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January 16, 2015

Thermal Lab

Batch 1 - Roll Nos:01 to 06


PERFORMANCE TEST ON TWO-STAGE RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR
Aishwary Mishra,Aman Chauhan,Ananthu M Aji,Ananti Saroj,Ankit Sachan,Ardhendu Barman
B.Tech, Fourth semester
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology

ABSTRACT
Objective of this experiment is to conduct performance test
on two stage reciprocating air compressor and to plot graphs between Volumetric Efficiency Vs pressure ratio, Adiabatic Efficiency Vs pressure ratio and Isothermal Efficiency Vs pressure
ratio at various delivery pressure.

V1 - Volume of air actually compressed


Vo - Volume of air reduced to NTP
Vs - Swept Volume
Wact - Actual work done on the compressor
Wadia - Adiabatic work done
Wiso - Isothermal work done
iso - Isothermal Efficiency
adia - Adiabatic Efficiency
vol - Volumetric Efficiency
w - Specific weight of water
a - Density of air

NOMENCLATURE
A - Area of cross section of LP cylinder
a - Area of orifice
Cd - Coefficient of discharge
D - Diameter of LP Cylinder
d2 - Diameter of the orifice
Ha - Head causing flow in m of air
Hw - Orifice meter manometer reading
hw - Stabilization tank manometer reading
K - Energy meter constant
L - Torque Arm Length
lb - Barometer reading in mm of Hg
Nm - Speed of motor in rpm
Nc - Speed of compressor crank in rpm
Pa - Atmospheric pressure
Pg - Delivery gauge pressure in kgf/cm2
Pr - Pressure ratio
P0 - Pressure of air at NTP
P1 - Absolute inlet pressure
P2 - Delivery pressure
R - Characteristic gas constant
S - Spring balance reading
T - Torque of the motor
T0 - Temperature of air at NTP
T1 - Temperature of suction in K
T2 - Temperature at delivery
t - Time for 20 impulses in sec

INTRODUCTION
An air compressor is a device that converts power (usually
from an electric motor, a diesel engine or a gasoline engine)
into kinetic energy by compressing and pressurizing air, which,
on command, can be released in quick bursts [1] The Air
Compressor on which experiment was conducted, is a two stage,
reciprocating type.
Two stage compressor are those air compressor in which
compression of air from initial pressure to final pressure is carried out in two cylinders. The air is sucked from atmosphere and
compressed in the first cylinder. The compressed air then passes
through the air cooler into the second stage cylinder, where the
air is further compressed. The air further goes to the air reservoir through safety valve, which operates the electrical switch,
when the pressure exceeds the limit. The test unit consists of an
air chamber containing an orifice plate, manometer, compressor,
and an electrical dynamometer type induction motor.
1

THEORY
A reciprocating compressor or piston compressor is a
positive-displacement compressor that uses pistons driven by a
crankshaft to deliver gases at high pressure.
The intake gas enters the suction manifold, then flows into
the compression cylinder where it gets compressed by a piston
driven in a reciprocating motion via a crankshaft, and is then
discharged. Applications include oil refineries, gas pipelines,
chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and refrigeration
plants. One specialty application is the blowing of plastic bottles
made of polyethylene terephthalate. It is also used to start the
auxillary and main engines of the ship.
Since, the experiment involves measuring the volumetric ,
adiabatic and isothermal inefficiencies and outlet pressures and
temperatures were measured. The inefficiencies are calculated
as followsThe atmospheric pressure is calculated using the barometer
reading,

Pa =

1.033 9.81 104 lb


N/m2
760

Density of air,
a =

From Bernoullis equation we can easily see that the volume of air actually compressed,
p
V1 = Cd A 2gHa

Ha =

Hw w
a

(6)

(7)

where,
(1)

w =density of water=1000kg/m3
Hw =Orifice meter manometer reading in m of water
Cd is the coefficient of discharge = 0.6 (Given)
A=Area of the orifice =

d22
4

Now, swept Volume


LANc 3
m /s
60

Vs =

(2)

(8)

where, Nc =speed of compressor crank shaft in rpm

where w =specific weight of water=9810 N/m3


hw =stabilization manometer reading in m of water

Although the volumetric efficiency could have been calculated as ratio of V1 and Vs it will not be useful to compare
efficiency between different compressors operating at different
temperatures and pressure thus we need to find the volume
with respect to a standard temperature thus we use the NTP
conditions. It is important to note that we could have chosen any
reference temperature.

