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Objective of this experiment is to conduct performance test
on two stage reciprocating air compressor and to plot graphs between
Volumetric Efficiency Vs pressure ratio, Adiabatic Efficiency
Vs pressure ratio and Isothermal Efficiency Vs pressure
ratio at various delivery pressure.

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Thermal Lab

PERFORMANCE TEST ON TWO-STAGE RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR

Aishwary Mishra,Aman Chauhan,Ananthu M Aji,Ananti Saroj,Ankit Sachan,Ardhendu Barman

B.Tech, Fourth semester

Department of Aerospace Engineering

Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology

ABSTRACT

Objective of this experiment is to conduct performance test

on two stage reciprocating air compressor and to plot graphs between Volumetric Efficiency Vs pressure ratio, Adiabatic Efficiency Vs pressure ratio and Isothermal Efficiency Vs pressure

ratio at various delivery pressure.

Vo - Volume of air reduced to NTP

Vs - Swept Volume

Wact - Actual work done on the compressor

Wadia - Adiabatic work done

Wiso - Isothermal work done

iso - Isothermal Efficiency

adia - Adiabatic Efficiency

vol - Volumetric Efficiency

w - Specific weight of water

a - Density of air

NOMENCLATURE

A - Area of cross section of LP cylinder

a - Area of orifice

Cd - Coefficient of discharge

D - Diameter of LP Cylinder

d2 - Diameter of the orifice

Ha - Head causing flow in m of air

Hw - Orifice meter manometer reading

hw - Stabilization tank manometer reading

K - Energy meter constant

L - Torque Arm Length

lb - Barometer reading in mm of Hg

Nm - Speed of motor in rpm

Nc - Speed of compressor crank in rpm

Pa - Atmospheric pressure

Pg - Delivery gauge pressure in kgf/cm2

Pr - Pressure ratio

P0 - Pressure of air at NTP

P1 - Absolute inlet pressure

P2 - Delivery pressure

R - Characteristic gas constant

S - Spring balance reading

T - Torque of the motor

T0 - Temperature of air at NTP

T1 - Temperature of suction in K

T2 - Temperature at delivery

t - Time for 20 impulses in sec

INTRODUCTION

An air compressor is a device that converts power (usually

from an electric motor, a diesel engine or a gasoline engine)

into kinetic energy by compressing and pressurizing air, which,

on command, can be released in quick bursts [1] The Air

Compressor on which experiment was conducted, is a two stage,

reciprocating type.

Two stage compressor are those air compressor in which

compression of air from initial pressure to final pressure is carried out in two cylinders. The air is sucked from atmosphere and

compressed in the first cylinder. The compressed air then passes

through the air cooler into the second stage cylinder, where the

air is further compressed. The air further goes to the air reservoir through safety valve, which operates the electrical switch,

when the pressure exceeds the limit. The test unit consists of an

air chamber containing an orifice plate, manometer, compressor,

and an electrical dynamometer type induction motor.

1

THEORY

A reciprocating compressor or piston compressor is a

positive-displacement compressor that uses pistons driven by a

crankshaft to deliver gases at high pressure.

The intake gas enters the suction manifold, then flows into

the compression cylinder where it gets compressed by a piston

driven in a reciprocating motion via a crankshaft, and is then

discharged. Applications include oil refineries, gas pipelines,

chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and refrigeration

plants. One specialty application is the blowing of plastic bottles

made of polyethylene terephthalate. It is also used to start the

auxillary and main engines of the ship.

Since, the experiment involves measuring the volumetric ,

adiabatic and isothermal inefficiencies and outlet pressures and

temperatures were measured. The inefficiencies are calculated

as followsThe atmospheric pressure is calculated using the barometer

reading,

Pa =

N/m2

760

Density of air,

a =

From Bernoullis equation we can easily see that the volume of air actually compressed,

p

V1 = Cd A 2gHa

Ha =

Hw w

a

(6)

(7)

where,

(1)

w =density of water=1000kg/m3

Hw =Orifice meter manometer reading in m of water

Cd is the coefficient of discharge = 0.6 (Given)

A=Area of the orifice =

d22

4

LANc 3

m /s

60

Vs =

(2)

(8)

hw =stabilization manometer reading in m of water

Although the volumetric efficiency could have been calculated as ratio of V1 and Vs it will not be useful to compare

efficiency between different compressors operating at different

temperatures and pressure thus we need to find the volume

with respect to a standard temperature thus we use the NTP

conditions. It is important to note that we could have chosen any

reference temperature.

