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Geochemistry and Petroleum System Modeling of Conventional and Unconventional

Resources
Instructor
Kenneth Peters / NExTSchlumberger K.K. Nagaoka Branch
Title: Science Advisor
Specialty: Geochemistry, Petroleum system modeling, biomarkers, chemometrics
Objectives:
This five-day course will show how geochemistry and petroleum system modeling can reduce exploration risk for
conventional and unconventional (e.g., shale-gas or shale-oil) resources. Lectures will show how forward
deterministic computer models use geohistory analysis, boundary conditions, and chemical reaction kinetics to predict
the timing of petroleum generation, molecular composition, and extent of overpressure. Factors controlling sweet
spots will be discussed, including the influence of geomechanics on rock fracturing and producibility and the extent
of primary or secondary cracking based on biomarkers, isotope rollover, and diamondoids. Discussions will provide
guidelines for sample collection and project initiation, how to evaluate prospective source rocks, and how to define
petroleum systems through oil-source rock correlation. Participants will learn how to calibrate petroleum system
models using data from wells, such as pressure, corrected bottom-hole temperature, and vitrinite reflectance.
The lectures and discussions will be designed to improve the basic understanding of the processes that control the
quantity and quality of petroleum and the bulk, molecular, and isotopic tools used to facilitate that understanding.
Special emphasis will be placed on identifying pitfalls to correct interpretations. Case studies and exercises will show
how geochemistry can be used to solve exploration, production, and development problems while minimizing costs.
Who should attend
Level : Foundation
This course is intended for oil and gas professionals who want an overview of Geochemistry and Petroleum System
Modeling. It is suitable for exploration, production, and development geologists.
Prerequisites
A basic knowledge of chemistry and geology.
Course outline & contents
The Dynamic Petroleum System Concept

Introduction to 1D, 2D, 3D basin and petroleum system modeling

Petroleum system folio sheet

Timing of petroleum system events and processes

The Alaska North Slope 3D model


Participants will learn to identify the elements and processes that control petroleum systems and shale resources, as
well as learn how they are quantified. Participants will also gain an understanding of the difference between static
play fairway maps and dynamic petroleum system models.
Fundamentals of Model Input

Thermal maturation and vitrinite reflectance

TOC, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, geochemical logs

Fractional conversion, original TOC, expelled petroleum, expulsion efficiency


On day two, participants will gain an understanding of the basic geochemical measurements and how to evaluate the
quantity, quality, and thermal maturity of source rocks using geochemical logs. Understanding the pitfalls associated
with the analytical methods will also be covered. Participants will learn how to reconstruct the original generative
potential of a spent source rock and how collect gas, oil, and rock samples for kinetic measurements and oil-oil or
oil-source rock correlation.
Boundary Conditions and Geohistory Analysis

Boundary conditions: paleowater depth, sediment-water interface temperature, heat flow

Geohistory analysis: pore pressure, compaction, tectonics


Participants will use geohistory analysis, boundary conditions, and chemical reaction kinetics to predict the timing of
petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation. Understanding the effects of paleoclimate and paleolatitude, as
well as how to estimate paleowater depth from seismic two-way travel times will be covered. Learning how to

calculate heat flow using a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), how to calculate the change in temperature across a
sedimentary layer, and how increased flow due to radioactivity will also be discussed, as well as how McKenzie models
describe heat flow and subsidence in rift basins. Participants will learn how to decompact sediments to their original
thickness, how to construct a geohistory diagrams corrected for compaction, paleobathymetry and eustasy, and how to
use backstripping to determine thermotectonic subsidence.
Fundamentals of Kinetics and Model Calibration

Chemical reaction kinetics

Model calibration and risk analysis

PVT analysis
This day will start with a review of Lopatin TTI and improve participants understanding of thermal maturation based
on the Arrhenius equation. Participants will learn how to understand the parameters used to describe kinetic
processes and why kerogen type is not directly linked to kinetic response. Participants will also gain insight into
pressure and temperature calibration methods and conduct risk analysis to determine the mostly likely value of a
probability distribution.
Unconventionals, Case Studies, and Conclusions

Modeling unconventional resources

Case studies

Review and conclusions

Practical exam
On the last day, participants will learn about the key differences between conventional and unconventional resources
and how to predict sweet spots using various methods, such as oil saturation index, geomechanics, stable carbon
isotope rollover, and play chance mapping. Worldwide case studies and exercises will help participants gain expertise,
which will allow for better communication with colleagues and clients.
Daily course schedule
Day

Day1

Day2

Day3

Day4

Day5

Morning session
10:00-12:45
(2h45min)

Afternoon Session
1:45- 5:00
(3h15min)

The Dynamic Petroleum System Concept


Introduction to 1D, 2D, 3D basin and
petroleum system modeling
Petroleum system folio sheet

The Dynamic Petroleum System Concept


Timing of petroleum system events and
processes
The Alaska North Slope 3D model

Fundamentals of Model Input


Thermal maturation and vitrinite
reflectance
TOC, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, geochemical logs

Fundamentals of Model Input


Fractional conversion, original TOC,
expelled petroleum, expulsion efficiency

Boundary Conditions and Geohistory Analysis


Boundary conditions: paleowater depth,
sediment-water interface temperature,
heat flow

Boundary Conditions and Geohistory Analysis


Geohistory analysis: pore pressure,
compaction, tectonics

Fundamentals of Kinetics and Model Calibration


Chemical reaction kinetics

Fundamentals of Kinetics and Model Calibration


Model calibration and risk analysis
PVT analysis

Unconventionals, Case Studies, and Conclusions


Modeling unconventional resources
Case studies

Unconventionals, Case Studies, and Conclusions


Review and conclusions
Practical exam

Course method
The course will be delivered as lecture.