TAYLOR. etc. Interpreter in Swahili and H. E. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 . STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev. etc. W.A.. M.A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C.


1915 H. SUDAN.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . . made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. C. The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. are in most cases very imperfect. S. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect. KAJOKAJI. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use. presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar. Although the records this.



P.. which involve certain new conclusions.C. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries. but is no less worthy of attention. This "give and take" however is essential to progress. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively.INTRODUCTION who Author.P. and detail. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known. And no doubt the methods. of the book. so far as I am aware. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. and in the appearance of for the new generation .). in my own African Aphorisms (S. Explorer and Ethnologist. etc. to whom the Essay will be most precious . and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S.K. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language. departures.). and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification. To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu). whether in English or in any other language. and I have gladly acceded to his request.K. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars.C. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game.

Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old." " throw out. and wide. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity. ambiguities. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. say Barawa. Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long. experto crede. is Vita "It upon words. in its purity." as of a warlike expedition and in war." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . land. then. for one. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. and warlike . The Curtained Headpoint. and corruptions of the careless South. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili. to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili. its native name. I. displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences. at least under Arab rule. meaning a sinking in." because while the the too patent crudities. tion. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita. is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). expeditions.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is. either civil or external. experience." (otherwise CHA). from the feature of this "hidden Isle." with the root TA " It signifies. though running on similar lines yet also a different language. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech. thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. born and . that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North.

INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. no doubt. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries. whether in MS. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. and onwards under its once famous Queens. par excellence. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this." then the Mazru'is. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. Mombaza. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. such as one finds in native stories and tales. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine . the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906. to of lore school of the Islam. the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. and so on to the present day. such as Mwana Kambaya.T it is efrxnv. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade." genius of their Dialect. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry. " " prose to signify all sustained speech. "puritanic. and Quiloa. or spoken. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. treatises of different kinds. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. However. and Melind." the Isle Accordingly KO.

and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. and bearing. . Certainly. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. at the instance of Captain Stigand. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). W. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. since it was version. to add my own Recension of the same Poem.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. and spirit. if not the greatest. 1915. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. in the proper place. made many years ago. E. T. here in E. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. the present work would never have been written. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. to the study of languages. KYRK.

Kiunguja. Ar. = English. PL = singular. = Kimrima. = derivation.) = Arabic. Eng. Kimv. Lit. = Kimvita. Kit. = Kiuug. . = literally. = Kiarau. 80. derived from. Kiam. = plural. Kimg. Kimr.ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. Sing. = Kipate. Der. = Kirngao. = Kitikuu. Kip.

Such is the state of things between Mombasa. viz. . Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications.. so to speak. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board.-indicates... Africa. Zanzibar and the dialects.gp. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe. Uganda and far info the Congo. laces. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast. of British East East Africa.. Zanzibar. Nyasaland. r Js iswftbilj.. Hindustani and Somali or Gala words.. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day. The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Mombasa.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl. practically the It is -is . and Portuguese East Africa. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language. Lamu lJLcabs. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese.as jt&.name. to be to the court language.the much farther than this. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together.Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j . now much what French used JjtSL. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin.mtk . Mrima.

So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. For convenience in reference group. however. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. 3. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. It is. 2. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences. intelligible. once the rules are known. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. and so words. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. Here we have many little islands and towns. strange at easy to foretell first sight. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. The 1. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. however. as in the Lamu Archipelago. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts.

Kiunga and other places on the coast N. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. Kitikuu. viz. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. 5. at Rasini. might be Farther afield but 13. Kingazija. Kialabi. dropping or adding syllables. This with a number of local dialects. The 14. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. is } : from all the above. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. : Kinyume. 6. 12 . both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. however. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. 7. Bajun group. is by no means. The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba. such as those spoken Tundwa. Lastly comes the parent of 15. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. of Amu.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. Kiamu 9. will suffice. Kisiu. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi.

J : Tamarufa. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. O called tay. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. shown Ku-Tii of the t t. for dialectic reasons. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above. distinguished by the . It common other to the educated Swahili ear. However. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. This symbol preacher to obey. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. I have. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed. or te safi in Swahili.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N.B.

let down so. . period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) . come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. Examples. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. hence or stranger to invite t'. . Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time. to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed. The Bantu cerebral t. This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t.we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). and Aspirated dental t. Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. . : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. to your ear 5 Swahili. in distinction to the pure t. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point.

at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. sling. or pure.e. Examples. n has a disturbing . T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear. dental t. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . etc. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. As i. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d. D. T'embe Shown here by =a t'.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story.to tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. is In the Zanzibar group. dal. (i) The dental dali safi. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. however. as in English. there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d.

) = a loop.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam. Swahilis not d but r. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider.e.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu.) = outside Nde (Kimv.) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu. Ndia (Kimv. viz. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes.) Kandu (Kiam. This is As an Example. The Kim vita words above N.) = a road. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used.) Kitandi (Kiam.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv.) Mwando (Kiam. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag . > = ndugu. i.B.) = to taste Konda (Kiam. aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv. the overturned d.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv. Examples.

These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word.) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out. as mentioned above. In the Zanzibar group however. Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando . In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three.) but in the Ingira. and r are interchangeable in different dialects. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam. as is However Ingia (Kiam. The and R. . is pronounceable in Kimv. between these There is also a tendency. and Kiung. and Kiung. has been vowel which bears its sound. Certain other letters The Arabic .) appears nyere (Kimr.). deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle. the pure d is not used and a slurred. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. letters 1 = where pronounced. L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. soldier. in less pure dialects..CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also. freeze. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg. to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels.

J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster. = near = lamp. then. The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin. k'. This strong guttural k. K. Examples. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize. Hakika Karibu Kandili N. Examples. viz.B. Examples. cray fish.

thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. komba. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid. etc. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. komba. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. as kolokolo. popoo." or the sign of duplication." Ch and P. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima. very different sounds. " law " 6. it being pass for another word. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. . Translation. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. The following little verse. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention. to the native ear. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. is used for this sound in Swahili. Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma. as usually shown by simple o. popoo.

There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. ilia.. are usually spelt with the double consonant. 11 billa. with a single consonant. to pronounce a closed syllable. viz. Bassi. Th.*. used the following signs. although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. with few exceptions. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. sitta.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest. J%elafAa Thikiri .3 Example. I have therefore... for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required. marra. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili. tissa. . or most Bantu speaking natives. which do not count for much in Swahili. letters. Thalimu Ramadhani. the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . in regard to such words. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have.

Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. but it is distinctly dialect. Showing what simple transpositions. of the words above. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. he would probably use all three. all all Thus the three words. " to delay. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. ku-kawia and ku-limatia." "to remain. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. as natives love to do. Changes of Letters. ku-chelewa. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense. If he was showing off. more or less. all down the meaning coast. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. Changes of Vocabulary. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. ku-chelewa. III. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I." viz. or the two most foreign to him. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. sun ." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. Changes of Grammar. II. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. but one meaning." are understood. In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects.

The grouped together under this name. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari." In Kimv. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. the same word means. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. The first is the native's love of display. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide.g. hoping to make himself more intelligible. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. dialects big tract of country they cover. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand.g. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. lost at sea. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. both of the same tribe. Indian or African." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese. possess almost ." left latter places is always used with kitako. be he. " E. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country. E. drowned. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. Changes of Idiom. " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. briefly may give Zanzibar Group. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native.

This construction does not occur in the group. This I will tell you (sing.(or -mw-) -ni.). Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example. Nawafuata and nimewambia. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels. This in the purer dialects would be pendani. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent.). where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . its place being taken : Mombasa Example. The corresponding construction in Kimvita. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs. Amu (pi. etc. Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example.). interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group. The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv. in this group as a cerebral. Example. (ii) or the by -wa-. have told you I In this group there (pi. objective person plural being. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m. love ye. you -e. the -e. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form. in certain tenses.

etc. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. comparatively speaking. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. dali safi. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. of grammars. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. for t's. vocabularies. . Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. not Kiswahili or districts. The dental t it then. to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's. dali pindu and re pindu. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. stories. especially the latter. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. so The habitats of the other dialects have been left.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. viz. Kiunguja 1. accessible to the student. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. literature.

for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. or the dialect of the Mrima coast. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. JaJLw) Ar. conquer Kwisa . make to flourish. 2. (fr. is in use. " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. inlocal variations. Kimrima. = a frog = silk. Balua Sh 1. = = cJlo) Ar. to be hard. for nothing s. egg on. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. Examples. which will be mentioned later. and so the and not be confused. for the first is spelt taa="lamp. Changes of Letters I. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. unyielding to urge. = a plan. strengthen.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects). one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. there should be order. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. kwisha = to be finished ! .

of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels . When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels. into ch. Examples. Example. Examples. more marked in the next dialect. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable.KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. when followed sit. or e. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay.) must come." This is." or to bathe. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. however. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person. to break to fall. in the next dialect. for is. knock down to make.

pakwe. In some of the local variations of Kimr. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat.) Nimemwambieni. his fellow is the mchirika rat. oneself down.) will tell you (pi. follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung. trouble. or atakwambieni = he (pi. Choroni = dust = bathroom. out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). chooni . vyakwe.) Nampendani = I love you (pi. Chakwe.B.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound. Kitowero = foot. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. kwakwe. in dialect of the Example.e. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe. for may taabu = rag. Puku (i. viz. . i is often used for Kuiketilia ji. etc. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi.) Atamwambieni. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice. This is etc.).. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. In reflexive verbs Example. be cut out. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. 1 Examples. he saiba is like) Similarly N. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief.

The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. appear to hold good. ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. In certain dialects of Kimr. are of the class. Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. Jina ya fulani) . nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. mama. Examples.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative.. concords as in Kiung.class analogy being carried The still farther.class. of this class. Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. Examples. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word. however. N.B.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class. . pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. Ile the chief. so \ . however. though not in the verbal concord. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye." is also heard. In Kiung. interrog. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . ng'ombe. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. Jma ja . baba. On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar. Examples. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing. Ndugu. the n..class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. and not concords.

Changes of Vocabulary slight. These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you.tense the pronominal prefixes a. which must not be confounded with the -ngali.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used.conditional tense.and we-. A common expression in Kimr. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. . Changes of Idiom IV. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. In the -me. Examples. alivyopata a few instances are given under. babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j . ..and times represented by e. I have gone. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside. for namna = sort. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following. . = behind place. =a panali ." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village.

have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. . Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. or with a letter which is way between the two. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r. Many of the sounds in eo. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. however. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either.KIMGAO 3. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. and aa have. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property. as has been shown already. oo. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. Changes of Letters I. As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. As will be shown later sounds in ee. In this dialect.

but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. often changes to eh. avoided by the use of y. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia .) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow.) want mwampige = you (pi. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. Examples.) must beat him = I will give him. in Kimr. Examples. cries. is if followed certain consonants. are pronounced or r. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. K before = and you (pi. frequently added. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change.. general use instead of m. Examples. especially after nasal ms. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo. There appears. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that. Fanya hivo Example. fell . as in goes. Examples. however. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. viz." a second added.

the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi. Examples.23 KIMGAO II.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. except that the place of before a consonant.). they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved. and Kimr. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction. = he must tell you (pi. This is Examples. and the the animate class.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. mu takes m However. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved. = he loved. in the negative . (pi. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau. Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love. Examples.) Perfect = I tell you (pi.) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. and also. Examples. .tense after a subjunctive. Amependa = he has loved.) he must tell you (pi.instead of hu- tenses sing.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi. yet loved. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung.

Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. Alike Occasionally locative forms.K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity." Examples. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped. Very often. however. borrowed from the surrounding languages. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages." . Examples. are used in place of the locative in -ni. However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about. it comes between the ku. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village. the n. Examples. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt.prefixed to it.or kw. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village. If there is an objective prefix. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb.and the verb.class This however is not done with human beings. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III.

ku-ima.or -ki. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. stand. is Changes of Idiom IV. Example. understood. 25 Examples of other words. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity. no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka. 4. This latter word.KIHADIMU KIMGAO. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. viz. Example." . kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. Examples. . are said to 1 A similar state of things. can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. in well). they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit.tenses. and he beat him himself). The Wahadimu is known. used in place of vizuri.B. This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. Alikwenda kule. outside the town. agreeing with mambo. = Amenipiga was hit (lit. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive.

words into Kimv. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. The origin of the name Mvita " war. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. In converting Kiung. being often altered in transit. it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards." because. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). This latter derivation would appear more likely. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. then only savages. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. hid in the bush. changes to t Kimv. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . 6. 5. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v. It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. I. -biti for -bichi .26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. the Mombasa people.

alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. etc. : viz. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. Words which are spelt in Kiung. carry. or some other Examples. Such influences may be the letter n. changu. mto. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. is aspirated. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. kietu. of the ki. Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been. turned over a little and becomes t'. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. or that the eh in Kiung.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. with eh. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung.class such as cha. as the Swahilis say. kiako. etc. chetu. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. Nt'a causes. kiangu. for the same . Words which do not occur in Kiung. : and pronouns agreeing with ki. These pronouns should really be kia.class beginning with eh. but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh. chako. and others.

