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etc.A. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev. W. Interpreter in Swahili and H.. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 . M. etc. TAYLOR. E.A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C.


as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. S. 1915 H. . undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect. they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. C. made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. are in most cases very imperfect. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use. SUDAN. The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. KAJOKAJI. Although the records this.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar.



etc.P. but is no less worthy of attention. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. of the book. And no doubt the methods. to whom the Essay will be most precious . this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars.K. so far as I am aware. and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales.K. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject.INTRODUCTION who Author.).C. It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu).C. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known. and in the appearance of for the new generation . To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language. Explorer and Ethnologist. which involve certain new conclusions. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries. This "give and take" however is essential to progress. departures. and detail. and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification.P. and I have gladly acceded to his request. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game. whether in English or in any other language. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide.).. in my own African Aphorisms (S.

tion. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. The Curtained Headpoint. from the feature of this "hidden Isle. displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences. and corruptions of the careless South. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced." because while the the too patent crudities. say Barawa. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. its native name. experto crede. that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. is Vita "It upon words." " throw out. then. born and . though running on similar lines yet also a different language." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. at least under Arab rule. and warlike . Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place." (otherwise CHA). It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita. ambiguities. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . for one. I." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North. and wide." as of a warlike expedition and in war. expeditions. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old. thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. meaning a sinking in. experience. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation. land. in its purity. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. either civil or external. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is. is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili." with the root TA " It signifies. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long.

to of lore school of the Islam." then the Mazru'is. such as one finds in native stories and tales. and Melind. such as Mwana Kambaya. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. par excellence. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. treatises of different kinds. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. and Quiloa." genius of their Dialect.INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. Mombaza. "puritanic. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect." the Isle Accordingly KO. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. and onwards under its once famous Queens. whether in MS. " " prose to signify all sustained speech. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries. and so on to the present day. However. dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry. no doubt. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine . the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. or spoken. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners.T it is efrxnv. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes.

W. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. to add my own Recension of the same Poem. E. 1915. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. if not the greatest. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). made many years ago. and bearing. T. the present work would never have been written.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. in the proper place. Certainly. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press. to the study of languages. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. at the instance of Captain Stigand. KYRK. of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. and spirit. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. since it was version. here in E. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. .

Kip. Der. Kiunguja. . = derivation. Kimr. Eng. Ar. Sing. = plural. Kit. PL = singular. Kimv.) = Arabic. = Kipate. = English. = literally. = Kiuug. = Kirngao. 80. = Kiarau. = Kitikuu. derived from. Kiam. Lit. = Kimrima. = Kimvita. Kimg.ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p.

to be to the court language. so to speak. Lamu lJLcabs. of British East East Africa. Uganda and far info the Congo. Mrima. and Portuguese East Africa. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications.the much farther than this. The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Mombasa. r Js iswftbilj. . now much what French used JjtSL. Nyasaland.mtk . Hindustani and Somali or Gala words. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day.... viz. practically the It is -is . Zanzibar. Such is the state of things between Mombasa. laces. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the jt&. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j .-indicates. Zanzibar and the dialects. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board.. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together. Africa.

once the rules are known. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. intelligible. Here we have many little islands and towns. however. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. 2. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. The 1. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. It is. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. and so words.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. strange at easy to foretell first sight. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. 3. as in the Lamu Archipelago. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects. For convenience in reference group. however.

Very different lary Amugroup : 11. This with a number of local dialects. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. dropping or adding syllables. Kiunga and other places on the coast N. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . will suffice. viz. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. 7. is by no means. is } : from all the above. Kitikuu. of Amu. at Rasini. 6. 5. Kialabi. The 14. Kingazija. Kiamu 9. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. such as those spoken Tundwa. Bajun group. might be Farther afield but 13. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. however. : Kinyume. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. Lastly comes the parent of 15. 12 . Kisiu.

It common other to the educated Swahili ear. J : Tamarufa. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. or te safi in Swahili. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. However. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. O called tay.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. shown Ku-Tii of the t t. I have. for dialectic reasons. distinguished by the . in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed.B. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. This symbol preacher to obey. The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth.

. take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. in distinction to the pure t. and Aspirated dental t. to your ear 5 Swahili. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. .we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. . This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point. : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. hence or stranger to invite t'. Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one. Examples. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) . The Bantu cerebral t. let down so. to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed.

there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d. D. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n. is In the Zanzibar group. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. dental t. n has a disturbing . as in English.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. (i) The dental dali safi. etc. T'embe Shown here by =a t'. Examples. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use. T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. As i.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . or pure. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d. sling. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics.e. however. dal.

) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu. aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d.) Kitandi (Kiam. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r. the overturned d.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv.B. Examples.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu. viz. This is As an Example. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider.e. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam.) Mwando (Kiam. Ndia (Kimv. Swahilis not d but r.) = a road. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag .) = outside Nde (Kimv. The Kim vita words above N. > = ndugu.) = a loop.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv.) Kandu (Kiam. i.) = to taste Konda (Kiam.

In the Zanzibar group however. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach. The and R. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also. between these There is also a tendency. These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. soldier. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three.) appears nyere (Kimr. and Kiung. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg. L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam.) but in the Ingira.).. Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando . Certain other letters The Arabic . letters 1 = where pronounced. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels. freeze. and Kiung. deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle. as is However Ingia (Kiam. and r are interchangeable in different dialects. . has been vowel which bears its sound. as mentioned above. in less pure dialects. is pronounceable in Kimv. the pure d is not used and a slurred.) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound.

cray fish. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. Examples. then. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin. Hakika Karibu Kandili N. k'. K. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). This strong guttural k. = near = lamp.B.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster. = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. Examples. viz. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. Examples.

is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written." or the sign of duplication. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid." Ch and P. Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. popoo. etc. it being pass for another word. " law " 6. komba. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. komba. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. as usually shown by simple o. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. is used for this sound in Swahili. very different sounds. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). The following little verse. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. popoo. Translation. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. to the native ear. as kolokolo. . They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way.

sitta. viz. Bassi. with few exceptions. the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. Thalimu Ramadhani. which do not count for much in Swahili. letters...3 Example.*. Th. I have therefore. although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. with a single consonant. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have. marra. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . are usually spelt with the double consonant. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required. J%elafAa Thikiri . Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. . to pronounce a closed syllable.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest. used the following signs. or most Bantu speaking natives. in regard to such words. tissa. ilia. 11 billa. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili..