P2 = (Pg 104 9.81)N/m2

(5)

where,

R=characteristic gas constant=287.14 J/kgK

T1 =Temperature at suction in K

Where,

Ib =Barometer reading in mm of Hg.

As the air enters the compressor it has a pressure less than

the atmospheric pressure.The pressure is measured by using the

manometer reading.

Absolute Inlet Pressure,

P1 = (Pa w hw )N/m2

P1

RT1

(3)

Vo =

where

Pg =Delivery pressure gauge reading in kg f /cm2

P1V1 To 3

m /s

Po T1

(9)

Vo

100

Vs

(10)

where To = 273K,

Po = 1.03 104 9.81Pa

Pressure ratio

Volumetric Efficiency,

Pr =

P2

P1

(4)

2

of the compressor we need to measure actual work done on the

compressor this can be done in two ways,

1. using dynamometer- This involves measuring the torque exerted by the motor and multiplying it with the angular velocity.

Then we have

Wact =

2NT

watts

60

(11)

where,

N=speed of the motor in rpm,

T=Torque=load X arm length

Figure 1.

Wact =

20 3600 1000

watts

20K

Atmospheric pressure ,

(12)

Pa =

where

K=Energy meter constant=1600 impulses/kWh

t=time for 20 impulses in seconds

work done,

P2

Wiso = P1V1 ln

P1

N/m2

760

inlet pressure

P1 = (99470.56 9810 0.214)N/m2

(13)

P1 = 97371.22

iso =

Wiso

Wact

(14)

delivery pressure,

P2 = 99470.56 + 7 104 9.84N/m2

1

P1V1 P2

Wadia =

1 watts

1

P1

P2 = 786170N/m2

(15)

Head causing flow

Adiabatic efficiency ,

Ha =

adia =

Wadia

Wact

18.7 1000

m

1.1009

(16)

Ha = 169.84 m

3

Sl

Gauge

Orifice side

Suction Side

Spring

Speed

Speed

Temp

Absolute

Absolute

Pressure

No.