chaki.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1). path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). choo. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. chuni (=a kind of water bird). Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for .class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung.. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n. expressions being used in Nj in its place.or in the ma. Ku-choka. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. cheo. ku-cha ( to fear). chuma.). any = Examples. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. chura. -chache. changes to nd in Kimv. chandarua. ku-chota. (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road. there : Examples. ehenza. and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. Chakula. the d being the semi- dental explained above. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam.class and is always called tupa. chooko.).. . chapa. In Kimv. chokora. mchikichi. used indiscriminately in the n. chaza (ma. -changa. ku-chelewa. chumvi. chungwa. choyo. Chai. uchafu. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv. chumba. and Kip.) is follows the rules above. ku-chafuka. chombo. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. change. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch. All of these are the same in Kimv.KIM VITA 28 Examples.. mchekeche. chuo. chambo. Kiung. chungu. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv.class in Kimv.

as the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present. in the Zanzibar group.) love you (pi. not often heard. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja. Yua. These are only heard with the future -ki. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema.to n-.tenses. The Njama. three of these. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix.).and -ka. njuga. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing..) you (pi. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi.29 KIMVITA Exceptions. II.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi. The construction is as follows etc. but change according to rule in Kiam. however. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples. Kiam.is used in place of a. njugu and njema. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. . Nyumba yakwe = his Examples. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv..) Nawapenda = I love you (pi.

In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing. is full form is used except used for -wo. -zo- and -vyo-. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle. alipofika and occasionally -cho-. an abbreviation of nika. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought. is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o.in the verbal infix. and -ko-. of the narrative tense. Example. it is said. Examples. from -ye. .KIMVITA 30 Thus.to -e-. however. Examples. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him.to ha- is in the first person sing.and -yo-. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. -mo-.which was. -po-. alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. Examples. always used. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. tend to become simple -o. Examples. -lo. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes. The tendency. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives.

etc. relative in Examples. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect.) of . and Kimv. Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit. Kimv. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. = woman's robe. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. however. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. being in more common use in that dialect. recognize them as two words. each bearing an accent on the penultimate. III. although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. = he who wants Atakae Examples. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. The Swahilis themselves.

or smitten by. less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. = custard apple = to pluck. lone (buffalo. don't worry me also. Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions.to take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit. the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . sleep is hurting me) that goes alone.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. fruit). hebu mi = leave me alone. hebu = come let us. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others. for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. health is best. let me (pass) Kula njama . please.

rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized. Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. A. from the E. viz. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go.e. 3 . It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words. s. 7. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. Kidigo.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down. the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. you lie (der. Gazette ? Example. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. i. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or.

. or the island of Ndeo. softened into y.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi . Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. Examples. who came from the Persian Gulf. The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. the Banu Lami. the dialect of the town of is Amu.. into Examples.KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. Exceptions. on the island of that name. or Lamu. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv. I. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding.

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y. Baghaa 1 in Kimv. leo . kilemba = a turban = to-day.K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples.

class change v.) . between two vowels is sometimes dropped. Examples.) = ku-kanga (Kiam. hivi. mvua. . = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. vyenu. Thus za. mavi. -vi-. vile.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. hizi. nguvu. vyote. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. becomes nd. Examples.. Kimv.or vyto z-. etc. -zi-. are -vyo-.. -kavu.to begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . ndevu. -zo. etc. vyake. zote. zile. nguva. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse. place of vya. zenu. ku-vua. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change. zake. Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki. ku-vaa. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . . Exceptions. mwavuli. and many others. used in to z.

at the . Examples. see 35." P (pi. at the same time. Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. Examples. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. on the left side.. Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for .).. *). (as is also the case in Kimr. Ku-sonda S to reach to. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle. changes now. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv. ku-ehenma . village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck.to sneeze chungwa = orange. Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony.) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier.KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town.

Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above... Kimr.) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. i and o.KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. = like. Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something . Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage). ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . letters Kiamu Akhira (or. kama of Kiung.to feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. Examples. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent). = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam. Examples. a snuff (Bahasha. Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all. e. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw. as (cp. purpose. N occurs rarely in place of m. : a scarf intention. band . skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. = captain.

hide. Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect.a giraffe = a chief = a smith c.KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash. a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber. bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns . = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt .

there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. be well done = jaa) ing II.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. etc. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. In Kiam. Distant Past. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. freely used in Kiamu. . Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. used to get. * v^etc. Past. (dust in house ripen. Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. J got (long ago) or. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist.

As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. ali aki.as an alternative for the first person sing.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise. (The usual form.tense (page 44). and stories so is For an example of -nga. of the Near Past Negative. . as uli uki-. etc. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense.

KIAMU Negative -ki- tense. 43 .

verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. havi-.= although. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor." Example. as before etc. Past Perfect." though occasionally occurs with a few others.although I am hungry I do not eat. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku . hazi-. is Examples. in place of vi-. as she was sitting). Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name)." Examples. of the ki." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. Niangawa na ndaa sili .KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi. takes concords zi-. The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. stated. etc.class which. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. . to be in the act of doing something. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears. -i. It it out. -zii tense. particles are na " nga. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules.

It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation. ibid. viz. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again). . Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz." "yet. happened. This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona. he has still mounted and is mounted). It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu." "while yet. for Moyo. kee for kaa." or." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. The meaning is "while as yet. Examples. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is. Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms. etc." Examples." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense. "as yet. nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed." "still. last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. mentioned by Taylor. Also see the first line of verse on page 116. Verbs having their two prefix. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb.

Pronouns. so some are given full. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree . Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard.and not na. has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to. is is befallen him. u. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i. becomes -i-.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. Kimv. in common use at the present day in in poetry. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for . mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry.. Examples. ni.and not a-. Examples. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita.e.of place well. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv.must be used with this tense and for third person sing. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e.

hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. Examples.and the -ki. Examples. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N. period. viz. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative.these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . these faces have etc. Nawapenda = I love you (pi). for the accent. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv. The remainder nyuso . i!6e. There is also a form used with wakati = time.. as they are the hii huwo. ule. Hono is this time. wa!6e. zile. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. hiyo. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. il. etc. etc. only.is used in Kiam. It is also used in the -e-e tense.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. B. plain u. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka. period. The arrangement plural is the same as Example. the -zii tense other instances.tenses. period that time. occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class. and in several . in the first and third persons sing. used in Kimv. The farther demonstratives ule.

fr.) went (pi. Example. Examples.) did not get (pi. Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m. Examples. latter. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. suffix. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya . Example. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam.KIAMU 48 Examples. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. P . kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the .a new kingdom.) shall not get. of the second person plural often mu. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking. by cutting out the first -i-. Example. Uknta mwingine = another Example. for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv.

Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants.is used as an infix for all classes of nouns.KIAMU The interrog. Even with these however there -y. form. -mo. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda . Note the use of relative with perfect. Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you. The The relative -o.in -wo and -yo.(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense.B. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-.in Kimv. Examples. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. Examples (of locative relative). -po-. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went. 4 .and the infix -zo.as he has done (or. 8. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam. Examples. The latter takes the place of -vyo.and Example. N. is a tendency to suppress the w. for ? why ? Relatives.

are in Kiam. Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. however they are the names of trees or plants. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto . no is used. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. Examples. (-si-) the -i- of the is elided. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. or anything pertaining to trees or plants. Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Examples. If Examples.KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided.as they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. Examples. nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango .. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata . Exceptions. they remain as of the second class. as in the cases elision takes place. when I do not want). = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat. of the tense particle Examples.

Also nyawanyo.. consonant it takes a concord as class. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. his) = it is ours (yours. moon. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo . wewe = is pi. in Kiam. Examples. If the adjective begins with a for pi. anything to do with a tree or plant. Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples. Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. = two years = big fires.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. dialects. of sixth class. Examples. his) = it is ours (yours." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. theirs). Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings. 42 . Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. quite correctly. as of the first class "kites. 1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree. treated. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam..

jongoo -jigger. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza. if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. About one hundred words are appended as examples. and Kimv. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam." is frequently heard in viz. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for .. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet. N. Ku-tunda in i. Example. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema .e. take out. in a meaning not given. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out. akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town.B. jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit." "put out. Where the Kimv.KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. Kiam. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

-a small out. = to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini.. sound out ku-lia = luck. devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw. goer = a demon. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) . or. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . fortune bahati .the ground. ring.KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. male = a traveller. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little.

and Kiam. in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required. are con- differences in idiom siderable. used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv. English = silver neck. Sometimes the word given Kimv. A man rushed in after it saying. Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? . Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco. urefu ndia Utunda .KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita . scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta. angalia = to see after. ' and another seized it saying.' ' Ni mbwako. Kuku mbwangu. IV. path = a string of beads = sheath. that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning.' It is related. mwenyi ku-pata. ' Siyo mbwangu.chain = length = road. The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on. Ni mbwake. Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or. will get two rupees).' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea . The Changes of is hut)." probably untruthfully. A few instances only will be given here. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N.." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). For instance one might say to one's boy...' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued.B. word.

You say I did ?" not Example. and has not) purposely . wale. . yes he has done something. etc." In Kiam. either in point of place or time. Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. (Takes the place of makusudi. mkate mpya = a new loaf. Kimv. viz." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv.) (= come). his intention (was) . The accent remains as shown. not wane) Abb. The word -pya Kimv. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi. walee. It has the meanimg " of. Talking of anything distant. on purpose. ilee.. ziatu zipia = "new sandals. if that word is one of these far demonstratives. ulee. Mbona hukufika P = Answer. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. etc. as he says. with hata. Have I person sing. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. and as an first " not 1 " or. which has already been mentioned. viz. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right. viz. ule. not yet). viz. = is food not ready after = until he died. one o. an e is added to the far demon. Example. is only used in the interrogative reply. Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come). wa!6. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables. taking the accent on the first.KIAMU 56 This.

of animate Wowawili = both. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself.57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). all three. Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both. in anything but the negative present. haniisi = he does not know. in Kiam. you do not know.. " huisi. viz. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning. Its meaning quite different." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time. s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined. haisi. human Mwida is being. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds." etc. he does not know (recognize) me. fudifudi = to lie face downwards. beings. Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. ghasia). coming and going (and thus want of privacy. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons). Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam. Si-isi =" I do not know " . look out for . Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form)." Example.

it is it is for you to say. well built. (Proverb) what it to you. just like that. I leave mwenyewe. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. as you please. is inside the your business. person. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. generally used of a male child much as in Kimv. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. used is best. i. and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). or (it) hivyo. is largely used in both Kimv." (Hitieri -hitiari. . would be used in Kimv. This is health is big. hivyo. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. for the Kimv. I don't first consideration). Example." Examples. now at once.e. where shauri lako. " give (a piece of) tambuu. generally used as a reply to some taunt. akaitwa (jina lake). bora azima = never mind.

There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. 9. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals. town of Pate in the darkness) beat. Kiamu baraza = verandah. and whether the z is prefix. (i. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. Examples.KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. form.B. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. suffix or particle. audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for .. how hand its Kimv. of in multiplying examples. infix.. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I. however. with regard to changes of letters. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. appear to be always pronounced with j. not occur. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. with a few further changes and a few exceptions. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect.e. grammar.) The rule is the same for every word. The following words. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . rejeza. Examples. pijana. Also. Practically all that has been said of Kiam. always changes to th. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. strike return .

a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam. green = to ripen. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. future which takes the particle -te. Negative Future. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them. form. shall not get. etc. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam. chimney. Ku-tawala (N. although the latter is understood in Pate. Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II.) = white flesh of a dafu = unripe. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc. There appears to be a slight difference in the neg.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house).an egg I (pi.in place of -to-. and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry. these (trees) hini Hinu .B. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign. Examples. This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. . cylinder.

bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. . Manda. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. Taka and Kitao. strife = departed. the dialect of the town of Shela. . to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. is stir up strife). . drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . . to 10. roping for Utuku . Amu. Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. . Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit. " . A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. IV. many of the people took refuge in On viz. Kishela kitanda bazaar. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. III. south of Amu.KIPATE..

. made use of this form. the oldest in the neighbourhood. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. and I III. however follow Kipate. Manda. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. Kishela may follow either. When They Pate words from Amu. of The Manda people. The word mahali is used for "place. The dialect. after all the variations in this met with. directly they received permission. they moved out in a body to Shela. as they were in the large town of Amu. . chiefly Examples. although remaining many years in Ainu. It is curious that. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. The j of Pate in place of g is not used. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz. differ of Kiam. Kimgao. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. This was the origin of the town of Shela. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. must have kept very much to themselves for. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. with a few small exceptions.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own.

11. Any is changes in ki. ch is used. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect.for the concord of the plural of the thi-.) like. j observed above. though = (Kiam. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar.class. Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. Kiam. form. That is to say that . It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza. IV. as snte (Kiam.) = we all hoyo (Kiam. differing Amu. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. Examples. its idioms and grammar belong more I. last three it will be observed return to the Kimv. Amu except the zi. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. is local idioms in use but. These are similar to It and Pate.63 KISIU KISHELA. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. hold good. Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two.) = this (person).

