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A GRAMMAR OF IN DIALECTIC CHANGES THE KISWAHILI LANGUAGE .

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A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C.A. E.. Interpreter in Swahili and H. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev. W. etc. TAYLOR. etc. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land. M. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 .

M.A. ' AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS .Cambtttoge : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY.

The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use. presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar. Although the records this. they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. SUDAN. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect. 1915 H. as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. KAJOKAJI.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . S. made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. C. are in most cases very imperfect. .

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CONTENTS .

departures. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known.INTRODUCTION who Author. and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification. Explorer and Ethnologist. This "give and take" however is essential to progress. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject. To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. but is no less worthy of attention. whether in English or in any other language. so far as I am aware. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language.P.. and in the appearance of for the new generation . for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide.). to whom the Essay will be most precious . And no doubt the methods.P. which involve certain new conclusions. and detail. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales.C.K. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator.C. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively.K.). It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu). and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S. in my own African Aphorisms (S. of the book. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries. etc. and I have gladly acceded to his request.

thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. born and ." " throw out. experience. either civil or external. ambiguities. tion. though running on similar lines yet also a different language. I. say Barawa. Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place." (otherwise CHA). lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. for one." as of a warlike expedition and in war. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation. and wide. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity. expeditions. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech. land. in its purity. meaning a sinking in. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. its native name. to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili. is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences." because while the the too patent crudities. The Curtained Headpoint. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . then. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long. and corruptions of the careless South. that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. from the feature of this "hidden Isle. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced. and warlike ." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. is Vita "It upon words. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is." with the root TA " It signifies. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North. at least under Arab rule. experto crede.

and Melind. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. and onwards under its once famous Queens. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence.T it is efrxnv. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. However. the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. and Quiloa. whether in MS. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine . the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect." genius of their Dialect. no doubt. par excellence. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. or spoken. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. " " prose to signify all sustained speech." then the Mazru'is. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry." the Isle Accordingly KO. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. Mombaza. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani.INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. and so on to the present day. dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. such as one finds in native stories and tales. such as Mwana Kambaya. to of lore school of the Islam. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits. treatises of different kinds. "puritanic.

differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. made many years ago. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. Certainly. W. here in E. at the instance of Captain Stigand. to the study of languages. 1915. . since it was version. if not the greatest. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. and spirit. T.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. the present work would never have been written. KYRK. in the proper place. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). E. to add my own Recension of the same Poem. and bearing. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press. of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God.

Kimv.) = Arabic. Ar. Kiam. . = Kiuug. = Kimrima. PL = singular. = derivation. = Kimvita. Kiunguja. = Kiarau. = plural. Sing. Der. Eng. = Kipate. derived from. = Kirngao. Lit. Kimr. Kip. = Kitikuu.ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. = English. 80. Kimg. Kit. = literally.

Nyasaland.Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j . and as such is whole of the East African sea-board.name.. Mrima.. Africa. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin. to be to the court language. The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Mombasa. Such is the state of things between Mombasa.-indicates. so to speak..as jt&. Uganda and far info the Congo. of British East East Africa.gp. Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications. .. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast. Zanzibar. and Portuguese East Africa. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day.the much farther than this. viz.mtk . Hindustani and Somali or Gala words.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl.. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as. now much what French used JjtSL.. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language. Lamu lJLcabs. laces. Zanzibar and the dialects. practically the It is -is . In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese. r Js iswftbilj.

dialects and then proceed to the less pure. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. Here we have many little islands and towns. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. and so words. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . however. The 1. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. intelligible. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. however. For convenience in reference group. 2. 3. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects. It is. strange at easy to foretell first sight. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. once the rules are known. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. as in the Lamu Archipelago. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences.

related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. might be Farther afield but 13. 6. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. however. 5. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. Kingazija. : Kinyume. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. Lastly comes the parent of 15. Kitikuu. Kisiu. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. viz. is } : from all the above.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . at Rasini. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba. 7. will suffice. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. dropping or adding syllables. such as those spoken Tundwa. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. is by no means. Kialabi. Kiamu 9. This with a number of local dialects. Bajun group. of Amu. 12 . The 14. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. Kiunga and other places on the coast N.

