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Slender columns BS 8110 Explained

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When a stocky column (i.e. one that is not very slender, where

slenderness is defined as the ratio between the columns height

and width) is subjected to an excessive axial load it is likely to

fail by crushing. Similarly, if a stocky column is subjected to a

critical combination of axial load and moment the mode of

failure will be by failure of the material.

When a slender column is overloaded its mode of failure is

altogether different.

e e

2

column in Figure 1 causes a moment of M=Ne by virtue of the

loads eccentricity w.r.t. the struts centreline.

deflection of the column. Thus M=N(e0+e2). The lateral

deflection is itself a function of the moment. Therefore in the

second case the moment applied is not a linear function of the

applied load. Structures such as this may fail by buckling.

Design Approach

If the increase in moments due to lateral deflection of the

member is greater than 10% then the concrete codes class the

behaviour as significant and require that the additional moments

are considered in the members design.

The codes sub-divide concrete columns into two basic

categories, braced and un-braced, or sway and no-sway,

depending on how the structure is designed to resist lateral

loading. In a braced building the columns will not be required to

resist the lateral loading and hence the deflected shape of such

columns under load is,

frame action then the columns displaced shape is,

Effective Length

The theoretical Euler buckling formula for a pin-joined strut is,

Pcrit

2 EI

= 2

l

the strut are different then the struts buckling load can be

predicted by calculating an equivalent effective length.

le = lo

The theoretical effective length is given below for some end

conditions.

Fixed Fixed

Pined Pined

Fixed Free

le = 0.5 lo

le = 1.0 lo

le = 2.0 lo

points of contra-flexure. However, the codes give simplified

guidance on appropriate values for both braced,

1 Depth of beam monolithically connected to the column is

greater than or equal to the column depth

2 Depth of the beam or slab monolithically connected to the

column is less than the column depth

3 Nominal restraint between beams and column, eg. Beam

detailed as simply supported

4 Top of cantilever in sway structure

Slenderness Ratio

In BS 8110 the stiffness of a column is assessed depending on

its slenderness ratio, which is defined as

=

le

h

thickness in the case of a slender wall. A typical column will

have two slenderness ratios

l

x = ex

h

ley

y =

b

designed for buckling if

max 10

max 15

for braced columns

The Euro code uses the radius of gyration

=

l0

i

where

i=

I

A

assess slenderness has the advantage that it can be used with

non-rectangular sections.

Slender columns must be designed for the additional moments

due to lateral displacement. The lateral displacement is a

function depends on the end conditions of the columns and the

end moments applied.

Unfortunately neither elastic analysis nor plastic analysis is

really appropriate. The Code approach is based on a simplified

procedure to estimate the member curvature.

Note:

A minimum eccentricity emin should always be assumed to

allow for construction errors. emin = 0.05h but should not be

taken as less than 20mm.

The additional moment is a function of the columns lateral

displacement. The method proposed in the Code attempts to

model the load deflection relationship. The code aims to

predict the mid-height deflection at which failure of the concrete

commences.

The shape of the curvature is assumed, and the central deflection

au is assumed to be given by

2 1

au = le

r

where 1

au

r

along the column and the Code assumes a sinusoidal value of

1 2 . Thus au the central lateral deflection is assumed to be

1 2 1

au = 2 le

r

Calculate 1/r

The column curvature (1/r) is calculated by considering the M-N

curve.

M

At the balanced point the compressive strain in the concrete is at

its maximum and the tensile strain in the steel is at its yield point

0.0035

fy

given by

f

0.0035 + yd

Es

1

=

rbal

d

column under axial load only, ultimate axial load Nuz, is zero.

If the maximum curvature is assumed to vary linearly between

1 and 1 then for any load N the curvature can be

ruz

rbal

expressed as,

1 = K 1 where K = N uz N but not greater than 1.

r

rbal

N uz N bal

Thus

au = a Kh

2

l

a = 0.0005 e = 0.0052

h

M add = Nau

Design Moments

Braced Column

A reasonable estimate of the moment at mid height due to

external end moments M1, M2 , where M 2 M 1

Mi = 0.6M2 + 0.4 M1 not less than 0.4M2

Therefore by referring to the figures shown earlier the design

moment Mmax is the greatest of

M2

M1 + 0.5 Madd

Mi + Madd

Nemin

Unbraced Column

In the un-braced case the Mmax is the greater of

M2 + Madd

Nemin

Iterative Procedure

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Assume K=1

Calculate Mmax

Find area of steel needed for Mmax and N

If Mmax not based on Madd the design is OK

Else recalculate K

If K is not close to assumed K recalculate Mmax

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