M. W. TAYLOR..A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 .A. etc. etc. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev. Interpreter in Swahili and H. E. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land.


they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. are in most cases very imperfect. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. S. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use. . SUDAN. 1915 H. as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. KAJOKAJI. Although the records this. The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. C. presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar.



This "give and take" however is essential to progress.. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. but is no less worthy of attention. so far as I am aware. and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S.C.C. whether in English or in any other language. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own.).K. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu).K.P. and in the appearance of for the new generation . And no doubt the methods. in my own African Aphorisms (S. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars.). of the book. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries. Explorer and Ethnologist. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide. and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification.P. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known. to whom the Essay will be most precious . To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. which involve certain new conclusions. departures. and detail. etc. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game. and I have gladly acceded to his request.INTRODUCTION who Author.

INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is. say Barawa. for one. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old. land. born and ." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. tion." with the root TA " It signifies. thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives." (otherwise CHA). How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation." as of a warlike expedition and in war. though running on similar lines yet also a different language. at least under Arab rule. then. expeditions. in its purity. its native name. I. is Vita "It upon words. is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). experto crede. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. meaning a sinking in. Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. experience. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita." because while the the too patent crudities. and corruptions of the careless South. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced. from the feature of this "hidden Isle. ambiguities. and wide. and warlike . displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences." " throw out. The Curtained Headpoint. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long. either civil or external. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech.

for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine . no doubt. "puritanic. treatises of different kinds. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence." the Isle Accordingly KO. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. to of lore school of the Islam. and Quiloa. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes. dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. such as one finds in native stories and tales. the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. or spoken. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry.INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. whether in MS. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. and Melind. par excellence. and so on to the present day. such as Mwana Kambaya." genius of their Dialect. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. However.T it is efrxnv. the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. Mombaza. " " prose to signify all sustained speech." then the Mazru'is. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. and onwards under its once famous Queens. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book.

T. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. made many years ago. the present work would never have been written. 1915. and spirit. KYRK. and bearing. in the proper place. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. E. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). to the study of languages. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. to add my own Recension of the same Poem. . of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. since it was version. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. if not the greatest. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. here in E. at the instance of Captain Stigand. Certainly. W.

Kip. = Kitikuu. Kimr. = Kiuug. = English. = derivation. Ar. PL = singular. Sing.) = Arabic. Kiam. 80.ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. = literally. derived from. Kimg. Der. . = Kirngao. Lit. = Kimvita. Kit. = Kimrima. Kiunguja. = Kipate. Kimv. = plural. = Kiarau. Eng.

Mrima.. Zanzibar and the dialects. to be to the court language.mtk . Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications. ..name. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe. now much what French used JjtSL.Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j . as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects.. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin.. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese. practically the It is -is .. Nyasaland. r Js iswftbilj. Lamu lJLcabs.as jt&. Hindustani and Somali or Gala words. so to speak.-indicates.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl. laces. Africa. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula.. Such is the state of things between Mombasa. viz. and Portuguese East Africa. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day. Uganda and far info the Congo. The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Mombasa. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together. of British East East Africa. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as. Zanzibar. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board.the much farther than this.gp.

often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. and so words. intelligible. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. as in the Lamu Archipelago. once the rules are known. For convenience in reference group. strange at easy to foretell first sight. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. 2. It is. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. 3.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. however. however. The 1. Here we have many little islands and towns. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects.

6. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. is by no means. : Kinyume. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. viz. Kiamu 9. however. Kisiu. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. such as those spoken Tundwa. will suffice. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. The 14. dropping or adding syllables. Lastly comes the parent of 15. is } : from all the above. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. 12 . Kitikuu. of Amu. might be Farther afield but 13. Bajun group.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . at Rasini. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. 7. Kialabi. This with a number of local dialects. 5. Kingazija. Kiunga and other places on the coast N. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba.

shown Ku-Tii of the t t. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above.B. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed. This symbol preacher to obey. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. However. Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. or te safi in Swahili. I have. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. O called tay.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. for dialectic reasons. J : Tamarufa. distinguished by the . A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. It common other to the educated Swahili ear. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw.

. The Bantu cerebral t. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. Examples. fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. and Aspirated dental t. : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. . come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one. hence or stranger to invite t'. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) . to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point. Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . to your ear 5 Swahili.we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. let down so. in distinction to the pure t. . period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics.

is In the Zanzibar group. T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear.to tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. dal. As i.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. etc. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use. Examples. (i) The dental dali safi. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. D.e. however. T'embe Shown here by =a t'. dental t. as in English. or pure. n has a disturbing . or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. sling.

aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d.) Kitandi (Kiam.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu.e.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples. the overturned d. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu.) = to taste Konda (Kiam. Examples. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r.) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used.B. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes. Swahilis not d but r.) Kandu (Kiam. > = ndugu.) Mwando (Kiam.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag . This is As an Example. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam.) = outside Nde (Kimv. viz.) = a loop.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv.) = a road. i. Ndia (Kimv. The Kim vita words above N.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam.

Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando .). is pronounceable in Kimv. the pure d is not used and a slurred. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. as mentioned above. has been vowel which bears its sound. deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle. and Kiung. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). . freeze.. to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels. In the Zanzibar group however. and r are interchangeable in different dialects.) but in the Ingira. and Kiung. Certain other letters The Arabic .) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg. in less pure dialects. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam.) appears nyere (Kimr. These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. letters 1 = where pronounced. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also. soldier. as is However Ingia (Kiam. between these There is also a tendency. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach. L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. The and R.

Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. = near = lamp. This strong guttural k. Examples. then. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. K. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster. The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. Examples. cray fish. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards.B. Examples. k'. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . viz. Hakika Karibu Kandili N. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin.

. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima." Ch and P. They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. komba. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. popoo. popoo. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. komba. " law " 6." or the sign of duplication. very different sounds. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid. Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa. as usually shown by simple o. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. to the native ear. is used for this sound in Swahili. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. as kolokolo. it being pass for another word.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). etc. The following little verse. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. Translation. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention.

