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EARTHS LAYERS & PLATE TECTONICS GLOSSARY

Name: _________________________
CONTINENTS

ALFRED WEGENER

ASTHENOSPHERE

COLLIDE

German scientist from the

layer in the upper part of

to crash, slam into, bump, or the seven main landmasses of

early 1900s. He studied the the mantle made of

smash head-on

Earth: Europe, Asia, Africa,

formation of the Earth. He

partially molten (melted)

North America, South America,

proposed the theory of

rock. The tectonic plates

Australia and Antarctica

Continental Drift and

sit on top of the

Pangaea
CONTINENTAL CRUST

asthenosphere
CONTINENTAL DRIFT

CONVECTION CURRENTS

CONVERGENT BOUNDARY

the rocky material that

theory that the continents

the movement of fluid

a tectonic plate boundary

makes the continents

were all connected, broke

(gas or liquid), caused by

where two plates move toward

apart, and moved (drifted)

differences in temperature, each other and collide

to where they are now over

that transfers heat from

a period of millions of years

one part of the fluid to

CRUST

CRUSTAL FEATURES

another
DENSITY

DIVERGENT BOUNDARY

the thin layer of rock that

things like volcanoes,

the amount of mass in a

a plate boundary where two

makes Earths outer

mountains, faults, valleys,

given volume of a substance

plates move away from each

surface

or other formations on the

or object; or how much

other

crust

stuff is packed into a

EARTHQUAKE

FAULT LINE

certain space
INNER CORE

LITHOSPHERE

the shaking that results

a break or crack in the

a dense ball of solid metal

the crust of the Earth plus the

from the movement of rock

Earths lithosphere along

at the center of Earth;

top part of the mantle.

made of solid iron and

Tectonic plates are made of

nickel

lithosphere.

along a transform boundary which rocks can move and


make earthquakes (usually
in a transform boundary)

EARTHS LAYERS & PLATE TECTONICS GLOSSARY


MAGMA

MANTLE

Name: _________________________
MID-OCEAN RIDGE
MOUNTAIN RANGE

the molten mixture of rock- the layer of Earth between

the undersea mountain

a series of connected or very

forming substances, gases,

the crust and the outer

chains that are made when

close mountains

and water that make up

core. Its solid in the inner

plates diverge (separate)

part of Earths mantle; it

mantle, and magma in the

and new magma comes up to

flows like hot, very thick

outer mantle

the surface

oatmeal.
OCEANIC CRUST

OUTER CORE

PANGAEA

PLATE TECTONICS THEORY

the part of the crust that

Layer of Earth between the

Great single landmass of

Theory that the Earths

is beneath the oceans; it is

mantle and inner core that

225 million years ago that

lithosphere is divided into

thinner and denser than

has some properties of a

broke up into todays

plates that constantly move

continental crust

liquid; made mostly of

continents

and change the land

RIFT VALLEY

melted iron and nickel


SEAFLOOR

SUBDUCTION

TECTONIC PLATE

A low part of the landscape

The ground at the bottom

When two plates collide (or

A piece of the lithosphere (the

that forms on land where

of the sea (or ocean)

converge), and the denser

crust plus some of the upper

tectonic plates separate, or

plate goes under the other

mantle). Earth is covered by

diver
RIFT VALLEY

SEAFLOOR

plate
SUBDUCTION

many tectonics plates


TECTONIC PLATE

A low part of the landscape

The ground at the bottom

When two plates collide (or

A piece of the lithosphere (the

that forms on land where

of the sea (or ocean).

converge), and the denser

crust plus some of the upper

tectonic plates separate, or

plate goes under the other

mantle). Earth is covered by

diverge

plate

many tectonic plates

EARTHS LAYERS & PLATE TECTONICS GLOSSARY

Name: _________________________

TRANSFORM BOUNDARY

TRENCH

VOLCANO

A plate boundary where two

A deep valley in the ocean

Hill or mountain with a vent

plates move in opposite

floor; trenches are the

through which magma, lava,

directions and slide past

deepest parts of the oceans steam, or gases are

each other, creating a lot of


pressure and stress

released from the mantle