Operational Amplifiers(OpAmp)
It is direct coupled high gain amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a
singleended output.
It is available as a single integrated circuit package.
Used to amplify both ac and dc signals
Originally designed to perform mathematical operations
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Differential amplifiers
Differential amplifier amplifies the difference between two input signals.
Four differential amplifier configurations are :
Dual input, balanced output differential amplifier.
Dual input, unbalanced output differential amplifier.
Single input, balanced output differential amplifier.
Single input, unbalanced output differential amplifier.
Fig: differential amplifier configurations
5
Fig: differential amplifier configurations
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DC analysis of Dual input balanced output differential amplifier:
To obtain the operating point (ICQ and VCEQ)  reduce the input voltages v1 and v2 to zero
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Applying KVL to the base emitter loop of the transistor Q1.
VCE =?
VC =VCC IC RC
and VCE = VC VE
= VCC IC RC + VBE
VCE = VCC + VBE ICRC
Example  1
The following specifications are given for the dual input, balancedoutput
differential amplifier.
RC = 2.2 k, RE = 4.7 k, Rin 1 = Rin 2 = 50 , +VCC = 10V, VEE = 10 V,
dc =100 and VBE = 0.715V.
Determine the operating points (ICQ and VCEQ) of the two transistors.
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OPAMP symbol and Terminals:
Symbol: Triangle which points in the direction of signal flow
OpAmps have five terminals
(i) Positive Supply Voltage Terminal (+ or +V) (pin 7)
(ii) Negative Supply Voltage Terminal ( or V)(pin 4)
(iii) Output Terminal(pin 6)
(iv) Inverting input Terminal (marked )(pin 2)
(v) NonInverting input Terminal (marked +)(pin 3)
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Input at inverting terminal results in opposite polarity
Input at noninverting terminal results in same polarity output
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Power Supply: Dual balanced Power Supply (typically 15V or 9V, 12V, 22V etc )
Dual Power Supply: 2 DC supply voltages whose mid point is ground
Balanced: Voltages of + and  are same in magnitude
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Ideal OpAmp
Amplifies difference between two input
signals.
V1 and V2 Two i/p signals;
V0 Single Ended output,
Ideally, V0 (V1 V2 )
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Differential Gain, :
0 = (1 2 )
0 =
: Differential Gain
: Difference Voltage
1 2 =
Differential Gain may be expressed as
0
=
() = 20 log10
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Common Mode Gain, :
If 1 = 2 , then 0 = (1 2 ) should be 0
Practically, o/p voltage not only depends on difference voltage but also average common level of two inputs Common mode signal
1 + 2
=
2
Gain with which it amplifies common mode signal to produce output is called common mode gain
0 =
Total o/p of any Differential Amplifier
0 = +
Ideal Differential Amplifier: Infinite and Zero
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CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio):
Ability to reject common mode signal is expressed by a ratio
= =
= 20
Ideally, CMRR should be infinite
Practically very large value.
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Metal Can package:
Silicon chip is bonded to bottom metal
Tab identifies pin 8
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14 pin DIP /8 pin DIP(Dual inline plastic)
Available in plastic/ceramic case
Notch/Dot identifies pin 1.
Terminals are numbered counter clockwise
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Identification Code
Letter Prefix: Manufacturer
Circuit Designation: Type of opamp and temperature range
C : Commercial 0 to 70
I : Industrial 25 to 80
M : Military 55 to 125
Letter Suffix: Package Style that houses the OpAmp
D: Plastic dualinline for surface mounting on PC board
J: Ceramic dualinline
N,P: Plastic dualinline for insertion into sockets
e.g. LM 741C N
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IDEAL OPAMP Characteristics:
Input impedance is infinite.
Any source can drive it and there is no loading on driver stage
Gain is infinite and hence differential input
= 1 2 = 0 for finite voltage 0
O/p impedance is zero and hence o/p can drive infinite
number of other circuits.
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The various characteristics of an Ideal OpAmp are
Infinite Voltage Gain( )
Infinite Input Impedance
Zero Output Impedance
Zero Offset Voltage
Infinite Bandwidth
Infinite CMRR
Infinite Slew Rate: =
()
No effect of Temperature
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
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Infinite Voltage Gain ( ): Differential open loop gain and is infinite for an ideal OpAmp
Infinite Input Impedance ( ): It is infinite for ideal OpAmp and ensures that no current
flows into an ideal OpAmp
Zero Output Impedance ( ): It is zero for an ideal OpAmp and ensures that o/p voltage
of an OpAmp remains the same irrespective of the value of the load resistance
connected.