" are understood. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. Changes of Grammar. more or less. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. of the words above. II. III. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. ku-chelewa. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. all down the meaning coast. Changes of Vocabulary." "to remain.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. If he was showing off. ku-chelewa. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. he would probably use all three. as natives love to do. ku-kawia and ku-limatia. but one meaning. sun . or the two most foreign to him." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. Showing what simple transpositions. but it is distinctly dialect. Changes of Letters. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects. " to delay. all all Thus the three words." viz. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another.

it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. hoping to make himself more intelligible. Changes of Idiom. " E. briefly may give Zanzibar Group. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. the same word means. The grouped together under this name.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk." In Kimv.g.g. The first is the native's love of display. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. E. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. both of the same tribe. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. be he. possess almost . I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. Indian or African. drowned. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. lost at sea. dialects big tract of country they cover. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari. " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning." left latter places is always used with kitako.

This in the purer dialects would be pendani. interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group. you -e. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels. love ye. objective person plural being. This construction does not occur in the group. The corresponding construction in Kimvita. etc. Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs. in certain tenses.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form. Amu (pi. where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . (ii) or the by -wa-. Example. have told you I In this group there (pi. its place being taken : Mombasa Example. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example. the -e. Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv. in this group as a cerebral. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent.). and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili.(or -mw-) -ni. Nawafuata and nimewambia.). The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. This I will tell you (sing.).

Kiunguja 1. so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. vocabularies. The dental t it then. viz. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. comparatively speaking. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. dali safi.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. dali pindu and re pindu. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. especially the latter. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. stories. for t's. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. literature. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. etc. of grammars. not Kiswahili or districts. accessible to the student. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. . During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's.

2. to be hard. = a frog = silk. or the dialect of the Mrima coast. kwisha = to be finished ! . with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. inlocal variations. = = cJlo) Ar. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. is in use. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. conquer Kwisa . Examples. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. Kimrima. for the first is spelt taa="lamp. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. = a plan. Changes of Letters I. JaJLw) Ar. make to flourish. and so the and not be confused. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. Balua Sh 1. strengthen. egg on. unyielding to urge. R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects). counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. which will be mentioned later. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. there should be order. (fr. " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. for nothing s.

Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. knock down to make. or e. to break to fall." This is." or to bathe. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. in the next dialect. however. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels. Examples. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels .KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. into ch. Examples. when followed sit. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. for is. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples. Example. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. more marked in the next dialect.) must come. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k.

pakwe. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat. vyakwe. This is etc. kwakwe.). for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. oneself down. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. Puku (i.) will tell you (pi. Chakwe. be cut out. chooni . he saiba is like) Similarly N. Kitowero = foot.) Nampendani = I love you (pi. follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief. trouble. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice. 1 Examples. viz.) Atamwambieni.e. i is often used for Kuiketilia ji.. his fellow is the mchirika rat.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound. etc.) Nimemwambieni.B. for may taabu = rag. Choroni = dust = bathroom. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung. in dialect of the Example. In some of the local variations of Kimr. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). . In reflexive verbs Example. or atakwambieni = he (pi. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi.

however. however.class analogy being carried The still farther. N. Examples. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye. Jma ja . concords as in Kiung. In certain dialects of Kimr.. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word. though not in the verbal concord. Ndugu. Ile the chief." is also heard.class. Examples.class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. appear to hold good. of this class. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . mama. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. Jina ya fulani) . baba. are of the class. On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar. . In Kiung.B. Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. so \ .. ng'ombe. interrog. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class. the n.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. and not concords. pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. Examples. Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing.

alivyopata a few instances are given under. = behind place. Examples. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following. . Changes of Idiom IV. These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you.. . .tense the pronominal prefixes a." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country.conditional tense.and we-. A common expression in Kimr. =a panali . Changes of Vocabulary slight. for namna = sort. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used. I have gone. which must not be confounded with the -ngali. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. In the -me. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-. babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j . = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village.and times represented by e.

Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. however. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. and aa have. In this dialect. Many of the sounds in eo. Changes of Letters I. received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect.KIMGAO 3. or with a letter which is way between the two. . The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. as has been shown already. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. oo. Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property. As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. As will be shown later sounds in ee. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima.

K before = and you (pi. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. There appears. in Kimr. frequently added. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition. Fanya hivo Example. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. cries. Examples. often changes to eh. however. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree.) want mwampige = you (pi. Examples. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. fell . as in goes. but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. general use instead of m. Examples. is if followed certain consonants. are pronounced or r.) must beat him = I will give him.) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. avoided by the use of y. Examples.. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia . kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away. viz. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that." a second added. especially after nasal ms. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo.

Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing. and also.) he must tell you (pi. the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect.). mu takes m However.) Perfect = I tell you (pi.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka.instead of hu- tenses sing. Amependa = he has loved.) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. Examples.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau. and the the animate class. = he loved. (pi. = he must tell you (pi. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung. Examples. yet loved. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved. in the negative . Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love. and Kimr. they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved.23 KIMGAO II. . except that the place of before a consonant.tense after a subjunctive. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction. Examples. This is Examples.

Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. however. Alike Occasionally locative forms. Examples. borrowed from the surrounding languages.and the verb. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr. the n. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing. are used in place of the locative in -ni. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village. Examples. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped.class This however is not done with human beings. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb. Very often.prefixed to it." Examples.or kw. it comes between the ku. However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about." . If there is an objective prefix. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts.K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity.

KIHADIMU KIMGAO. can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. 4. is Changes of Idiom IV.B. This latter word. understood. stand. It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka. 25 Examples of other words. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. Example. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. viz. and he beat him himself). This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. ku-ima. they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive. used in place of vizuri. Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. Examples." . kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity. agreeing with mambo. The Wahadimu is known. Alikwenda kule. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. in well). are said to 1 A similar state of things.tenses. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . outside the town. . = Amenipiga was hit (lit. Example.or -ki.

the Mombasa people.26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. It is very contains words drawn from isle isles." because. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. This latter derivation would appear more likely. words into Kimv. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island. being often altered in transit. it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. 5. -biti for -bichi . The origin of the name Mvita " war. for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. I. 6. then only savages. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. changes to t Kimv. In converting Kiung. hid in the bush.

