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Universidad de Manila

College of Health Sciences

Report
on
Expanded Program on
Immunization (EPI)
Submitted by:
Tuazon, Jennah Ricci J.
NR-41 / Group 6

Submitted to:
Prof. Geraldine D. Vidal, RN, MAN
Clinical Instructor

What is Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)?


The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was established in 1976 to ensure that
infants/children and mothers have access to routinely recommended infant/childhood vaccines.
Six vaccine-preventable diseases were initially included in the EPI: tuberculosis, poliomyelitis,
diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles. In 1986, 21.3% fully immunized children less than
fourteen months of age based on the EPI Comprehensive Program review.
What is Immunization?
Immunization is a process by which vaccines are introduce into the body before infection
sets in.
What is Vaccine?
Vaccine is administered to induce immunity thereby causing the recipients immune
system to react to the vaccine that produces antibodies to fight infection. Vaccine also promotes
health and protect children from disease causing agents.
What are the Diseases Targeted by Immunization?

Tuberculosis
Diphtheria
Pertussis
Tetanus
Poliomyelitis
Measles
Hepatitis

What are the Vaccines Given to the Newborns?

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)


- Given the earliest possible age to protect the possibility of TB meningitis and other
TB infections in which infants are prone
- Given intradermally, 0.05 mL at the right deltoid region of arm
Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus (DPT)
- At an early start, DPT reduces the chance of severe pertussis
- Given intramuscularly, 0.5 mL at the upper outer portion of thigh
Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)
- Extent of protection against polio is increased the earlier the OPV is given

- Given orally, 2 drops (or depending on manufacturers instruction)


Hepatitis B Vaccine
- Early start reduces chance of being infected and becoming a carrier
- Prevents liver cirrhosis and cancer
- Given intramuscularly, 0.5 mL at the upper outer portion of thigh
Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine (MMR)
- Given subcutaneously, 0.5 mL at the outer part of arm

What is the Schedule of the Routine Immunization in Newborns?

DPT
OPV
Hep B

Minimum Age at 1st


Dose
Birth/ any time after
birth
6 weeks
6 weeks
At birth

MMR

9 months

Vaccine
BCG

No. of Doses

Minimum Interval
Between Doses

1
3
3
3

4 weeks
4 weeks
6 weeks from 1st dose
to 2nd dose; 8 weeks
from 2nd dose to 3d
dose

Introduction of New Vaccines

Rotavirus Immunization
- Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children.
Pneumococcal Vaccine
- The pneumococcal vaccine provides immunity against pneumonia.
Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
- IPV consists of inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types.
- IPV is given by intramuscular injection.