. There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. in regard to such words.*.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have. or most Bantu speaking natives. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili. sitta. ilia. Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required.3 Example. with a single consonant. Thalimu Ramadhani. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. Bassi. .. I have therefore. tissa. with few exceptions. letters. marra. which do not count for much in Swahili. J%elafAa Thikiri . used the following signs. although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. to pronounce a closed syllable. are usually spelt with the double consonant. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. Th. viz.. 11 billa.

he would probably use all three. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another. sun . III. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. but one meaning." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. ku-chelewa. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense." "to remain. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. If he was showing off. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. or the two most foreign to him." are understood. more or less. Changes of Grammar. Changes of Letters." viz. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. ku-chelewa. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. Showing what simple transpositions. ku-kawia and ku-limatia. " to delay. but it is distinctly dialect. II. as natives love to do. all down the meaning coast. In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I. of the words above. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. all all Thus the three words. Changes of Vocabulary.

for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. Indian or African. lost at sea. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. be he. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. The first is the native's love of display. the same word means." In Kimv. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide. dialects big tract of country they cover. " E. possess almost . in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese. The grouped together under this name.g. both of the same tribe. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can.g. " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. E. Changes of Idiom." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept. briefly may give Zanzibar Group." left latter places is always used with kitako. drowned. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is. hoping to make himself more intelligible. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings.

Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example.). its place being taken : Mombasa Example. interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group. you -e. have told you I In this group there (pi. in certain tenses. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form. The corresponding construction in Kimvita. the -e. love ye. This construction does not occur in the group. This in the purer dialects would be pendani. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent. Nawafuata and nimewambia. etc. Example. (ii) or the by -wa-. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili.). This I will tell you (sing. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs. objective person plural being. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example. The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example.(or -mw-) -ni. in this group as a cerebral. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels. where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . Amu (pi.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv.).

so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. not Kiswahili or districts. etc. for t's. .KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. stories. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. literature. of grammars. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. especially the latter. vocabularies. dali pindu and re pindu. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. The dental t it then. dali safi. viz. comparatively speaking. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. accessible to the student. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. Kiunguja 1. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe.

or the dialect of the Mrima coast. egg on. inlocal variations. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. conquer Kwisa . R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects). with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. strengthen." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome. make to flourish. " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. and so the and not be confused. Changes of Letters I. there should be order. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. Examples. (fr. to be hard. for nothing s. unyielding to urge. = a frog = silk. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. is in use. Kimrima. 2. = a plan.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. Balua Sh 1. for the first is spelt taa="lamp. kwisha = to be finished ! . cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. which will be mentioned later. JaJLw) Ar. = = cJlo) Ar.

for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. Examples. for is. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels. or e. into ch. knock down to make. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly.) must come. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k. Example. however." or to bathe. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples. when followed sit. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. Examples. in the next dialect. to break to fall.KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. more marked in the next dialect. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person." This is. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels .

in dialect of the Example. i is often used for Kuiketilia ji.) Nampendani = I love you (pi. In some of the local variations of Kimr.) Nimemwambieni. he saiba is like) Similarly N. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat. This is etc. oneself down.). . or atakwambieni = he (pi. Kitowero = foot. out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi.e.) Atamwambieni. Choroni = dust = bathroom. for may taabu = rag. be cut out. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung. his fellow is the mchirika rat. chooni .) will tell you (pi. In reflexive verbs Example. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief. Chakwe. kwakwe. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice. 1 Examples. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi. Puku (i.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound. vyakwe. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. etc. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe. viz. trouble. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu.B.. pakwe.

and not concords. however.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. Examples. pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. Jina ya fulani) . interrog.. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . however. the n. Ile the chief. of this class. mama. In Kiung. Examples. so \ . On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar.B. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing. In certain dialects of Kimr. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class.class. though not in the verbal concord. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. Ndugu. N. Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. baba. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word.class analogy being carried The still farther.. appear to hold good. are of the class." is also heard.class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. ng'ombe.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. . Examples. Jma ja . ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. concords as in Kiung.

Changes of Vocabulary slight. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. . wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following.. I have gone. = behind place." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. In the -me.and times represented by e. . These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you. Examples. for namna = sort. alivyopata a few instances are given under. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-.conditional tense. which must not be confounded with the -ngali. =a panali . = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used. Changes of Idiom IV. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. .tense the pronominal prefixes a. A common expression in Kimr. babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j .and we-. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside.

The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r.KIMGAO 3. received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. as has been shown already. In this dialect. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. and aa have. As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. . Changes of Letters I. however. oo. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. or with a letter which is way between the two. As will be shown later sounds in ee. Many of the sounds in eo.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property.

Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. Examples. avoided by the use of y. general use instead of m. Examples. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change. fell . but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. as in goes.. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. viz. is if followed certain consonants. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that. There appears.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. however.) want mwampige = you (pi. K before = and you (pi. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia . cries. often changes to eh. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away.) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow. in Kimr. Fanya hivo Example. Examples.) must beat him = I will give him. especially after nasal ms. are pronounced or r. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree. Examples." a second added. frequently added.

) he must tell you (pi.) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. = he loved. they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved. . and the the animate class. and also. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved.tense after a subjunctive.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing. mu takes m However. = he must tell you (pi. Amependa = he has loved. in the negative . the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect. and Kimr.). no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction. Examples.instead of hu- tenses sing. yet loved. Examples. except that the place of before a consonant. Examples.23 KIMGAO II. This is Examples.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. (pi. Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung.) Perfect = I tell you (pi.

In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt. the n.or kw. If there is an objective prefix. however. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts." Examples.prefixed to it. Very often. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village.class This however is not done with human beings. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr. it comes between the ku. However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village.and the verb." . borrowed from the surrounding languages. Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages. Examples. Alike Occasionally locative forms. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come.K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity. Examples. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III. are used in place of the locative in -ni. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing.

they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. The Wahadimu is known." . Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. understood. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. . no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. Examples. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity. and he beat him himself). can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. are said to 1 A similar state of things. Alikwenda kule. Example. = Amenipiga was hit (lit.or -ki. 25 Examples of other words. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. viz. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive. used in place of vizuri.tenses. This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes.KIHADIMU KIMGAO. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . is Changes of Idiom IV. ku-ima. This latter word. in well). It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. outside the town. 4. Example. agreeing with mambo. stand.B.