Words which are spelt in Kiung.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. turned over a little and becomes t'. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. chako. as the Swahilis say.class such as cha. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. Nt'a causes. kiako. etc. for the same . but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh.class beginning with eh. is aspirated. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. Such influences may be the letter n. changu. mto. chetu. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. Words which do not occur in Kiung. kietu. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. kiangu. carry. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. etc. for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. with eh. These pronouns should really be kia. and others. or that the eh in Kiung. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. : viz. of the ki. or some other Examples. : and pronouns agreeing with ki. Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been.

chuma. . Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. All of these are the same in Kimv. chokora. there : Examples.. Chai. the d being the semi- dental explained above. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam. change. ku-chelewa. chombo.) is follows the rules above.. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. chumba. choyo. and Kip. uchafu.class in Kimv. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. Chakula. Ku-choka. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv. (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road. chuni (=a kind of water bird).. chapa. chuo. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv.or in the ma. In Kimv. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n. ku-cha ( to fear). Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. chooko. -chache. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. chambo. chaki. chumvi. changes to nd in Kimv. Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for . any = Examples. ku-chota. and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. chungwa. used indiscriminately in the n. ku-chafuka. choo. cheo. expressions being used in Nj in its place. mchekeche. chandarua. chura.KIM VITA 28 Examples. Kiung. -changa. path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative).). A few other words might be remarked on containing ch.). chaza (ma. ehenza. chungu.class and is always called tupa. mchikichi.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1).

in the Zanzibar group.29 KIMVITA Exceptions. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you ( n-. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja. The Njama. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi. njuga.) love you (pi.) you (pi. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill. not often the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present. The construction is as follows etc.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house used in place of a. These are only heard with the future -ki.). this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix. three of these. however. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv.. II. Yua. . njugu and njema. Nyumba yakwe = his Examples.and -ka. but change according to rule in Kiam. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing.) Nawapenda = I love you (pi. Kiam.tenses.

the old form of the relative irrespective of classes. -zo- and -vyo-. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want.KIMVITA 30 Thus. of the narrative tense. Examples. -lo. . alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell -e-. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. always used.and -yo-. The tendency. from -ye. Examples. alipofika and occasionally -cho-. it is said. however. -po-. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought. an abbreviation of the verbal infix. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. Examples.which ha- is in the first person sing. is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o. Example. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. -mo-. tend to become simple -o. and -ko-. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. is full form is used except used for -wo. Examples. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave).

being in more common use in that dialect. each bearing an accent on the penultimate. Kimv. etc. recognize them as two words. Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. = woman's robe. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. = he who wants Atakae Examples. relative in Examples. however. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. III. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. The Swahilis themselves. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes.) of . although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. and Kimv.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit.

hebu mi = leave me alone. please. don't worry me also. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit. less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. or smitten by. the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . hebu = come let us. = custard apple = to pluck. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others. sleep is hurting me) that goes take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. fruit). gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. health is best. for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. let me (pass) Kula njama . lone (buffalo.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha .

Gazette ? Example. 3 . viz. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized.e. s. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. from the E. A. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. you lie (der. 7. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you. rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island. i. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. Kidigo. Ao is often omitted between two alternatives.

The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. or the island of Ndeo. the dialect of the town of is Amu. I. K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi . Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. Exceptions. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much.KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. who came from the Persian Gulf. .. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . into Examples. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. or Lamu. softened into y. on the island of that name. Examples. the Banu Lami." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding.

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples. Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y. kilemba = a turban = to-day. Baghaa 1 in Kimv. leo .

utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. vyenu. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change. = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore.class change v. and many others.) . . Kimv.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki. zile. -kavu. Exceptions. nguva. Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii. zake. vyote. becomes nd. vile. zenu. mwavuli. -zo. hivi. zote. nguvu.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. used in to z.or vyto z-. -zi-. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse. ku-vua. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . ndevu. etc. etc.) = ku-kanga (Kiam. Examples. vyake. are -vyo-. Examples. -vi-.. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. hizi. mvua.. Thus za. . ku-vaa. place of begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . mavi. between two vowels is sometimes dropped.

*). M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr. see 35.. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv. Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony. Examples. (as is also the case in Kimr. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. at the .. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle. Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for . arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. changes sneeze chungwa = orange. ku-ehenma . village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. Examples. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam.). page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town. at the same time. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word." P (pi.) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck.KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. on the left side. Ku-sonda S to reach to.

= captain. Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage).KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. : a scarf intention. letters Kiamu Akhira (or. skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. e. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . as (cp. a snuff (Bahasha. Examples. i and o..) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. purpose. Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something . kama of Kiung. N occurs rarely in place of m. band . changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent). Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam. Examples. = like. feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all..

KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt . Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber. bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns . a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash.a giraffe = a chief = a smith c. hide.

used to get. etc. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. be well done = jaa) ing II. Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses. freely used in Kiamu. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. Distant Past. which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. J got (long ago) or.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. * v^etc. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. (dust in house ripen. In Kiam. . < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. Past. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki.

. as uli an alternative for the first person sing. (The usual form.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). ali aki. etc. of the Near Past Negative. and stories so is For an example of -nga. As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense.tense (page 44).KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise. its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki.

KIAMU Negative -ki- tense. 43 .

havi-. hazi-. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. . Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name)." Examples." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be." though occasionally occurs with a few others.class which. The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or.KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb. Niangawa na ndaa sili . as she was sitting). -i. takes concords zi-. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. Past Perfect. etc. It it out. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor.= although. particles are na " nga. stated." Example.although I am hungry I do not eat. to be in the act of doing something. is Examples. in place of vi-. as before etc. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears. of the ki. -zii tense. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku .

For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz. kee for kaa. Also see the first line of verse on page 116." "while yet. for Moyo. last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation." "still." or. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. mentioned by Taylor. The meaning is "while as yet. This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona. viz. . nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again).KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb." "yet." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. he has still mounted and is mounted). Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite. ibid." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete." Examples. Examples. happened. "as yet. etc. Verbs having their two prefix.

is is befallen him.and not na.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. Examples. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. so some are given full. has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to..of place well. ni. Kimv.must be used with this tense and for third person sing. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for . but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb. in common use at the present day in in poetry.and not a-. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. becomes -i-. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree . Examples. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji.e. mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry. u. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard. Pronouns. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv.

and in several . The farther demonstratives ule.and the -ki. period. the -zii tense other instances. wa!6e. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N. i!6e. ule.tenses. Nawapenda = I love you (pi). for the accent. used in Kiam. zile. these faces have etc. as they are the hii huwo. plain u. hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. There is also a form used with wakati = time. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing. il. The remainder nyuso . period that time.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . period.these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . Examples. etc. B. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka. viz. It is also used in the -e-e tense. only. in the first and third persons sing..this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. hiyo. occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. Examples. The arrangement plural is the same as Example. Hono is this time. used in Kimv.

