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Seminar on

FACEBOW

Contents:

1. Introduction
2. Definition
3. Evolution of facebow design/history
4. Parts of a facebow
5. Function of each part
6. Significance of facebow transfer
7. Anterior points of reference
8. Posterior points/ hinge axis location
9. Procedure for facebow transfer
10.

Review of literature

11.

Conclusion

12.

References

INTRODUCTION:
Positioning the maxillary cast in an articulator is an essential
part of many techniques in dentistry. Two major objectives are
restoration of the occlusion and control of the form and position
of the teeth.
Accurate mounting of the maxillary cast is achieved by
transferring

the

three-dimensional

spatial

relation

of

the

maxillary arch to an articulator by using a facebow. To do less


means that the maxillary cast will be positioned in the articulator
arbitrarily. Such neglect by the dentist may result in unnatural
appearance of the final prosthesis and even damage to the
supporting tissues.
DEFINITION:
Facebow: the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms-8 (2005) defines a
facebow as: a caliper like instrument used to record the spatial
relationship of the maxillary arch to some anatomic reference
point or points and then transfer this relationship to an
articulator; it orients the dental cast on the same relationship to
the opening axis of the articulator.

EVOLUTION OF THE FACEBOW DESIGN/HISTORY:


According to Prothero (1916), Thomas L. Gilmer was first to
suggest the principle of a facebow in a paper presented at a
meeting of the Illinois State Dental Society in 1882
RICHMOND S. HAYES introduced the first example of
functional facebow-like device intended for locating the position of
the casts correctly in the articulator. He named this device the
articulating caliper, however; there is no evidence that it was
ever patented
Hayes recognized the necessity of mounting condyle-oriented
casts in the articulator by taking measurements from the patient.
This instrument was the first on record to be used for that
purpose. The articulating caliper, however, did not enable a fixed
transfer or three-dimensional orientation of the casts to the
articulator. Its only purpose was to record the distance from the
patients condyles to a point along the midline of the maxillary
occlusion rim.

In 1894, George K. Bagby of Newburn, NC, obtained a patent


for improvements to an Simple hinge articulator and the jaw
gage a device similar in purpose to that of Hayes articulating
caliper. In the Bagby patent, the jaw gage is described as an
attachment to determine the location of the impression models
(in) the articulator and one that gives an exact measurement
desired of the lower jaw when the central incisors are present.
Bagby identified one of the cheeks at the condyle as the
posterior reference point. He also mentioned that the alveolar
border at the symphysis or the midline of a wax occlusion rim
could be used as the anterior reference point when appropriate.

It remained for George B. Snow of Buffalo, New York in


1899, to make the vital breakthrough when he introduced the
first instrument and technique for recording the anatomic
relationship of the maxillae to the condylar axis and transferring
this relationship to the articulator. Snows new innovations were:
(1) the facebow fork for indexing the anatomic position of the
maxilla to the condyles, and (2) the application of the ala-tragus
line for establishing the orientation of the occlusal plane.
Snow adopted the plane of orientation suggested by
I.N. Broomell. Broomell had originally described it with reference
to osseous structures (i.e., the center of the glenoid fossa to the
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anterior nasal spine). Snow used the term, ala-tragus line,


adapting it to soft tissue structures for clinical application.

In the original patent, this device was referred to as only an


attachment for an articulator, whereby the proper location of
the upper model in the articulator with respect to the pivotal
point between the two sections may be defined. The term,
facebow, probably evolved from a statement by A.D. Gritman,
who described the implement devised by Prof. Snow . . .as a bow
of metal (that) reaches around the face . . .
Orientation of the Occlusal Plane and the Third Point of
Reference:
Since Snow introduced his basic facebow in 1899, it has
remained the prototype for all other facebow inventors who have
followed. Over the years, inventors have studied cranial and facial
landmarks and have developed various theories and methods to
determine the vertical position of the occlusal plane. For example,
Gysis prosthetic plane is similar to Broomells extending from
the lower margin of the tragus to the ala of the nose.
On Hanaus model H series articulators, the level of the
occlusal plane is indicated by a groove in the incisal pin. If the
incisal contact point is placed at the level of this groove, it will be