Examples. brought in. t's Do not confuse with Kiung.KISIU 64 N. . The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu.B. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry. Changes of II. Jy) . for Ar. as in Kitikuu. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. which the called for mats. person = a canoe = people. III. etc. Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three..) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam. For this change however see the next dialect. Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. Nouns of the ma.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter.. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. in such words as kitambaa. local words of which Examples.

Toma kwa toma hathitomani. town of Faza or Paza. (You English. -akwe is used in Kisiu. for . as in Kishela. they only slip past one another. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. When two elephants jostle against one another that English.) This is said of two strong each other. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. viz. I. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. The cerebral t.KISIU. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. Kiam. Kiam. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. the dialect of Rasini. in place of -ake. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations.class Kimgao in concords. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. Kisiu. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu . Kitikuu 12. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. Examples. which is hurt is the grass. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. changes to ch. for the possessive. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika.. Kisiu. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

(pi. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw.tense of Kiam.class change n. class has. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. Example. used as in Siu in place of -ake. In place of the -kito. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. mashikio) = foot. like in the plural. the latter not being used.to : us (two) be going. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. (pi. Perfect. Examples. (pi. of the n. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. 52 . nail = shoulder = milk. machako) Ichiunbo (pi. Chu- takes the place of tu. the prefix i- viz. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get. -kitowaku- is used.KITIKUU II. leg Iguu (pi.as the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . Some nouns first : i-.they have died. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi.

Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for . mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n. Examples..KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n.but may be prefixed.class .

mbavu) Uvueha na chembe . ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick. ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV.) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi.) only means a growing tree. (Kit. Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish.neap tides (or.69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before. The changes of idiom are very great. Examples of the -ndo. Examples. Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes. . (pi. The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words..B. A heavens).



All boats coming from Rasini,



are elsewhere


itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini


Mchwana = the block just

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the


mast and resting on the bulwarks either

and the

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects


semblance to Kitikuu

those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these



Some words however


= kishembere (Banadir) -a


pass almost unchanged through a series of


Example, Magadi

= potash




(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =


the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old


Such words are







Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.


It contains


an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.



told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-


that a well-educated and well-read Swahili



Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word


Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be


Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,


the chief feature of Swahili


For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his

So any old or


word he can discover he

careful to


string in.



an example of a Kinyume word,





being thrown into a verse.


kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.


farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda


kitumbua cha Mafia."


"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing










from a horse

by a donkey.


not (so good as) being carried



The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.


And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."




not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.


Each of these possesses a name of


The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain




to each syllable.

Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri

which means


Kitabu changu kimekwisha.





Praise be to Allah.








believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

nikapange lulu kula tarafi
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi


The strophes





nuru na mianga itathalali 7
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6





Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu

Moyo wangu



Hunelezi nami kalibaini

Moyo wangu nini



Raj ami




likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.



Huyui dunia ina ghururi


hila za







twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye





Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua


Ni kama kisima



kwa kula hasara

ombe 21




mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa




Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.







Tatasi = matata.


Tesi = -kali.






M wasi = adui.


Ombe = wall round mouth



UjuhaU = uwinga,







Kimaake = kisa.


Rajami = the devil Iblis.


Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?











Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =


kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.





= he


of a well.

Kushisha = causative of shika.

Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. to Hayani = pi. the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. vastator. 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. . . ku-atama=to gape. Asifidi 18. Ar. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . Mwa-tami = fr. Kiwavu =mbavu. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . Ndeo = swollen headedness. * Mvi-chembe. glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. misfortune. Ku-etuka= to shine. ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. Ar. Dunia 19. . . 32 Lathati =raha=laza. Ikalifu 21. spoiler. ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye. 10 Kilabu. fr. 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . . 22. was 22 8il=uii. Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . . Ku-wania=ku-telea. 23. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . ikaribu. fr> k^-euka. shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. 24. 8 14 . Labibu. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . 27 Manaya = mauti. fr. de- . 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. 30 kali. 24 Ar. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. Hadimu = a breaker. . Takaburi.H VERSION N. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. 12 hutukiza[i]ye. sweet. ^JL^ = a dog. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. ^- Ar. . . ! kiburi = pride. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. 25. ^ . Ngea=chele = epuka. for mume- tenda. 25 si fr. ^^J = intelligent. 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. find in. . hudiye. . Nambwa=na mbwa. twaye. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. fr. 19 Khasaisi. Tandi = tanzi. . 8 asirithiye.

ku- ignor- . K u-oka = ku-sitawi. 29 ziniye 35. Au 30. ku -lala (-e-e tense). Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). 76 VERSION N.26. ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. . . = foolishness. is Ajinani =majini (jins). fr. niusikiye. Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza. Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. ku-ona. milele. = ku-amsha and 4^. . fr. Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. moya hwona izimishiye. 19 ance. . Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. Safihi.pta0^=jua. Kamaye = kama yeye. 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. tense is finished. . 17 isi=viumbe. Sijida = prayer. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. wamuluku = those who possessed. 31. is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage. Ruhu=roho. ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . nusuha 5 yangu. . Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . Uwaweneo = umezoona. . Zana=akiba. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . 21 Nusuha = entreaties. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . 33. . 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. Ku-futu = ku-kosa. . Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. 32 f r . fr. si lile. Ku-hizini = to store up. 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . j 3 Kievu =kidevu. . lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . 16 Hudumu. fr. . Ar. Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. 32. . 12 11 sijida . Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . saa 29. . 34. 22 Zati = za tiati.

. = incense. . Kaa=sandaU. mwongo). 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. tele sufufu . Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. 39. 4 Jamil =wengi. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. ^ \^ . crowd. 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *.N. Hudama = watumwa. shiye. Tafahuri = f r. Fusi=kivumbi. Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . . siye. 22 zishitadiye . 5 Mbake = mpia. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. of usiku. of 3 of fr. . fr. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. 17 Situru= cloister. 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. . 24 Majodori =magodoro. Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. . kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . 7 Sufuri = shaba. . . | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. Kumbi 40. 32 & fr lU-paka. . 19 Waja = watu. understood). 1 to 10 persons. Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. VERSION zao shingo. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. (pi. Nahari = mtana. - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. . Sufufu of safu) indoors. 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. Nyemi = furaha kuu. a group. G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. !1 ranks. fr. . = green. . = rows. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. 18 Kele = kelele. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. tense) (?). Miyongo (pi. 41. pi. Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . 8 9 10 fr. ku-tia 23 . Mao = malalo.

