W.. etc.A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C. etc. E. TAYLOR. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 . with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev. Interpreter in Swahili and H.A. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land. M.


Although the records this. are in most cases very imperfect. made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. SUDAN. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. . KAJOKAJI. as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. 1915 H. C. S. presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use.



INTRODUCTION who Author. and detail. of the book.C.P. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars. but is no less worthy of attention. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language. which involve certain new conclusions. departures.). and I have gladly acceded to his request. and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales.C.K. whether in English or in any other language. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known. and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively. This "give and take" however is essential to progress.). Explorer and Ethnologist. to whom the Essay will be most precious .. so far as I am aware. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. And no doubt the methods. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries.K. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own. in my own African Aphorisms (S. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide.P. etc. and in the appearance of for the new generation . It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu).

ambiguities. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is. and warlike ." with the root TA " It signifies. then. either civil or external. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced." " throw out. say Barawa. The Curtained Headpoint. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili. born and . from the feature of this "hidden Isle. and wide. that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. though running on similar lines yet also a different language." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North. land. in its purity. meaning a sinking in." as of a warlike expedition and in war. experience. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . expeditions. its native name." because while the the too patent crudities. for one. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. tion. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation." (otherwise CHA). would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity. at least under Arab rule. experto crede. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). is Vita "It upon words. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long. I. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. and corruptions of the careless South. thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences. Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place.

And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. and Quiloa. no doubt. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. such as Mwana Kambaya. or spoken. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect." genius of their Dialect. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. " " prose to signify all sustained speech. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries.T it is efrxnv. Mombaza. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits. treatises of different kinds. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine . the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. "puritanic. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence. to of lore school of the Islam. However. such as one finds in native stories and tales. the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906." then the Mazru'is. par excellence. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities.INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. and onwards under its once famous Queens." the Isle Accordingly KO. and so on to the present day. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. whether in MS. dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. and Melind.

if not the greatest. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. in the proper place. E. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. T. the present work would never have been written. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press. 1915. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. since it was version. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. and spirit. at the instance of Captain Stigand. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. .INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. W. Certainly. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). here in E. made many years ago. to add my own Recension of the same Poem. to the study of languages. KYRK. and bearing.

= Kirngao. Eng. = Kipate. 80. = English. = Kitikuu. = derivation. PL = singular. Kiunguja. Kip. = Kiarau. Lit. = Kiuug. = Kimrima. derived from. Ar.) = Arabic. . Sing. Der.ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. Kit. = plural. = Kimvita. Kimr. Kimv. Kiam. = literally. Kimg.

these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together.the much farther than this. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin. Lamu lJLcabs. to be to the court language.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl. Zanzibar. viz. Africa. ... so to speak. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as.name.. Such is the state of things between Mombasa. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects. and Portuguese East Africa. Hindustani and Somali or Gala words. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day... understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. laces. of British East East Africa. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast.gp. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board. Uganda and far info the Congo. now much what French used JjtSL.. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language. The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Mombasa. Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese. Nyasaland. r Js iswftbilj. Mrima. Zanzibar and the dialects. practically the It is -is .Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j .mtk .as jt&.-indicates.

strange at easy to foretell first sight. So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. as in the Lamu Archipelago. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. Here we have many little islands and towns. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. For convenience in reference group. It is. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. 3. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. intelligible. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. however. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. once the rules are known. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. 2. In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. and so words. however. The 1. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further.

an exhaustive which occur on this coast. This with a number of local dialects. Kiunga and other places on the coast N. Kialabi. is } : from all the above. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. however. 7.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . might be Farther afield but 13. Kisiu. 5. Kiamu 9. The 14. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. at Rasini. is by no means. The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. Kingazija. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. viz. Lastly comes the parent of 15. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. will suffice. such as those spoken Tundwa. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. Kitikuu. Bajun group. dropping or adding syllables. 12 . 6. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. : Kinyume. of Amu.

However. J : Tamarufa. O called tay. The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. shown Ku-Tii of the t t. I have. distinguished by the . tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step.B. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed. for dialectic reasons. It common other to the educated Swahili ear. or te safi in Swahili. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. This symbol preacher to obey.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T.

. Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. The Bantu cerebral t. in distinction to the pure t.we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. and Aspirated dental t. Examples. . . Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed. Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) . This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. let down so. period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. hence or stranger to invite t'. end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. to your ear 5 Swahili. take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry.

there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d. however. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. etc. D. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap.to tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . is In the Zanzibar group. sling. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use. Examples. n has a disturbing . T'embe Shown here by =a t'. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d.e. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. (i) The dental dali safi. dental t. as in English. or pure. dal. T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics. As i.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t.

) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes.) Kandu (Kiam. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider. i.) = a loop.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv. aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d. The Kim vita words above N. the overturned d.) = to taste Konda (Kiam. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples.) Mwando (Kiam.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv. Ndia (Kimv.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu. Swahilis not d but r.) = outside Nde (Kimv. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag . viz. Examples. This is As an Example. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu. > = ndugu.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv.e.) Kitandi (Kiam.B.) = a road.

and r are interchangeable in different dialects.. soldier.). Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando . congeal Ku-ganda = to teach. .) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. between these There is also a tendency. and Kiung. in less pure dialects. Certain other letters The Arabic . These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. as mentioned above. In the Zanzibar group however. and Kiung. L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. has been vowel which bears its sound. is pronounceable in Kimv. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. letters 1 = where pronounced. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg. deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also.) appears nyere (Kimr. the pure d is not used and a slurred. freeze.) but in the Ingira. The and R. as is However Ingia (Kiam.

CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. Examples. The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . = near = lamp. This strong guttural k. Examples. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. cray fish. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. K. hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. then. viz. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster. k'.B. Examples. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin. Hakika Karibu Kandili N.

Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma. very different sounds. komba. They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid. popoo. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention. .CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. Translation. popoo. as usually shown by simple o. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). komba. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. to the native ear. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. The following little verse. etc. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima. it being pass for another word. " law " 6." Ch and P. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa." or the sign of duplication. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. is used for this sound in Swahili. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. as kolokolo. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native.

letters. followed Taylor's mode of spelling.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest. with a single consonant. Thalimu Ramadhani. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have. with few exceptions. or most Bantu speaking natives. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. marra. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili.*. to pronounce a closed syllable. in regard to such words. . the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. viz. are usually spelt with the double consonant. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . I have therefore. J%elafAa Thikiri .. used the following signs. which do not count for much in Swahili. sitta.. tissa. although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. Bassi.3 Example. 11 billa. There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required. ilia.. Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . Th.

as natives love to do. If he was showing off. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. but one meaning. or the two most foreign to him. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another. but it is distinctly dialect. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. of the words above. Changes of Vocabulary. ku-kawia and ku-limatia. III." "to remain. sun . In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects. ku-chelewa. all down the meaning coast. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. more or less. ku-chelewa. all all Thus the three words." viz. " to delay. he would probably use all three. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. Changes of Grammar. Changes of Letters. Showing what simple transpositions. II." are understood.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I.

in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. hoping to make himself more intelligible. dialects big tract of country they cover. The grouped together under this name.g. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can. possess almost .g. both of the same tribe." left latter places is always used with kitako. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language. drowned. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. " E. the same word means. " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. Changes of Idiom. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. lost at sea. be he. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. Indian or African. The first is the native's love of display." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese. briefly may give Zanzibar Group." In Kimv. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. E. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly.