about 35 mm below the condylar elements. This position actually


corresponds with the average position of the occlusal plane
described by Balkwill in 1866
The Wadsworth T-attachment added a new dimension to
facebows by providing a third point of reference indicator to
determine the vertical position of the occlusal plane. Frank
Wadsworth introduced this device and an articulator in 1921. The
anterior reference point was based on Wadsworths naso-opticcondylar triangle.
After facebow and bite forks were firmly secured on the face,
the T-attachment was adjusted so that the posterior end of the
horizontal crossbar would rest on a condylar rod. The anterior
end of the crossbar would then be adjusted to a point at which it
bisected an imaginary line from the lower border of the ala of the
nose to the pupil of the eye
The level of the casts was determined by the position of the
vertical bar. The mandibular cast was mounted first, and the
maxillary member of the articulator was then fixed parallel to the
horizontal bar of the T-attachment to mount the maxillary cast
Another facebow attachment used as a third point of
reference is the infra-orbital pointer. It was probably invented in
the late 1920s. Although Hanau, Bergstrom, and the Dentatus

Company were among the first to adopt it, its true origin is
unknown.

MANDIBULAR FACEBOWS:
From the late 1880s until about 1910, as transfer or
positional facebows were beginning to find their way into dental
offices, investigators struggled to determine the character of
condylar paths and what influence those paths might have on the
design

and

use

of

articulators.

These

investigators

soon

discovered that to be successful, they must not only reproduce


the movement of the condyle on an articulator, but also create a
permanent graphic record of the condyles complex and variable
movements that could be retained for future reference.
After George Snow introduced his innovative version of the
facebow in 1899; many clinicians and investigators agreed that it
was an instrument well suited for anatomically orienting the casts
to the condylar axis of an articulator. Why, then, could not such a
device be modified to record the movements of the jaw or measure
the condylar paths?

Luces Photographic Method:

Luce was probably the first to use a mandibular facebow to


reproduce the movements of the mandible and to specifically
trace the individual condylar pathways. Luce used what he called
the photographic method to record the relative movements of 3
points on the mandible: the condyle, angle, and symphysis. Luce
described his apparatus as a light framework. securely
fastened to the lower incisors . . .that reached around the face
almost to the ears. With the use of adjusting rods, the device
held highly polished silver beads that could be placed directly
over the condyle, angle, and symphysis.
For this photographic method, the subject was placed in
bright sunlight so that the silver beads would reflect into a
camera lens as bright spots. The camera was placed so as to
capture a direct profile exposure, and the film was exposed for
each entire sequence of mandibular movement. Each sequence
appeared on the negative as a solid white line.
Luces results corroborated Balkwills findings that the
condyles moved downward and forward, and, in addition, he
found that the condylar paths were curved and that there was
considerable individual variation in the relative movements of the
condyle, angle, and symphysis. Luce believed that the condyles
frequently advanced to the summit of the glenoid ridge and

beyond. He was also convinced that the condyles moved forward


simultaneously with the opening of the mandible.

Walkers Facial Clinometer:


In 1896, William E. Walker produced the first adjustable condyle
articulator. This instrument featured adjustable controls for
recording the variability of the downward as well as forward
movements of the individual condyles and controls for variable
lateral and vertical rotation centers. He called the instrument his
physiological articulator. Walker

was not concerned with

reproducing the exact anatomic curvatures of the condylar paths,


only the angles that these paths formed with the facial line and
the alveolar (or occlusal) plane and the distances that the
condyles traveled. To make these measurements on the patient,
he invented a device that he called the facial clinometer. This
was the first instrument devised to determine the individual
relationships and movements of the mandible for the purpose of
constructing mechanisms for imitating these movements.
Undoubtedly, using the facial clinometer was complicated
Walkers method for registering the angles of the condyle paths
and the distances that the condyles traveled was highly
complicated. Specifically, along with the facial clinometer, Walker
designed 2 auxiliary measurement devices that were secured in
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the mouth by the teeth or alveolar ridge. After the measurements


were made, however, the devices were set aside and neither
became a part of the basic clinometer. The mandibular facebow
device recorded the individual condylo-facial angles as well as the
distance traveled by each condyle. The second device recorded the
occluso-facial angle. Walker determined that the mathematical
difference between the condylo-facial angle and the occluso-facial
angle [is calculated to be] the condylo-occlusal angle . . .to which I
set the adjustable angle of my physiological articulator.
The drawing of the facial clinometer on a patient appeared in
Carl Christensens 1901 article and is based on Walkers original
photograph.

