaulting companies
No way of effective removal from the environment
Increasing in the marine environment
Used as scrubbers
Ingestion by marine organisms
America: 2.4 mg /person causing 263 tonnes of microbeads waste emission per year
India consumption would be much higher
In the toothpaste: struck in the gums
In water acts as vehicles for other pollutants
Once get into food chain carry synthetic chemical compounds such polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) and Poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Environment Page 95

The India state of forest report- 2015


02 May 2016

17:36

Forest cover of India has increased by 5,081 square kilometre between 2013 and 2015. The
India State Forest Report 2015, released by Union Environment Minister, Prakash Javadekar,
also showed that the country's carbon stock has also increased by 103 million tonnes.
Here are some positive points to know from the forest report:

India follows a policy of keeping one-third of the country's total land area under forest and
tree cover
The forest cover of India has increased by 21.34 percent in the last two years
Very dense forests in India cover 2.61 percent of the total forest area, moderately dense
forests account for 9.59 percent while open forests stand at 9.14 percent
Among all the states and Union Territories, Mizoram has the highest forest cover with 88.93
percent of the total area, followed by Lakshadweep
However, northeastern states have experienced a decline in forest cover except Manipur
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have gained around 1,930 square kilometre of very dense
forests, Uttar Pradesh has added 572 square kilometre of very dense forest cover and Tamil
Nadu has reported a net gain of 100 square kilometre of very dense forest cover
The mangrove cover in India has increased by 112 square kilometre following acute
conservation in the Sundarbans and Bhitarkanika forest.
Here are some downsides of the forest report:
Although the total forest cover has seen an increase, around 2,510 square kilometre of very
dense and mid-dense forests have been wiped out since 2013
States of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Kerala, Arunachal Pradesh,
Karnataka and Telangana have suffered huge loss of forest cover
Around 2,254 square kilometre of mid-dense forest cover has turned into non-forest lands
in the past two years.

Environment Page 96

Paryavaran Chavadi
03 May 2016

19:33

Pune has decided to revive an age-old tradition to formulate innovative solutions. Two
NGO Biospheres and Tellus with the backing of the Pune Municipal Corporation and
the Pune Forest Division, held the first Paryavaran Chavadi an assembly to discuss
environmental problems at the Parvati Hills

Environment Page 97

NGT

08 May 2016

23:12

The NGT has the power to hear all civil cases relating to environmental issues and questions
that are linked to the implementation of laws listed in Schedule I of the NGT Act. These
include the following:

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;


The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977;
The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980;
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981;
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986;
The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991;
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

From <http://www.visionias.in/student_open/pt/test_result.php?test_id=2057&package_id=1276&compare_with=3>

Environment Page 98

NGT notice to railways over groundwater use


04 May 2016

21:34

Use for cleaning train coaches


Extracting behemoth groundwater without permission from concerned authorities

Environment Page 99

Tells aviation to slow down noise


08 May 2016

23:12

Asked the regulators why night curfew on flight is not implemented


Asked DGCA to task over lack of norms on noise pollution in the residential area
Affecting health of nearby residents

Environment Page 100

Rohtang pass
31 May 2016

01:59

Ravi and Beas


Refused to permit any activities -- paragliding, snow scooters, horse riding in the
area stating that it is imperative to maintain ``the environmental and ecological
balance

Environment Page 101

Ballast water bringing invasive species to coast


05 May 2016

19:43

Scientists fear that the expansion of seaports and minor ports could pave the way for the
arrival of invasive species in coastal areas. It is because the ballast water carried by ships is
providing a vehicle to bring in exotic species.
Background:

A recent survey by the Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala,
had recorded the presence of as many as 10 invasive species in the biodiversity-rich
intertidal habitats of the Kerala coast. They include one seaweed, one species of bryozoan,
one species of mollusc and seven species of ascidian. It was assumed that the distribution of
invasive species reported from the Kerala coast was likely to have been assisted by shipping.
Environment Page 102

invasive species reported from the Kerala coast was likely to have been assisted by shipping.
The survey argues that the expansion of ports in Kerala has opened ways for the
introduction of alien species in marine and coastal areas.
The survey also recorded the presence of a sea slug called Winged Thecacera ( Thecacera
Pennigera ) in the southwest coast of India. Originally reported from the Atlantic coast of
Europe, the presence of sea slug is currently reported from South Africa, West Africa,
Pakistan, Japan, Brazil, eastern Australia and New Zealand.
What is Ballast?

