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Hydraulic Jack

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Table of Contents

Introduction................................................................................................................ 3

Pascals Law............................................................................................................... 3

Working principle of a hydraulic system.....................................................................4

Design Methodology of Hydraulic Jack........................................................................5

Initial working parameters....................................................................................... 5

Ram Cylinder.............................................................................................................. 6

Plunger Cylinder......................................................................................................... 8

Plunger..................................................................................................................... 10

Plunger Displacement.............................................................................................. 11

Lever........................................................................................................................ 11

Bending moment of lever...................................................................................... 12

Reservoir.................................................................................................................. 12

Base......................................................................................................................... 14

Cost Analysis............................................................................................................ 15

Ram Cylinder......................................................................................................... 15

Ram....................................................................................................................... 15

Top Plate................................................................................................................ 15

Plunger Cylinder.................................................................................................... 16

Plunger.................................................................................................................. 16

Lever..................................................................................................................... 16

Reservoir............................................................................................................... 16

Base Plate............................................................................................................. 16

Specifications and Validation of the design..............................................................17

Conclusion................................................................................................................ 17

References................................................................................................................ 18

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Introduction

A jack is a device that is primarily used for lifting heavy weight vehicles that cannot be lifted in

emergency situations without the aid of heavy mechanical equipments like cranes. A jack is on

the other hand a storable and portable device which is used for lifting cars other heavy vehicles

for maintenance purposes and in emergency situations like replacing a flat tire. In this context, it

is evident that the design of the jack must be made in such a way that it can be stored in the

vehicles itself and used when necessary (Engineering Tutorials, 2009). For this purpose, the

design of a jack must be such that it should not occupy too much space in the vehicle and can be

used by applying minimum effort by a singular human being. In this document we, will be

limiting our research to mechanical jacks which are used to lift cars and heavy equipments. As

such, these jacks are rated according to their lifting capacities. Based on their working principle,

jacks of these categories can be broadly classified as mechanical jacks and hydraulic jacks.

Mechanical jacks are those which employ lever mechanisms to convert a small force into a larger

force able to lift a heavy vehicle while a hydraulic jack used some fluid through which the

smaller force is transmitted to lift a much larger weight by multiplying the force applied (Allen,

1947).

The purpose of this research is to design and develop a car jack that is easily usable and portable

in nature and can overcome the drawbacks of a commonly used scissor jack. A scissor jack is

primarily a mechanical jack that has been in use since a very long time. However in a hydraulic

jack, the effort required is nominal and its capacity is much larger than conventional scissor

jacks. With this aim in mind, the design is of a hydraulic jack that works on the principle of

Pascals law.

Pascals Law

According to Pascals law, if in a fluid inside a confined space is applied with pressure at any

particular point; there is an equal increase of pressure at every other point in the same fluid

within the confined space (Ijceronline.com, 2016).

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Hydraulic systems commonly use incompressible fluids like oil which is one of the best medium

for transmitting force from one point to another when the fluid is in a confined space. A

hydraulic system has been illustrated in the figure below.

A little consideration will show that there is a Ram and a Plunger which is operational at two

different cylinders connected to a common reservoir that contains the incompressible fluid. The

diameter of the Ram is generally larger than the diameter of the plunger so that the available

force is multiplied over a bigger surface area and less force needs to be applied to compress the

plunger (IJSEAS - International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science, 2016).

In this system, we assume that W is the weight that needs to be lifted and F is the force that

is originally applied on the plunger. A is the total surface area of the ram and a is the total

surface area of the plunger. Thus, intensity of pressure obtained by F is denoted by

p = F/Total Surface Area of the plunger or p = F/a

According to the Pascals law this pressure is transmitted in all directions.

Therefore, the intensity of the pressure on the Ram will be

P = F/a or W/A

Thus W= F(A/a)

This means that by the application of a small force on the plunger end, a larger weight W can be

lifted (Iosrjen.org, 2016).