33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. Ziwele = zimekuwa. maziwio. wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. Mta=mchwa. 50. Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. Matandu = cob. . makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. 49. moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. . . ::8 54. . Sasa walikee 1 45. Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. . Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. . 30 ng'ende . Hisi = sauti. bird green which eats dates. 27 Kiku = adove. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. sauti . Ku-mia=to nod. 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. ku-angama. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. . See note 16 above. shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. 41 = to turn. > . Wasakha = pus. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. dung. . 47. 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo. . 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame .webs. enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. . be cut short. fr. 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. Ku-taathari = ku-oza. Zitefute zao . 40 Waja^watu. . 35 = piri = puff-adder. Matukutu = tuka kuu. 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. 28 Kitati = a very small bird. .VERSION N. Bombwe = maggot. 77 2 . Makinda =zij ana. Pili wingu yamefungana). wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. Ku-siri=ku-wa. 52. or. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . 32 Dudi=mayongoo. See note 10 above. 29 fr. 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. Bumu=owl. matter. 31 Yande = yande. . ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. . . Kula'= chakula. Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. Tame = -gofu.

. 10 Ziuli = maua. 5 . Hata masikizi 56. 20 29 malijaa . 28 fr. . 68. mahuwa 21 . 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. Ngowa =matakwa. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. Ar. Hbonya=nionya. . 26 . ku-isa (i8ha). 20 30 30 nitagamiye . 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . ku-atama. . 65. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. . Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . 57. Jahimu. Kamao = kama wao. za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . Kituzo = arresting. 14 fr. Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. okoka. 63. . 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. . makadhi wamua 14 haki. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. 16 liamu.78 N. wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. . 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. ku-amua. Aimi=mimi. nambia walipo kawamkiye. 19 fr. . fr. Sao-hao. wenyi nyuso . Mahuwa =: marehemu.^fr. . Ku-uza=ku-uliza. Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave. mtanga. . . VERSION . mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . usikutwae. wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. . zidiwa = kama ndiwa. muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike.Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. fr. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened.). 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. 55. Ku-tagamia = ku-egema.

71. 19 Kiyali = spark. .] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . cut joints apart. Mitokoto. Eu-kimu=ku-amkua. Namuwa na huyu.)). . Ku-ungua = to disjoint. ku-shitaki. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. . 1 Kwima = ku-simama. 7 . VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. Jabari = bila kifano. : 30 hutama 31 . Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye. Makina =makini. motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. (iii) Hawia. . 70. Ny umu = -kali. (Kiam. 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. fr. . ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. 6 . . .)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. shiye. Mgi=mwingi. . 29 hells. 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. . 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. Jahanamu. menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. (ii) Jahimu.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. Azimamu=ugwe. 9 10 72. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. ku-tokota. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. . 2(3 PL of moto. ni moto mkali hau makina [75.N. Rikabu = a riding animal. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. (v) Latha. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv. 31 Hutama = one of the hells. See on these hells. 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. (vi) Hamimu. . (iv) Sai'ri. (vii) Hutama. N^imi = pl. 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. Namuwa = hukumu.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. nae. Kitana = sumbuko.] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. Daiyani = a name for God.] Fahamia tena siyo . 13 12 73. of ulimi. 69.

Ar. sc. A.) = North. Mombasa language or = usual. -ly. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading. S. w. 1. = alternative. = at the place referred to. or Auth.. usually. = version obtained at Mombasa. prob. = perfect. or cfr. perh. mod. lit. or would. = Mombasa. (N. "li-Mambasii. W. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. = literal.V. =from. = with. =word Ngoz. Kimvita.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. = probably. cf. V. Northern. usu. = Authority = Arabic. VL. N. fr. alt. Archipelago. obtained in the AL. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. = Captain Stigand's. who This revision spread over . (S. wd. Southern. Mv." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction).) pf. = meaning. alt. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. = compare. E. ad loc. = South.) or Authorities. = perhaps. alternative reading. = various authority or reading. = modern.

. It will be noted that the N. the note on 12. Lamu. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. Mombasa. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali.and others too numerous to mention. now I think of The Mrima. the poet. The first-mentioned. of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. with Mwalimu Sikujua. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage.) . general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i.S. which I secured in 1884. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension. country. It is seldom that a MS. MS. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. and Trade jargon respectively. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. who me Another special revision was made. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. though original. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all. the the five eight [16]-[18]. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number. Poetry. now Museum. by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. if I remember rightly. (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. as media for Prose. . Eliminating these last. All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. of T'akaungu. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar.

produced with the upper blade upon the palate. for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa. thus sala (prayer*) is sala. Bismillahi. etc. like "awe. which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . the dh is a composite sound. especially of the a's which succeed them.g." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. not dhati *. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production.B. e. involves a guttural effort. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. at Zanzibar etc. said my teacher. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech. 1. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill . namely on the d and t.. the Arabic dhad and tha. partly that. But Billahi. like s. N. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple. words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh. d and t. . as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All... related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. dh and th. partly that dh." in them than at Lamu. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left. The effect of pronounced with the dentals. exactly the same as at Mombasa. etc. cerebrals. : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. etc. . The gh. at Lamu..g. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi. 'Athman. a broad a The also. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati. because of the i in the preceding syllable. in 1 precedes is Allah. as at Mombasa. e. when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style.

and and kh and gh. u to . t'. (Welsh). t'. and singing. nd. which from the chest . . Jomvu (Jo-mvu). e.S. respectively. s. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e).. The explosive consonants p'. then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. nd.). but especially the d. nj. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. a dissyllable and in to the : . etc. RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc.e. The vowels are rather 6. [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. h (*. i. but as si-nging Nghad . letter aspirated initials and they correspond . "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). e. the other t " in whatever zone. and when it occurs in Lamu. a. being breath consonants.. for the 62 . u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). ng. o. etc. ch'. be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned.. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. far as I . is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili. Therein every used. I. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar. k'. d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained. differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. Here note The Accent. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout.] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. etc. not as sing-ing. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. i..

S. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1. established.P. (') except seldom separated thus I'l. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable . n' in thus . wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. Bisumiriahi. Zituzo za mato. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius . m' and syllables as in . as above. [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt. moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. n'de. Stanza 1.84 S. nd.) full value. There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2.C. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . etc. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. generally. yet in some words it is so separated. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. Permanency of Dialect.] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. 3. This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem.K. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t).

vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. in all the important languages of the world where a regular. and Lamu. However.S. of the with the ever. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. lately and some other Northern Dialects. popular. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. use of Scripture has obtained. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. strong. increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. where genius exists. . which.

not from ku-euka. ite laili = cast out the night. AL. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. (N. || 5. 1. by elision . Mohamadi. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. || || 6. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech. kiniukiye therefore as in N. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots.INKISHAFI. Hence. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. manukuu. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. . ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . Cp. etc. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4. but may never become ni. because ni with following e may elide its i.B. from ku-euka . AL. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. in which such 1's are found. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. without the h. of 1 from Ar.) 2 In 8. if correct be from ku-uka. MS. etc. Ngozi. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . 8 kineukie. Kwimakwe || asiondoe. arahamani above with the article. Text wd. |j 7. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. and verbal information. nakala xnankulun. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. namba wazi^siflti.. neravoLo. with stress on every syllable. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. 4 =niweneze. Gr. || him'di niitushize 3. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . 9 =kuzingatia. || 9. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. ku-awaza. himdi. This from MS. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. . n. = exactly. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. || niidiriji || i| || || || . tfcalali= mists. but the first word is exceptionally accented. from =ziwaenee.) (kuoa= write.

] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14." . ikawa mayuto yasimsie.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). MS. 12. or. Note In Lamu. to embrace. V. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . to contend for (it). ? 11 =lina ndia.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah. and may mean. and A. form correctly wd. kuwania situkuzie. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. Note. "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. halibaini. siikaribu ewelaibu. both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi. "cuts. hakioni k'itu akishishie || .'s. and Auth. stanza 31 occurs twice. akishishiye. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). has here.10. 16 in the Translation. || || || || kunwa 15. 12 and in its In a S." = bargains. soS. etc. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18. u. the S. || 19. An linga maie. Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. namba situkuzie S. ~ 15. || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. zitukuzie i || hali gani. See Prelim. Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. "I have not tolerated = do not . Hunambii kwani. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa.] mwenyi [17.. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. MS. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. 11. shrewd turns. MS. and on 16 18 matakwao. makata-yakwe.. Suu ulimwengu. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie. Dunia ni jifa. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S. which Auth.] || || . second paragraph. though yu. : endure. 13. bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. same words. kuwania S. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. MS. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. : dialects.

MS. 28 S. The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. || hata 27. Ewe moyo wangu. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. " and not die down merely slowly. . except as a trisyllable. MS..kupiga kikumbo. ! || [| ! || 31. || || || || mtenzile kwangu.e. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. ewe moyo. omits by error. k' = ni k. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. ni k'avu mno. but the text is as S. MS. and by S. S. Version. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. MS. ikamba " Safari. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo. S 31 .V. RECENSION . AL. See on other emendations [18]. kuzima taratibu moto. this identical stanza here and also after 12. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. but is inserted from good S. || huiona izimishie. Auth. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. etc. i. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. haiziwiliki. Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. Auth. of S. 22 "Strangled. hi S. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. Auth. wingu katika kwaka. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . S. 21. Auth.88 S. S. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. by slip. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. MS. 21 N. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. hupa mat'ongea. to smite under the ribs. : izimikapo. haina muanga tena. which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. MSS. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. || || 22." Ar. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. . || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . The last eleven syllables read in S." In MS. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. zalikuwae || ! || 23. Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II . tena S." Swa. riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. as the 13. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". AL. 20. walotaladhudhi from Ar. pasi zao. 23 This wd. 24 =kuzama kabisa. MS. mkohozi akohoao. synonym of Death. form \ jjtf ." now rather as in a trap or snare. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. hudumu nao! || || || 30. 25. " and Authorities. ghaitha. Caught. ulio weuni katika shaka. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri.




Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
awapo mngine




wangapi uwaweneo




ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,











dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi




















zao nibak'e




taa za k'oa na za sifuri;


masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.








za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"




k'elele za

masituri, zikiterema

na za
furaha na nyemi

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za








32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
lihadi, either the
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.




AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then




prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from

previous clause.




and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.




41. P'indi walalapo




wall na wakandi na wabembezi


na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri













mi will



usaha na damu zatuuzika,
haiba na sura zigeushie.
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,



na makanvva bombwe



dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.








launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,


Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao










k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde




Madaka ya nyumba na





bumu hukoroma


sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,



wana wa
na k'uyu


41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
So S. Auth.;
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of


as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.



N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
za, N. A.

as here and










Wana wa



na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo

shingo nakupiga





Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo









ukita k'witikwi








za wat'u zitindishie.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?



zituko zingapo huya'athika




la'ala yakutulie





Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...





Mimi t'akwambia,






binu Nasiri?






za kiza-kiza




ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari







wanzilepi kue?




Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga



mianga na miangaza



wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,





na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya




miti viwaalie.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie






said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."


[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.




" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.


'Ali bin Nasir,


a great





The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards



= to VL. kuk'akatika=(S. S. be dried up. manhttb = the one despoiled. derivative wakazunduliwa wd. ! . Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo.=mandak'ozi=kongwa. || leo ni waushi. . || wokokapo nawe wokoke. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. Auth. Auth. wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. Authorities. mean =sifanye upuzi. 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age ." Mod. wapi makadhi wamua haki. kongo. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem.) kuudMka. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68. both students and MSS. I dutifully respond. wasirie wot'e 64. sipeketeke . S. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. together with the involved and strained constructions. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. S. where in fact the S. 67S. Lebeka. " here am I The tedious. "Here am I. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. Chinese. 72 S. . Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie." At this point. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . "cangue". 65. Auth. Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo . . taadabu. VL. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako. || || || || 69. 2nd sing. kukwaka. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. Ar. 66. Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao.92 62. Auth. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory." The modern survival is only as "yoke. waliushie. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa. fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. || . || " be found out" Auth. wasiza-ngoa || . S. || || ! || 70. lisizime. Haya. ! || || || 63 65 Mod. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . 63. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. || || || 72. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. Muungu 71. ukamba. S.

nihil humani k me alienum puto. considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem. the Northern Form. so far as I have been able to effect it. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker. Homo sum. the one Their opinion. form. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. what have was been expected from the candour of say. and substance of the original. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. might with such men. which in : in . is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall. of the spirit. without offence against the canons of European taste. with this proviso. would have been equally well known in other spheres. that the form. religion." However. of Mid-China . or even of English poetry . this that is to say. had they not been such missionaries. of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. the other as a poet. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. I need hardly as an artist. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence.

while in also been all The Mrima. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum. a valuable and perfect MS. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. in which it may be seen. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. Africa in 1493. And truly. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. obtained in the year 1884. . and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. Swahili. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. of the Poem. That the be idle to to know a date. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest. the son. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. is at least of the it Noun Classes. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. and second poet of that name. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. least. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. . have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. yet fix it has been my opinion.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. for instance. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose.

about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. The Utenzi of (i. Ramadban. Also. One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age. .. while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script.e. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. ia^^jj). That copy was made in a script as in which. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name. these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar. 95 ETC. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi.THE TEXTS.