This I will tell you (sing. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv. love ye. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent. in certain tenses. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example. The corresponding construction in Kimvita.). This in the purer dialects would be pendani. have told you I In this group there (pi. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form. Amu (pi. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili. Example. Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example. (ii) or the by -wa-. etc. The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. you -e. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs.(or -mw-) -ni. Nawafuata and nimewambia.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m. its place being taken : Mombasa Example. Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example. This construction does not occur in the group. objective person plural being.). in this group as a cerebral. where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group. the -e. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels.).

literature. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. dali pindu and re pindu. dali safi. viz.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. Kiunguja 1. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. not Kiswahili or districts. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. The dental t it then. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. especially the latter. . etc. to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. comparatively speaking. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. for t's. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. accessible to the student. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. of grammars. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. stories. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. vocabularies. so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts.

Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. to be hard. Balua Sh 1. conquer Kwisa . egg on. or the dialect of the Mrima coast. cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects)." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. and so the and not be confused. there should be order. = a frog = silk. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. Changes of Letters I. make to flourish. Kimrima. (fr. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. JaJLw) Ar. unyielding to urge. for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. for nothing s. 2.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. for the first is spelt taa="lamp. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. is in use. which will be mentioned later. = = cJlo) Ar. " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. kwisha = to be finished ! . = a plan. inlocal variations. Examples. strengthen.

nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. to break to fall. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels . Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. Example. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels.) must come. more marked in the next dialect. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. or e. into ch. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. Examples. knock down to make. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. however. in the next dialect. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples." or to bathe. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person. Examples. when followed sit." This is.KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. for is. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi.

In reflexive verbs Example.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound. trouble. i is often used for Kuiketilia ji. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice. he saiba is like) Similarly N. kwakwe.) Atamwambieni. oneself down. 1 Examples.. or atakwambieni = he (pi. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example.) Nampendani = I love you (pi. be cut out. follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi. for may taabu = rag. In some of the local variations of Kimr. out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). . pakwe.B. Choroni = dust = bathroom. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung. his fellow is the mchirika rat. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners.) will tell you (pi. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief.) Nimemwambieni.e. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. This is etc. Chakwe. in dialect of the Example.). viz. Kitowero = foot. Puku (i. etc. chooni . vyakwe.

and not concords. pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. appear to hold good. Jma ja . Examples. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. baba. N." is also heard. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye. mama. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. Examples. Jina ya fulani) . Ile the chief. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing. Ndugu.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. interrog.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. concords as in Kiung. are of the class. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n.class analogy being carried The still farther. . however. Examples. the n.B.class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. ng'ombe.. In certain dialects of Kimr. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word. though not in the verbal concord.. however.class. On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar. so \ . of this class. In Kiung. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class.

Examples. = behind place. Changes of Idiom IV.. In the -me. =a panali . I have gone.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village. A common expression in Kimr. . for namna = sort. which must not be confounded with the -ngali. These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you.and we-.tense the pronominal prefixes a. alivyopata a few instances are given under. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside. babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j .and times represented by e. . -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-.conditional tense." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. . Changes of Vocabulary slight.

As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. however.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. as has been shown already. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. Changes of Letters I. or with a letter which is way between the two. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect. Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr.KIMGAO 3. . and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. oo. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property. As will be shown later sounds in ee. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. In this dialect. The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. Many of the sounds in eo. and aa have.

as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. general use instead of m. Fanya hivo Example. as in goes." a second added. is if followed certain consonants. Examples. but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. Examples. viz. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. often changes to eh. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that.) want mwampige = you (pi. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change. however.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. are pronounced or r.. avoided by the use of y. There appears. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia .) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. fell . frequently added. cries. Examples. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition. K before = and you (pi. Examples.) must beat him = I will give him. especially after nasal ms. in Kimr.

and the the animate class. mu takes m However. yet loved.) he must tell you (pi. = he must tell you (pi. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction.instead of hu- tenses sing. they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved. Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi. .23 KIMGAO II. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi. and also. (pi. the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect.) Perfect = I tell you (pi. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing.). Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. = he loved. Amependa = he has loved.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. Examples.) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. Examples.tense after a subjunctive. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved. in the negative . except that the place of before a consonant. and Kimr. Examples. This is Examples.

or kw.prefixed to it. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village." Examples. Examples. Very often.and the verb. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. If there is an objective prefix." . However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku.class This however is not done with human beings. the n. it comes between the ku. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped. Examples. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt. Alike Occasionally locative forms. Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. are used in place of the locative in -ni. borrowed from the surrounding languages. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III. however.K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village.

This latter word. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. Examples. agreeing with mambo. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. are said to 1 A similar state of things. understood. is Changes of Idiom IV.KIHADIMU KIMGAO. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity.tenses. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . = Amenipiga was hit (lit. in well). This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. 25 Examples of other words. viz. Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. . and he beat him himself). no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. Example.or -ki." . outside the town. Example. The Wahadimu is known. ku-ima. kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. stand. Alikwenda kule. used in place of vizuri. It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka.B. 4. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive.

In converting Kiung." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. 5. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. the Mombasa people. for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. 6. -biti for -bichi . Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. then only savages. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on.26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. The origin of the name Mvita " war. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. This latter derivation would appear more likely. being often altered in transit. hid in the bush." because. words into Kimv. It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. I. it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. changes to t Kimv.

Nt'a causes. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. as the Swahilis say. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). : and pronouns agreeing with ki. Such influences may be the letter n. and others. These pronouns should really be kia. changu.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. turned over a little and becomes t'. is aspirated. Words which do not occur in Kiung. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been. etc. chetu. for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. of the ki. with eh. Words which are spelt in Kiung. for the same . kiangu. kiako. or some other Examples. kietu. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used.class beginning with eh. but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh.class such as cha. etc. : viz. alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. carry. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. chako. mto. or that the eh in Kiung.