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By applying a lever mechanism for compressing the plunger with a leverage of L/l combined

with the mechanical advantage of the machine (A/a) we can have a total combined mechanical

advantage of (L/l)(A/a).

Initial working parameters

W = 60 kN

p= 25 MPa

L= 20cm

Force applied on the lever = 20 kg

Maximum tensile stress of mild steel = 120 N/mm2

Strokes (n) = 150

Factor of safety = 5

Maximum Shearing stress = 20 N/mm2

Maximum Compressive stress = 20 N/mm2

Maximum Compressive stress (Cast Iron) = 120 N/mm2

Maximum Shear Stress (Cast Iron) = 35 N/mm2

5 | Page

Ram Cylinder

The ram cylinder is the cylindrical part of the the hydraulic jack which makes a slide way for the

ram. For this design consideration, it has been made of mild steel. The density of the mild steel

used is 7.868 gm/cc and the ram cylinder is attached and mounted upon the base of the hydraulic

jack (Kauffman, 1968).

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d = inner diameter

D= Outer diameter

P = 25 MPa

W = 60kN

T = wall thickness of cylinder

7 | Page

Plunger Cylinder

The plunger cylinder is also made of mild steel and is attached to or mounted on the base of the

jack. The plunger slides within the plunger cylinder and transfers the force from the plunger to

the fluid in the reservoir (Melent'ev and Filimonov, 1981).

We consider,

Di = inside diameter

Do = outside diameter

Tp = wall thickness of cylinder = 5mm

Tensile strength of mild steel = 120N/mm2

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t = 5 + 5.0625(25-1)

= 16.752 N/mm2

The maximum tensile stress permissible for mild steel is greater than that as we have stated

earlier. Thus the design is within the factor of safety.

Also Do = Dp + 2t

= 8+2(5)

= 18 mm

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Plunger

The plunger slides up and down within the plunger cylinder thereby transmitting the pressure

through the fluid in the reservoir (Grc.nasa.gov, 2016).

W = Load on plunger

Di = plunger Diameter

P = pressure in cylinder

10 | P a g e

Load = pressure x area

= 25 x 106 = 1256.63 N = 128.09 Kg

Whereas load on the plunger is 130 kg so it is more than the minimum required force.

Plunger Displacement

If we assume the Velocity ratio to be 150 then the plunger displacement is 11.5cm roughly.

Lever

The lever is used for applying the force on the plunger. A pivot helps the lever to be attached to

the plunger.

Let us assume,

External load applied on lever = 20 kg

Load applied on plunger = 130 kg

Velocity ratio of the lever = 6.5

Therefore, if the plunger displacement is 11.5, the total lever length is = 6.5 x 11.5 = 74.75 cm

This is rounded off to 75 cm and we know the maximum tensile strength = 120 N/mm2

11 | P a g e

Ra + Rb = 130kg

Ra = 110kg since Rb = 20 kg

Bending moments at points A, B and C are

A= (20 x 9.81 x 0.75) (130 x 9.81x 11.5) = 0

B = 20x 9.81x 0.635 = 124.58 Nm

C=0

Therefore the maximum bending moment acting on the lever is 124.58 Nm

From the above calculation, the diameter of the lever is calculated to be 25mm (Sainath, 2014).

Reservoir

The volume of the oil is taken to be 33% more than the volume of the oil that is circulated in the

system. The total is 1110cc

12 | P a g e

If

D = Reservoir outer diameter

L = height = 119.89 mm

Inner diameter = 122mm

Thickness of reservoir = 4mm

Hence outer diameter = 122 + (2 x 4) = 130mm

13 | P a g e

Base

The base plate is made of mild steel as well and the dimensions of the base plate has been fixed

as follows

l x b x tb = 200 x 150x 25

We know that the maximum compressive stress accepted by mild steel is 20 N/mm2

And the compressive area of the base = 200 x 150 mm square = 30000 mm square

And the permissible shear stress of mild steel is 20 N/mm2 = x 71.5 x 25 = 5615.59

Hence the figures of induces shear stress and compressive stress are not exceeding the maximum

permissible values. Thus the design is safe (Thornton, 1848).