) went (pi. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking.) did not get (pi. P . kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. Example. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya . fr. for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. Uknta mwingine = another Example. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi.a new kingdom. latter. of the second person plural often mu. by cutting out the first -i-. Example. Example. used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the . nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam.KIAMU 48 Examples. Examples.) shall not get. Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m. suffix. Examples. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall.

Examples. form. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. The The relative -o. he has done (or. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went. Even with these however there -y.and the infix -zo. for ? why ? Relatives.KIAMU The interrog. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you. The latter takes the place of -wo and -yo. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for. In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix. used as an infix for all classes of nouns. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda . the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz.and Example. -po-. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. Examples (of locative relative).in Kimv. is a tendency to suppress the w.B. Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. Note the use of relative with perfect. 4 . Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. 8.(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam. -mo.

(-si-) the -i- of the is elided. nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . Examples. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto . Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. or anything pertaining to trees or plants.. however they are the names of trees or they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. of the tense particle Examples.KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. If Examples. treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata . Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. no is used. Examples. when I do not want). as in the cases elision takes place. Examples. Exceptions. they remain as of the second class.are in Kiam. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat.

wewe = is pi. moon. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. Examples. in Kiam. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. Also nyawanyo. consonant it takes a concord as class. as of the first class "kites. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. anything to do with a tree or plant. mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu. If the adjective begins with a for pi. his) = it is ours (yours. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. treated. Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. dialects. theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam. 1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree. of sixth class. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. his) = it is ours (yours. Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. 42 . Examples. theirs). Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. quite correctly. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo ... = two years = big fires.

if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. take out. There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam. akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). Ku-tunda in i. N. Where the Kimv. in a meaning not given. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema .KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out. and Kimv. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for .." "put out. jongoo -jigger.B.e. word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza." is frequently heard in viz. About one hundred words are appended as examples. Example. Kiam.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

goer = a demon. -a small out. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. ring. on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini. sound out ku-lia = luck.the ground. = to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. male = a traveller. take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) . without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw. or..KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. fortune bahati .

and Kiam. ' and another seized it saying. that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday.chain = length = road.B.' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued. mwenyi ku-pata. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N. A few instances only will be given here.. urefu ndia Utunda . A man rushed in after it saying. scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta." probably untruthfully. Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or. Kuku mbwangu. English = silver neck. The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on. used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv. Ni mbwake. For instance one might say to one's boy. will get two rupees)." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). word. Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? .' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out.' It is related. path = a string of beads = sheath. Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco. in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required. Sometimes the word given Kimv.KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita .' ' Ni mbwako. angalia = to see after. IV.. ' Siyo mbwangu. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea .. are con- differences in idiom siderable. The Changes of is hut).

wa!6. Example.KIAMU 56 This. ule. mkate mpya = a new loaf. ziatu zipia = "new sandals. viz. Mbona hukufika P = Answer.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi. on purpose. Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. his intention (was) . Talking of anything distant. You say I did ?" not Example. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables. as he says. The word -pya Kimv. viz." In Kiam. yes he has done something. taking the accent on the first. Kimv. ulee. and as an first " not 1 " or. . = is food not ready after = until he died. either in point of place or time. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. wale. not wane) Abb. Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come).) (= come). with hata. viz. It has the meanimg " of. not yet)." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before. one o. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. is only used in the interrogative reply. Have I person sing. etc. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right. which has already been mentioned. an e is added to the far demon. (Takes the place of makusudi. The accent remains as shown. walee. ilee. viz. if that word is one of these far demonstratives. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. etc.. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. and has not) purposely .

57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard. Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both. Its meaning quite different." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers. beings. " huisi. look out for . of animate Wowawili = both. you do not know. haisi. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds." etc. s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time. Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. coming and going (and thus want of privacy. viz. fudifudi = to lie face downwards. human Mwida is being. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons).. ghasia). Si-isi =" I do not know " . Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or. in anything but the negative present. Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will. questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form). he does not know (recognize) me. haniisi = he does not know." Example." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. in Kiam. all three. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam.

it is it is for you to say.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam. and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). I leave mwenyewe. bora azima = never mind. I don't first consideration). well built. (Proverb) what it to you. akaitwa (jina lake).e. or (it) hivyo. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). is largely used in both Kimv. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. would be used in Kimv. " give (a piece of) tambuu. . just like that. is inside the your business. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. now at once. used is best. Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. This is health is big. for the Kimv." (Hitieri -hitiari. where shauri lako. generally used of a male child much as in Kimv. Example. hivyo. person. generally used as a reply to some taunt. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi. i. as you please." Examples.

form. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. with a few further changes and a few exceptions. 9. Examples. with regard to changes of letters. grammar. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. rejeza. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. suffix or particle. and whether the z is prefix.) The rule is the same for every word. Practically all that has been said of Kiam. pijana. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam.KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. always changes to th.. of in multiplying examples. There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals.B. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. not occur. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I.e. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. however. strike return . (i. Also. infix. appear to be always pronounced with j. Kiamu baraza = verandah. how hand its Kimv. town of Pate in the darkness) beat.. The following words. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. Examples.

Examples. Negative Future. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc. Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. form.B. This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. future which takes the particle -te. shall not get. There appears to be a slight difference in the neg. . and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry. these (trees) hini Hinu . a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to place of -to-. etc. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house). chimney. Ku-tawala (N. cylinder. although the latter is understood in Pate. a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam.) = white flesh of a dafu = egg I (pi. green = to ripen. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan.

to 10. . bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. IV. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . south of Amu. Kishela kitanda bazaar. lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. is stir up strife). roping for Utuku . the dialect of the town of Shela. strife = departed. III. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. . Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. . . Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit.KIPATE. to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. Taka and Kitao. Amu. " . Manda. many of the people took refuge in On viz. A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste.. .

" word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. made use of this form. of The Manda people. The j of Pate in place of g is not used. after all the variations in this met with. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. must have kept very much to themselves for. differ of Kiam. Kishela may follow either. directly they received permission. as they were in the large town of Amu. . the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. they moved out in a body to Shela. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. the oldest in the neighbourhood. chiefly Examples. although remaining many years in Ainu. Manda. When They Pate words from Amu. This was the origin of the town of Shela. The word mahali is used for "place. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. . is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. Kimgao. and I III. It is curious that. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. however follow Kipate. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz. with a few small exceptions. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. The dialect.

IV. Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. as snte (Kiam. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. is local idioms in use but. hold good. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect. differing Amu. 11. its idioms and grammar belong more I. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. last three it will be observed return to the Kimv.for the concord of the plural of the thi-.) = this (person). It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. Examples.class.) like. Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. These are similar to It and Pate. from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two. That is to say that . = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. Amu except the zi. Any is changes in ki. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza. though = (Kiam. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. ch is used. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. form. j observed above.) = we all hoyo (Kiam. Kiam. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar.63 KISIU KISHELA.