Chai.. chuo. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. changes to nd in Kimv. there : Examples. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. All of these are the same in Kimv. ku-chafuka. uchafu. chungwa.) is follows the rules above.class in Kimv. In Kimv. chapa. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road. chaza (ma.KIM VITA 28 Examples. chura. mchekeche. chooko.).. cheo. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects.or in the ma. any = Examples.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1). (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples.class and is always called tupa. Chakula. used indiscriminately in the n. and Kip.). expressions being used in Nj in its place. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. chumvi. mchikichi. choyo. chuma. chokora. chombo. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv. path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). change. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv. Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for . ehenza. Kiung. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam. choo. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. Ku-choka. chuni (=a kind of water bird). the d being the semi- dental explained above. chaki. .. -chache. chungu. ku-cha ( to fear). chumba. and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. chandarua. -changa. chambo. ku-chota. ku-chelewa.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n.

.) you (pi. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill. II.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi. The construction is as follows etc. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples. njugu and njema. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing.) love you (pi. however.).as the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present.is used in place of a. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi. Yua.to n-. in the Zanzibar group. njuga. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix. The Njama. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema..and -ka. but change according to rule in Kiam. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. Kiam. not often heard. three of these. Nyumba yakwe = his Examples. These are only heard with the future -ki. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv.tenses. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake.29 KIMVITA Exceptions.. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni.) Nawapenda = I love you (pi. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural.

from -ye. and -ko-. The tendency. of the narrative tense. it is said.and -yo-. is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives. Examples.KIMVITA 30 Thus. -mo-. alipofika and occasionally -cho-. -po-.to -e-.in the verbal infix. however. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). Example. -zo- and -vyo-. Examples. -lo. tend to become simple -o. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle. an abbreviation of nika. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you.which was. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. always used. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. . Examples. alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. is full form is used except used for -wo. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought.to ha- is in the first person sing. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. Examples. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes.

recognize them as two words. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. however. = he who wants Atakae Examples. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. relative in Examples. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. The Swahilis themselves. each bearing an accent on the penultimate. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. etc. III. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes.) of . Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. Kimv. = woman's robe. being in more common use in that dialect. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. and Kimv.

less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit. Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. hebu mi = leave me alone. = custard apple = to pluck. let me (pass) Kula njama . please. don't worry me also.to take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. hebu = come let us. gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. health is best. fruit). the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . lone (buffalo. sleep is hurting me) that goes alone. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . or smitten by. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others. for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV.

This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. Gazette ? Example. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. 3 . Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. 7. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. viz. i. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you.e. you lie (der. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words. Kidigo. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. s. from the E. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized. A.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down.

KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam.. or Lamu. Exceptions. who came from the Persian Gulf. The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. into Examples. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. on the island of that name. softened into y. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv. . or the island of Ndeo. the Banu Lami. the dialect of the town of is Amu." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding. K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi .cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. Examples. I. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much.

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y. Baghaa 1 in Kimv. leo . kilemba = a turban = to-day.K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples.

Kimv. nguva. -zo. zile. vyake. etc. vyenu. Examples. mavi. -vi-. ku-vua. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . mwavuli. are -vyo-. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change.. ku-vaa. place of vya. Thus za. hizi. zenu. nguvu. -zi-.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki.) . Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. ndevu. Examples. vyote.class change v. Exceptions.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. . etc. and many others. hivi. used in to z. between two vowels is sometimes dropped. becomes nd. mvua. ..to begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . zote. Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii. -kavu.) = ku-kanga (Kiam. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. zake. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse. = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. vile.or vyto z-.

Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony.. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam. Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for . ku-ehenma . village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi.to sneeze chungwa = orange.). Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck. see 35. Examples. *). at the . at the same time. (as is also the case in Kimr. page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv.KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. Ku-sonda S to reach to. changes now. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word.) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. Examples.. on the left side." P (pi. M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle.

Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all.to feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . N occurs rarely in place of m.KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a.. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam. i and o. : a scarf intention. Examples. e. = captain. skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. band .. as (cp. purpose. changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent). kama of Kiung. = like. Kimr. Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage).) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. letters Kiamu Akhira (or. Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something . Examples. a snuff (Bahasha.

Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect. hide. bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns .) = to swallow = an insect = rubber.a giraffe = a chief = a smith c. = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt . a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin.KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash.

Distant Past. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. Past.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita. * v^etc. (dust in house ripen. etc. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. freely used in Kiamu. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. . husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. used to get. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. In Kiam. be well done = jaa) ing II. J got (long ago) or.

its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki. and stories so is For an example of -nga. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). as uli uki-. (The usual form. As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. ali aki. .as an alternative for the first person sing. of the Near Past Negative.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise.tense (page 44). etc.

43 .KIAMU Negative -ki- tense.

havi-. takes concords zi-. It it out. -zii tense. particles are na " nga. The tense particle is -lime- = " had already." though occasionally occurs with a few others. etc. hazi-. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. .although I am hungry I do not eat. of the ki. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku .class which.= although. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. stated. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb. to be in the act of doing something. as she was sitting). Niangawa na ndaa sili . Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name)." Example. Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. -i.KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi. in place of vi-." Examples. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears. is Examples. as before etc. Past Perfect.

Examples. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona. Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz. etc. "as yet." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete." or. kee for kaa. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb. . nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed. The meaning is "while as yet. viz." "yet. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again)." "still." "while yet. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms. happened. Also see the first line of verse on page 116. for Moyo. ibid. mentioned by Taylor.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite. he has still mounted and is mounted). last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. Verbs having their two prefix." Examples. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation.

of place well.. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb. mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry. Kimv. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. becomes -i-.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for . so some are given full. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree .and not na. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita.must be used with this tense and for third person sing.and not a-. Examples. is is befallen him. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down. Pronouns. has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to. in common use at the present day in in poetry. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. ni. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv. u.e. Examples. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji.

Nawapenda = I love you (pi). as they are the hii huwo. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative. period. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing. It is also used in the -e-e tense. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. and in several . occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class. plain u. il. ule. B. in the first and third persons sing. Hono is this time. period that time. hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. etc. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv. i!6e.and the -ki. zile.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . The farther demonstratives ule. these faces have etc.is used in Kiam. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka. hiyo. wa!6e. period. Examples. There is also a form used with wakati = time. for the accent. the -zii tense other instances..tenses. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N.these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . The remainder nyuso . Examples. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. used in Kimv. viz. etc. The arrangement plural is the same as Example. only.

nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam. kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani.) did not get (pi.) shall not get.) went (pi.a new kingdom. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective. for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. P . Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. Examples. of the second person plural often mu. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the . by cutting out the first -i-. Example. suffix.KIAMU 48 Examples. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall. Examples. Example. Example. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking. fr. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya . Uknta mwingine = another Example. latter.

Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. The latter takes the place of -vyo. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you. Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. Note the use of relative with perfect. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita.and Example. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for. 8. 4 . In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda . Examples (of locative relative). Examples.as he has done (or. Examples.is used as an infix for all classes of nouns. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-.B. is a tendency to suppress the w. for ? why ? Relatives.(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam.in Kimv. N. -po-. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. Even with these however there -y. -mo. form.KIAMU The interrog.and the infix -zo. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants. The The relative -o.in -wo and -yo.

(-si-) the -i- of the is elided. Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you.as they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Examples. = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat. no is used. Exceptions. nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . they remain as of the second class. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. as in the cases elision takes place. or anything pertaining to trees or plants. of the tense particle Examples. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. Examples. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata .. If Examples. Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. Examples. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto .are in Kiam.KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided. when I do not want). treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. however they are the names of trees or plants.

42 . Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. consonant it takes a concord as class. theirs).. Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples. moon. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam. If the adjective begins with a for pi. in Kiam. his) = it is ours (yours. = two years = big fires. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. anything to do with a tree or plant. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. wewe = is pi. theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine.. 1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. treated. mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. of sixth class. dialects. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi. as of the first class "kites. his) = it is ours (yours. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo . Also nyawanyo. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu. Examples. quite correctly. Examples.

jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . N. Where the Kimv.B. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for . akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town.e. Ku-tunda in i." "put out. Example. take out. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out.KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. Kiam. jongoo -jigger. About one hundred words are appended as examples. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet." is frequently heard in viz. There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia).. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema . in a meaning not given. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza. and Kimv. word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

the ground. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw.KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. male = a traveller. on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini. ring. or. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. sound out ku-lia = luck. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little. -a small out. fortune bahati . take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) . = to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry.. goer = a demon.

' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued. IV. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning. mwenyi ku-pata. path = a string of beads = sheath.' ' Ni mbwako. For instance one might say to one's boy. Sometimes the word given Kimv. are con- differences in idiom siderable. The Changes of is hut). A man rushed in after it saying. ' and another seized it saying. Ni mbwake. Kuku mbwangu. in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required.. angalia = to see after. urefu ndia Utunda .KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita . useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea . that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday. Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? ." probably untruthfully.' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out. and Kiam.B.' It is related. English = silver neck. ' Siyo mbwangu. A few instances only will be given here. The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on. used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N. Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or. Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his)..chain = length = road. will get two rupees). scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta. word..

either in point of place or time." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv. Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come). in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. ule. viz. ilee." In Kiam. viz. viz. . ziatu zipia = "new sandals.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi. viz. yes he has done something. wale. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before. and as an first " not 1 " or. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables. It has the meanimg " of. his intention (was) . Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. (Takes the place of makusudi. wa!6. one o.) (= come). ulee. The accent remains as shown. walee. Kimv. Talking of anything distant. not wane) Abb.. The word -pya Kimv. Mbona hukufika P = Answer. not yet). You say I did ?" not Example. Have I person sing. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right.KIAMU 56 This. on purpose. with hata. = is food not ready after = until he died. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. taking the accent on the first. and has not) purposely . which has already been mentioned. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. as he says. etc. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. mkate mpya = a new loaf. etc. an e is added to the far demon. Example. is only used in the interrogative reply. if that word is one of these far demonstratives.

all three. questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). haisi. you do not know. Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. viz. beings. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers.57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. look out for . human Mwida is being. s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. of animate Wowawili = both. in anything but the negative present. Its meaning quite different." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time. haniisi = he does not know. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons).. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form)." etc. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible." Example. in Kiam. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning. Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will. Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds. coming and going (and thus want of privacy. " huisi. ghasia). fudifudi = to lie face downwards. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam. Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. he does not know (recognize) me. Si-isi =" I do not know " .

for the Kimv. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam. I don't first consideration). bora azima = never mind." (Hitieri -hitiari.e. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. well built. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. just like that. Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. would be used in Kimv. now at once.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. i. or (it) hivyo. it is it is for you to say. as you please. hivyo. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi." Examples. used is best.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). " give (a piece of) tambuu. (Proverb) what it to you. where shauri lako. is largely used in both Kimv. . and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). is inside the your business. Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now. akaitwa (jina lake). person. I leave mwenyewe. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. generally used as a reply to some taunt. generally used of a male child much as in Kimv. This is health is big. Example.

is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals..) The rule is the same for every word. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. suffix or particle. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. Examples. Kiamu baraza = verandah. with regard to changes of letters. form. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N. and whether the z is prefix.KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. Practically all that has been said of Kiam. rejeza. with a few further changes and a few exceptions. The following words.e. pijana. town of Pate in the darkness) beat. appear to be always pronounced with j.. Also. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. how hand its Kimv. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . not occur. audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . always changes to th. however. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. infix. of in multiplying examples.B. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I. grammar. Examples. 9. strike return . (i. There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam.

mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them. future which takes the particle -te. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam. There appears to be a slight difference in the neg. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc.B. and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry.in place of -to-. Negative Future. cylinder. shall not get. Examples.an egg I (pi. This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. chimney. green = to ripen. although the latter is understood in Pate. form. Ku-tawala (N. these (trees) hini Hinu . etc. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house). Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam.) = white flesh of a dafu = unripe. .

Taka and Kitao. south of Amu. bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. roping for Utuku . Amu. is stir up strife). Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit. Manda. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. IV. the dialect of the town of Shela. .KIPATE. . Kishela kitanda bazaar. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. " . to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. . .. many of the people took refuge in On viz. III. Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . strife = departed. to 10. .

they moved out in a body to Shela. with a few small exceptions. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. The j of Pate in place of g is not used. of The Manda people. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used. although remaining many years in Ainu. the oldest in the neighbourhood. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. This was the origin of the town of Shela. and I III. It is curious that. differ of Kiam. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. however follow Kipate. Manda.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. as they were in the large town of Amu. . chiefly Examples. The dialect. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. after all the variations in this met with. . made use of this form. Kimgao. The word mahali is used for "place. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. directly they received permission. When They Pate words from Amu. must have kept very much to themselves for. Kishela may follow either. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda.

from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two. It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. though = (Kiam. differing Amu.for the concord of the plural of the thi-. Examples. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar. Kiam. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. is local idioms in use but.) like. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch.63 KISIU KISHELA. IV. hold good. Any is changes in ki.class. its idioms and grammar belong more I. 11. j observed above. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. That is to say that . last three it will be observed return to the Kimv.) = this (person). Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. as snte (Kiam. These are similar to It and Pate. form. Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. Amu except the zi.) = we all hoyo (Kiam. ch is used. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza.