26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. the Mombasa people. -biti for -bichi . being often altered in transit. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. words into Kimv. then only savages. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. hid in the bush. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. This latter derivation would appear more likely. I. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. 5. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. changes to t Kimv. In converting Kiung. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. 6. It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v." because. The origin of the name Mvita " war. Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect.

or some other Examples. chetu. and others. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). Such influences may be the letter n. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. Words which do not occur in Kiung. turned over a little and becomes t'. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh. with eh. chako. kietu. alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. of the ki. : and pronouns agreeing with ki. as the Swahilis say. is aspirated. etc. etc. kiako. changu. or that the eh in Kiung. kiangu.class such as cha. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. Nt'a causes. These pronouns should really be kia. mto. for the same . for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been.class beginning with eh. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. carry. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. : viz. Words which are spelt in Kiung.

changes to nd in Kimv.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. chungu. -chache. and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. In Kimv. Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for .KIM VITA 28 Examples. chaki. Chai. mchekeche. the d being the semi- dental explained above. chumba. chungwa. ehenza.class in Kimv. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1). uchafu. chokora. All of these are the same in Kimv. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv.. chandarua. ku-chota. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch. used indiscriminately in the n.or in the ma. chombo. choo. ku-cha ( to fear). njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road. chuo. . path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). chaza (ma. there : Examples. any = Examples. expressions being used in Nj in its place. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. chuma. (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples. cheo. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. ku-chelewa.). Chakula. chuni (=a kind of water bird). mchikichi. chura.). -changa. ku-chafuka. Ku-choka.) is follows the rules above. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam. chambo. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv. Kiung. chumvi. chooko.class and is always called tupa. chapa. and Kip. change. choyo.. Foreign words and beginning with ch-..

but change according to rule in Kiam. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples.. njugu and njema.and -ka. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema. Kiam. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja.. These are only heard with the future -ki. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural. in the Zanzibar group. The Njama.) Nawapenda = I love you (pi. however. three of these.tenses.29 KIMVITA Exceptions. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv. II. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing. .) love you (pi. njuga. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples.to n-.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi.). Yua. Nyumba yakwe = his Examples. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake.as the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni.is used in place of a. The construction is as follows etc. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi.) you (pi. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. not often heard.

it is said. tend to become simple -o. Example. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples.and -yo-.in the verbal infix. -po-. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle. Examples.to ha- is in the first person sing. Examples. The tendency. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). alipofika and occasionally -cho-. -zo- and -vyo-. of the narrative tense. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes. . is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o. an abbreviation of nika. always used.to -e-. and -ko-. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia.KIMVITA 30 Thus. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought. Examples. however. from -ye. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing.which was. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. is full form is used except used for -wo. -lo. Examples. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. -mo-.

KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. recognize them as two words. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. etc. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. each bearing an accent on the penultimate. although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. relative in Examples. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. being in more common use in that dialect. and Kimv.) of . = he who wants Atakae Examples. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes. however. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit. The Swahilis themselves. III. = woman's robe. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. Kimv.

lone (buffalo. = custard apple = to pluck. the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. or smitten by. don't worry me also.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. let me (pass) Kula njama . hebu mi = leave me alone. sleep is hurting me) that goes alone. hebu = come let us. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . fruit). for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. please. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit.to take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. health is best. gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children.

7.e. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. 3 . with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down. i. Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. Kidigo. viz. s. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. A. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words. the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. Gazette ? Example. you lie (der. from the E. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized.

or Lamu. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . softened into y.KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. the Banu Lami. Exceptions. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding. I.. into Examples. K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi . the dialect of the town of is Amu. Examples. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. on the island of that name. who came from the Persian Gulf. . or the island of Ndeo.

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y.K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples. Baghaa 1 in Kimv. leo . kilemba = a turban = to-day.

used in to z. Thus za. -zi-. . mvua. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . becomes nd. hivi. ku-vaa.. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. mavi. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. Kimv. zake.. Examples. -kavu. Examples. nguvu. between two vowels is sometimes dropped.class change v. . Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii. are -vyo-. nguva. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. zenu.) = ku-kanga (Kiam. etc. -vi-. mwavuli. zile. zote. place of vya. vyenu. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse. vile.) . etc.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki.to begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . vyake. hizi. vyote. ndevu.or vyto z-. Exceptions. -zo. ku-vua. = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. and many others.

. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word. at the . kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv.) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. at the same time. village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. changes now. page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town. *). Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for .).KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. on the left side. Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck. M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr.to sneeze chungwa = orange. Examples. Ku-sonda S to reach to. Examples. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam." P (pi. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. see 35. Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony. ku-ehenma .. (as is also the case in Kimr. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle.

skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely.) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . band . Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent). = like. N occurs rarely in place of m. = captain.. Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage). Kimr. Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam.. Examples. Examples. letters Kiamu Akhira (or. kama of Kiung. as (cp. Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something .KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw. purpose. a snuff (Bahasha. : a scarf intention. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh .to feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. i and o. e.

Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect. bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns .KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash. a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber. hide.a giraffe = a chief = a smith c. = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt .

Distant Past. used to get. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. etc. Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). be well done = jaa) ing II. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. J got (long ago) or. * v^etc.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses. In Kiam.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. freely used in Kiamu. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. Past. . which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita. (dust in house ripen.

its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki.tense (page 44). (The usual form. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise.as an alternative for the first person sing. ali aki.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). as uli uki-. As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. . of the Near Past Negative. and stories so is For an example of -nga. etc.

43 .KIAMU Negative -ki- tense.

" generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. Past Perfect. to be in the act of doing something.although I am hungry I do not eat. Niangawa na ndaa sili . Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor. It it out. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears. in place of vi-. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb." though occasionally occurs with a few others. stated. -zii tense.KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi." Examples. hazi-. . Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. as she was sitting). havi-. particles are na " nga." Example. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku . takes concords zi-. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. as before etc. is Examples. The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. -i. of the ki.= although.class which. etc. Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name).

Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. kee for kaa. . Examples. for Moyo. Also see the first line of verse on page 116.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense." "while yet. The meaning is "while as yet." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. mentioned by Taylor. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is." "still. he has still mounted and is mounted). last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. Verbs having their two prefix. etc. nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed. viz. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again)." or." Examples. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation. This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona." "yet. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms. "as yet. happened. ibid. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite.

Examples.must be used with this tense and for third person sing. has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji. in common use at the present day in in poetry. mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry.e. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i. ni. Pronouns.of place well. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv. Examples. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for .. u. becomes -i-. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree .and not na. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb. Kimv. so some are given full.and not a-.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard. is is befallen him.

period that time. etc. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. hiyo. There is also a form used with wakati = time. these faces have etc. viz. Hono is this time. occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class. in the first and third persons sing. The arrangement plural is the same as Example. etc. ule. and in several . Nawapenda = I love you (pi).these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . as they are the hii huwo.tenses. the -zii tense other instances. The remainder nyuso . il.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. zile. B. used in Kimv. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N.is used in Kiam. hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. It is also used in the -e-e tense. plain u. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka.. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing. Examples. i!6e. Examples. for the accent. only. period. wa!6e. The farther demonstratives ule.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . period.and the -ki. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv.

nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective. Example. fr. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. Example. Uknta mwingine = another Example. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m.) did not get (pi. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall. P . for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani.) went (pi. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. of the second person plural often mu. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya . suffix. latter. Examples. Examples.a new kingdom. by cutting out the first -i-. used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the .) shall not get. Example. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking.KIAMU 48 Examples. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv.

Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. 4 . -po-.KIAMU The interrog. Examples.is used as an infix for all classes of nouns.(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense.and the infix -zo. The latter takes the place of -vyo. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you.and Example. Examples. Note the use of relative with perfect.B. for ? why ? Relatives. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix. Even with these however there -y. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda . Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz. -mo.in -wo and -yo. Examples (of locative relative). form. N. 8. is a tendency to suppress the w. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went.as he has done (or. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for.in Kimv. The The relative -o. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam.

= a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat. or anything pertaining to trees or plants. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto .are in Kiam. Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me.. Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. they remain as of the second class. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata .KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided. (-si-) the -i- of the is elided. Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. If Examples. Examples. when I do not want). no is used. Examples. however they are the names of trees or plants. of the tense particle Examples. Exceptions. nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . Examples.as they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. as in the cases elision takes place. treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class.

dialects. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi. in Kiam. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo . theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine. If the adjective begins with a for pi. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. of sixth class. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. his) = it is ours (yours. consonant it takes a concord as class. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako.. 1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree. Also nyawanyo. his) = it is ours (yours. wewe = is pi. Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. anything to do with a tree or plant. mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. quite correctly.. Examples.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. 42 . theirs). treated. as of the first class "kites. = two years = big fires. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu. Examples. moon. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings.

to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . N. Kiam. jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet. and Kimv. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for ." "put out. Ku-tunda in i. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. in a meaning not given. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema . Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out. jongoo -jigger. About one hundred words are appended as examples.. Example. akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza. word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam. take out.e." is frequently heard in viz.B. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. Where the Kimv.KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

= to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. fortune bahati . male = a traveller. take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) .the ground. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little. goer = a demon.KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw. or. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . -a small out.. ring. sound out ku-lia = luck. on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini.

used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv.B. Kuku mbwangu. IV. Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? .' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out. scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta. mwenyi ku-pata. urefu ndia Utunda . ' Siyo mbwangu. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning. ' and another seized it saying.' It is related." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N.. A few instances only will be given here. will get two rupees).chain = length = road. in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required. path = a string of beads = sheath. A man rushed in after it saying.' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued.KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita ." probably untruthfully. The Changes of is hut). word. The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on. Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco. For instance one might say to one's boy. that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday. Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or.' ' Ni mbwako. angalia = to see after. Ni mbwake. English = silver neck.. Sometimes the word given Kimv. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea . are con- differences in idiom siderable. and Kiam..

wa!6. The accent remains as shown. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. walee. ulee. ule. taking the accent on the first. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables. one o. Example. The word -pya Kimv. You say I did ?" not Example. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. viz. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. which has already been mentioned. if that word is one of these far demonstratives.KIAMU 56 This. Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come). an e is added to the far demon. is only used in the interrogative reply.. and has not) purposely . not wane) Abb. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi. yes he has done something." In Kiam. ilee. etc. either in point of place or time. his intention (was) . Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. . and as an first " not 1 " or. Have I person sing. not yet). is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before. etc. viz." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv. viz. Kimv.) (= come). ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. as he says. viz. = is food not ready after = until he died. wale. on purpose. Talking of anything distant. with hata. mkate mpya = a new loaf. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. (Takes the place of makusudi. Mbona hukufika P = Answer. ziatu zipia = "new sandals. It has the meanimg " of.

look out for . s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself. Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. " huisi." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will. fudifudi = to lie face downwards.. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning. ghasia).57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. you do not know. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form). he does not know (recognize) me. haniisi = he does not know. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible. of animate Wowawili = both. Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or. haisi. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons)." Example. Its meaning quite different." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds. Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both. beings. coming and going (and thus want of privacy." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. viz. in Kiam. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer. Si-isi =" I do not know " . questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will)." etc. all three. human Mwida is being. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard. in anything but the negative present.

as you please. I don't first consideration). Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. akaitwa (jina lake)." Examples. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. where shauri lako. used is best. generally used as a reply to some taunt. would be used in Kimv. I leave mwenyewe. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. generally used of a male child much as in Kimv.e. just like that. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. well built. This is health is big. hivyo. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so." (Hitieri -hitiari. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. person. is inside the your business. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. i. and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). . Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv. bora azima = never mind. for the Kimv. (Proverb) what it to you. is largely used in both Kimv. or (it) hivyo. now at once. it is it is for you to say. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). Example. " give (a piece of) tambuu. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi.

always changes to th. Examples.B. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. strike return . appear to be always pronounced with j. Practically all that has been said of Kiam.) The rule is the same for every word. The following words.. (i. however. with a few further changes and a few exceptions. Examples.KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. form. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N. rejeza. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. suffix or particle. grammar. is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals.. not occur. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. infix. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. how hand its Kimv. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. 9.e. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. Kiamu baraza = verandah. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . pijana. of in multiplying examples. Also. with regard to changes of letters. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . and whether the z is prefix. town of Pate in the darkness) beat.

Ku-tawala (N.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house). a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam. form. There appears to be a slight difference in the neg. etc.) = white flesh of a dafu = unripe. and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry. these (trees) hini Hinu . future which takes the particle -te. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc. green = to ripen. . Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign. although the latter is understood in Pate.in place of -to-. shall not get. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam. chimney. Negative Future.B. This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. Examples. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. cylinder.an egg I (pi.

Amu. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ .. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. . " . to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. roping for Utuku . is stir up strife).KIPATE. . strife = departed. bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit. lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. the dialect of the town of Shela. . III. . . south of Amu. many of the people took refuge in On viz. Manda. Kishela kitanda bazaar. IV. Taka and Kitao. Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. to 10.

and I III. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. When They Pate words from Amu. must have kept very much to themselves for. although remaining many years in Ainu. directly they received permission. . Kimgao. chiefly Examples. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. as they were in the large town of Amu. differ of Kiam. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. . of The Manda people. with a few small exceptions. This was the origin of the town of Shela. the oldest in the neighbourhood. they moved out in a body to Shela. The j of Pate in place of g is not used. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used. however follow Kipate." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. Kishela may follow either.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. The word mahali is used for "place. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. made use of this form. The dialect. It is curious that. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. after all the variations in this met with. Manda. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz.

form. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza.) like. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. as snte (Kiam. Examples. Any is changes in ki. last three it will be observed return to the Kimv.) = this (person). Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. hold good. its idioms and grammar belong more I. Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu.for the concord of the plural of the thi-. from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two.class. IV.63 KISIU KISHELA. Kiam. ch is used. differing Amu. These are similar to It and Pate. j observed above. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. 11. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. is local idioms in use but. It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar.) = we all hoyo (Kiam. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. That is to say that . though = (Kiam. Amu except the zi.