Changes of II. Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man.B. person = a canoe = people. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam. local words of which Examples.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter.. as in Kitikuu. Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry. Jy) .KISIU 64 N. Nouns of the ma. . brought in. t's Do not confuse with Kiung.) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . in such words as kitambaa. Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu.. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. which the called for mats. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. III. for Ar. For this change however see the next dialect. etc. Examples.

Kisiu. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb.) This is said of two strong each other. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu . the dialect of Rasini. The cerebral t.class Kimgao in concords. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. as in Kishela. (You English. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n. Kisiu. When two elephants jostle against one another that English. Kiam. Kiam. Toma kwa toma hathitomani. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. -akwe is used in Kisiu. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. Kitikuu 12. for the possessive. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. they only slip past one another.KISIU. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. changes to ch. in place of -ake. which is hurt is the grass. I. viz. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. town of Faza or Paza. Examples. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. for .. Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

-echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects. machako) Ichiunbo (pi. Chu- takes the place of tu. In place of the -kito. Perfect.tense of Kiam. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. the latter not being the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. -kitowaku- is used. 52 . used as in Siu in place of -ake. (pi. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw. of the n. (pi. Some nouns first : i-. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . Examples. the prefix i- viz. like in the plural. (pi. Example. nail = shoulder = milk. mashikio) = foot.they have died. = a dhow = a rudder (pi.KITIKUU : us (two) be going.class change n. leg Iguu (pi. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. class has.

KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n. mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n.. Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for . Examples.but may be prefixed.class .

(Kit. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick. . (pi.) only means a growing tree. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish. Examples of the -ndo. ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV.neap tides (or.. The changes of idiom are very great. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes.69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N. Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. mbavu) Uvueha na chembe . The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before. Examples. A heavens).) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words.B.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used. 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish. ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started.



All boats coming from Rasini,



are elsewhere


itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini


Mchwana = the block just

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the


mast and resting on the bulwarks either

and the

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects


semblance to Kitikuu

those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these



Some words however


= kishembere (Banadir) -a


pass almost unchanged through a series of


Example, Magadi

= potash




(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =


the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old


Such words are







Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.


It contains


an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.



told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-


that a well-educated and well-read Swahili



Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word


Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be


Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,


the chief feature of Swahili


For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his

So any old or


word he can discover he

careful to


string in.



an example of a Kinyume word,





being thrown into a verse.


kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.


farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda


kitumbua cha Mafia."


"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing










from a horse

by a donkey.


not (so good as) being carried



The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.


And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."




not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.


Each of these possesses a name of


The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain




to each syllable.

Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri

which means


Kitabu changu kimekwisha.





Praise be to Allah.








believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

nikapange lulu kula tarafi
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi


The strophes





nuru na mianga itathalali 7
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6





Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu

Moyo wangu



Hunelezi nami kalibaini

Moyo wangu nini



Raj ami




likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.



Huyui dunia ina ghururi


hila za







twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye





Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua


Ni kama kisima



kwa kula hasara

ombe 21




mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa




Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.







Tatasi = matata.


Tesi = -kali.






M wasi = adui.


Ombe = wall round mouth



UjuhaU = uwinga,







Kimaake = kisa.


Rajami = the devil Iblis.


Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?











Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =


kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.





= he


of a well.

Kushisha = causative of shika.

was 22 8il=uii. 25. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. vastator. Ngea=chele = epuka. . Tandi = tanzi. 10 Kilabu. 24 Ar. for mume- tenda. . mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . Asifidi 18. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. Ar. 24. . 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. 22. ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao .H VERSION N. to Hayani = pi. 32 Lathati =raha=laza. 8 14 . ku-atama=to gape. Ikalifu 21. Nambwa=na mbwa. Mwa-tami = fr. 8 asirithiye. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. 30 kali. Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . . . fr. misfortune. . de- . fr. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. Takaburi. Ku-etuka= to shine. Ar. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . spoiler. the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. * Mvi-chembe. ! kiburi = pride. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. ^^J = intelligent. ^- Ar. . Hadimu = a breaker. fr> k^-euka. Kiwavu =mbavu. . 19 Khasaisi. 25 si fr. hudiye. glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. 23. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. . ^ . . 12 hutukiza[i]ye. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. . sweet. ikaribu. shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. fr. Dunia 19. twaye. find in. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . ^JL^ = a dog. 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. 27 Manaya = mauti. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. Ku-wania=ku-telea. Labibu. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. Ndeo = swollen headedness. . ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye.

is Ajinani =majini (jins). 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. 32. is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . Sijida = prayer. fr. Au 30. 22 Zati = za tiati. ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. ku-ona. j 3 Kievu =kidevu. . 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. 12 11 sijida . Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. . Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. Ku-hizini = to store up. . Uwaweneo = umezoona. Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. 76 VERSION N. Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . fr. Zana=akiba. moya hwona izimishiye. fr. . . Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. .26. . 16 Hudumu. Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza. = ku-amsha and 4^. K u-oka = ku-sitawi. Ku-futu = ku-kosa. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. Ruhu=roho. fr. ku- ignor- . Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. ku -lala (-e-e tense). 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . Safihi. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . si lile. 21 Nusuha = entreaties. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . milele. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. Ar. . wamuluku = those who possessed. . lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . saa 29. . 17 isi=viumbe. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. Kamaye = kama yeye. 32 f r . = foolishness. 34. . Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). 29 ziniye 35. 33. tense is finished. nusuha 5 yangu. 31. . niusikiye. .pta0^=jua. 19 ance. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa.

of 3 of fr. 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. . shiye. G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. 1 to 10 persons. fr. 41. 22 zishitadiye . sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. a group. Kumbi 40. understood). . . Kaa=sandaU. VERSION zao shingo. ku-tia 23 . pi. Miyongo (pi. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. 24 Majodori =magodoro. . 8 9 10 fr. 17 Situru= cloister. Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. 39. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. Sufufu of safu) indoors. Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . 7 Sufuri = shaba. 19 Waja = watu. Mao = malalo. . Nyemi = furaha kuu. = rows. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. Tafahuri = f r. = incense. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. 18 Kele = kelele. . . 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . 32 & fr lU-paka. . of usiku.N. fr. 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. ^ \^ . 4 Jamil =wengi. (pi. . 5 Mbake = mpia. siye. !1 ranks. tele sufufu . Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . tense) (?). . Fusi=kivumbi. Nahari = mtana. . Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . Hudama = watumwa. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. crowd. mwongo). . = green.

