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Operational Amplifiers(Op-Amp)

It is direct coupled high gain amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a
single-ended output.
It is available as a single integrated circuit package.

Used to amplify both ac and dc signals

Originally designed to perform mathematical operations
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Differential amplifiers
Differential amplifier amplifies the difference between two input signals.

Dual input, balanced output differential amplifier.

Dual input, unbalanced output differential amplifier.

Single input, balanced output differential amplifier.

Single input, unbalanced output differential amplifier.

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DC analysis of Dual input balanced output differential amplifier:

To obtain the operating point (ICQ and VCEQ) - reduce the input voltages v1 and v2 to zero
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Applying KVL to the base emitter loop of the transistor Q1.

VCE =?
VC =VCC IC RC
and VCE = VC VE
= VCC IC RC + VBE
VCE = VCC + VBE ICRC
Example - 1
The following specifications are given for the dual input, balanced-output
differential amplifier.
RC = 2.2 k, RE = 4.7 k, Rin 1 = Rin 2 = 50 , +VCC = 10V, -VEE = -10 V,
dc =100 and VBE = 0.715V.
Determine the operating points (ICQ and VCEQ) of the two transistors.
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OP-AMP symbol and Terminals:

Symbol: Triangle which points in the direction of signal flow

Op-Amps have five terminals

(i) Positive Supply Voltage Terminal (+ or +V) (pin 7)
(ii) Negative Supply Voltage Terminal (- or V)(pin 4)
(iii) Output Terminal(pin 6)
(iv) Inverting input Terminal (marked -)(pin 2)
(v) Non-Inverting input Terminal (marked +)(pin 3)
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Input at non-inverting terminal results in same polarity output

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Power Supply: Dual balanced Power Supply (typically 15V or 9V, 12V, 22V etc )
Dual Power Supply: 2 DC supply voltages whose mid point is ground
Balanced: Voltages of + and - are same in magnitude

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Ideal Op-Amp
Amplifies difference between two input
signals.
V1 and V2 Two i/p signals;
V0 Single Ended output,
Ideally, V0 (V1 V2 )

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Differential Gain, :
0 = (1 2 )
0 =
: Differential Gain
: Difference Voltage

1 2 =

0
=

() = 20 log10
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Common Mode Gain, :

If 1 = 2 , then 0 = (1 2 ) should be 0
Practically, o/p voltage not only depends on difference voltage but also average common level of two inputs Common mode signal
1 + 2
=
2
Gain with which it amplifies common mode signal to produce output is called common mode gain
0 =

Total o/p of any Differential Amplifier

0 = +
Ideal Differential Amplifier: Infinite and Zero
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= =

= 20

Ideally, CMRR should be infinite

Practically very large value.

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Silicon chip is bonded to bottom metal

Tab identifies pin 8

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14 pin DIP /8 pin DIP(Dual in-line plastic)

Available in plastic/ceramic case
Notch/Dot identifies pin 1.
Terminals are numbered counter clockwise

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Identification Code
Letter Prefix: Manufacturer
Circuit Designation: Type of op-amp and temperature range
C : Commercial 0 to 70
I : Industrial -25 to 80
M : Military -55 to 125
Letter Suffix: Package Style that houses the Op-Amp
D: Plastic dual-in-line for surface mounting on PC board
J: Ceramic dual-in-line
N,P: Plastic dual-in-line for insertion into sockets
e.g. LM 741C N
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IDEAL OP-AMP Characteristics:

Input impedance is infinite.
Any source can drive it and there is no loading on driver stage
Gain is infinite and hence differential input
= 1 2 = 0 for finite voltage 0
O/p impedance is zero and hence o/p can drive infinite
number of other circuits.

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The various characteristics of an Ideal Op-Amp are

Infinite Voltage Gain( )

Infinite Input Impedance

Zero Output Impedance
Zero Offset Voltage
Infinite Bandwidth
Infinite CMRR
Infinite Slew Rate: =

()

No effect of Temperature

Power Supply Rejection Ratio

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Infinite Voltage Gain ( ): Differential open loop gain and is infinite for an ideal Op-Amp

Infinite Input Impedance ( ): It is infinite for ideal Op-Amp and ensures that no current
flows into an ideal Op-Amp
Zero Output Impedance ( ): It is zero for an ideal Op-Amp and ensures that o/p voltage
of an Op-Amp remains the same irrespective of the value of the load resistance
connected.
Zero Offset Voltage: Presence of a small output voltage even if 1 2 = 0 is called
Offset Voltage
This is zero for an Ideal Op-Amp and ensures that output is zero for zero input signal