as in Kitikuu. brought in. Nouns of the ma. . = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry.KISIU 64 N.. Jy) . Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu. Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. in such words as kitambaa. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam.B.) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . person = a canoe = people. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. which the called for mats. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. III. Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three. Examples. Changes of II. for Ar. etc. local words of which Examples. Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr.. t's Do not confuse with Kiung.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. For this change however see the next dialect.

not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. changes to ch. Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika.class Kimgao in concords. they only slip past one another. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. Kisiu.. Kiam. -akwe is used in Kisiu.KISIU. which is hurt is the grass. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. Examples. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. for . When two elephants jostle against one another that English. I. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. Kisiu. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu . viz. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu.) This is said of two strong each other. for the possessive. town of Faza or Paza. Kitikuu 12. Toma kwa toma hathitomani. as in Kishela. (You English. Kiam. in place of -ake. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. The cerebral t. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. the dialect of Rasini. Two sharp points cannot stab one another.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

(pi. In place of the -kito. Perfect.as the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. mashikio) = foot. nail = shoulder = milk. used as in Siu in place of -ake. -kitowaku- is used. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. the prefix i- viz. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw.to : us (two) be going. (pi. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. like in the plural.tense of Kiam. -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects.KITIKUU II. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. the latter not being used. Examples. Chu- takes the place of tu. machako) Ichiunbo (pi.they have died. (pi. 52 . Example. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . of the n. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. Some nouns first : i-. leg Iguu (pi. class has.class change n.

.class .but may be prefixed. Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for . mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n.KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n. Examples.

ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV.) only means a growing tree.69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N.B.. Examples.neap tides (or. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before. A heavens). Examples of the -ndo. ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. (Kit. Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. mbavu) Uvueha na chembe . (pi.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used.) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. The changes of idiom are very great. The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words. Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick. .



All boats coming from Rasini,



are elsewhere


itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini


Mchwana = the block just

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the


mast and resting on the bulwarks either

and the

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects


semblance to Kitikuu

those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these



Some words however


= kishembere (Banadir) -a


pass almost unchanged through a series of


Example, Magadi

= potash




(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =


the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old


Such words are







Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.


It contains


an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.



told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-


that a well-educated and well-read Swahili



Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word


Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be


Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,


the chief feature of Swahili


For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his

So any old or


word he can discover he

careful to


string in.



an example of a Kinyume word,





being thrown into a verse.


kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.


farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda


kitumbua cha Mafia."


"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing










from a horse

by a donkey.


not (so good as) being carried



The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.


And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."




not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.


Each of these possesses a name of


The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain




to each syllable.

Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri

which means


Kitabu changu kimekwisha.





Praise be to Allah.








believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

nikapange lulu kula tarafi
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi


The strophes





nuru na mianga itathalali 7
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6





Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu

Moyo wangu



Hunelezi nami kalibaini

Moyo wangu nini



Raj ami




likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.



Huyui dunia ina ghururi


hila za







twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye





Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua


Ni kama kisima



kwa kula hasara

ombe 21




mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa




Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.







Tatasi = matata.


Tesi = -kali.






M wasi = adui.


Ombe = wall round mouth



UjuhaU = uwinga,







Kimaake = kisa.


Rajami = the devil Iblis.


Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?











Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =


kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.





= he


of a well.

Kushisha = causative of shika.

fr. Hadimu = a breaker. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . . ikaribu. 22. Ku-etuka= to shine. Nambwa=na mbwa. . misfortune. ^ . 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . . Takaburi. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. for mume- tenda. . ! kiburi = pride. . sweet. . Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. Ku-wania=ku-telea.H VERSION N. 24. 25. the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. ^^J = intelligent. Dunia 19. Mwa-tami = fr. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. was 22 8il=uii. ^- Ar. . find in. . 32 Lathati =raha=laza. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . 25 si fr. * Mvi-chembe. ku-atama=to gape. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. twaye. spoiler. shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. vastator. hudiye. 23. Ikalifu 21. 10 Kilabu. 30 kali. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. 8 14 . Kiwavu =mbavu. to Hayani = pi. fr. 12 hutukiza[i]ye. 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. fr> k^-euka. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . . glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. 27 Manaya = mauti. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . . 8 asirithiye. Labibu. 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . 19 Khasaisi. Ar. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . 24 Ar. . ^JL^ = a dog. Ngea=chele = epuka. . 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. de- . wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye. fr. Ndeo = swollen headedness. Asifidi 18. Ar. Tandi = tanzi.

lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. Safihi. . fr. . . Au 30. 22 Zati = za tiati. 33. fr. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima.pta0^=jua. si lile. = foolishness. . Ruhu=roho. 32 f r . fr. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. Uwaweneo = umezoona. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. 32. Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. Ar. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. ku -lala (-e-e tense). . is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage. Ku-hizini = to store up. ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. 16 Hudumu. 12 11 sijida . Sijida = prayer. Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . = ku-amsha and 4^. . ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . Ku-futu = ku-kosa. moya hwona izimishiye. . niusikiye.26. 29 ziniye 35. nusuha 5 yangu. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . is Ajinani =majini (jins). Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza. ku- ignor- . K u-oka = ku-sitawi. Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. milele. 76 VERSION N. . . Zana=akiba. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. 17 isi=viumbe. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. . tense is finished. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). wamuluku = those who possessed. Kamaye = kama yeye. Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. ku-ona. . 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . . . j 3 Kievu =kidevu. fr. 19 ance. saa 29. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . 21 Nusuha = entreaties. Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. 34. Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. 31.

39. Sufufu of safu) indoors. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. Kumbi 40. tele sufufu . 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. 22 zishitadiye . crowd. 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. . 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. Mao = malalo. Nahari = mtana. . of usiku. Miyongo (pi. . Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. fr. mwongo). ku-tia 23 . 17 Situru= cloister. kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . Hudama = watumwa. Fusi=kivumbi. 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. 41. Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . = rows. VERSION zao shingo. 19 Waja = watu. 4 Jamil =wengi. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. 5 Mbake = mpia. Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . . shiye. Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . . 1 to 10 persons. . G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. Tafahuri = f r. = green. 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. siye. 24 Majodori =magodoro. ^ \^ . 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . pi. tense) (?). . Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. . - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. . . Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. 18 Kele = kelele. of 3 of fr. understood). fr. 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. . = incense.N. 8 9 10 fr. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. Nyemi = furaha kuu. Kaa=sandaU. . Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. (pi. 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . 7 Sufuri = shaba. !1 ranks. sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. 32 & fr lU-paka. a group. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye.