Sasa walikee 1 45. Matandu = cob. Wasakha = pus. 77 2 . 35 = piri = puff-adder. 29 fr. 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. 30 ng'ende . dung. . Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). 28 Kitati = a very small bird. 31 Yande = yande. 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . bird green which eats dates. Mta=mchwa.webs. wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. ::8 54. 49. See note 16 above. 27 Kiku = adove. . Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. . 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. maziwio. or. fr.VERSION N. sauti . . be cut short. Ku-siri=ku-wa. 47. 40 Waja^watu. enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. . wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. Tame = -gofu. . Bumu=owl. 50. . Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. ku-angama. 41 = to turn. Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. . 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. See note 10 above. . . shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. Zitefute zao . 52. Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. matter. Matukutu = tuka kuu. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. > . Pili wingu yamefungana). Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo. . Makinda =zij ana. . pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. . . Hisi = sauti. Ku-mia=to nod. Ku-taathari = ku-oza. . Kula'= chakula. Bombwe = maggot. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. Ziwele = zimekuwa.

U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . ku-isa (i8ha). mahuwa 21 . 19 fr. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. wenyi nyuso . Jahimu. 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. makadhi wamua 14 haki. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. . 5 . nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. . ku-amua. 10 Ziuli = maua. Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. . Hbonya=nionya.^fr. mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. Ar. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. Sao-hao. Ku-uza=ku-uliza. 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . . . Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. usikutwae. Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike. . 28 fr. muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. 55. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye.78 N. 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . Kituzo = arresting. fr. 57. ku-atama. Kamao = kama wao. 20 29 malijaa . wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. . . . Ngowa =matakwa. 14 fr. 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. . 26 . Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). 68. fr. ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. 65. ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. mtanga. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave. Aimi=mimi. Mahuwa =: marehemu.). nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. VERSION . nambia walipo kawamkiye. . okoka. zidiwa = kama ndiwa. 63. Hata masikizi 56. 16 liamu.Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. . 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. . 20 30 30 nitagamiye . Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye.

ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. . (vi) Hamimu. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. Namuwa na huyu. Azimamu=ugwe. ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. . Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. N^imi = pl. fr. VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. shiye. . of ulimi. 69. Makina =makini. yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . 3 Mathulumu = tyrants.)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. 19 Kiyali = spark. . 13 12 73. (Kiam. (iii) Hawia. 7 . Ny umu = -kali. (vii) Hutama.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 .] Fahamia tena siyo . Eu-kimu=ku-amkua. Jabari = bila kifano. 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye. Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. Daiyani = a name for God. 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. 29 hells. menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. 70. 1 Kwima = ku-simama. (v) Latha. (iv) Sai'ri. . Namuwa = hukumu. : 30 hutama 31 . ku-shitaki. See on these hells. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. 71. 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. cut joints apart. ku-tokota. motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. . 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. . 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv. Jahanamu. . . (ii) Jahimu. Kitana = sumbuko. 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76.)). Ku-ungua = to disjoint. Rikabu = a riding animal.N. 6 . . nae. . Mitokoto. 31 Hutama = one of the hells. ni moto mkali hau makina [75.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. 9 10 72. Mgi=mwingi.] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. 2(3 PL of moto.

= Captain Stigand's. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. = alternative. = compare. fr. =from. alt.) pf. =word Ngoz. = literal.) = North. (N. = version obtained at Mombasa. Southern. = Mombasa. Mombasa language or = usual. usually. = South. sc. S. or would. perh. V. -ly. or cfr. alt. Ar. = with. = various authority or reading. VL. ad loc. N. w. (S.. wd. = perhaps. Northern.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. = perfect. E. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. Archipelago. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading. Mv. = at the place referred to. 1. A. "li-Mambasii.) or Authorities. W. or Auth. = meaning. alternative reading.V. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. prob. = probably. who This revision spread over . Kimvita. = Authority = Arabic. usu. lit. cf. mod. obtained in the AL." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). = modern.

which I secured in 1884. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). who me Another special revision was made. . and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. the the five eight [16]-[18]. general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll. the note on 12. of T'akaungu. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension.and others too numerous to mention. the poet. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. as media for Prose. It is seldom that a MS. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. now Museum. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. Poetry. MS. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. country. Mombasa. now I think of The Mrima. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. It will be noted that the N. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. . if I remember rightly. with Mwalimu Sikujua. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number.) .S. of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo. Eliminating these last. RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. though original. and Trade jargon respectively. The first-mentioned. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all. Lamu.

in 1 precedes is Allah." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . the dh is a composite sound. partly that. the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left. e. namely on the d and t. at Zanzibar etc. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh.. the Arabic dhad and tha. 'Athman. said my teacher. related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. cerebrals.g. etc. The effect of pronounced with the dentals. Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech. produced with the upper blade upon the palate. The gh. d and t. a broad a The also. e. as at Mombasa. dh and th.g.. especially of the a's which succeed them. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa. not dhati *. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). N." in them than at Lamu. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. etc. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All.B. etc. . exactly the same as at Mombasa. when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style. Bismillahi. because of the i in the preceding syllable. thus sala (prayer*) is sala. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. But Billahi. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. involves a guttural effort. partly that dh. like "awe. : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. 1.. words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. like s. . these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill .. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati. at Lamu. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North.

u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). the other t " in whatever zone. and and kh and gh. "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. i. a. not as sing-ing.). lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way.. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. which from the chest . a dissyllable and in to the : . nd. nj. Here note The Accent.S. k'. d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. (Welsh). [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. Jomvu (Jo-mvu). o. e. but as si-nging Nghad . i. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). and when it occurs in Lamu.. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar. by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). respectively. I. RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc. for the 62 . differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. ch'. u to . etc.. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili. being breath consonants. etc.] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. Therein every used. t'. then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. e. s. nd. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. ng. The explosive consonants p'. The vowels are rather 6. . pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds.. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. letter aspirated initials and they correspond . t'. and singing. be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned. but especially the d. etc.e. far as I . h (*.

84 S. Zituzo za mato. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t). This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius . is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm.P.] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. n'de. 3. yet in some words it is so separated.K. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt. established.C. S.) full value. In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable . Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem. as above. n' in thus . etc. Stanza 1. (') except seldom separated thus I'l. m' and syllables as in . moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. nd. easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. Permanency of Dialect. Bisumiriahi. generally. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb.

increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. use of Scripture has obtained. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. popular. have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. of the with the ever. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . lately and some other Northern Dialects.S. However. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. which. . in all the important languages of the world where a regular. and Lamu. strong. The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. where genius exists.

Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. by elision . manukuu. of 1 from Ar. MS. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. not from ku-euka. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. || || 6. 8 kineukie. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana. and verbal information. ku-awaza. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. 4 =niweneze. || 5. Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. This from MS. but may never become ni.INKISHAFI. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4.) (kuoa= write. Text wd. |j 7. || him'di niitushize 3.. from =ziwaenee.B. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . arahamani above with the article. (N. nakala xnankulun. Gr. from ku-euka . himdi. 9 =kuzingatia. . AL. but the first word is exceptionally accented. if correct be from ku-uka. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech.) 2 In 8. etc. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . with stress on every syllable. Hence. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. || niidiriji || i| || || || . ite laili = cast out the night. because ni with following e may elide its i. in which such 1's are found. = exactly. || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. tfcalali= mists. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. Mohamadi. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . without the h. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. etc. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. kiniukiye therefore as in N. || 9. 1. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. Cp. neravoLo. AL. n. Ngozi. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. Kwimakwe || asiondoe. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. . namba wazi^siflti.

MS. kuwania S. || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah.] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. : endure. akishishiye. V. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. 11.. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18. Dunia ni jifa. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. zitukuzie i || hali gani. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. ikawa mayuto yasimsie. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua.10. Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe.] mwenyi [17. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. || || || || kunwa 15. ~ 15. MS. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. same words. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. and Auth. Note. and on 16 18 matakwao.'s. and A. stanza 31 occurs twice. form correctly wd. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14. kuwania situkuzie. vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. makata-yakwe. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S. etc. and may mean. or. namba situkuzie S. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. which Auth.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. the S.. has here. "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. 16 in the Translation. Hunambii kwani. Suu ulimwengu. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. to contend for (it).] || || . 13." = bargains. MS. ? 11 =lina ndia. soS. to embrace. : dialects. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. MS. both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form. An linga maie. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie." . See Prelim. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. || 19. Note In Lamu. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). "I have not tolerated = do not . 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). u. Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. shrewd turns. "cuts. hakioni k'itu akishishie || . second paragraph. halibaini. siikaribu ewelaibu. though yu. 12 and in its In a S. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi. 12.

ulio weuni katika shaka. 22 "Strangled. form \ jjtf ." Swa. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. 25. MS. ewe moyo. Auth. 20. 23 This wd. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie"." In MS. hi S. S. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. See on other emendations [18]. synonym of Death. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. zalikuwae || ! || 23. MS. Version. omits by error.e. ni k'avu mno. kuzima taratibu moto. S. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. 24 =kuzama kabisa. to smite under the ribs. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. || huiona izimishie.V. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. haiziwiliki. this identical stanza here and also after 12. Caught. of S. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. Auth. MS. ikamba " Safari. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. " and Authorities. as the 13. but the text is as S. hupa mat'ongea.88 S. S 31 ." now rather as in a trap or snare. MS. by slip. S. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. but is inserted from good S. Auth. ghaitha. MS. except as a trisyllable. . 21 N. walotaladhudhi from Ar.. k' = ni k. Ewe moyo wangu. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo. pasi zao. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. || hata 27. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. i. . MSS. AL. Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II . haina muanga tena. etc. MS. wingu katika kwaka. " and not die down merely slowly. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. 21. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. 28 S. || || || || mtenzile kwangu. mkohozi akohoao. || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . hudumu nao! || || || 30. and by S. || || 22. RECENSION . AL. The last eleven syllables read in S. which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. ! || [| ! || 31." Ar. : izimikapo. The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. tena S.kupiga kikumbo. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. Auth.




Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
awapo mngine




wangapi uwaweneo




ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,











dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi




















zao nibak'e




taa za k'oa na za sifuri;


masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.








za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"




k'elele za

masituri, zikiterema

na za
furaha na nyemi

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za








32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
lihadi, either the
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.




AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then




prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from

previous clause.




and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.




41. P'indi walalapo




wall na wakandi na wabembezi


na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri













mi will



usaha na damu zatuuzika,
haiba na sura zigeushie.
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,



na makanvva bombwe



dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.








launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,


Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao










k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde




Madaka ya nyumba na





bumu hukoroma


sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,



wana wa
na k'uyu


41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
So S. Auth.;
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of


as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.



N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
za, N. A.

as here and










Wana wa



na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo

shingo nakupiga





Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo









ukita k'witikwi








za wat'u zitindishie.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?



zituko zingapo huya'athika




la'ala yakutulie





Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...





Mimi t'akwambia,






binu Nasiri?






za kiza-kiza




ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari







wanzilepi kue?




Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga



mianga na miangaza



wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,





na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya




miti viwaalie.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie






said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."


[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.




" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.


'Ali bin Nasir,


a great





The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards



together with the involved and strained constructions. Muungu 71. lisizime. || wokokapo nawe wokoke. waliushie. kuk'akatika=(S. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem. derivative wakazunduliwa wd. wapi makadhi wamua haki. || . wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. || || || 72. Auth." At this point. wasirie wot'e 64. || " be found out" Auth. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. VL. kukwaka. 2nd sing. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. || || ! || 70. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema.) kuudMka. mean =sifanye upuzi." The modern survival is only as "yoke. Ar. S. S. Auth. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. I dutifully respond. ukamba." Mod. .92 62. Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo . Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa.=mandak'ozi=kongwa. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. " here am I The tedious. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. Lebeka. ! || || || 63 65 Mod. Chinese. Auth. || leo ni waushi. where in fact the S. = to VL. || || || || 69. 65. Haya. 72 S. fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68. S. manhttb = the one despoiled. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. ! . 67S. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo. Auth. sipeketeke . taadabu. 63. S. be dried up. . wasiza-ngoa || . wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. "Here am I. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. kongo. S. 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. 66. Authorities. both students and MSS. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . . Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. "cangue". but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory.

of Mid-China . considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem." However. nihil humani k me alienum puto. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment. Homo sum. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. which in : in . the other as a poet. of the spirit. one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision. without offence against the canons of European taste. the Northern Form. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker. the one Their opinion. is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. with this proviso. and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. what have was been expected from the candour of say. might with such men. this that is to say. so far as I have been able to effect it. of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. that the form. or even of English poetry . form. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. would have been equally well known in other spheres. and substance of the original. I need hardly as an artist. religion. had they not been such missionaries.

have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. yet fix it has been my opinion. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. is at least of the it Noun Classes. the son. least. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. while in also been all The Mrima. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. in which it may be seen. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. for instance. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. and second poet of that name. . . and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. Swahili. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose. And truly. of the Poem. Africa in 1493. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. obtained in the year 1884. a valuable and perfect MS.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. That the be idle to to know a date. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people.