This symbol preacher to obey. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above.B. shown Ku-Tii of the t t. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. O called tay. Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. I have. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. distinguished by the . J : Tamarufa. It common other to the educated Swahili ear. for dialectic reasons. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. or te safi in Swahili. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. However. The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed.

CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time. let down so. come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) . hence or stranger to invite t'. The Bantu cerebral t. to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed. in distinction to the pure t. . Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. . and Aspirated dental t. Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. .we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. to your ear 5 Swahili. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. Examples. fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point.

Examples. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d.to tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics. As i. however. as in English. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. n has a disturbing . is In the Zanzibar group. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use.e. etc.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d. sling. T'embe Shown here by =a t'. T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear. dental t. D.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . (i) The dental dali safi. dal. or pure. there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d.

)= to Ku-penda (Kimv. Ndia (Kimv. Examples. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes.B.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv.) Kitandi (Kiam. i.) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv.) = outside Nde (Kimv. Swahilis not d but r.) = a loop. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider. This is As an Example.) Kandu (Kiam.) = to taste Konda (Kiam. The Kim vita words above N. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag . aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples. > = ndugu.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam.) Mwando (Kiam.) = a road.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu.e. the overturned d. viz. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r.

soldier. Certain other letters The Arabic . freeze. L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. as mentioned above. The and R.. has been vowel which bears its sound. and Kiung. These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach.). as is However Ingia (Kiam. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out.) appears nyere (Kimr. In the Zanzibar group however. in less pure dialects. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg. to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels. between these There is also a tendency. is pronounceable in Kimv. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three. .) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. and r are interchangeable in different dialects. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. the pure d is not used and a slurred. letters 1 = where pronounced.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also. Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando . and Kiung.) but in the Ingira.

Hakika Karibu Kandili N. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. Examples. k'. Examples. cray fish. K. = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards. then. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin.B. The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). viz. This strong guttural k. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. Examples. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. = near = lamp.

have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima. to the native ear." Ch and P. is used for this sound in Swahili. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. Translation. komba. as usually shown by simple o. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. popoo. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. very different sounds. " law " 6. komba. etc. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma." or the sign of duplication. as kolokolo. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). it being pass for another word. popoo. . The following little verse. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata.

. with few exceptions.*. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili. Thalimu Ramadhani. Bassi. which do not count for much in Swahili. Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . with a single consonant. or most Bantu speaking natives. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. marra. for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have. letters. used the following signs. viz. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. Th...3 Example. J%elafAa Thikiri . are usually spelt with the double consonant. I have therefore. the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. in regard to such words. ilia. tissa. to pronounce a closed syllable. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. . sitta. 11 billa.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest.

III. as natives love to do. more or less. all down the meaning coast. or the two most foreign to him. but it is distinctly dialect. ku-kawia and ku-limatia. but one meaning. Changes of Grammar. In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense. Changes of Letters. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. all all Thus the three words. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. If he was showing off. Changes of Vocabulary." are understood. ku-chelewa. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something." "to remain. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. II. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. " to delay. of the words above. he would probably use all three. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I. ku-chelewa. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. sun ." viz. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. Showing what simple transpositions.

will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used." In Kimv. be he. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country. briefly may give Zanzibar Group. both of the same tribe. the same word means. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. drowned. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. " E. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand. Indian or African. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari.g.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. E. " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese. The first is the native's love of display. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide. Changes of Idiom. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. possess almost ." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept. hoping to make himself more intelligible. The grouped together under this name. lost at sea. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. dialects big tract of country they cover. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is.g." left latter places is always used with kitako. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can.