34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. Bombwe = maggot. Ku-taathari = ku-oza. or. . Wasakha = pus. matter. 52. . 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. 30 ng'ende . wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. 28 Kitati = a very small bird. Matukutu = tuka kuu. 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. dung. bird green which eats dates. makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. 40 Waja^watu. 77 2 . fr. 35 = piri = puff-adder. ku-angama. Ziwele = zimekuwa. 29 fr. Bumu=owl. 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. . Mta=mchwa. Pili wingu yamefungana). 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. . Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. 27 Kiku = adove. Matandu = cob. 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . . wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. . . maziwio. Kula'= chakula. ::8 54. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . Sasa walikee 1 45. . Zitefute zao . moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. See note 16 above. . 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo. Hisi = sauti. Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. See note 10 above.webs. 41 = to turn. . 47. be cut short. shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. Makinda =zij ana. 49. Ku-siri=ku-wa. . Ku-mia=to nod. . 31 Yande = yande. Tame = -gofu. Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka.VERSION N. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. . 50. sauti . > . . . Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51.

fr. Kamao = kama wao. Kituzo = arresting. 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike. 5 . Mahuwa =: marehemu. Aimi=mimi. . Ar. okoka. Hbonya=nionya. Hata masikizi 56. 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina .Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. 16 liamu. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. 20 30 30 nitagamiye . Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. . 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. . . mahuwa 21 . . VERSION . . " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. zidiwa = kama ndiwa. 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. Jahimu. wenyi nyuso . 28 fr. Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . ku-amua. 20 29 malijaa . U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. . . makadhi wamua 14 haki. Sao-hao. wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. ku-isa (i8ha). 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. . fr. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. Ku-uza=ku-uliza. . Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). . usikutwae. nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. Ngowa =matakwa. 68. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. 10 Ziuli = maua. muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. 14 fr. mtanga. ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. 57. . 65. 55. za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . .). 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. 26 . nambia walipo kawamkiye. 19 fr. nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi .^fr.78 N. ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. ku-atama. 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave. 63.

N. 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. Ny umu = -kali. cut joints apart.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. Azimamu=ugwe. Jahanamu.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. 2(3 PL of moto. . [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. . . 7 . 19 Kiyali = spark. 70. Eu-kimu=ku-amkua. 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. ku-shitaki. 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. 69. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. See on these hells. Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye.)). N^imi = pl. Namuwa = hukumu. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. Mitokoto. menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. . Makina =makini. of ulimi. 9 10 72. : 30 hutama 31 . . Daiyani = a name for God. (vii) Hutama. (v) Latha. Kitana = sumbuko. Rikabu = a riding animal. . ku-tokota.] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. 6 . Ku-ungua = to disjoint. nae. (iii) Hawia. (Kiam. . motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. Mgi=mwingi. Jabari = bila kifano. ni moto mkali hau makina [75.] Fahamia tena siyo . (ii) Jahimu. 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv. 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. 29 hells. ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . (vi) Hamimu. (iv) Sai'ri. ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. fr. . 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. 13 12 73. . 1 Kwima = ku-simama. shiye. Namuwa na huyu.)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. . 31 Hutama = one of the hells. yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . 71. VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. . 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77.

= compare. wd.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. = literal. W. usually. Archipelago. = South. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. = modern. lit. = perfect. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. = Captain Stigand's. Southern. =word Ngoz. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading.) = North. perh. = Authority = Arabic. obtained in the AL. S.. -ly. = perhaps. or would. or Auth. sc. (S. = meaning. = alternative. alt. A. alt. w. = with. V. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. Ar. who This revision spread over . cf. Northern.V. ad loc. or cfr. E. = various authority or reading. Mv. = Mombasa." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). = at the place referred to. = version obtained at Mombasa. 1. N. mod.) pf. VL. =from. fr. Mombasa language or = usual.) or Authorities. usu. "li-Mambasii. alternative reading. = probably. Kimvita. (N. prob.

MS. with Mwalimu Sikujua. the the five eight [16]-[18]. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. if I remember rightly. Mombasa. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. It will be noted that the N. . It is seldom that a MS. of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. now Museum. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. who me Another special revision was made.and others too numerous to mention.) . . by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. though original. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. country. now I think of The Mrima. as media for Prose. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number.S. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. The first-mentioned. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). the poet. of T'akaungu. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali. Poetry. general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. which I secured in 1884. but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll. and Trade jargon respectively. Lamu. Eliminating these last. the note on 12. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension.

the Arabic dhad and tha. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All. involves a guttural effort. like s. etc. thus sala (prayer*) is sala." in them than at Lamu. . at Zanzibar etc. not dhati *. The gh. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect.. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill . said my teacher. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left.g. the dh is a composite sound. which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . in 1 precedes is Allah. related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity..g. : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. 1.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. because of the i in the preceding syllable. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . e. tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh. Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi. a broad a The also. etc.. especially of the a's which succeed them. as at Mombasa. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. The effect of pronounced with the dentals." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is. d and t. etc. at Lamu. for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa. like "awe. when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style. 'Athman. But Billahi. . words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. produced with the upper blade upon the palate. dh and th.B. N. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . cerebrals. e. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North. namely on the d and t. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple. partly that dh.. exactly the same as at Mombasa. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. Bismillahi. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati. partly that. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants.

The explosive consonants p'. not as sing-ing. when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral.. e. and when it occurs in Lamu. for the 62 .] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath.). nd. differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili. [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. nd. e.S. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. which from the chest . k'. (Welsh). and and kh and gh. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar.. u to . a dissyllable and in to the : . and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. Jomvu (Jo-mvu). ng. s.e. i. t'. ch'. be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned. but as si-nging Nghad .. "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. far as I . etc. a. o. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). Here note The Accent. . being breath consonants. then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a.. RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc. the other t " in whatever zone. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout. I. lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). Therein every used. The vowels are rather 6. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. t'. etc. but especially the d. i. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way. respectively. nj. etc. letter aspirated initials and they correspond . and singing. h (*.

Permanency of Dialect. n'de. Zituzo za mato.P. (') except seldom separated thus I'l. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem.) full value. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius . The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic .] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. as above. [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt. 3. etc. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. nd. established. In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable . where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. S. generally. yet in some words it is so separated. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t). In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text.84 S. Bisumiriahi. Stanza 1.C. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1.K. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. n' in thus . There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. m' and syllables as in . easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects.

of the with the ever. which. and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. where genius exists. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . in all the important languages of the world where a regular. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date.S. increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. lately and some other Northern Dialects. use of Scripture has obtained. The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics. have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. popular. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. However. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). and Lamu. strong. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. .