Ballast is a compartment in a ship that provides it stability. It holds water which moves in
and out of it to balance the ship. It remains below the water level, to counteract the weight
above the water level.
Concerns:

Ballast water is one of the biggest transporters of non-native marine species. Studies done
by experts have indicated that over 10,000 marine species are being transported across the
world in ballast water carried by ocean-going vessels for stability and safety.
Ballast water is discharged when the ship enters a new port, releasing alien organisms into
the local waters.
The colossal loads of ballast water carried by ships could transport fish, viruses, bacteria,
algae, zooplankton and benthonic invertebrates to harbours at a faster pace.
Very few of the invasive species establish a beachhead in their newfound homes, but those
that do have the potential to wreak havoc on the ecosystem by preying on local species or
competing with them for food and habitat space.
Ballast water is also considered a vehicle for toxic algae causing red tides and harmful algal
blooms.
Ballast Water Management Convention:

The Ballast Water Management Convention, adopted in 2004, aims to prevent the spread of
harmful aquatic organisms from one region to another, by establishing standards and
procedures for the management and control of ships ballast water and sediments.
Under the Convention, all ships in international traffic are required to manage their ballast
water and sediments to a certain standard, according to a ship-specific ballast water
management plan.
All ships will also have to carry a ballast water record book and an international ballast
water management certificate.
The Convention will require all ships to implement a Ballast Water and Sediments
Management Plan. All ships will have to carry a Ballast Water Record Book and will be
required to carry out ballast water management procedures to a given standard. Existing
ships will be required to do the same, but after a phase-in period.
Parties to the Convention are given the option to take additional measures which are
subject to criteria set out in the Convention and to IMO guidelines.
Indias Union Cabinet has already approved accession to the International Convention for
the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 (Ballast Water
Management Convention) of International Maritime Organization (IMO).

Environment Page 103

Solar powered boat


10 May 2016

02:26

Environment Page 104

NEMMP
17 May 2016

00:23

National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 in 2013.


national fuel security by promoting hybrid and electric vehicles in the country. There is
an ambitious target to achieve 6-7 million sales of hybrid and electric vehicles year on
year from 2020 onwards.

Environment Page 105

Kerala mission to conserve sacred grooves


17 May 2016

16:23

the State Medicinal Plants Board (SMPB) is embarking on a project for conservation of
sacred groves in Kerala
Funded by the National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), the Rs.1.34-crore project
involves conservation and resource augmentation of sacred groves with medicinal
plants in over 100 hectares.
include bio-fencing, inventorisation of plant wealth and cleaning up of water bodies.

Environment Page 106

EP100

25 May 2016

02:06

Mahindra & Mahindra on 22 April 2016 became the first Indian company to join a
global energy campaign, EP100, led by an international non-profit group, The
Climate Group.
It will work with the world's most influential businesses in setting commitments to
double their energy productivity.
By signing to this campaign, the company committed to double its energy
productivity by 2030 which is a core requirement for any business signing on to the
campaign.
The concept of energy productivity aligns energy efficiency more directly with
business growth and development objectives. If more companies were to adopt
energy productivity within their business models, the global fossil fuel bill could be
reduced by an estimated 2 trillion Euros (INR 1 crore 52 lakhs crores) and create
more than six million jobs globally by 2020.