delivery inlet pressure,


P2 = (Pg 104 9.81)N/m2

(5)

where,
R=characteristic gas constant=287.14 J/kgK
T1 =Temperature at suction in K

Where,
Ib =Barometer reading in mm of Hg.
As the air enters the compressor it has a pressure less than
the atmospheric pressure.The pressure is measured by using the
manometer reading.
Absolute Inlet Pressure,
P1 = (Pa w hw )N/m2

P1
RT1

(3)

Vo =

where
Pg =Delivery pressure gauge reading in kg f /cm2

P1V1 To 3
m /s
Po T1

(9)

Vo
100
Vs

(10)

where To = 273K,
Po = 1.03 104 9.81Pa

Pressure ratio

Volumetric Efficiency,
Pr =

P2
P1

(4)
2

now to calculate adiabatic and isothermal work efficiency


of the compressor we need to measure actual work done on the
compressor this can be done in two ways,
1. using dynamometer- This involves measuring the torque exerted by the motor and multiplying it with the angular velocity.
Then we have
Wact =

2NT
watts
60

(11)

where,
N=speed of the motor in rpm,
T=Torque=load X arm length
Figure 1.

Two Stage Reciprocating Air Compressor

2. using energy meter

Wact =

20 3600 1000
watts
20K

OBSERVATION TABLE AND SAMPLE CALCULATION


Atmospheric pressure ,
(12)
Pa =

where
K=Energy meter constant=1600 impulses/kWh
t=time for 20 impulses in seconds

therefore Pa = 99470.56 N/m2

we now calculate isothermal efficiency as isothermal


work done,
P2
Wiso = P1V1 ln
P1

1.033 9.81 104 98157


N/m2
760

inlet pressure
P1 = (99470.56 9810 0.214)N/m2

(13)
P1 = 97371.22

iso =

Wiso
Wact

(14)

delivery pressure,
P2 = 99470.56 + 7 104 9.84N/m2

to calculate the adiabatic efficiency we calculate the adiabatic work,

  1
P1V1 P2
Wadia =
1 watts
1
P1

P2 = 786170N/m2
(15)
Head causing flow

Adiabatic efficiency ,
Ha =
adia =

Wadia
Wact

18.7 1000
m
1.1009

(16)
Ha = 169.84 m
3

Sl

Gauge

Orifice side

Suction Side

Spring

Speed

Speed

Temp

Absolute

Absolute

Pressure

No.