Jy) . Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu.) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. For this change however see the next dialect. local words of which Examples. brought in. in such words as kitambaa. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three.. Changes of II.B. Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. Nouns of the ma. person = a canoe = people. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. Examples. . III. t's Do not confuse with Kiung..KISIU 64 N.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry. as in Kitikuu. for Ar. etc. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam. which the called for mats.

for the possessive. The cerebral t. changes to ch.. I. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. Kiam. Kiam. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents.class Kimgao in concords. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. which is hurt is the grass.) This is said of two strong each other. -akwe is used in Kisiu. they only slip past one another. Toma kwa toma hathitomani. for . Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not. Kisiu. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. (You English. town of Faza or Paza. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n.KISIU. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. When two elephants jostle against one another that English. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. Examples. viz. Kitikuu 12. in place of -ake. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. Kisiu. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu . The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. the dialect of Rasini. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. as in Kishela.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

mashikio) = foot.class change n. used as in Siu in place of -ake. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. the prefix i- viz.KITIKUU II. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. the latter not being used. Chu- takes the place of tu.as the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. Perfect. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. In place of the -kito. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects. nail = shoulder = milk.tense of Kiam. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. Some nouns first : i-. 52 . - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . (pi.they have died. (pi. leg Iguu (pi. machako) Ichiunbo (pi. like in the plural. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. class has. Example. of the n. Examples.to : us (two) be going. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. -kitowaku- is used. (pi.

KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n. mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n. Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for .but may be prefixed..class . Examples.

Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick. 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish. ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish.B. Examples.) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes. The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words. A heavens). Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV. (pi. Examples of the -ndo. (Kit. mbavu) Uvueha na chembe . but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before.neap tides (or. .69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N..) only means a growing tree. The changes of idiom are very great.



All boats coming from Rasini,



are elsewhere


itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini


Mchwana = the block just

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the


mast and resting on the bulwarks either

and the

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects


semblance to Kitikuu

those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these



Some words however


= kishembere (Banadir) -a


pass almost unchanged through a series of


Example, Magadi

= potash




(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =


the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old


Such words are







Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.


It contains


an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.



told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-


that a well-educated and well-read Swahili



Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word


Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be


Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,


the chief feature of Swahili


For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his

So any old or


word he can discover he

careful to


string in.



an example of a Kinyume word,





being thrown into a verse.


kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.


farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda


kitumbua cha Mafia."


"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing










from a horse

by a donkey.


not (so good as) being carried



The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.


And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."




not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.


Each of these possesses a name of


The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain




to each syllable.

Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri

which means


Kitabu changu kimekwisha.





Praise be to Allah.








believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

nikapange lulu kula tarafi
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi


The strophes





nuru na mianga itathalali 7
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6





Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu

Moyo wangu



Hunelezi nami kalibaini

Moyo wangu nini



Raj ami




likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.



Huyui dunia ina ghururi


hila za







twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye





Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua


Ni kama kisima



kwa kula hasara

ombe 21




mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa




Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.







Tatasi = matata.


Tesi = -kali.






M wasi = adui.


Ombe = wall round mouth



UjuhaU = uwinga,







Kimaake = kisa.


Rajami = the devil Iblis.


Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?











Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =


kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.





= he


of a well.

Kushisha = causative of shika.

H VERSION N. . 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. Ikalifu 21. Dunia 19. misfortune. ku-atama=to gape. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . ^JL^ = a dog. . 8 asirithiye. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. . 27 Manaya = mauti. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . Kiwavu =mbavu. 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. 12 hutukiza[i]ye. 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . fr. for mume- tenda. sweet. ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye. Nambwa=na mbwa. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. hudiye. . Ndeo = swollen headedness. 23. Ku-etuka= to shine. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. . spoiler. . 25 si fr. . Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. 22. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . Hadimu = a breaker. . ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . ^ . Ar. ^^J = intelligent. 10 Kilabu. 25. * Mvi-chembe. 24 Ar. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. 32 Lathati =raha=laza. 19 Khasaisi. Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . . de- . . ^- Ar. the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. Takaburi. vastator. Labibu. ! kiburi = pride. fr. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. 24. ikaribu. 30 kali. . Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. fr> k^-euka. Ngea=chele = epuka. find in. Asifidi 18. Tandi = tanzi. fr. was 22 8il=uii. . 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. twaye. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. Ku-wania=ku-telea. to Hayani = pi. Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. Mwa-tami = fr. 8 14 . 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. Ar. glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of.

. fr. 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . Ruhu=roho. Ar. Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. ku-ona. 29 ziniye 35. Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). j 3 Kievu =kidevu. milele. 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. Ku-hizini = to store up. Uwaweneo = umezoona. saa 29. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . 33. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. is Ajinani =majini (jins). . . . Au 30. . . Safihi. fr. lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . . 21 Nusuha = entreaties. niusikiye. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . 17 isi=viumbe. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . Kamaye = kama yeye. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. Sijida = prayer. nusuha 5 yangu. . fr. K u-oka = ku-sitawi. Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza. Zana=akiba. 19 ance. Ku-futu = ku-kosa. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . si lile. moya hwona izimishiye. fr. ku- ignor- . = ku-amsha and 4^. ku -lala (-e-e tense). = foolishness. 34. 22 Zati = za tiati. wamuluku = those who possessed. 32 f r . Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. . is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage.26. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. 31. . . Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. 16 Hudumu. ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 .pta0^=jua. . Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. 76 VERSION N. 12 11 sijida . . Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. 32. tense is finished. ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo.

. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. . tense) (?). Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . siye. a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . Mao = malalo. Hudama = watumwa. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . = green. of 3 of fr. ^ \^ . Nyemi = furaha kuu. Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. mwongo). ku-tia 23 . shiye. 7 Sufuri = shaba. 1 to 10 persons. Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. Fusi=kivumbi. 24 Majodori =magodoro. Nahari = mtana. 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. . 19 Waja = watu. Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. !1 ranks. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. pi. VERSION zao shingo. Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . Kumbi 40. a group. 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. . . .N. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. 41. 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. (pi. 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. . . 39. Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. Sufufu of safu) indoors. sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. 17 Situru= cloister. fr. 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. 32 & fr lU-paka. = rows. | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. . - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. 8 9 10 fr. Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. 22 zishitadiye . Tafahuri = f r. = incense. . tele sufufu . . Kaa=sandaU. understood). of usiku. crowd. fr. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. 4 Jamil =wengi. . 5 Mbake = mpia. 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. Miyongo (pi. 18 Kele = kelele.