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Infinite Bandwidth:
Bandwidth infinite for an ideal Op-Amp and ensures that gain of Op-Amp will be constant over
frequency range from DC frequency (0) to infinite frequency (Amplify AC as well as DC)
Infinite CMRR: Infinite for ideal Op-Amp and ensures Zero noise output voltage ( = 0)

No effect of temperature: Characteristics of an op-amp does not change with temperature

Infinite Slew Rate:
Slew Rate: Maximum rate of change of output voltage with time - expressed in
0
=
()

Slew Rate is infinite for an ideal Op-Amp and ensures that changes in the output voltage occurs
simultaneously with changes in the input voltage.
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Slew Rate:

Slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage caused by step input
voltage.

Maximum rate of change of output voltage with time.

0
=

The rate at which voltage across the capacitor increases is given by,

I Maximum current from opamp to capacitor.

Slew Rate for an Op-Amp when maximum internal capacitor charging current is known, is given by:

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For 741 IC , Maximum internal capacitor charging current is limited to

SR = =

0
|

15
30

= 0.5V/

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If input

And output 0 =
The rate of change of output is given by,

i.e , SR =

0
|

Therefore, For a sinusoidal voltage,

= ; /
Or

S=

V/s

If the output is distortion free then, max allowable frequency of operation may be determined using slew rate
=

This frequency is called full power bandwidth of opamp

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Ex. The output of an opamp voltage follower is a triangular wave as shown in figure below for a square
wave input of frequency 2MHz and 8Vpeak to peak amplitude. What is the slew rate of the opamp?

Soln:
6
2)

SR= (0.5

= 24V/s

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Fig.

a) Square wave signal applied to a

voltage follower using op-amp with
slew rate 1V/s
b) Output for input frequency of
100Hz.
c) Output for input frequency of
100kHz.
d) Output for input frequency of
1MHz.

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Ex. A 741C opamp is used as an inverting amplifier with a gain of 50. The voltage gain vs

frequency curve 0f 741C is flat upto 20kHz. What maximum peak to peak input signal can be
applied without distorting the output?
Soln:
The slew rate for 741C is 0.5V/s, so maximum output voltage at 20kHz is,
0.5=

2 20 103

106

= 3.98
Or = 7.96 .
Therefore for the output to be undistorted sine wave, maximum input signal should be less than,
7.96
= 159
50
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PSRR (Power Supply rejection Ratio):

Ratio of the change in input offset voltage due to the change in supply voltage
producing it, keeping other power supply voltage constant.
const., change in causes change in ,

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Equivalent circuit of Practical Op-Amp:

V0 = AOL Vd = AOL V1 V2

Where,
AOL =Large signal open loop voltage gain
Vd =Difference voltage
V1 =Noninverting voltage gain
V2 =Inverting voltage gain

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PRACTICAL OP-AMP CHARACTERISTICS:

Open Loop Gain: Voltage gain of op-amp when no feedback is applied (several thousands)
Input Impedance: Finite (>1M and may be increased to several M )
Output Impedance: Finite (few 100 and may be reduced to 1 - 2 using negative feedback)
Bandwidth: Finite and small in O.L. configuration (may be increased to a suitable value by using
a negative feedback)
Input Offset Voltage:
A small non-zero o/p voltage is present even if both i/p terminals are grounded (ideally 0). The
D.C. voltage applied to a particular terminal that makes o/p voltage 0 when other terminal is
grounded is called Input Offset Voltage Vios
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Input Bias current:

Practical Op-Amps have some current flowing into the input terminals (106
1014 ).
I/p terminals (base terminals of 2 transistors) conduct small amount of d.c. currents
known as bias currents (1 2 )
Definition: Current flowing into each of the 2 i/p terminals when biased to same
voltage level (balanced op-Amp condition)
Manufacturers specify average bias current

+
=

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Input Offset Current:

Difference in magnitudes of 1 and 2 is called Input Offset Current
= |1 2 |
Magnitude: Small (20 60 nA and measured under condition that i/p

voltage = 0)

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Questions
Q1: If base currents for emitter coupled transistor of D.A. are 18
and 22, find a)Input bias current and b)Input Offset current.
Ans: a)20
b)4

Q2: For a particular op-amp input offset current is 20nA while input
bias current is 60nA. Calculate values of two input bias currents.
Ans:70nA and 50nA
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Block diagram of op-amp

Op-amp consists of one or more differential amplifiers and followed
by a level transistor and an output stage.