Parfitts Graphic Method:


In 1902, John B. Parfitt, of Reading, England, presented a
paper to the Odontological Society of Great Britain introducing
his anatomical articulator. He suggested that it should be called
a Model Jaw because it may be made to reproduce to scale the
motion of mastication of the jaws of any living subject. Parfitt
also introduced 2 mandibular facebows, 1 to transfer the casts to
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the articulator and 1 to produce a record of the contours of the


condylar paths
Parfitt was the first investigator to imitate the anatomic
curvatures of the condylar paths in an articulator. He showed
that the movements of the mandible are of three kinds: (1)
rotation about a horizontal axis passing through the two
condyles;

(2)

translation

of

the

(mandible)

forwards

and

downwards; (3) rotation about a vertical axis passing through one


condyle.
Parfitt noted that these movements occur only in combinations.
The condylar paths were traced with his facebow by attaching a
small piece of crayon to the end of a stiff arm connected to a lower
trial plate so that the crayon lies over the condyle. A paper card,
held by a rod connected to the maxillary teeth or alveolar ridge,
was placed under the crayon. After the tracings were made, pieces
of thin metal were cut to the shape of the tracings and attached
to the upper plate of the articulator.

PARTS OF A FACEBOW:
U shaped framework.
Condylar rods
Bite fork.

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Locking device
Third point indicator
U shaped framework:
The u shaped assembly is large enough to extend from the
region of one TMJ around the front of the face (5 to 7.5cms in
front of it) to the other TMJ and wide enough to avoid contact
with the sides of the face.
Records the plane of cranium. All components are attached to
the frame with help of clamps

Condylar rods:
The parts that contact the skin near the TMJ are the condyle
rods
These are two small rods on either side of free end of U
shaped frame.

They help to locate the hinge axis.

Bite fork:
The part that attaches to the occlusion rim is the fork.

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This is U shaped plate, which is attached to the maxillary


and mandibular, occlusal rims in Arbitrary and Kinematic
bows respectively.

It is attached to the frame with the help of rod called stem.


The bite fork should be inserted about 3mm below occlusal
surface within the occlusal rim.

The fork attaches to the face bow by means of a locking device,


which also serves to support the face bow, the maxillary
occlusion rim and the maxillary cast when the casts are being
attached to the articulator.
The fork of the face bow is attached to the maxillary occlusion
rim so the record is the simple relationship between the upper
jaw and the approximate axis of the jaw opening.

CLASSIFICATION OF FACEBOWS:
Arbitrary Face bow (Records arbitrary hinge axis)
Fascia Type
Earpiece Type
E.g. for arbitrary face bow
Denar slidematic

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Hanau spring bow


Whip mix quick mount face bow
Hanau model C

Kinematic face bow (Records true hinge axis)


E.g. for kinematic face bow

Hanau model D

Significance Of Face Bow


1. The theoretical advantage of using a face bow include the
anatomical similarity of the resulting relationship between the
teeth and the condyles
2. The face bow transfer record is an integral part in analyzing
and studying the occlusion of the natural teeth.
3. The better the cast on an articulator duplicate the distances to
the condylar rotation centers, the less the potential for
articulator produced errors of motion.

A face bow record is

used to transfer these relationships.


4. It records the intercondylar distance.
5. The true hinge axis is recorded.

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Indications for face bow transfer:


1. For diagnostic mounting & treatment planning.
2. Balanced occlusion in eccentric position is desired
3. A definite cusp fossa or cusp tip to marginal ridge relationship
is desired
4. When cusp form teeth are used
5. Interocclusal records are used for verification of jaw positions
6. The occlusal vertical dimensions is subjected to change
7. The alterations of tooth occlusal surfaces is planned
8. Gnathological studies & treatment.
9.

Situations when face bow transfer is not needed


1. When monoplane teeth are arranged on a plane in occlusal
balance
2. No alterations of the occluding surfaces of the teeth that would
require changes in the vertical dimension originally recorded.
3. No interocclusal records that would be at a different vertical
dimension from that in the original inter occlusal record

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4. When articulators that are not designed to accept a face bow


transfer are used in the denture procedures

Advantages of using a facebow:


Reduce errors in occlusion.
Permits more accurate programming of articulator.
Face bow supports the cast while mounting on the
articulator.
Registers the horizontal relationship of the cast quite
accurately and thus assists in correctly locating the incisal
plane.
Patients condition is simulated.
The arc of closure is registered.