. 47. 31 Yande = yande. . dung. . bird green which eats dates. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. . ku-angama. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. Zitefute zao .VERSION N. > . Tame = -gofu. 41 = to turn. . Wasakha = pus. 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. ::8 54. . 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. Bombwe = maggot. 50. 52. makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. 30 ng'ende . 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo. 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . Ku-mia=to nod. 40 Waja^watu. be cut short. 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. sauti . Sasa walikee 1 45. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. or. Ku-taathari = ku-oza. Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). . shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. 29 fr. Bumu=owl. See note 10 above. Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. 49. Ku-siri=ku-wa. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. . Matukutu = tuka kuu. .webs. 28 Kitati = a very small bird. Kula'= chakula. See note 16 above. . moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. . Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. Makinda =zij ana. 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. 27 Kiku = adove. 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. Matandu = cob. . 77 2 . Hisi = sauti. fr. Mta=mchwa. wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. maziwio. Ziwele = zimekuwa. . . . 35 = piri = puff-adder. matter. Pili wingu yamefungana).

nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. mtanga. 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . 20 29 malijaa . Hata masikizi 56. mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. 63. 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. okoka. usikutwae. . ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. mahuwa 21 . 26 . ku-atama. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. wenyi nyuso . 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. Aimi=mimi. ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. 55. VERSION . 57. . . Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . fr. 14 fr. 28 fr. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. . 5 . makadhi wamua 14 haki. 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. fr. . 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. Hbonya=nionya. Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave.^fr. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. Jahimu. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. Mahuwa =: marehemu. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. Kamao = kama wao. . Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. Ngowa =matakwa.Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. . . 68. nambia walipo kawamkiye. . 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. . muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59.78 N. . 10 Ziuli = maua. ku-isa (i8ha). Ku-uza=ku-uliza. . 16 liamu.). " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. Ar. Kituzo = arresting. Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. 20 30 30 nitagamiye . 65. 19 fr. Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike. zidiwa = kama ndiwa. nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . . Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. Sao-hao. ku-amua. 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka.

of ulimi. 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv.)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. 13 12 73. . (v) Latha. 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. (vi) Hamimu. 31 Hutama = one of the hells. Ku-ungua = to disjoint. . 2(3 PL of moto. 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. 29 hells. 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. N^imi = pl. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. Mitokoto. 71. 70. 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. Namuwa na huyu. 19 Kiyali = spark. 69. ku-shitaki. . 1 Kwima = ku-simama. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. (vii) Hutama. Makina =makini. VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. (iv) Sai'ri. Kitana = sumbuko. Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. (Kiam.N. yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. 9 10 72. Jabari = bila kifano. See on these hells. Daiyani = a name for God. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. (ii) Jahimu. Mgi=mwingi. cut joints apart. (iii) Hawia. : 30 hutama 31 . menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. . 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. . shiye. Namuwa = hukumu. . Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. Azimamu=ugwe. . 6 . 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle).] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye.)). ni moto mkali hau makina [75. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. . Ny umu = -kali. . . Jahanamu. fr. nae.] Fahamia tena siyo . Eu-kimu=ku-amkua.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. 7 . Rikabu = a riding animal. ku-tokota. Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . .

N. or would. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. 1. lit." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). wd. usu. alt. = Mombasa. w. = version obtained at Mombasa. = Authority = Arabic. = at the place referred to. = perhaps. or cfr. W. V. Northern. alternative reading. fr. cf. = with. (N. = South. Mv. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading. Mombasa language or = usual. Southern. = alternative. ad loc. = Captain Stigand's.) = North. who This revision spread over . =word Ngoz. =from. alt. -ly. "li-Mambasii. usually. sc. obtained in the AL. mod. (S. or Auth. prob.V. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. = literal.) pf. = various authority or reading. E. S.) or Authorities. = modern. perh.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. = probably. VL. = perfect. = compare. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. Archipelago. Kimvita.. Ar. = meaning. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. A.

Lamu. MS. RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number. who me Another special revision was made. if I remember rightly. the poet. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. The first-mentioned. All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. . Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. which I secured in 1884. (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. the note on 12. It will be noted that the N. and Trade jargon respectively.S.) . of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo. by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i. the the five eight [16]-[18]. with Mwalimu Sikujua. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. Mombasa. Poetry. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. now Museum. of T'akaungu. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). . It is seldom that a MS. country. as media for Prose. now I think of The Mrima. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. Eliminating these last. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all.and others too numerous to mention. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. though original.

exactly the same as at Mombasa. But Billahi. partly that dh. d and t. related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. at Zanzibar etc. words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple. 'Athman. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . said my teacher. because of the i in the preceding syllable. tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. etc. . N. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. . nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . namely on the d and t. Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left. produced with the upper blade upon the palate." in them than at Lamu. not dhati *. in 1 precedes is Allah. partly that. involves a guttural effort. like "awe... for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). the dh is a composite sound. : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. The effect of pronounced with the dentals.g..g. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . etc. dh and th. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh. 1..B. a broad a The also.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. as at Mombasa. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill ." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is. especially of the a's which succeed them. The gh. Bismillahi. e. etc. the Arabic dhad and tha. thus sala (prayer*) is sala. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi. like s. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North. when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style. the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect. cerebrals. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. at Lamu. e.

etc. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. Here note The Accent. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili. but as si-nging Nghad . when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. k'. for the 62 . . nj. differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. i. ng. etc. a dissyllable and in to the : . s.). far as I . and when it occurs in Lamu. u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). being breath consonants. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both.. not as sing-ing. lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed.S. be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned. and singing. then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. ch'. etc. d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained.e. the other t " in whatever zone. nd. letter aspirated initials and they correspond . u to . by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. The vowels are rather 6. but especially the d..] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. h (*. e. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way. t'.. i. a. and and kh and gh. The explosive consonants p'. o. (Welsh). RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc. e. I. nd. t'.. not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. Therein every used. which from the chest . Jomvu (Jo-mvu). [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). respectively.

84 S. This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa.K. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. S. generally. m' and syllables as in . moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. Stanza 1.C. etc. Bisumiriahi. There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t). yet in some words it is so separated. Zituzo za mato. In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable . 3. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. n'de.] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. Permanency of Dialect. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius . n' in thus . nd. (') except seldom separated thus I'l. established. as above. [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt.) full value.P. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed.

. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics.S. strong. However. of the with the ever. and Lamu. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. popular. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. in all the important languages of the world where a regular. where genius exists. use of Scripture has obtained. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. which. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. lately and some other Northern Dialects. and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor.