= exactly. . 9 =kuzingatia. himdi. if correct be from ku-uka. Cp. AL. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. kiniukiye therefore as in N. by elision . 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. || 5. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. without the h. 8 kineukie. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. arahamani above with the article.) (kuoa= write. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana. etc. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. but the first word is exceptionally accented. of 1 from Ar. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. tfcalali= mists. nakala xnankulun. manukuu. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. etc. from =ziwaenee. || niidiriji || i| || || || . n. || him'di niitushize 3. Kwimakwe || asiondoe. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. 1.INKISHAFI. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. Ngozi. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech. Gr. |j 7. with stress on every syllable. and verbal information.) 2 In 8. Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali .B. Hence. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . not from ku-euka. || 9. ku-awaza. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. Mohamadi. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. because ni with following e may elide its i. in which such 1's are found. This from MS. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. MS. from ku-euka . ite laili = cast out the night. . but may never become ni. neravoLo.. AL. (N. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. 4 =niweneze. namba wazi^siflti. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. Text wd. || || 6.

to contend for (it). An linga maie. stanza 31 occurs twice. kuwania situkuzie.10. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form.] || || . Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. 12. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . "I have not tolerated = do not . be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. and may mean. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S. has here.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. ~ 15.] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14. siikaribu ewelaibu. soS. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba.. to embrace. 13. MS.] mwenyi [17. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. Dunia ni jifa.'s.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah. etc. and A. Note In Lamu. || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). makata-yakwe." = bargains. || 19. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie. || || || || kunwa 15. akishishiye. MS. bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. the S. 12 and in its In a S.. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. shrewd turns. and on 16 18 matakwao. Suu ulimwengu. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. hakioni k'itu akishishie || . vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. which Auth. V. MS. makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. 11. Note. and Auth. ikawa mayuto yasimsie. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). zitukuzie i || hali gani. second paragraph. Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. : endure. kuwania S. "cuts. same words. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. or. 16 in the Translation. form correctly wd. : dialects. ? 11 =lina ndia. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. Hunambii kwani. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18. See Prelim. u. namba situkuzie S. MS. halibaini." . though yu.

: izimikapo. Caught. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. S. ewe moyo. hupa mat'ongea. haina muanga tena. S. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". of S. || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. || || || || mtenzile kwangu. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. Auth. walotaladhudhi from Ar. MS. The last eleven syllables read in S. this identical stanza here and also after 12. MS. zalikuwae || ! || 23. etc. tena S. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . 21. which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. by slip. riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. . The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. Auth. form \ jjtf . Ewe moyo wangu. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. hi S. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo." In MS." now rather as in a trap or snare. || || 22. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. Auth. AL. and by S. See on other emendations [18]. 25." Ar. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. MS. " and not die down merely slowly.. except as a trisyllable. ikamba " Safari. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. i. to smite under the ribs.88 S. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha." Swa. but the text is as S. 22 "Strangled. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. ghaitha. kuzima taratibu moto. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. MSS. MS. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. ni k'avu mno. wingu katika kwaka.kupiga kikumbo. . 28 S. but is inserted from good S. synonym of Death. || hata 27.V. haiziwiliki. 24 =kuzama kabisa. ! || [| ! || 31. S. Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II . hudumu nao! || || || 30. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. ulio weuni katika shaka. as the 13. 20. Auth. S 31 . Version. || huiona izimishie. MS. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. RECENSION . 21 N. AL. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. pasi zao. k' = ni k. omits by error. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. " and Authorities. MS. mkohozi akohoao. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo.e. 23 This wd.




Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
awapo mngine




wangapi uwaweneo




ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,











dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi




















zao nibak'e




taa za k'oa na za sifuri;


masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.








za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"




k'elele za

masituri, zikiterema

na za
furaha na nyemi

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za








32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
lihadi, either the
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.




AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then




prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from

previous clause.




and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.




41. P'indi walalapo




wall na wakandi na wabembezi


na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri













mi will



usaha na damu zatuuzika,
haiba na sura zigeushie.
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,



na makanvva bombwe



dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.








launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,


Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao










k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde




Madaka ya nyumba na





bumu hukoroma


sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,



wana wa
na k'uyu


41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
So S. Auth.;
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of


as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.



N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
za, N. A.

as here and










Wana wa



na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo

shingo nakupiga





Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo









ukita k'witikwi








za wat'u zitindishie.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?



zituko zingapo huya'athika




la'ala yakutulie





Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...





Mimi t'akwambia,






binu Nasiri?






za kiza-kiza




ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari







wanzilepi kue?




Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga



mianga na miangaza



wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,





na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya




miti viwaalie.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie






said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."


[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.




" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.


'Ali bin Nasir,


a great





The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards



Chinese. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. S." The modern survival is only as "yoke. wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. taadabu. waliushie. Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo ." Mod. || leo ni waushi. together with the involved and strained constructions. Muungu 71. ! || || || 63 65 Mod. Haya. Lebeka. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. ukamba. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. both students and MSS. S. Auth. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki.92 62. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. ! . Auth. S. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa.=mandak'ozi=kongwa. Auth. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . || " be found out" Auth. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. be dried up. wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. || || ! || 70. 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. S. wapi makadhi wamua haki. S. Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo. wasirie wot'e 64. Ar. kongo." At this point. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68. 72 S. || || || || 69. = to VL. kuk'akatika=(S. lisizime. Auth. Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. || || || 72. wasiza-ngoa || . derivative wakazunduliwa wd. 67S. manhttb = the one despoiled. kukwaka.) kuudMka. "cangue". || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. " here am I The tedious. "Here am I. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. . where in fact the S. mean =sifanye upuzi. . || . . 63. Authorities. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . VL. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. I dutifully respond. 66. 2nd sing. 65. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem. || wokokapo nawe wokoke. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. sipeketeke . Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako.

considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem. the other as a poet. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. nihil humani k me alienum puto. that the form. one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall. and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. might with such men. of Mid-China . this that is to say. the Northern Form. Homo sum. and substance of the original." However. the one Their opinion.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. form. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. with this proviso. religion. would have been equally well known in other spheres. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. or even of English poetry . which in : in . of the spirit. so far as I have been able to effect it. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. I need hardly as an artist. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. without offence against the canons of European taste. what have was been expected from the candour of say. of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker. had they not been such missionaries. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment.

The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. . . Africa in 1493. while in also been all The Mrima. That the be idle to to know a date. have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum. and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. least. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. of the Poem. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. obtained in the year 1884. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest. for instance. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. and second poet of that name. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. in which it may be seen. the son. a valuable and perfect MS.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. yet fix it has been my opinion. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. Swahili. is at least of the it Noun Classes. And truly.