ANTERIOR POINTS OF REFERENCE:


The selection of the anterior point of reference of the
triangular spatial plane determines which plane on the head
becomes the plane of reference when the prosthesis is being
fabricated. The dentist can ignore but cannot avoid the selection
of an anterior point.

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The act of affixing a maxillary cast to an articulator relates


the cast to the articulators hinge axis, to the vertical axes of the
condyles, to the condylar determinants, to the anterior guidance,
and to the mean plane of the articulator. The act achieves greater
importance by the use of a constant third point of reference and
repeatable posterior points of reference.

Selection of an anterior reference point:


The dentist should have knowledge of the following points and the
rationale for the selection of each.
1. Orbitale:
In the skull orbitale is the lowest point of the infraorbital rim. On
a patient it can be palpated through the overlying tissue and the
skin. One orbitale and two posterior points that determine the
horizontal axis of rotation will define the axis-orbital plane.
Relating the maxilla to this plane will slightly lower the maxillary
cast anteriorily from the position that would be established if the
FH plane were used.
Practically the axis-orbitale plane is used because
Of the ease of locating the marking of orbitale
And because the concept is easy to understand

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To use this point of reference the articulator must have an orbital


indicator guide.

The orbitale is transferred from the patient to

this guide by means of the orbital pointer on the anterior cross


arm of the face bow.
2. Orbitale minus 7 mm:
The Frankfort horizontal plane passes through both Poria and
one orbital point. Porion is a skull landmark and so Sicher
recommended the use of midpoint of the upper border of the
external auditory meatus as the posterior cranial landmark on
the patient. Most articulators do not have a reference point for
this landmark. Gonzalez pointed out that this posterior tissue
landmark on the average lies 7mm superior to the horizontal axis.
The recommended compensation for this discrepancy is to mark
the anterior point of reference 7mm below orbitale on the patient
or position the orbital pointer 7mm above the orbital indicator of
the articulator. In either of the techniques the Frankfort
Horizontal plane of the patient becomes the horizontal plane of
reference in the articulator.
3. Nasion minus 23mm:
Nasion another skull landmark can be approximately located in
the head as the deepest part of the midline depression just below
the level of the eyebrows. The Nasion guide or positioner fits into
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this depression. This guide can be moved in and out but not up
and down from its attachment to the facebow crossbar.

The

crossbar is located 23mm below the midpoint of the Nasion


positioner.
When the facebow is positioned anteriorily by the Nasion guide,
the crossbar will be in the approximate region of orbitale. The
facebow crossbar and not the Nasion guide is the actual anterior
reference point locator.

Locating the orbital point with this

technique is dependent upon the large Nasion guide, the


morphological characteristics of the Nasion notch and the
variance of the Nasion- orbitale measurement from 23mm in the
patient.
4. Incisal

edge

plus

articulator

midpoint

to

articulator-

horizontal plane distance:


Guichet has emphasized that a logical position for the casts in the
articulator would be one, which would position the plane of
occlusion near the mid-horizontal plane of the articulator. A
deviation from this objective may position the casts high or low
relative to the instruments upper and lower arms. The effect of
these

high

of

low

positions

may

be

inaccurate

occlusal

relationships.

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In accordance with this concept, the distance from the


articulators mid-horizontal plane to the articulators axishorizontal plane is measured. This same distance is measured
above the existing or planned incisal edges on the patient and its
uppermost point is marked as the anterior point of reference on
the face. This point can be recorded for future use by measuring
vertically downwards to it from the inner canthus of the eye and
recording this measurement.
With this technique the face-bow transfer will carry two
predetermined posterior points of reference and this anterior
point of reference to the articulators axis- horizontal plane.
It must be recognized that this technique does not relate the
FH plane or the axis-orbital plane parallel to the horizontal plane.
5. Alae of the nose:
The tentative or the actual occlusal plane can be made parallel to
the horizontal plane in two ways. They are:
a) A line from the ala of the nose to the center of the auditory
meatus describes the Campers plane. Studies have shown
that the occlusal plane parallels this line with minor
variations in different facial forms. The dentist can transfer
Campers line from the patient to the articulator by marking
the right or left ala on the patient, setting the anterior