AL. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . Ngozi. Hence. Kwimakwe || asiondoe. || 9. 9 =kuzingatia. Text wd. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. himdi. if correct be from ku-uka. n. etc. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4.. in which such 1's are found.) 2 In 8. (N. || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. Gr. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. . = exactly. but may never become ni. 8 kineukie. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. neravoLo. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . |j 7. from ku-euka . Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. || him'di niitushize 3. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre.INKISHAFI. ku-awaza. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. Cp. by elision . nakala xnankulun. from =ziwaenee. etc. Mohamadi. namba wazi^siflti. manukuu. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. AL. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. arahamani above with the article. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. with stress on every syllable. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana. MS. ite laili = cast out the night. not from ku-euka. tfcalali= mists. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. but the first word is exceptionally accented. .B. of 1 from Ar. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. 1. kiniukiye therefore as in N. without the h. and verbal information. || 5.) (kuoa= write. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . || niidiriji || i| || || || . as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. 4 =niweneze. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. This from MS. || || 6. because ni with following e may elide its i.

] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. etc. and Auth. MS. hakioni k'itu akishishie || . Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular." . bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. to embrace. ? 11 =lina ndia. halibaini. though yu. || 19. shrewd turns. makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. or. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. 13. Note. second paragraph. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi. 11. 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14. zitukuzie i || hali gani. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. MS. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. which Auth. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S. 12. ~ 15. both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form.10. kuwania S. same words. ikawa mayuto yasimsie.. akishishiye. : dialects. Hunambii kwani. MS. soS. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. An linga maie. || || || || kunwa 15. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. "I have not tolerated = do not . namba situkuzie S. to contend for (it).. V. See Prelim. u.'s. Dunia ni jifa. stanza 31 occurs twice. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. the S. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie." = bargains. and may mean. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). Suu ulimwengu.] || || . and on 16 18 matakwao. and A. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . : endure.] mwenyi [17. vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. Note In Lamu. 12 and in its In a S.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah. siikaribu ewelaibu. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). MS. 16 in the Translation. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18. makata-yakwe. has here. "cuts. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. form correctly wd. kuwania situkuzie.

" Swa. S. 21 N. MS. form \ jjtf . S 31 . " and not die down merely slowly. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. etc. MS. hupa mat'ongea. Auth. this identical stanza here and also after 12." In MS. tena S. See on other emendations [18]. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. RECENSION . AL. 28 S.. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. Caught. haiziwiliki. ulio weuni katika shaka. 23 This wd." Ar. ni k'avu mno. 21. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. Ewe moyo wangu. ewe moyo. S. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. ghaitha. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. Auth. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. 25. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. MS. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. MS. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha.V. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. . zalikuwae || ! || 23.88 S. 24 =kuzama kabisa. || hata 27. i. except as a trisyllable. riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. AL. || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . Version. kuzima taratibu moto. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. omits by error. " and Authorities. pasi zao. hudumu nao! || || || 30. The last eleven syllables read in S. S. ! || [| ! || 31. of S. hi S. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. but the text is as S. to smite under the ribs. k' = ni k. mkohozi akohoao. wingu katika kwaka. but is inserted from good S. walotaladhudhi from Ar. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. by slip. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. and by S. as the 13. ikamba " Safari. Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. MSS. || || || || mtenzile kwangu. : izimikapo. Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II .kupiga kikumbo. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. synonym of Death. || huiona izimishie.e. The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. 20. 22 "Strangled. || || 22. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. Auth. ." now rather as in a trap or snare. Auth. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". MS. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. MS. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo. haina muanga tena.




Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
awapo mngine




wangapi uwaweneo




ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,











dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi




















zao nibak'e




taa za k'oa na za sifuri;


masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.








za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"




k'elele za

masituri, zikiterema

na za
furaha na nyemi

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za








32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
lihadi, either the
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.




AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then




prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from

previous clause.




and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.




41. P'indi walalapo




wall na wakandi na wabembezi


na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri













mi will



usaha na damu zatuuzika,
haiba na sura zigeushie.
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,



na makanvva bombwe



dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.








launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,


Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao










k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde




Madaka ya nyumba na





bumu hukoroma


sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,



wana wa
na k'uyu


41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
So S. Auth.;
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of


as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.



N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
za, N. A.

as here and










Wana wa



na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo

shingo nakupiga





Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo









ukita k'witikwi








za wat'u zitindishie.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?



zituko zingapo huya'athika




la'ala yakutulie





Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...





Mimi t'akwambia,






binu Nasiri?






za kiza-kiza




ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari







wanzilepi kue?




Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga



mianga na miangaza



wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,





na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya




miti viwaalie.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie






said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."


[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.




" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.


'Ali bin Nasir,


a great





The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards



wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa. fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. ukamba. = to VL. VL. "cangue". Auth. manhttb = the one despoiled. 67S. kongo. ! || || || 63 65 Mod." At this point. || wokokapo nawe wokoke. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. wapi makadhi wamua haki. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. || || ! || 70. S. 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . kuk'akatika=(S. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. both students and MSS. sipeketeke . Chinese. Auth. kukwaka. Authorities. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. where in fact the S. mean =sifanye upuzi. || leo ni waushi. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. wasiza-ngoa || . 63. wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. S. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. || . . I dutifully respond. || || || || 69. be dried up. derivative wakazunduliwa wd. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68. Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo ." Mod. "Here am I. lisizime. together with the involved and strained constructions. 66. Auth. Haya. ! . S. 65. " here am I The tedious. . 72 S. Lebeka. S. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako.92 62. Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. taadabu.) kuudMka. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . || || || 72. 2nd sing. S. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. || " be found out" Auth. .=mandak'ozi=kongwa. Ar. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory. Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo. wasirie wot'e 64. waliushie. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem. Muungu 71." The modern survival is only as "yoke. Auth.

and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. of the spirit. so far as I have been able to effect it. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. the Northern Form. might with such men. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. that the form. religion. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. nihil humani k me alienum puto. Homo sum. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall." However. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. and substance of the original. what have was been expected from the candour of say. had they not been such missionaries. of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. the other as a poet. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. form. which in : in . with this proviso. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment. of Mid-China . one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision. or even of English poetry . this that is to say. I need hardly as an artist.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. would have been equally well known in other spheres. the one Their opinion. without offence against the canons of European taste. of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker. considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem.

. a valuable and perfect MS. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. in which it may be seen. while in also been all The Mrima. have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. yet fix it has been my opinion. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum. obtained in the year 1884. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. is at least of the it Noun Classes. Africa in 1493. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. Swahili. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. the son. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people. and second poet of that name. and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. . may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. And truly. That the be idle to to know a date. least. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. of the Poem. for instance. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it.

while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character. That copy was made in a script as in which. . One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi. Ramadban.e. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar. 95 ETC. about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption.THE TEXTS. Also. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name. The Utenzi of (i. ia^^jj)..