Ramadban. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name. That copy was made in a script as in which. The Utenzi of (i.. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi.e. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script. while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character.THE TEXTS. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. . about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. 95 ETC. Also. ia^^jj). these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar.

those forms to Islam 4. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall .THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array.) aye adore. Lest come some carping And 3. the Islam are agreed. fie. 32. laud. since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. Khallfah." the title of a true Caliph. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. like as the dawn of day. God. E. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. however." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. Thou Grant er of Requests. Despot Mighty. ! (Mind ye. Then Allah. 5 Mohammed. 'Othman. the interpretation of the above doctrine. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. 3 4 See note on 11. Caliphs by right divine . here ! fie. critic. Great Allah we 2. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. Benedictions holy. And then write I for . at fault-finding evermore. And The So dear. Sc. as . But ere my Poem upriseth. Taylor. Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. Abu Mohammed. tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. W. Praising The Compassionate. 'All). This word. The Merciful. . Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. see next note. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. No Alhamdu crying. ancestor the Quraish . pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. 'Omar. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. the Ascription. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. note. Bakr. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. 5. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. set duly at the fore. The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. Bismillak. .") (namely. four unique Companions. is not in the Swahili text. link Arrahim. < ' .

no less. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. for thee. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. . etc. 10. as I school my heart within. 7 . my *heart. The World. Islam. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. Thus finishing the Foreword. 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. 13. personified as such in the Gospels. gloom convicted shall appear. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. 7. lit. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. behold the Theme begin With stern self. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. me. by which Apocalypse. ! 12. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. I fear 11. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought.THE INKISHAFI 6. 11 S. hath he to fear. Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. of seed-pearls secure it. lies : is clear. a tossing billowy waste. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. What. sin's tips. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. my heart. See the closing note. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. Mammon. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. Nay then. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. front and rear. heart. Shamefastly monition.

This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. and have with curs thy share 20. him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business. and wherein thou hast a part. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. mortal. rushing on. . but thou must taste thy bit. though food for dogs most fit. Consider. what find they? ah. for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . feet! All they shall draw thence. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. in by the circles brim. the anguish of despair. Who [17. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary .] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart. But. 15. with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful. [18. Vie in vain concupiscence. 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. there's . Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. curious trifler. suit. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim. its development. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare.] Thy fancies and thy follies. Faugh. nought but raging The water they had fancied it.

Kievu (mod. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. my schooling still despise. I swear ! 24. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. take your journey hence. depart ye 23. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. swearing by the beard. though brightly it had shined ah. Hold thy my by beard peace. kidevu) changu . 28." The wrist is held to the chin. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My . Then listen and 111 tell thee.THE INKISHAFI 21. it. And. span of life. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. but rekindled ne'er . quotha. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair. and forthwith leads them off. : flickers in the wind. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. your ! no longer linger here. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. it. I school thee often. But. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. 27. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. Come. 22. Saying. tell Yea. and without or tongue may make arrest. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. Up. ! 26. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick. 'Tis past. finished. protest. . not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. Vain. yea. come. though Crying. a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems. me that thou weariest of such impertinences. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. I man swear the end . vain.

32." Explained by the proverbial expression. And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. of old. N. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . . Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. . (In Ar. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. our Ars longa. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. whose word none might . eyes Mammon's closed. withhold Yet he by 33. prithee oh. . Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34. Yea. Reapedst thou its choicest. Recension ad loc. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . umrl mchache . vita brevis. which the devil is thought to haunt. for to dare. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. I ! . to heed well what I say Then heed me. and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet. mambo makubwa. Ash shaitanur rajlm). All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. heart. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. quenched. Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35.B. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom. 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. was. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. The Pelted. the stocks Doom and shares. become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. Both mighty King and Magus. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. Sulaiman. it would toss him high in air. its place left black and drear.

39. . How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. 43.. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . in art . All goodly are their couches. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. soft slumbers they would woo. a-weary. both teak and ebenine. good soldiers their errands for to bear. 42. the wide world. and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. And everywhere they sit them. I swear by Allah. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view.THE INKISHAFI 36. : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41. Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". Brilliance 38. 37. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . attars in addition. Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. 40. beyond compare. the universe. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. . Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. Gleaming in long rows. their beds are exquisite. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. their lights trimmed with care. Auth. in every part complete.. With garnishing that choice is. and beauty are wreathed about them there. in and out harem doth whisper. home -born. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. 73 . their guards in ranks thereby Line up. And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. And what time. The lampstands too are massy.

The City that has lodged them. as of bear. Here snoreth the brown owl. . midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. down to the Tomb. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. for the Summons forth hath passed Down. the natural history here is correct. 45. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. here gathereth most or Red-dove. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . making ravages rude. 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. . But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room . the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it. Down. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. not a voice. ! . Thus far. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. were still extant in the last century. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. not a tone ! it o'er. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. . To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. 49. 47." So. green-dove. "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. .THE INKISHAFI 102 44. 51. or of filthy coarse baboon . sun. to mate and to pair. that bourne long and last. The Home they had dwelt in. now empty and lone. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. crib 46. it yield a luscious food.

THE INKTSHAFI 52. it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. I ween. zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . 55. Nay. for the truth would I learn . man go. Ah. . . there is the place. two contemporary Winston Churchills. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. strain both neck and ! eye. Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. speak out in thy turn. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. . mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. . 56. lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. 53. come. . 59. Or else have thou thy say. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. falchion or the bird. And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. 54. Then bend low thine ear. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. 57. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. Where princely Idarus. ! . a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See. Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. My heart. though no doubt the latter was meant. tell it forth plain. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. pi. all. Where never opes window nor 58. how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n.

Brother. heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me.THE INKISHAFI 104 60. 66. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. shew 69. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. Potentates and mighty Viziers. be thou schooled. and that sore. On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. And And skulls be battered in. up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. you ! my old comrades. who once. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers. be thyself saved. heart. What sayest thou. skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. Depart from the evil. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. salve for sore eyes. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. Lo. 1 ? . Yea. ! stress. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . just Judges. nor think still to scorn . Oh. ye 64. 67. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. Ye too. What. ! . me whither I I pray? too there would steer. nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. ! . Bethink thee. ! 62. dried like 68. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends.

oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain . In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise. ! 71. He now but to threaten them doth deign. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. Not of gold. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. nor given free. Text is accordingly a bathos. it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. Piecension. 72. 73. my heart. in the S. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . . Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. 105 "Grant vengeance at length. See the note ad loc. nor bought . The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. ) hells which follows in the present N. on all his tyrannies.THE INKISHAFI 70. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. Lord.


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