Pressure

Manometer

Manometer

balance

of

of

at

inlet

delivery

ratio

Reading

Reading

Reading

motor

compressor

Delivery

pressure

pressure

Pg

h1

h2

Hw

h1

h2

hw

Nm

Nc

T2

P1

P2

kgf/cm2

cm

cm

cm

cm

cm

cm

Kg

rpm

rpm

Pa

Pa

21.7

21.7

35.8

60.2

24.4

5.2

1463

947.7

347

97077

295671

3.05

0.8

20.9

20.1

36.8

59.4

22.6

5.4

1452

941.7

356

97254

393771

4.05

1.1

20.6

19.5

37

59

22

5.7

1455

943.2

367

97312

491871

5.05

1.3

20.5

19.2

37.2

58.8

21.6

6.8

1447

937.5

376

97352

589971

6.06

1.4

20.3

18.9

37.3

58.7

21.4

1442

934

385

97371

688071

7.07

1.5

20.2

18.7

37.3

58.7

21.4

7.7

1436

931.4

394

97371

786171

8.07

Sl

Density

Head

Volume of

Volume

Volume

No

of

Causing

air actually

of air

of air

air

flow

compressed

at NTP

Swept

Torque

Pr

Volumetric

Time

Temp

Actual work

Isothermal

efficiency

for 20

at

done per

work done

impulse

inlet

second

per second

vol

T1

Wiso

sec

Watts

Watts

Watts

Ha

V1

Vo

Vs

kg/m3

m of air

m3 /sec

m3 /sec

m3 /sec

1.0941

198.3

0.00661

0.00561

0.00619

11.73

90.6

16.09

309

1796.6

2796.8

757.1

1.0961

183.4

0.00636

0.00541

0.00615

12.18

87.9

14.66

309

1851.7

3069.6

916.2

1.1003

177.2

0.00625

0.00534

0.00616

12.86

86.6

13.88

308

1958.6

3242.1

1046.3

1.1008

174.4

0.00620

0.00530

0.00613

15.34

86.5

13.38

308

2323.7

3363.2

1153.3

1.1010

171.7

0.00615

0.00526

0.00610

15.79

86.1

12.69

308

2383.8

3546.1

1246

1.1010

169.8

0.00612

0.00523

0.00609

17.37

85.9

12.06

308

2611.3

3731.3

1331.1

swept Volume

Vs = 6.08 103 m3 /s

Volumetric Efficiency,

Vo

Vs

adiabatic work

Isothermal

Adiabatic

Volumetric

ratio

efficiency

efficiency

efficiency

Wadia

iso

adia

vol

Watts

3.04

-841.98

25.569

30.1

90.642

4.04

-1063.27

28.178

34.6

87.872

5.04

-1253.68

30.406

38.7

86.579

6.05

-1422.92

32.348

42.3

86.45

7.05

-1569.34

33.038

44.3

86.102

8.05

-1702.57

33.36

45.6

85.885

Pr

V1 = 6.11 103 m3 /s

Pressure

100

The volumetric efficiency of the compressor was determined

for varying Pressure ratio.

Average Volumetric Efficiency of the compressor is 87.26

= 85.885%

1. using Dynamometer-

Average Isothermal Efficiency of the compressor is 36.6

Wact

watts

=

60

Isothermal efficiency of the compressor was greater than

the adiabatic efficiency.

Wact = 2609.22 W

increasing with pressure ratio.

Wact =

20

3600

1000 watts

1600 12.06

Wact = 3731.34 W

isothermal work done,

Wiso = 97371.22 6.11 103 ln

786170

watts

97371.22

Wiso = 1244..7889 W

Isothermal Efficiency,

iso = 33.36%

Figure 2.

umetric Efficiency

Adiabatic work,

97371.22 6.11 103

Wadia =

1 1.4

"

786170

97371.22

1.41

1.4

1

INFERENCE

1. Volumetric Efficiency refers to the ratio of the volume entering the conpressor to the volume swept.Now, as Pr increases,

compressibility effects dominate and lesser volume enters inside

because it faces greater pressure relative to entry pressure.Thus

Volumetric efficieny must decrease as Pr increases.

2.Isothermal Efficiency is the ratio of the work done in the

isothermal process to the actual work done. Actual work done

consists of work done against dissipative forces plus work done

(17)

Wadia = 1702.57 W

Adiabatic efficiency ,

adia = 45.6 %

5

when P2=P1 , Wisothermal=0, even though work done against

dissipative forces is considerable.Now as Pr increases Wisothermal increases whereas the actual work done still has major contribution due to dissipative forces which remains nearly thre

same.Thus, isothermal efficiency increases. Now, Pr increases

further the dissipative forces become larger and larger as well

as the actual process path in the compressor shows more deviation from the isothermal path.Thus, isothermal efficiency must

decrease.But, it must decreae slowly, as the gap between the actual process path and isothermal process path doesnt vary much.

Similarly we can account for adiabatic efficiency.

REFERENCES

[1] klenck,Thomas 30 July 2010,How it works:Air Compressor

Popular Mechanics

We have the volumetric efficiency as

Vo

100

Vs

P1V1 To

Po T1 LANc

variable and the overall error can be calculated by taking the root

mean square of sum of each of the errors. Errors due to each

factor has been calculated.

Nc

Hw

P1

T1

m.s.e

0.06131

0.133879

0.002925

0.009402

0.147579

0.059809

0.140105

0.002831

0.009114

0.152636

0.058835

0.142291

0.002787

0.009009

0.154264

0.059102

0.144292

0.002782

0.008995

0.156211

comes out to be 0.154563.

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