Environment Page 107

Surya Jyoti
25 May 2016

02:20

Low cost lightening devices run on solar power


DoST
Reduction of 12.5 million tonnes of CO2- fillip to clean India green India
Job opportunities

Environment Page 108

National Hydrology project


25 May 2016

02:30

Aim water management through scientific data collection


With the help of WB loan repaid by central govt
Automated system for flood forecasting
Farmer centric programme
Assessment of surface and ground water resources

Environment Page 109

National Parks & Wildlife Sanctuaries in India

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

12:30 PM

Name

Place

Rajaji National Park

Uttarakhand

Great Himalayan National Park


Valley of flowers National Park
Corbett National Park

Himachal Pradesh

Blue sheep, Snow leopard, Musk Deer

Uttarakhand

Snow Leopard, Flora

Uttar Pradesh

Keoladeo National Park or


(Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary)

Rajasthan

Name

Tigers

Birds & Deers

Famous for

Assam

Tigers, Elephants

Kaziranga National Park

Assam

Sundarbans National Park

Tigers

Place

Rajashthan

Keibul Lamjao National Park

Tigers

Rajashthan

Ranthambore National Park


Manas National Park

Elephants, Tigers

Uttarakhand

Dudhwa tiger Reserve


Sariska National Park

Famous for

Manipur
West Bengal
Environment Page 110

Tigers

One-Horned Rhinoceroses

Only floating park in the world, Famous for Sangai or


Dancing Deers
Tigers

Gorumara

West Bengal

Bandhavgarh National Park

Madhya Pradesh

Pench National Park

Madhya Pradesh

Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary


Kanha National Park

Orissa

Madhya Pradesh

Tigers

Tigers
Tigers

Name

Place

Famous for

Bandipur National Park

Karnataka

Tiger

Parambikulam Tiger Reserve

Kerala

Gir National Park

Nagarhole National Park

Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary


Periyar National Park

Gujrat

Karnataka
Kerala
Kerala

Environment Page 111

Asiatic Lions

Tigers & Elephants


Tiger
Tiger

Tigers & Elephants

Name

Place

Famous for

Nanda Devi National Park

Uttarakhand

Mouling National Park

Arunachal Pradesh

Red Panda

Dachigam National Park

Kanchenjunga National Park


Namdapha National Park
Nameri National Park

Balpakhram National Park


Desert National Park

Marine National Park

Madhav National Park

Chandra Prabha National Park


Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary

J&K

Sikkim

Arunachal Pradesh
Assam

Meghalaya
Rajasthan

Gulf of Kutch

Madhya Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh

Rann of Kutchh

Environment Page 112

Hangul/Kashmiri Stag

Musk Deer, Snow Leopard


Red Giant Flying Squirrel
Elephants

Elephants, Golden cat


-

Wild Ass

Panna National Park

Madhya Pradesh

Tiger

Palamu National Park

Jharkhand

Tiger

Simlipal National Park

Odisha

Tiger

Indravati National Park

Chhattisgarh

Tiger & wild Buffalo

Betla National Park

Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary


Melghat Tiger Reserve

NagarJuna National Park

Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary


Banerghatta National Park
Silent Valley National Park

Jharkhand
Jharkhand

Maharashtra
Andhra Pradesh
Goa

Karnataka
Kerala

bison, elephant, tiger, leopard, axis-axis

Elephants
Tiger
Tiger
-

Tiger
-

Clipped from: http://iasmania.com/national-parks-wildlife-sanctuaries-in-india/

Environment Page 113

PLI Act, 1991


28 May 2016

00:29

Public liabilities Insurance act, 1991

Provisions:
The act makes it obligatory upon the user industries handling 179 types of chemicals
and compounds and other classes of flammable substances to subscribe a special
insurance policy to cover the liabilities likely to arise on account of any chemical
(industrial) disaster/accident.
These liabilities are payable to those affected people who are not the workers.
The Act establishes an Environment Relief Fund (ERF), which is subscribed by all
such user industries.
Why in news:
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has issued directions to
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to ensure better implementation of Public
Liability Insurance (PLI) Act, 1991.
All the State Pollution Control Boards(SPCBs)/Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) for
UTs have been advised for including PLI insurance policy as one of the point in the
check list before according or renewing CTE (Consent to Establish) or CTO (Consent to
Establish) to an industry.