Dual-input,
balanced
output

Dual-input,
Un-balanced
output

Such as emitter
follower using
constant current
source

Complementary
symmetry pushpull amplifier
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Input stage of Op-Amp:

Basic Requirements:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

High voltage gain

High input impedance
Two input terminals
Small input offset voltage
High CMRR
Low input bias current

Fig: Input stage of IC op-amp

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Intermediate stage:

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Vo-Vin=-VBE

Vo=(Vin-VBE)R2
(R1+R2)
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Output Stage:

Requirements of good output stage are:

i. Large output voltage swing capability
ii. Large output current swing capability
iii. Low output impedance
iv. Short circuit protection

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Open Loop Op-Amp Configuration

Output depends upon input
Output has no effect upon input
No feedback from output to input
3 modes of operation
1. Differential Amplifier
2. Inverting Amplifier
3. Non-Inverting Amplifier

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Differential Amplifier

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Inverting Amplifier

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o Zero crossing detectors

o Schmitt trigger etc

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Fig: Voltage transfer curve

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Thermal Drift
Op-Amp parameters , and are not constants but vary
with following factors

Temperature (most severe)

Supply Voltage Changes
Time

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Effect of temperature on Input Offset Voltage ( )

Input Offset Voltage Drift is defined as average rate of change of per
unit change in temperature

; /

Change in ;

Change in T

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Effect of temperature on Input Offset Current ( )

Average rate of change of input offset current per unit change in
temperature

; /

Change in ;

Change in T

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Effect of temperature on Input Bias Current ( )

Average rate of change of input bias current per unit change in
temperature

; /

Change in ;

Change in T

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Closed Loop Operation of Op-Amp

A resistor called feedback resistor connects output to inverting input terminal

Resulting Gain Closed Loop Gain

Reduces gain and makes it controllable
Reduces the possibility of distortion
Increases bandwidth (freq. range)
Reduces effects of temperature, power supply on gain of circuit

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Virtual Ground

Under linear range of operation there is virtually a

short circuit between the two input terminals
(voltages are same)

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Basic Linear Applications

Linear Application: Output Voltage varies linearly with respect to input.
Negative feedback is the base of linear Applications
Realistic Assumptions may be used for analysis

3 Basic linear applications

Inverting Amplifier
Non Inverting Amplifier
Voltage Follower
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INVERTING AMPLIFIER
Phase Shift of 180 between input and amplified output

Expression for Closed Loop Gain

=
=

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EX: A sine wave of 0.5V peak voltage is applied to an inverting amplifier using
1 = 10 and = 50 . Supply voltage used is 12. Determine the
output and sketch waveform.
If the amplitude of sine wave is now increased to 5V, what will be the output? Is
it practically possible?

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NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER
Amplifies the input without any phase shift between input and output

=
=+

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EX: For the op-amp configuration gain required is 61.

Determine appropriate value of feedback resistance

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VOLTAGE FOLLOWER
A circuit in which output voltage follows the input voltage is called a
voltage follower circuit

Also called source follower, unity gain amplifier, buffer amplifier,

isolation amplifier
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circuit

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Practical INVERTING AMPLIFIER

Differences:
i/p Resistance is less than infinity

O.L. voltage gain is less than infinity

o/p resistance is not 0

80

=

+ +
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Input Resistance (with feedback)

(Using Millers Dual Theorem)

= 1 +
+ +
= 1 ()
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0
0 =
1 +

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Ex: For a practical Inverting Amplifier, values of 1 are

470 and 4.7 k. Various specifications of op-amp are

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Open loop Gain = 2 x 105

Input resistance = 2M
Output Resistance = 75
Supply = 15V

resistance

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=
=
+ +

0
=
=1+
()

90

= 1 +
92

0
0 =
1 +
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For a non-inverting amplifier the values of 1 are 1k

and 10k respectively. Various op-amp parameters are,
(a) Input resistance = 2M
(b) Output Resistance = 75
(c) Open Loop Gain = 2 x 105
Calculate closed loop gain, input resistance, output resistance
Ans: B=0.0909
(a)Acl=10.999
(b) Rinf=3.636x10^10
(c)4.12m
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