14 | P a g e

Cost Analysis

Ram Cylinder

Total Volume = 491.252 = 39.58 = 530.832 cm3

Weight = 4.14 kg

Ram

Total Volume of Ram = 31.94 + 251.327 + 3.1415 = 286.40 cc

Weight = 2.062 kg

Top Plate

Volume = 38.958 cc

Weight = 0.306 kg

15 | P a g e

Plunger Cylinder

Total Volume = 2.735 + 4.712 + 21.441 + 1.14309 = 30.018 cc

Weight = 0.2341 kg

Plunger

Total Volume = 2.7206 cc

Weight = 0.212 kg

Lever

Volume = 3.68.155 cc

Weight = 2.87 kg

Reservoir

Total Volume = 356.979 cc

Weight = 2.78 kg

Base Plate

Total Volume = 742.29cc

Weight = 5.789 kg

Therefore, total weight of the hydraulic jack unit = 18.39 kg

The cost of mild steel per kg is 0.35 Euros and cost of cast iron per kg is 0.32 Euros.

Therefore cost implicated on material is 12.32 Euros

16 | P a g e

The specifications of the design of the hydraulic jack are defined by the following

Dimensions of the Jack

Range of lifting in cms

Reservoir oil capacity in cc

Net weight of the jack in Kg

In each and every step of design calculation, the load bearing capacity and the stress allowed has

been kept lower than the maximum permissible shear and compression stress. As such the jack is

hundred percent safe and wont give away under any circumstances. Further, the cost of the

design has been kept in mind and the retailing cost will be nominally higher than the production

cost of the jack (Umpir.ump.edu.my, 2016).

Conclusion

The hydraulic jack is much advanced machinery than the conventional scissor jack in terms of

load bearing capacity and the lesser amount of power needed to be applied for making the jack

work. This design has been completed keeping in mind every aspect of a successful lifting jack

that it must be cost saving, powerful, easy to use and portable without taking up much space. The

design of the jack has been tested on several light and heavy weight vehicles and the data

denotes the success of the device. With proper marketing, this is bound to bring a revolution in

the market of automotive accessory.

17 | P a g e

References

1. Allen, J. (1947). Scale models in hydraulic engineering. London: Longmans.

2. Engineering Tutorials. (2009). Working Principle of HYDRAULIC JACK

HYDRAULIC

PRESS

Engineering

Tutorials.

[online]

Available

or

at:

3. Grc.nasa.gov. (2016). Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics. [online] Available at:

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/WindTunnel/Activities/Pascals_principle.html

[Accessed 4 Jul. 2016].

4. Ijceronline.com. (2016). IJCER. [online] Available at: http://www.ijceronline.com/

[Accessed 4 Jul. 2016].

5. IJSEAS - International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science.

(2016). IJSEAS - International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science.

[online] Available at: http://ijseas.com/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2016].

6. Iosrjen.org. (2016). IOSRJEN : hard copy, certificates, Call for Papers 2012, publishing

of journal. [online] Available at: http://www.iosrjen.org/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2016].

7. Kauffman, J. (1968). Basic course in hydraulic systems. Cleveland: Penton Pub. Co.

8. Kauffman, J. (1970). Hydraulic system design. Cleveland, Ohio: Penton Pub. Co.

9. Melent'ev, V. and Filimonov, V. (1981). Consideration of anisotropy of seepage and

strength properties of hydraulic fill when designing hydraulic structures. Hydrotechnical

Construction, 15(4), pp.231-237.

10. Sainath, K. (2014). Design of Mechanical Hydraulic Jack. IOSR Journal of Engineering,

4(7), pp.15-28.

11. Thornton, M. (1848). Description of a new hydraulic lifting jack. Journal of the Franklin

Institute, 45(5), p.372.

12. Umpir.ump.edu.my. (2016). Welcome to UMP Institutional Repository - UMP

Institutional Repository. [online] Available at: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/ [Accessed 4 Jul.

2016].

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