95 ETC. One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. . while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character. these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar.THE TEXTS. ia^^jj). Also. That copy was made in a script as in which. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name.e. The Utenzi of (i. Ramadban.. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi.

however. Lest come some carping And 3. Praising The Compassionate. 'Omar. as . God. link Arrahim. note. And then write I for . here ! fie. . tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. W. the Islam are agreed.) aye adore. This word. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. 5. But ere my Poem upriseth. like as the dawn of day. Bakr. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall . ancestor the Quraish . < ' . fie. since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. the Ascription. The Merciful. those forms to Islam 4." the title of a true Caliph. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. Khallfah. Sc. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. is not in the Swahili text. Bismillak. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. Despot Mighty. Then Allah. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests.") (namely. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. ! (Mind ye. 32. No Alhamdu crying. Benedictions holy. pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. see next note. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. 3 4 See note on 11. 'Othman. Caliphs by right divine . The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. at fault-finding evermore. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. Taylor." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. the interpretation of the above doctrine. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. E. four unique Companions. Great Allah we 2. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. set duly at the fore. 'All).THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. Thou Grant er of Requests. critic. . And The So dear. 5 Mohammed. laud. Abu Mohammed.

ad monition. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. gloom convicted shall appear. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. sin's tips. What. as I school my heart within. 7 . lies : is clear. personified as such in the Gospels. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it.THE INKISHAFI 6. See the closing note. Mammon. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. by which Apocalypse. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. ! 12. a tossing billowy waste. The World. Islam. lit. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. I fear 11. 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. heart. 10. etc. front and rear. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. no less. hath he to fear. of seed-pearls secure it. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. behold the Theme begin With stern self. my *heart. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. 11 S. my heart. Shamefastly 9. 13. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. . Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. me. Thus finishing the Foreword. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. Nay then. 7. for thee.

for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . Vie in vain concupiscence. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. curious trifler. Who [17. the anguish of despair. there's . 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. though food for dogs most fit. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. in by the circles brim. but thou must taste thy bit. and have with curs thy share 20. and wherein thou hast a part. 15. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary .THE INKISHAFI 98 14.] Thy fancies and thy follies. Faugh. what find they? ah.] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore. rushing on. . [18. but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful. But. mortal. feet! All they shall draw thence. him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. suit. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim. with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. nought but raging The water they had fancied it. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart. Consider. its development.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business.

! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair. Hold thy my by beard peace. depart ye 23. finished. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. it. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. 22. yea. though brightly it had shined ah. Vain." The wrist is held to the chin. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick. vain. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. I swear ! 24. your ! no longer linger here. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. and forthwith leads them off. quotha. a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems. take your journey hence. Up. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me. 'Tis past. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. though Crying. no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. Come. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. and without or tongue may make arrest. 28. 27. I school thee often. I man swear the end . : flickers in the wind. but rekindled ne'er . me that thou weariest of such impertinences. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. come. And. my schooling still despise. Kievu (mod. But. kidevu) changu . protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My .THE INKISHAFI 21. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. swearing by the beard. . deep into the What this is vitals sinks. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. tell Yea. ! 26. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. protest. Then listen and 111 tell thee. it. span of life. Saying. if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment.

prithee oh. . for to dare.B. . and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. heart. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . Reapedst thou its choicest. (In Ar. When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. . " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. N. Sulaiman. Both mighty King and Magus. was. Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34." Explained by the proverbial expression. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. withhold Yet he by 33. All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom. its place left black and drear. Yea. vita brevis. whose word none might . eyes Mammon's closed. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . quenched. umrl mchache . Recension ad loc. mambo makubwa. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. The Pelted. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. I ! . to heed well what I say Then heed me. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. which the devil is thought to haunt. 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. of old. 32. Ash shaitanur rajlm). the stocks Doom and shares. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. our Ars longa. it would toss him high in air.

Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. All goodly are their couches. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". soft slumbers they would woo. Brilliance 38. 39. And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. the wide world. 40. in art . I swear by Allah. their lights trimmed with care.. 73 . Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. . . Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. 43. both teak and ebenine. The lampstands too are massy. : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41. their guards in ranks thereby Line up. beyond compare.THE INKISHAFI 36. in every part complete. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . attars in addition. their beds are exquisite. good soldiers their errands for to bear. And what time. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. in and out harem doth whisper.. and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. Auth. a-weary. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view. With garnishing that choice is.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. and beauty are wreathed about them there. 42. the universe. home -born. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. Gleaming in long rows. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. 37. How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company. And everywhere they sit them.

were still extant in the last century. In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room . not a voice." So. 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. The City that has lodged them. 51. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. . for the Summons forth hath passed Down. it yield a luscious food. . Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . making ravages rude. . green-dove. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. 49. The Home they had dwelt in. 45. here gathereth most or Red-dove. midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. that bourne long and last. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . sun. Here snoreth the brown owl. the natural history here is correct. not a tone ! it o'er. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. . " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. ! . inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. crib 46. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. Thus far. 47. to mate and to pair. Down. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere.THE INKISHAFI 102 44. 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. as of bear. The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. now empty and lone. down to the Tomb. Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. or of filthy coarse baboon . To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48.

Nay. . man go. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. strain both neck and ! eye. falchion or the bird.THE INKTSHAFI 52. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See. speak out in thy turn. 55. zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. though no doubt the latter was meant. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. . Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. Where never opes window nor 58. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. 53. 54. . two contemporary Winston Churchills. Ah. tell it forth plain. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. Where princely Idarus. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. Then bend low thine ear. . I ween. there is the place. 57. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. . for the truth would I learn . My heart. come./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. Or else have thou thy say. 56. ! . how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. pi. a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. all. 59. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there.

! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. 67. ! . to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. 66. ye 64. skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. who once.THE INKISHAFI 104 60. heart. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . nor think still to scorn . you ! my old comrades. Potentates and mighty Viziers. Lo. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. salve for sore eyes. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. 1 ? . shew 69. be thyself saved. Oh. and that sore. me whither I I pray? too there would steer. Bethink thee. ! . Depart from the evil. up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. ! stress. be thou schooled. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. Yea. nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. And And skulls be battered in. What. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. dried like 68. heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. Ye too. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. ! 62. What sayest thou. "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. just Judges. Brother.

) hells which follows in the present N.THE INKISHAFI 70. Lord. oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. ! 71. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. nor given free. 72. on all his tyrannies. Text is accordingly a bathos. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. See the note ad loc. nor bought . In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise. 73. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain . 105 "Grant vengeance at length. in the S. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. my heart. Piecension. Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. He now but to threaten them doth deign. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. . The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. Not of gold. All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass.


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PL 8702 S74 Stigand. Chauncy Hugh A grammar of dialectic changes in the Kiswahili language PLEASE CARDS OR DO NOT REMOVE SLIPS UNIVERSITY FROM THIS OF TORONTO POCKET LIBRARY .

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