Environment Page 114

IUCN red list


28 May 2016

00:38

According to IUCN red list 2015, a total of 180 bird species in India are now threatened, as
against 173 last
year.
Five species have been uplisted from the Least Concerned to the Near Threatened
category, a sign of increased threat. These are Northern Lapwing (a grassland bird)
and four wetland birds, namely Red Knot, Curlew Sandpiper, Eurasian Oystercatcher
and Bar-Tailed Godwit.
Two other wetland birds, Horned Grebe and Common Pochard have been uplisted
from Least Concerned to Vulnerable.
Steppe Eagle (a raptor from grasslands), which is a regular winter visitor to the
Indian subcontinent, has been uplisted from Least Concerned to Endangered.
The list of threatened species keeps on increasing with every assessment.
Major Reason: Destruction of grasslands, wetlands and forests.
The other reason for decline of birds like Steppe Eagle, which mostly scavenges on
animal carcasses, is the use of veterinary drug diclofenac used to treat livestock.
This drug causes renal failure in these birds. Three vulture species, namely Whitebacked, Slender-billed and Long-billed have also been severely affected by diclofenac

Environment Page 115

State of Forests Report 2015 - General Knowledge Today


Sunday, June 5, 2016

11:14 PM

State of Forests Report is published by the Forest Survey of India (FSI) on


a biennial basis since 1987. Forest cover of the country is mapped
through indigenous RESOURCESAT -2 satellite data with a LISS III
sensor.
Key Definitions

Canopy and Canopy Density

The cover of branches and Foliage formed by the crown of trees is called
Canopy. The percentage area of land covered by the canopy of trees is
called Canopy density.
Forest Cover

All lands which are more than 1 hectare in area and with a Canopy
density of more than 10% irrespective of the ownership and legal status
is called Forest Cover. Also it does not make any distinction whether the
forest is natural or manmade forest, government or private, recorded or
not recorded. It includes bamboo, orchards, palm etc.
Recorded Forest Area and Forest Blank

The area recorded as forests in the Government records is called Forest


Area or Recorded Forest Area. The patches within the forest area which
have little or no trees are called Forest Blank. The recorded Forest Area
denotes the legal status of the land. It is defined as the geographic area
recorded as forest in government records, state law or any local law. It is
different from the forest cover as forest area may include areas with less
than 10% of tree canopy density and may exclude areas more than 10%
of tree canopy density.
E-Watch

It is a web based GIS application developed for monitoring various


activities funded under CAMPA (Compensatory Afforestation Fund
Management and Planning Authority) CAMPA is meant to promote
afforestation activities in order to compensate for forest land diverted to
non-forest uses).
Carbon Stock

It is defined as the amount of carbon stored in the ecosystem of the


forest especially in living biomass and soil.
Best Season to get Satellite Data of Forests

October December is the best season. The reflectance from the forests
is dependent on the crown foliage and its chlorophyll content. Due to
seasonal variability of the tree phenology over the year, season of
satellite data acquisition is of utmost importance for forest cover
Environment Page 116

satellite data acquisition is of utmost importance for forest cover


assessment.

Deciduous forests allow more reflectance from the ground surface during
leafless period thus making their own detection and classification difficult.
Hence, data of the spring-summer season is not suitable for interpretation
of such forest types. During rainy season, the situation is compounded
due to non availability of cloud-free data and mixing of agricultural and
other green covers with forest cover due to similarity in their spectral
reflectance. Taking these limitations into consideration, satellite data of
the period October to December is considered to be the most suitable for
forest cover mapping of the entire country. However, in cases where
cloud free data is not available for this period, data of January to March is
procured.
Types of Forest Covers