. Great Allah we 2.THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. ! (Mind ye. But ere my Poem upriseth. 'Omar. however. set duly at the fore. 32. Lest come some carping And 3. W.") (namely. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. here ! fie. those forms to Islam 4. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. at fault-finding evermore. God. Sc. Then Allah. the Islam are agreed. This word. Thou Grant er of Requests. pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. 'All). 3 4 See note on 11. < ' . The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. And then write I for . The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. ancestor the Quraish . And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. link Arrahim. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. Abu Mohammed. the Ascription. the interpretation of the above doctrine. Praising The Compassionate. Benedictions holy. No Alhamdu crying." the title of a true Caliph. tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. . Despot Mighty. And The So dear. Bismillak. is not in the Swahili text. Bakr. as . see next note. fie.) aye adore. Caliphs by right divine . The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. Khallfah. four unique Companions. note. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. critic. E. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. 5. 5 Mohammed." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall . since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. 'Othman. like as the dawn of day. laud. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. Taylor. The Merciful.

for thee. my *heart. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. hath he to fear. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. ! 12. me. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. See the closing note. heart. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. I fear 11. 7. 7 . of seed-pearls secure it. 11 S. 13.ad monition. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8.THE INKISHAFI 6. Islam. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. lies : is clear. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. etc. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. front and rear. 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. 10. The World. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. gloom convicted shall appear. Thus finishing the Foreword. no less. by which Apocalypse. as I school my heart within. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. personified as such in the Gospels. What. behold the Theme begin With stern self. my heart. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. Mammon. Nay then. a tossing billowy waste. . Shamefastly 9. sin's tips. lit.

This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. But. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim. rushing on. 15. but thou must taste thy bit. its development. the anguish of despair.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare. Consider. Faugh. nought but raging The water they had fancied it. feet! All they shall draw thence. in by the circles brim. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart.] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore. Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. though food for dogs most fit. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary . but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful. and have with curs thy share 20.] Thy fancies and thy follies. 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. curious trifler. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . suit. and wherein thou hast a part. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. Who [17. there's . [18. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. mortal. with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. . him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. Vie in vain concupiscence.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. what find they? ah. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19.

a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems. protest. it. Come. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. And. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. come. I man swear the end . me that thou weariest of such impertinences. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. my schooling still despise. take your journey hence. Vain. 28. it. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. and without or tongue may make arrest. but rekindled ne'er . Hold thy my by beard peace. 22. Kievu (mod. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. 27. 'Tis past. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick. I swear ! 24. quotha. span of life. though brightly it had shined ah. : flickers in the wind. vain. finished. tell Yea. yea. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain." The wrist is held to the chin. Then listen and 111 tell thee. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My . and forthwith leads them off. if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me.THE INKISHAFI 21. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. I school thee often. But. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. your ! no longer linger here. though Crying. depart ye 23. swearing by the beard. kidevu) changu . and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair. Saying. . Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. ! 26. Up.

" Explained by the proverbial expression. . heart. Yea. Ash shaitanur rajlm). Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. whose word none might . of old. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. Sulaiman. When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34. I ! . the stocks Doom and shares. withhold Yet he by 33. N. and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . (In Ar. our Ars longa. vita brevis. umrl mchache . prithee oh. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. its place left black and drear. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground. Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . quenched. was. to heed well what I say Then heed me. for to dare. Recension ad loc. which the devil is thought to haunt. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. Reapedst thou its choicest.B. And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. Both mighty King and Magus. . The Pelted. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. mambo makubwa. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. . 32. eyes Mammon's closed. it would toss him high in air.

And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. All goodly are their couches. : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41. their lights trimmed with care. Auth. a-weary. in art . And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. the wide world. How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company. Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". in and out harem doth whisper. soft slumbers they would woo. With garnishing that choice is. The lampstands too are massy. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. attars in addition. beyond compare. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. home -born. and beauty are wreathed about them there. And what time. the universe.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair.. . and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. Gleaming in long rows. . Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. both teak and ebenine. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. their beds are exquisite. Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. 37. And everywhere they sit them. their guards in ranks thereby Line up. 40.THE INKISHAFI 36. good soldiers their errands for to bear. 43.. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. 73 . I swear by Allah. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . 42. in every part complete. Brilliance 38. 39.

! . 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. . In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room . findeth them right good With termite and emmet. Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . sun. . that bourne long and last. midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier." So. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. as of bear. were still extant in the last century. The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. making ravages rude. Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. 51. "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it. now empty and lone. " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. crib 46. 49. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. to mate and to pair.THE INKISHAFI 102 44. not a voice. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. Thus far. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . Down. 47. not a tone ! it o'er. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. or of filthy coarse baboon . for the Summons forth hath passed Down. here gathereth most or Red-dove. Here snoreth the brown owl. The Home they had dwelt in. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. green-dove. To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. it yield a luscious food. The City that has lodged them. . the natural history here is correct. inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. down to the Tomb. . the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. 45.

! . . how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. there is the place. lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See. My heart. . I ween. Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. 55. for the truth would I learn . moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. speak out in thy turn. . And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. though no doubt the latter was meant. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. . tell it forth plain./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. 57. come. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. all. Then bend low thine ear. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. Where never opes window nor 58. strain both neck and ! eye. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. Nay. Or else have thou thy say. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . 56. it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. 54. two contemporary Winston Churchills. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. . lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there. Where princely Idarus. zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. 53. 59. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. Ah. man go. pi. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors.THE INKTSHAFI 52. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. falchion or the bird.

me whither I I pray? too there would steer. Potentates and mighty Viziers. and that sore. What.THE INKISHAFI 104 60. Ye too. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . What sayest thou. shew 69. Depart from the evil. salve for sore eyes. heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. Yea. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. Brother. ! 62. ye 64. nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. be thou schooled. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. dried like 68. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. 67. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. ! stress. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. Oh. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. just Judges. On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . nor think still to scorn . plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. 1 ? . ! . 66. Lo. Bethink thee. And And skulls be battered in. you ! my old comrades. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. be thyself saved. on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . heart. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. who once. ! . up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then.

Text is accordingly a bathos. ! 71. it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. He now but to threaten them doth deign. The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise. 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. . Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. on all his tyrannies. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . nor given free.THE INKISHAFI 70. oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. 72. Lord. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. Not of gold. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. in the S. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. nor bought . Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain . my heart. 73. ) hells which follows in the present N. All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. See the note ad loc. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. Piecension. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. 105 "Grant vengeance at length.


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