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reference pointer of the facebow to it, and with the facebow,


transferring the ala anteriorily and the hinge points
posteriorily, from the patient to the articulators hingeorbital indicator plane.
b) A second method of establishing this relationship is to make
a wax occlusal rim parallel to Campers line on the face. The
wax occlusal rim made parallel with Campers plane is
transferred to the articulator with a facebow. In this way the
ala-axis

plane

and

the

tentative

occlusal

plane

are

horizontal and become the planes of reference in this


technique.

Reasons for selection of anterior reference point:


1) A planned choice of an anterior reference point will allow the
dentist to visualize the anterior teeth and the occlusion in
the articulator in the same frame of reference that would be
used when looking at the patient.
2) An occlusal plane not parallel to the horizontal in the
beginning steps of denture fabrication may be unknowingly
located incorrectly because of a tendency of the eye to
subconsciously make planes and lines parallel. Therefore
the dentist may wish to initially establish the restored
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occlusal plane parallel to the horizontal in order to better


control the occlusal plane in its final position.
3) The dentist may wish to establish a baseline for the
comparison between patients or for the same patient at
different periods of time.

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POSTERIOR POINTS OF REFERENCE:


BEYORN`S POINT: a point 13mm anterior to the
posterior margin of tragus of the ear on a line drawn
from the center of the tragus to the corner of the eye
(tragus- canthus line)
GYSI POINT: a point 10 mm in front of the tragus on the
tragus- canthus line.
BERGSTORM`S POINT: a point 10mm anterior to the
center of a spherical insert for the external acoustic
meatus and 7mm below Frankfurt horizontal plane

LUNDEEN`S POINT: 13mm from base of tragus to


canthus
BECKS POINT: 10mm anterior to center of external
auditory meatus and 7mm below Frankfurt plane

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The first actual kinematic location of the transverse hinge axis was
evolved through the California Gnathologic Society under the
leadership of Dr B.B.McCollum and the credit for the idea of the
mechanical location of an axis was given to Dr Robert Harlan. In its
purest form the transverse horizontal axis is usually thought of as
exhibiting a two-dimensional effect and as being independent of
the vertical and sagittal axes.
Harry Page gave a major challenge to the traditional concept
of a single intercondylar axis in his proposal of the transographic
concepts. He postulated the existence of two mutually independent;
noncolinear axes i.e. each condyle has its own axis of rotation.
Page theorized that as the mandible is flexible, such independence
is mechanically possible and anatomically allowable.

Some of the controversies in the location of hinge axis are:


1. Absolute location of the axis: Stuart, McCollum
2. Arbitrary location of the axis
3. Nonbelievers

in

transverse

axis

location:

Good,

King,

Weinberg
4. Split axis theory Two axis of rotation (one in each condyle)
supported by Cohn, H L Page

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The constancy of the hinge axis as a reference point is


supported by Granger, Sloan, Kornfeld , Aull among others.
However

some

disagree

like

Collett,

Levao,

Posselt

and

Sheppard. Several errors in the method of recording the hinge


axis must be recognized:
1) There may be movement of the skin over the condyles
during registration
2) The edentulous ridges are relatively instable bases on
which an occlusion rim is attached to carry the hinge axis
bow. Slight tipping of the bases will invalidate a recording.
3) Competent practitioners cannot always agree on the
location of the hinge axis
4) When the chin of the patient is forced backwards there
may be a protective contraction of the lateral pterygoid
muscle.
PROCEDURE FOR FACEBOW TRANSFER:
To properly evaluate a patients occlusion it is mandatory
that diagnostic casts be placed in an articulator in approximately
the same relationship to the TMJs as exists in the patient. A
facebow registration is used to mount the maxillary cast on the
articulator so that it is properly located both anteroposteriorily
and mediolaterally.