Pressure

Manometer

Manometer

balance

of

of

at

inlet

delivery

ratio

Reading

Reading

Reading

motor

compressor

Delivery

pressure

pressure

Pg

h1

h2

Hw

h1

h2

hw

Nm

Nc

T2

P1

P2

kgf/cm2

cm

cm

cm

cm

cm

cm

Kg

rpm

rpm

Pa

Pa

21.7

21.7

35.8

60.2

24.4

5.2

1463

947.7

347

97077

295671

3.05

0.8

20.9

20.1

36.8

59.4

22.6

5.4

1452

941.7

356

97254

393771

4.05

1.1

20.6

19.5

37

59

22

5.7

1455

943.2

367

97312

491871

5.05

1.3

20.5

19.2

37.2

58.8

21.6

6.8

1447

937.5

376

97352

589971

6.06

1.4

20.3

18.9

37.3

58.7

21.4

1442

934

385

97371

688071

7.07

1.5

20.2

18.7

37.3

58.7

21.4

7.7

1436

931.4

394

97371

786171

8.07

Sl

Density

Head

Volume of

Volume

Volume

No

of

Causing

air actually

of air

of air

air

flow

compressed

at NTP

Swept

Torque

Pr

Volumetric

Time

Temp

Actual work

Isothermal

efficiency

for 20

at

done per

work done

impulse

inlet

second

per second

vol

T1

Wiso

sec

Watts

Watts

Watts

Ha

V1

Vo

Vs

kg/m3

m of air

m3 /sec

m3 /sec

m3 /sec

1.0941

198.3

0.00661

0.00561

0.00619

11.73

90.6

16.09

309

1796.6

2796.8

757.1

1.0961

183.4

0.00636

0.00541

0.00615

12.18

87.9

14.66

309

1851.7

3069.6

916.2

1.1003

177.2

0.00625

0.00534

0.00616

12.86

86.6

13.88

308

1958.6

3242.1

1046.3

1.1008

174.4

0.00620

0.00530

0.00613

15.34

86.5

13.38

308

2323.7

3363.2

1153.3

1.1010

171.7

0.00615

0.00526

0.00610

15.79

86.1

12.69

308

2383.8

3546.1

1246

1.1010

169.8

0.00612

0.00523

0.00609

17.37

85.9

12.06

308

2611.3

3731.3

1331.1

Volume of Air actually compressed,

swept Volume
Vs = 6.08 103 m3 /s
Volumetric Efficiency,
Vo
Vs

adiabatic work

Isothermal

Adiabatic

Volumetric

ratio

done per second

efficiency

efficiency

efficiency

Wadia

iso

adia

vol

Watts

3.04

-841.98

25.569

30.1

90.642

4.04

-1063.27

28.178

34.6

87.872

5.04

-1253.68

30.406

38.7

86.579

6.05

-1422.92

32.348

42.3

86.45

7.05

-1569.34

33.038

44.3

86.102

8.05

-1702.57

33.36

45.6

85.885

Pr

V1 = 6.11 103 m3 /s

Pressure

100

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


The volumetric efficiency of the compressor was determined
for varying Pressure ratio.
Average Volumetric Efficiency of the compressor is 87.26

= 85.885%
1. using Dynamometer-

Volumetric efficiency decreases with pressure ratio.


Average Isothermal Efficiency of the compressor is 36.6

Wact

21436 7.7 0.23


watts
=
60

Average Adiabatic Efficiency of the compressor is 33.7


Isothermal efficiency of the compressor was greater than
the adiabatic efficiency.

Wact = 2609.22 W

Both isothermal and adiabatic efficiency was found to be


increasing with pressure ratio.

2. using energy meter


Wact =

20
3600

1000 watts
1600 12.06

Wact = 3731.34 W
isothermal work done,
Wiso = 97371.22 6.11 103 ln

786170
watts
97371.22

Wiso = 1244..7889 W
Isothermal Efficiency,
iso = 33.36%

Figure 2.

Graph between Pressure ratio and Thermal,Adiabatic and Vol-

umetric Efficiency

Adiabatic work,
97371.22 6.11 103
Wadia =
1 1.4

"

786170
97371.22

 1.41

1.4

1
INFERENCE
1. Volumetric Efficiency refers to the ratio of the volume entering the conpressor to the volume swept.Now, as Pr increases,
compressibility effects dominate and lesser volume enters inside
because it faces greater pressure relative to entry pressure.Thus
Volumetric efficieny must decrease as Pr increases.
2.Isothermal Efficiency is the ratio of the work done in the
isothermal process to the actual work done. Actual work done
consists of work done against dissipative forces plus work done

(17)
Wadia = 1702.57 W
Adiabatic efficiency ,
adia = 45.6 %
5

in the actual process taking place in the compressor. Initially


when P2=P1 , Wisothermal=0, even though work done against
dissipative forces is considerable.Now as Pr increases Wisothermal increases whereas the actual work done still has major contribution due to dissipative forces which remains nearly thre
same.Thus, isothermal efficiency increases. Now, Pr increases
further the dissipative forces become larger and larger as well
as the actual process path in the compressor shows more deviation from the isothermal path.Thus, isothermal efficiency must
decrease.But, it must decreae slowly, as the gap between the actual process path and isothermal process path doesnt vary much.
Similarly we can account for adiabatic efficiency.

REFERENCES
[1] klenck,Thomas 30 July 2010,How it works:Air Compressor
Popular Mechanics

Appendix A: Error Analysis


We have the volumetric efficiency as

Vo
100
Vs

Now we can calculate the error in volumetric efficiency by,

P1V1 To
Po T1 LANc

Now these values can be used to calculate error for each


variable and the overall error can be calculated by taking the root
mean square of sum of each of the errors. Errors due to each
factor has been calculated.

Nc

Hw

P1

T1

m.s.e

0.06131

0.133879

0.002925

0.009402

0.147579

0.059809

0.140105

0.002831

0.009114

0.152636

0.058835

0.142291

0.002787

0.009009

0.154264

0.059102

0.144292

0.002782

0.008995

0.156211

The average uncertainity in volumetric efficiency from this then


comes out to be 0.154563.