The degraded forest lands which have a Canopy density of less than 10%
are called Scrubs. The Lands with Canopy density of 10-40% are called
Open Forests. The Land with forest cover having a canopy density of
40-70% is called the Moderately Dense Forest (MDF) The Lands with
forest cover having a canopy density of 70% and more are called Very
Dense Forests (VDF).
State of Forests Report 2015: Key Findings

Total forest cover in India: 7,01,673 sq km (increase of 3775 sqkm)


Total forest cover as percentage of geographical area: 21.34 per cent
Total tree cover in India: 92,572 sq km (increase of 1306 sq km)
Total tree cover as percentage of geographical area : 2.82 per cent
State with largest total forest cover: Madhya Pradesh having 77, 462
sq km
State having highest forest cover as % of its area: Mizoram (88.93
per cent)
Increase in carbon sink:103 million tonnes CO2 equivalent

Top five states with maximum forest cover

Indias top five states with maximum forest cover (in km) are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Madhya Pradesh (77,462)


Arunachal Pradesh (67,248)
Chhattisgarh (55,586)
Maharashtra (50,628)
Orissa (50,354)

Top five states with maximum forest cover as part of their area

Top five states / UTs with maximum forest cover as percentage of their
own geographical area are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mizoram (88.93%)
Lakshadweep (84.56%)
A&N islands (81.84%)
Arunachal Pradesh (80.30%)
Nagaland (78.21%)

Environment Page 117

5. Nagaland (78.21%)

Forest Cover in Altitude Zones

Important Observations

Out of the total forest cover, the maximum share is of Moderate


Dense Forests, followed by Open Forests. The very dense forests in
India are in just around 2.5% of total geographical area of the
country.
Among all the states of India the states which have shown
considerable improvement in their forest cover are: Tamil Nadu,
Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka.
The states where forest cover has decreased substantially are
Mizoram ,Telangana, Uttarakhand, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh.
The total forest cover in the hill districts of the country is 283,015 sq
km which is 39.99 % of total geographic area of these districts. In
the latest report the hill districts have recorded a net increase of
1680 sq km area.
North east constitutes only 7.98% of geographical area of the country
but it occupies one fourth of the forest cover. However according to
the current report there is a decrease in the forest cover in the north
east by 628 sq km which is primarily because of shifting cultivation
and increase in biotic pressure.

Mangroves Cover

In worlds total mangrove vegetation, Indias share stands at 3%.


Currently Mangrove cover in India is 4740 km which is 0.14 % of the
countrys geographical area. Sundarbans in West Bengal accounts for
almost half of the total area. As compared to 2013 there is a net increase
of 112 sq km in the mangrove cover. Top five states with maximum
Mangrove cover are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

West Bengal (2106)


Gujarat (1107)
Andaman & Nicobar Island (617)
Andhra Pradesh (367)
Odisha (231)

Mangroves are also found in Tamil Nadu, Goa, Kerala, Daman & Diu,
Karnataka and Puducherry.
Total Carbon Stock

The total carbon stock has also increased by 103 million tonnes or an
increase of 1.48 in percentage terms compared to previous assessments.
Environment Page 118

increase of 1.48 in percentage terms compared to previous assessments.


The total carbon stock in the countrys forest is around 7, 044 million
tonnes. The increase in the carbon stock shows the commitment of the
country towards achieving INDC target of additional carbon sink of 2.5 to
3.0 billion tonnes of CO2.
Clipped from: http://www.gktoday.in/blog/state-of-forests-report-2015/

Environment Page 119

Global urban Ambient air pollution


05 June 2016

09:35

Report by WHO
Delhi ranked 11/3000
Zabol ranked 1
e

Environment Page 120

Taj turning Green


10 June 2016

11:13

Insect identified as Geoldichironomus (Chironomus calligraphus). Activists attributed


it to the rising pollution levels of the Yamuna, saying it led to an explosive breeding of
the insect in the river, on whose banks stands the 17th century monument.
Breeding due to high pollution levels and waste dumping in Yamuna

Environment Page 121