To be used enough to make a real


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contribution to the improvement of quality dentistry, a facebow


and articulator that possess a modicum of accuracy, are simple to
assemble and use, and can be set up relatively quickly should be
selected.
Surveys have shown that the Whip Mix articulator, Arcon
Hanau

and

Dentatus

semiadjustable

articulator

are

most

frequently used. The corresponding parts of these facebows and


the procedure for facebow transfer are considered.
Components of Whip Mix facebow:
Quick mount facebow
Bitefork
Nasion relator
Components of Denar slidematic facebow:
Reference plane indicator (43 mm above the incisal edges of
the maxillary incisors on the right side)
Bitefork assembly
Facebow with pointer

Components of Hanau spring bow:


Facebow with orbital pointer

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Bitefork assembly
Procedure for facebow transfer using arbitrary facebow:
Posterior reference point is measured and marked.

Condylar rod or earpiece is positioned on posterior reference


point. The locking nuts are then secured so that the
readings are the same on the condylar rods bilaterally. This
results in centering of the bow

The Bite fork is attached to the maxillary occlusal Rim so


that it is 3mm above the level of the tentative occlusal plane.
Occlusal rim are then inserted into patient mouth.
The midline of bite fork should coincide with the midline of
the maxillary occlusal rim.
Orbitale pointer when present is positioned so that it tip
points to the orbitale. All the locking nuts and clamps are
secured.
The whole assembly including maxillary occlusal rim is then
disengaged from the patient face and then positioned in the
articulator.

Procedure for facebow transfer using kinematic facebow:

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Facebow is attached to the lower jaw by means of clutch.


This extends to the region of the ears and is fixed to the
mandibular teeth.
Graph of Grid paper is placed near temporomandibular joint
region, at the end of the arm just anterior to the tragus
region. This detects the stylus movement.
The mandible is manipulated to a retruded position from
which it is guided to open and close 10 mm.

Initial movement of the stylus may be arc shaped.

The stylus is adjusted in small increments to move it up,


down, forward or back, until the pin simply rotates without
tracing an arc.
This point identified as the hinge axis is tattooed on the skin
and preserved for future reference.
A third reference point is selected and marked on the face
and recorded by adjusting the pointer on the facebow.
The facebow is removed from the patient and transferred to
the articulator
The reference pins on the facebow are placed over the axis of
rotation of the articulator condyles.

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With the anterior reference device providing the vertical


orientation of the facebow, the maxillary cast is accurately
mounted to the articulator.

RECENT ADVANCES IN FACEBOWS:


1. AXIOGRAPH is an electronic pantograph. Electronic jaw
recording systems are useful for functional jaw analysis and
articulator adjustment. Contrary to mechanical devices for
pantography or axiography, electronic systems offer the
possibility of easy and quick recording and analyzing of
different

jaw

movements.

Furthermore

with

special

mathematical procedures projection errors can be widely


eliminated

and

computer-aided

detection

of

the

mandibular transverse hinge axis can be carried out. Finally


electronic systems can convert calculated datas of jaw
movements
adjustable

to

the

specific

articulators.

Ex:

construction

geometry

String-Condylocomp

of
LR3

(Dentron) and Cadiax (GAMMA)


2. KAVO ARCUS PRO face bow is based on the principle, which
permits transfer of measured values from the patient to the
articulator without errors and includes both arbitrary and
kinematic face bows in which details are transferred to the

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computer. The KaVo facebow ARCUS effectively records the


position of the upper jaw in relation to the arbitrary or
individual hinge axis, in less than 3 minutes. This prevents
errors in occlusion, primarily those caused by the raising or
lowering of the bite. Articulation can therefore be carried out
directly in the surgery, error-free and without further aids.
In less than 5 minutes, this ultrasonic measuring system
records, without contact, all the setting values for the fully
adjustable articulator
Settings:
Integrated facebow function
Condylar path inclination
Bennett angle
Side shift (play in the TMJ)
Shift angle (movement on the working side)
Retrusion
Anterior/canine guidance
3. CADIAX

COMPACT:

CADIAX

Compact

was

specially

designed for use in everyday dental treatment. It has an


integrated display and processes the data independently.
The

system

also

functions

without

computer.

registration process takes only a few minutes.

The

Cadiax
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Compact stores the most important limit movements of the


joint: protrusion, mediotrusion right/left and open/close.
Used in conjunction with a para-occlusal clutch, the system
works out the CPM, i.e., the difference between the reference
and

intercusping

positions

in

the

lower

jaw.