objective person plural being. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m.). interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group. its place being taken : Mombasa Example. (ii) or the by -wa-. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form. This construction does not occur in the group. This I will tell you (sing. Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example. Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example. The corresponding construction in Kimvita. The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. love ye. in certain tenses. Amu (pi. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs. This in the purer dialects would be pendani. the -e. etc. Example.(or -mw-) -ni.). where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent. have told you I In this group there (pi. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. you -e. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv. in this group as a cerebral.). Nawafuata and nimewambia.

to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. vocabularies. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. Kiunguja 1. literature. dali safi. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's. stories. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. viz. of grammars. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. . so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. accessible to the student. not Kiswahili or districts. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. especially the latter.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. The dental t it then. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. etc. for t's. comparatively speaking. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. dali pindu and re pindu. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts.

and so the and not be confused. or the dialect of the Mrima coast. inlocal variations. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. = a plan. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. Kimrima. is in use. strengthen. there should be order. make to flourish. 2. " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. (fr. Balua Sh 1. conquer Kwisa . for nothing s. = a frog = silk. egg on. for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. which will be mentioned later. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome. for the first is spelt taa="lamp." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. kwisha = to be finished ! . R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects). Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. = = cJlo) Ar. Examples. unyielding to urge. JaJLw) Ar. to be hard. with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. Changes of Letters I.

however. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person." This is. or e. to break to fall. Example. knock down to make. in the next dialect. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k. Examples. Examples. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. more marked in the next dialect." or to bathe. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels .) must come. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order.KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples. when followed sit. into ch. for is.

out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). In reflexive verbs Example. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi. etc. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. in dialect of the Example.e. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. i is often used for Kuiketilia ji. chooni .). Choroni = dust = bathroom. he saiba is like) Similarly N. Chakwe.) Nampendani = I love you (pi. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief. for may taabu = rag. In some of the local variations of Kimr. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe. kwakwe. be cut out.B.) Atamwambieni. trouble.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice.) Nimemwambieni. Puku (i. oneself down. pakwe.) will tell you (pi.. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat. This is etc. or atakwambieni = he (pi. . his fellow is the mchirika rat. 1 Examples. Kitowero = foot. follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi. vyakwe. viz.

baba. .B. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye. Examples. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. so \ . are of the class. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . certain animate beings are in the form of the n. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word. Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. Jma ja .class. Jina ya fulani) .class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. however. ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. mama. Ndugu. Examples. Examples.. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing.. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class. interrog. In Kiung. the n. pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. Ile the chief. Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit." is also heard. On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar. ng'ombe. In certain dialects of Kimr. however.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. appear to hold good. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. of this class. though not in the verbal concord. concords as in Kiung.class analogy being carried The still farther. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. N. and not concords.

These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you. alivyopata a few instances are given under. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-. Changes of Idiom IV. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. I have gone. for namna = sort. .and we-. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside. In the -me. = behind place. Changes of Vocabulary slight.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used. =a panali .. = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village.and times represented by e. Examples." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. A common expression in Kimr. .conditional tense. . babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j .tense the pronominal prefixes a. which must not be confounded with the -ngali.

have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. Changes of Letters I.KIMGAO 3. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property. received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. In this dialect. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. or with a letter which is way between the two. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. oo. and aa have. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r. Many of the sounds in eo. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect. however. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. . As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. As will be shown later sounds in ee. Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. as has been shown already. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value.

general use instead of m. K before = and you (pi. as in goes. Examples. especially after nasal ms. cries.) want mwampige = you (pi. however.. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia . Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo. often changes to eh. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that. Fanya hivo Example. Examples. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. is if followed certain consonants.) must beat him = I will give him. avoided by the use of y. Examples. There appears.) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow. in Kimr. frequently added. but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away. Examples." a second added. fell . viz. are pronounced or r. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing.

= you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved. Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love.) he must tell you (pi. the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect. except that the place of before a consonant. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing. yet loved. and the the animate class.tense after a subjunctive. Amependa = he has loved. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung. and Kimr.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi.) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive.). they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved.23 KIMGAO II. . (pi. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. mu takes m However. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi. This is Examples. in the negative .) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. Examples.) Perfect = I tell you (pi. = he loved. Examples. Examples. = he must tell you (pi.instead of hu- tenses sing. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau. and also.