Zero Offset Voltage: Presence of a small output voltage even if 1 2 = 0 is called
Offset Voltage
This is zero for an Ideal OpAmp and ensures that output is zero for zero input signal
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Infinite Bandwidth:
Bandwidth infinite for an ideal OpAmp and ensures that gain of OpAmp will be constant over
frequency range from DC frequency (0) to infinite frequency (Amplify AC as well as DC)
Infinite CMRR: Infinite for ideal OpAmp and ensures Zero noise output voltage ( = 0)
No effect of temperature: Characteristics of an opamp does not change with temperature
Infinite Slew Rate:
Slew Rate: Maximum rate of change of output voltage with time  expressed in
0
=
()
Slew Rate is infinite for an ideal OpAmp and ensures that changes in the output voltage occurs
simultaneously with changes in the input voltage.
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Slew Rate:
Slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage caused by step input
voltage.
Maximum rate of change of output voltage with time.
0
=
The rate at which voltage across the capacitor increases is given by,
I Maximum current from opamp to capacitor.
Slew Rate for an OpAmp when maximum internal capacitor charging current is known, is given by:
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For 741 IC , Maximum internal capacitor charging current is limited to
about 15A.
SR = =
0

15
30
= 0.5V/
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If input
And output 0 =
The rate of change of output is given by,
The maximum rate of change of output occurs when coswt=1.
i.e , SR =
0

Therefore, For a sinusoidal voltage,
= ; /
Or
S=
V/s
If the output is distortion free then, max allowable frequency of operation may be determined using slew rate
=
This frequency is called full power bandwidth of opamp
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Ex. The output of an opamp voltage follower is a triangular wave as shown in figure below for a square
wave input of frequency 2MHz and 8Vpeak to peak amplitude. What is the slew rate of the opamp?
Soln:
6
2)
SR= (0.5
= 24V/s
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Fig.
a) Square wave signal applied to a
voltage follower using opamp with
slew rate 1V/s
b) Output for input frequency of
100Hz.
c) Output for input frequency of
100kHz.
d) Output for input frequency of
1MHz.
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Ex. A 741C opamp is used as an inverting amplifier with a gain of 50. The voltage gain vs
frequency curve 0f 741C is flat upto 20kHz. What maximum peak to peak input signal can be
applied without distorting the output?
Soln:
The slew rate for 741C is 0.5V/s, so maximum output voltage at 20kHz is,
0.5=
2 20 103
106
= 3.98
Or = 7.96 .
Therefore for the output to be undistorted sine wave, maximum input signal should be less than,
7.96
= 159
50
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PSRR (Power Supply rejection Ratio):
Ratio of the change in input offset voltage due to the change in supply voltage
producing it, keeping other power supply voltage constant.
const., change in causes change in ,
const., change in causes change in ,
Ideally =0; Typically 30/ for IC 741
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Ideal Voltage Transfer Curve:
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Equivalent circuit of Practical OpAmp:
V0 = AOL Vd = AOL V1 V2
Where,
AOL =Large signal open loop voltage gain
Vd =Difference voltage
V1 =Noninverting voltage gain
V2 =Inverting voltage gain
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PRACTICAL OPAMP CHARACTERISTICS:
Open Loop Gain: Voltage gain of opamp when no feedback is applied (several thousands)
Input Impedance: Finite (>1M and may be increased to several M )
Output Impedance: Finite (few 100 and may be reduced to 1  2 using negative feedback)
Bandwidth: Finite and small in O.L. configuration (may be increased to a suitable value by using
a negative feedback)
Input Offset Voltage:
A small nonzero o/p voltage is present even if both i/p terminals are grounded (ideally 0). The
D.C. voltage applied to a particular terminal that makes o/p voltage 0 when other terminal is
grounded is called Input Offset Voltage Vios
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PRACTICAL OPAMP CHARACTERISTICS(Cont.):
Input Bias current:
Practical OpAmps have some current flowing into the input terminals (106
1014 ).
I/p terminals (base terminals of 2 transistors) conduct small amount of d.c. currents
known as bias currents (1 2 )
Definition: Current flowing into each of the 2 i/p terminals when biased to same
voltage level (balanced opAmp condition)
Manufacturers specify average bias current
+
=
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PRACTICAL OPAMP CHARACTERISTICS(Cont.):
Input Offset Current:
Difference in magnitudes of 1 and 2 is called Input Offset Current
= 1 2 
Magnitude: Small (20 60 nA and measured under condition that i/p
voltage = 0)
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Questions
Q1: If base currents for emitter coupled transistor of D.A. are 18
and 22, find a)Input bias current and b)Input Offset current.
Ans: a)20
b)4
Q2: For a particular opamp input offset current is 20nA while input
bias current is 60nA. Calculate values of two input bias currents.
Ans:70nA and 50nA
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Block diagram of opamp
Opamp consists of one or more differential amplifiers and followed
by a level transistor and an output stage.