So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. 5 Mohammed. 5. the Islam are agreed. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. . Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. Lest come some carping And 3. like as the dawn of day. link Arrahim. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. critic. however. the Ascription. Benedictions holy. those forms to Islam 4. Caliphs by right divine . And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests." the title of a true Caliph.) aye adore. four unique Companions.") (namely. note. Bismillak. But ere my Poem upriseth. 32. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. The Merciful. fie. tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. 'All). were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. . no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. No Alhamdu crying. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. 'Othman. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall . And The So dear. as . God. This word. set duly at the fore. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. W. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. Taylor. since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. laud. here ! fie. see next note. the interpretation of the above doctrine." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. ! (Mind ye.THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. Abu Mohammed. ancestor the Quraish . The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. And then write I for . Despot Mighty. Great Allah we 2. Bakr. Sc. Then Allah. Praising The Compassionate. < ' . pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. Khallfah. E. at fault-finding evermore. Thou Grant er of Requests. 3 4 See note on 11. is not in the Swahili text. 'Omar.

Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea.THE INKISHAFI 6. my *heart. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. hath he to fear. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. for thee. Mammon. a tossing billowy waste. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. no less. Nay then. . for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. sin's tips. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. What. I fear 11. as I school my heart within. by which Apocalypse. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. personified as such in the Gospels. 11 S. 10. 13. The World. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. Shamefastly 9. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. See the closing note. gloom convicted shall appear. of seed-pearls secure it. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. 7.ad monition. etc. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. Thus finishing the Foreword. lit. Islam. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. behold the Theme begin With stern self. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. 7 . 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. ! 12. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. front and rear. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. lies : is clear. me. heart. my heart. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited.

the anguish of despair. feet! All they shall draw thence. Faugh. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business. in by the circles brim. though food for dogs most fit. but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. . him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. mortal. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. and have with curs thy share 20. [18. 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. Vie in vain concupiscence. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart. with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. rushing on. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary . suit. nought but raging The water they had fancied it. Consider. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. but thou must taste thy bit. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare.] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore.] Thy fancies and thy follies. there's . and wherein thou hast a part. curious trifler.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. 15. But. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. its development.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. what find they? ah. Who [17. for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : .

'Tis past. 28. but rekindled ne'er . vain. quotha. span of life. though brightly it had shined ah. Come. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. And. I swear ! 24. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. 27. I man swear the end . I school thee often. swearing by the beard. But. Vain. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. my schooling still despise. if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My . Then listen and 111 tell thee. no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. . finished. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. tell Yea. come. protest. it. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. and forthwith leads them off. it. your ! no longer linger here. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me. me that thou weariest of such impertinences. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. yea. kidevu) changu . though Crying. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair. depart ye 23. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. ! 26. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick.THE INKISHAFI 21. take your journey hence. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. Hold thy my by beard peace. 22. : flickers in the wind. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. Kievu (mod. Saying. and without or tongue may make arrest. Up." The wrist is held to the chin. a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems.

All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. whose word none might . Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34. . Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. to heed well what I say Then heed me. its place left black and drear. Sulaiman. N. and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom.B. eyes Mammon's closed. the stocks Doom and shares. umrl mchache . 32. of old. Both mighty King and Magus. become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. I ! . mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . was. The Pelted. it would toss him high in air. heart. withhold Yet he by 33. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. Ash shaitanur rajlm). Recension ad loc. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. . Reapedst thou its choicest. our Ars longa. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . (In Ar. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. . which the devil is thought to haunt. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. mambo makubwa. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. vita brevis.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. prithee oh. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca." Explained by the proverbial expression. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground. quenched. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. for to dare. Yea. 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar.

And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. the wide world. in and out harem doth whisper. the universe. and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. home -born. The lampstands too are massy. beyond compare. and beauty are wreathed about them there. both teak and ebenine. Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. attars in addition. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. in art . good soldiers their errands for to bear. And everywhere they sit them. 39. their lights trimmed with care. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . Auth. With garnishing that choice is. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. soft slumbers they would woo. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. All goodly are their couches. Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. . 43. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. 37. 42. 40. I swear by Allah. How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. a-weary.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. their beds are exquisite.. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. And what time. 73 . their guards in ranks thereby Line up. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. Brilliance 38. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view.. in every part complete.THE INKISHAFI 36. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41. Gleaming in long rows. . whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods.

Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. 45. . green-dove. "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. crib 46. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it. The Home they had dwelt in. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. it yield a luscious food. were still extant in the last century. to mate and to pair. or of filthy coarse baboon . the natural history here is correct. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. that bourne long and last. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. making ravages rude. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. sun.THE INKISHAFI 102 44. 51. down to the Tomb. ! . In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room . as of bear. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. not a voice. Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. . " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. here gathereth most or Red-dove. The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. Here snoreth the brown owl. ." So. 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. Down. To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. 47. now empty and lone. for the Summons forth hath passed Down. The City that has lodged them. 49. . Thus far. the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. not a tone ! it o'er.

59. there is the place. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. ! . Then bend low thine ear. I ween. all. Ah. pi. . if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. . two contemporary Winston Churchills. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. strain both neck and ! eye. tell it forth plain. for the truth would I learn . And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . come. 55. Or else have thou thy say. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. 54. falchion or the bird. speak out in thy turn. how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. Nay. . And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. 56. Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. man go. Where never opes window nor 58. though no doubt the latter was meant. . . of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. 53. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. 57. wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See.THE INKTSHAFI 52. My heart. lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there. a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. Where princely Idarus.

THE INKISHAFI 104 60. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. Yea. nor think still to scorn . on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . Bethink thee. Brother. ye 64. Oh. On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. Depart from the evil. Lo. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. What sayest thou. you ! my old comrades. skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. And And skulls be battered in. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. 1 ? . crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. Ye too. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . ! . could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. ! stress. heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . 67. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. 66. salve for sore eyes. ! 62. who once. and that sore. "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. What. me whither I I pray? too there would steer. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. be thou schooled. shew 69. ! . heart. dried like 68. Potentates and mighty Viziers. just Judges. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. be thyself saved. nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers.

Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. Text is accordingly a bathos. Lord. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. 72. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain . See the note ad loc. He now but to threaten them doth deign. oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. nor bought . The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. on all his tyrannies. 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. Piecension. . ) hells which follows in the present N. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. ! 71.THE INKISHAFI 70. Not of gold. 105 "Grant vengeance at length. my heart. nor given free. in the S. Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise. 73.


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