K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity. Alike Occasionally locative forms." . draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages." Examples. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village. borrowed from the surrounding languages. however. However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. it comes between the ku. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts. If there is an objective prefix. the n. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped. are used in place of the locative in -ni.class This however is not done with human beings. Examples. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb.and the verb. Examples. Very often." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt. Such are pindi for uta = " a bow.or kw. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village.prefixed to it. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr.

or -ki. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. 4. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. The Wahadimu is known.B. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive. kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. Alikwenda kule. can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. outside the town. It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka. . the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. Example. is Changes of Idiom IV. Example. stand.tenses." . understood. This latter word. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. viz. 25 Examples of other words. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity. agreeing with mambo. This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. = Amenipiga was hit (lit. and he beat him himself). older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. ku-ima. no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. used in place of vizuri. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . in well). Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. Examples. are said to 1 A similar state of things.KIHADIMU KIMGAO.

-biti for -bichi . It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. changes to t Kimv. The origin of the name Mvita " war." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on. being often altered in transit. 5. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). hid in the bush. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. 6. words into Kimv." because. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. then only savages. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. This latter derivation would appear more likely. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v. In converting Kiung. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m.26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. the Mombasa people. I.

kiako. These pronouns should really be kia. and others. as the Swahilis say. chako. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. etc. mto. Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been. turned over a little and becomes t'. is aspirated.class beginning with eh. alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. or some other Examples. changu. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. or that the eh in Kiung. of the ki. : and pronouns agreeing with ki. : viz. Words which do not occur in Kiung. carry. for the same . but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. Nt'a causes. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). kiangu. Such influences may be the letter n.class such as cha. kietu. with eh. for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. chetu. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. etc. Words which are spelt in Kiung.

chapa. chuma. chumvi. All of these are the same in Kimv. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam. chuni (=a kind of water bird). chokora.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1).class and is always called tupa. change. ku-cha ( to fear).) is follows the rules above. uchafu. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv. changes to nd in Kimv. Kiung. path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). . any = Examples. chombo. ehenza. Chakula. chambo. chandarua.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch.). ku-chelewa. choo. chungwa. expressions being used in Nj in its place. (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples. chuo. chura. ku-chota. there : Examples. ku-chafuka. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. chungu. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. mchikichi. Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for . choyo.). In Kimv.. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. chooko. mchekeche. cheo. chaza (ma. used indiscriminately in the n. -changa.. and Kip.or in the ma. chaki.class in Kimv. chumba. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv.KIM VITA 28 Examples. the d being the semi- dental explained above.. Ku-choka. -chache. and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects. Chai.

= he = he Yuateka = he Examples. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja. .) Nawapenda = I love you (pi. Kiam. however.) love you (pi. The Njama. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake.. Yua.29 KIMVITA Exceptions. three of these. II. The construction is as follows etc. in the Zanzibar group.to n-.) you (pi.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi. njuga. but change according to rule in Kiam. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv.tenses. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing. Nyumba yakwe = his Examples.as the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present.is used in place of a. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix. njugu and njema. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples.).and -ka.. These are only heard with the future -ki. not often heard. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book.

alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. always used. from -ye. -zo- and -vyo-. alipofika and occasionally -cho-. The tendency. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing. of the narrative tense. it is said.to -e-. -po-.and -yo-. and -ko-. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you. is full form is used except used for -wo. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives. is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o. an abbreviation of nika. Examples. however.which was. Example. tend to become simple -o. Examples.in the verbal infix. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought.KIMVITA 30 Thus. -mo-. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). . Examples. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. Examples. -lo.to ha- is in the first person sing.