Dualinput,
balanced
output
Dualinput,
Unbalanced
output
Such as emitter
follower using
constant current
source
Complementary
symmetry pushpull amplifier
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Input stage of OpAmp:
Basic Requirements:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
High voltage gain
High input impedance
Two input terminals
Small input offset voltage
High CMRR
Low input bias current
Fig: Input stage of IC opamp
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Intermediate stage:
Fig: Input and intermediate stage of opamp
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Level shifting stage:
Fig: Simplest level shifting network
VoVin=VBE
Fig: Typical level shifting network
Vo=(VinVBE)R2
(R1+R2)
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Fig: Level shifting with constant current bias
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Output Stage:
Requirements of good output stage are:
i. Large output voltage swing capability
ii. Large output current swing capability
iii. Low output impedance
iv. Short circuit protection
Fig: Output stage with opamp
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Fig: Cross over distortion with output
Fig: Output stage using bias voltage53
Open Loop OpAmp Configuration
Output depends upon input
Output has no effect upon input
No feedback from output to input
3 modes of operation
1. Differential Amplifier
2. Inverting Amplifier
3. NonInverting Amplifier
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Differential Amplifier
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Inverting Amplifier
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Non Inverting Amplifier
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Applications of opamp in open loop mode:
o Zero crossing detectors
o Schmitt trigger etc
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Fig: Voltage transfer curve
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Thermal Drift
OpAmp parameters , and are not constants but vary
with following factors
Temperature (most severe)
Supply Voltage Changes
Time
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Effect of temperature on Input Offset Voltage ( )
Input Offset Voltage Drift is defined as average rate of change of per
unit change in temperature
; /
Change in ;
Change in T
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Effect of temperature on Input Offset Current ( )
Average rate of change of input offset current per unit change in
temperature
; /
Change in ;
Change in T
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Effect of temperature on Input Bias Current ( )
Average rate of change of input bias current per unit change in
temperature
; /
Change in ;
Change in T
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Closed Loop Operation of OpAmp
A resistor called feedback resistor connects output to inverting input terminal
Resulting Gain Closed Loop Gain
Advantages of Negative Feedback
Reduces gain and makes it controllable
Reduces the possibility of distortion
Increases bandwidth (freq. range)
Reduces effects of temperature, power supply on gain of circuit
Self correcting ability
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Realistic Simplifying Assumptions:
Zero Input Current
Virtual Ground
Under linear range of operation there is virtually a
short circuit between the two input terminals
(voltages are same)
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Basic Linear Applications
Linear Application: Output Voltage varies linearly with respect to input.
Negative feedback is the base of linear Applications
Realistic Assumptions may be used for analysis
3 Basic linear applications
Inverting Amplifier
Non Inverting Amplifier
Voltage Follower
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INVERTING AMPLIFIER
Phase Shift of 180 between input and amplified output
Expression for Closed Loop Gain
=
=
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EX: A sine wave of 0.5V peak voltage is applied to an inverting amplifier using
1 = 10 and = 50 . Supply voltage used is 12. Determine the
output and sketch waveform.
If the amplitude of sine wave is now increased to 5V, what will be the output? Is
it practically possible?
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NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER
Amplifies the input without any phase shift between input and output
Expression for Closed Loop Gain
=
=+
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EX: For the opamp configuration gain required is 61.
Determine appropriate value of feedback resistance
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VOLTAGE FOLLOWER
A circuit in which output voltage follows the input voltage is called a
voltage follower circuit
Also called source follower, unity gain amplifier, buffer amplifier,
isolation amplifier
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Activity: Find out advantages of a voltage follower
circuit
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Practical INVERTING AMPLIFIER
Differences:
i/p Resistance is less than infinity
O.L. voltage gain is less than infinity
o/p resistance is not 0
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Practical INVERTING AMPLIFIER
Closed loop voltage gain
Expression for Closed Loop Voltage Gain
=
+ +
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Practical INVERTING AMPLIFIER
Input Resistance (with feedback)
(Using Millers Dual Theorem)
= 1 +
+ +
= 1 ()
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Output Resistance (with feedback)
0
0 =
1 +
Practical INVERTING AMPLIFIER
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Ex: For a practical Inverting Amplifier, values of 1 are
470 and 4.7 k. Various specifications of opamp are
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Open loop Gain = 2 x 105
Input resistance = 2M
Output Resistance = 75
Supply = 15V
Calculate closed loop voltage gain, input resistance, output
resistance
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Practical NONINVERTING Amplifier
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Practical NONINVERTING Amplifier
Closed Loop Voltage Gain
=
=
+ +
0
=
=1+
()
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Practical NONINVERTING Amplifier
Input Resistance (with feedback)
= 1 +
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Practical NONINVERTING Amplifier
Output Resistance (with feedback)
0
0 =
1 +
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For a noninverting amplifier the values of 1 are 1k
and 10k respectively. Various opamp parameters are,
(a) Input resistance = 2M
(b) Output Resistance = 75
(c) Open Loop Gain = 2 x 105
Calculate closed loop gain, input resistance, output resistance
Ans: B=0.0909
(a)Acl=10.999
(b) Rinf=3.636x10^10
(c)4.12m
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