Recorded movements can be shown on the internal display


individually or in overlay, making it easy for the practitioner
to

carry

out

his/her

functional

diagnostics

easily.

At the push of a button CADIAX Compact calculates settings


of sagittal and transversal guide elements (Fossa and
Bennett) for a variety of articulator types available in the
market. CADIAX Compact is equipped with an internal
memory. It offers enough memory for the registration of one
patient. The machine "remembers" the data even after it is
turned off.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
1). Evaluation of the third point of reference for mounting
maxillary casts on the Hanau articulator: Bailey JO, Nowlin TP.
JPD 1984;51;199-201
In

this

study,

occlusal

plane-FH

plane

relationship

on

Cephalometric radiographs with those transferred to the Hanau


semiadjustable articulator with 2 recommended third points of
reference were compared.
10 subjects were studied. A standard lateral ceph was made for
each subject, along with a maxillary alginate impression and a
facebow registration. The facebow transfer was made using the
Beyrons point and orbitale as reference points. Further the cast
was also mounted on the same articulator using the incisal pin
notch as the anterior point of reference. It was seen that :
The FH plane-occlusal plane relationship that exists
on a subject is not transferred to the articulator.

33

Use of the middle groove on the incisal guide pin as a


third point of reference positions the maxillary cast on
the Hanau articulator as accurately as the orbital
pointer does

2) Esthetic considerations in the use of facebows: Stade EH,


Hanson JG, Baker CL. JPD, 48; 253-255
A study was conducted to identify and quantitate possible
esthetic errors in the use of a conventional facebow. Condylar axis
was located using the Bregstorms point and facebow transfer was
done using orbitale as the third point of reference. Its was seen
that:
Anatomic asymmetric axis positions lead to inaccurate
use of conventional facebows
Use of orbitale and axis-orbital plane may result in
improper tilts to the maxillary cast when mounted on
the articulator.
A more accurate anterior reference point located
superior to those presently used is needed to increase
the esthetic usefulness of a conventional facebow.

34

3). Facebow record without a third point of reference: theoretical


considerations and an alternative technique. Ercoli C, Graser GN,
Tallents RH. JPD 1999;82:237-241
In this article an alternative procedure for facebow transfer
that eliminates the need for a plane of reference and uses the
angular relationship between the occlusal plane and the condylar
path to mount the maxillary cast on the articulator is described.
Procedure:
Diagnostic casts are prepared. A silicone interocclusal
protrusive record is made with the incisors in edge-to-edge
position. A facebow transfer is made without paying attention to
the third point of reference. The upper cast is mounted with the
split cast technique. The lower cast is mounted against the upper
cast in maximum intercuspation. After mounting the lower cast
the upper cast is separated from the split mounting and is related
to the lower cast using the protrusive record.

The condylar

mechanism is loosened and adjusted to allow the split cast to


close.
In this technique the clinician records and transfers the
relationship between the occlusal plane and the condylar
protrusive path by taking the protrusive interocclusal record.

35

CONCLUSION:
To achieve the highest possible degree of accuracy from an
articulator the casts mounted on it should be closing around an
axis of rotation that is as close as possible to the transverse
horizontal (hinge) axis of the patients mandible. This axis is an
important reference as it is repeatable. It is necessary to transfer
the relationship of the maxillary teeth, the transverse horizontal
(hinge) axis and a third reference point from the patients skull to
the articulating device. This is accomplished with a facebow, an
36

instrument that records those spatial relationships and is then


used for the attachment of the maxillary casts to the articulator.
Facebows must have acceptable accuracy and be simple to
apply or they will not be used routinely. In summary terminal
hinge axis recordings may offer on the articulator the closest
approximation of a correct cast-to-condyle relationship

REFERENCES:s
Complete denture Prosthodontics:

1)

3rd ed J J Sharry
Complete dentures: 4th ed M G

2)

Swenson
3)

Contemporary fixed Prosthodontics:


3rd ed Rosenstiel

37

4)

Fundamentals

of

fixed

Prosthodontics: 3rd ed H T Shillingburg


5)

Prosthodontic

treatment

for

edentulous patients: 12th ed G A Zarb


6)

Text Book Of Complete Dentures:

5th Ed O.Rahn, Heartwell.


7)

The

history

of

articulators-from

face bow to gnathograph- part-I and II, Journal of Prosthodontics;


11

38