used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. and Kimv. = he who wants Atakae Examples. being in more common use in that dialect. The Swahilis themselves. relative in Examples.) of . Kimv. = woman's robe. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. etc. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. III. however.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. recognize them as two words. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes. Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. each bearing an accent on the penultimate.

less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. don't worry me also. hebu mi = leave me alone. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) .32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . = custard apple = to pluck. lone (buffalo. fruit). the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. or smitten by. please.to take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. sleep is hurting me) that goes alone. hebu = come let us. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit. let me (pass) Kula njama . for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. health is best. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others.

the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. 3 . 7. s. rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down.e. from the E. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. A. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. Kidigo. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words. you lie (der. i. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. Gazette ? Example. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. viz. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you.

.KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. or the island of Ndeo. on the island of that name. or Lamu. the dialect of the town of is Amu.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . I. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. who came from the Persian Gulf. the Banu Lami. The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. . have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv. Examples. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi ." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much. into Examples. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. Exceptions. softened into y.

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples. kilemba = a turban = to-day. Baghaa 1 in Kimv. Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y. leo .

used in to z. Kimv. vyenu. . Exceptions. nguvu. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse.class change v. -zo. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. place of vya. nguva. -kavu. . Examples. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change. -zi-. = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. Examples. vyote. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . etc. zake. mavi. ndevu. and many others. mwavuli.or vyto z-. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. zote.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki.to begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . are -vyo-. mvua..) = ku-kanga (Kiam. vile. hivi. becomes nd. ku-vua. -vi-. zile.) .. between two vowels is sometimes dropped.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. vyake. etc. hizi. Thus za. ku-vaa. Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii. zenu.

. Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony. Examples. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town. M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr." P (pi. Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word. ku-ehenma .) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. Ku-sonda S to reach to. *). at the .to sneeze chungwa = orange. at the same time.KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. (as is also the case in Kimr. Examples. village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. on the left side. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv. Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for . Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam.. see 35. changes now.).

KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. Kimr.. a snuff (Bahasha. e. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . = captain. letters Kiamu Akhira (or.. Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above. Examples. band . purpose. Examples. Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage). i and o.to feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something . changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent). Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam. : a scarf intention. kama of Kiung.) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. = like. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . as (cp. N occurs rarely in place of m.

a giraffe = a chief = a smith c. Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect. = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt .KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. hide. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber. bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns . a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin.

The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. . etc. be well done = jaa) ing II. Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). The second Near applies to the past or distant past. In Kiam. Past. * v^etc.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. used to get. J got (long ago) or. Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. freely used in Kiamu. Distant Past. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. (dust in house ripen.

as uli uki-. and stories so is For an example of -nga.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki. .as an alternative for the first person sing.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise.tense (page 44). As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense. (The usual form. of the Near Past Negative. etc. ali aki.

KIAMU Negative -ki- tense. 43 .

The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. . as she was sitting). havi-. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears. -zii tense. It it out." Example. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor. to be in the act of doing something.= although." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. particles are na " nga. stated.KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi.although I am hungry I do not eat. Niangawa na ndaa sili . -i. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. as before etc. Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name). of the ki." though occasionally occurs with a few others. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. etc.class which. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku . The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. is Examples." Examples. hazi-. Past Perfect. takes concords zi-. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb. in place of vi-.

Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu. happened.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense." "yet." "while yet. mentioned by Taylor. for Moyo. . ibid. nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed. Also see the first line of verse on page 116." or." "still. The meaning is "while as yet. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again). Examples." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms. etc. Verbs having their two prefix." Examples. last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. kee for kaa. "as yet. This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation. viz. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is. he has still mounted and is mounted).

occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i..and not a-. becomes -i-. is is befallen him. in common use at the present day in in poetry. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv. u. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for . has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to.e.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. ni. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita. Pronouns. so some are given full. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb.must be used with this tense and for third person sing. Kimv.of place well. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down.and not na. Examples. Examples. mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree .

period. Nawapenda = I love you (pi). occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class. in the first and third persons sing. plain u. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative.tenses. etc. only.is used in Kiam.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . The remainder nyuso . the -zii tense other instances.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. i!6e. il. used in Kimv. zile. etc. period. The farther demonstratives ule. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing. Examples.these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got.. these faces have etc. for the accent. Examples. hiyo. It is also used in the -e-e tense. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. period that time. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv. ule. as they are the hii huwo. wa!6e. The arrangement plural is the same as Example. viz.and the -ki. Hono is this time. There is also a form used with wakati = time. B. and in several . The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka.

Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya . by cutting out the first -i-. suffix. kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani. Example. used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the . P . Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m. Example. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall.a new kingdom. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective. Example. for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. Uknta mwingine = another Example.) shall not get. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. fr. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking. Examples. of the second person plural often mu.) did not get (pi. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. Examples. latter. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv.) went (pi.KIAMU 48 Examples.

in -wo and -yo. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam. The The relative -o. Examples. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda . Examples. -mo. Examples (of locative relative). for ? why ? Relatives. N.in Kimv. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you. Note the use of relative with perfect.is used as an infix for all classes of nouns.as he has done (or. -po-. The latter takes the place of -vyo.(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense. Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went. In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix. 4 . form. Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. 8. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-. Even with these however there -y. is a tendency to suppress the w.and Example.and the infix -zo. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for.B.KIAMU The interrog. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants.

nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . as in the cases elision takes place. they remain as of the second class.as they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Examples. Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. Examples. Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat.. Exceptions. of the tense particle Examples. If Examples. Examples. (-si-) the -i- of the is elided.KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided. however they are the names of trees or plants. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto . Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. when I do not want). kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata . no is used.are in Kiam. treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. or anything pertaining to trees or plants.

1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings.. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. his) = it is ours (yours. Examples. his) = it is ours (yours. Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples.. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi. dialects. anything to do with a tree or plant. quite correctly. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. Also nyawanyo. theirs). Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. as of the first class "kites. moon. theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine. treated. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam. If the adjective begins with a for pi. consonant it takes a concord as class." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. wewe = is pi. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. in Kiam. of sixth class.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. = two years = big fires. mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. 42 . or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo . Examples. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu.

N. Kiam. Where the Kimv. take out. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam.e.B. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. Ku-tunda in i. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet.. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for .KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. jongoo -jigger. to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town. and Kimv." is frequently heard in viz. Example. in a meaning not given. About one hundred words are appended as examples. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema . word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam." "put out. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

-a small out. or. = to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. sound out ku-lia = luck. devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw. ring. goer = a demon. fortune bahati .. on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. male = a traveller. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little.the ground. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) .KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man.

Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or... in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N. mwenyi ku-pata. Ni mbwake.' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out. angalia = to see after. urefu ndia Utunda . will get two rupees). and Kiam. that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday.chain = length = road. Kuku mbwangu.B." probably untruthfully. word. Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? . Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning. English = silver neck. are con- differences in idiom siderable. The Changes of is hut). The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on.." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv. IV. A man rushed in after it saying.' It is related. path = a string of beads = sheath. scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta.KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita .' ' Ni mbwako. Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco.' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea . For instance one might say to one's boy. A few instances only will be given here. Sometimes the word given Kimv. ' and another seized it saying. ' Siyo mbwangu.

= is food not ready after = until he died. viz. with hata. if that word is one of these far demonstratives. Have I person sing. not wane) Abb. The word -pya Kimv. ulee. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before. You say I did ?" not Example. on purpose. (Takes the place of makusudi. as he says. mkate mpya = a new loaf. It has the meanimg " of. viz. which has already been mentioned. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. his intention (was) . Kimv. etc. ziatu zipia = "new sandals. yes he has done something." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. one o. . ilee. taking the accent on the first. Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. Talking of anything distant. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. viz. Example. and has not) purposely . etc. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. is only used in the interrogative reply. The accent remains as shown. Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come).KIAMU 56 This." In Kiam. walee.) (= come). wa!6. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. Mbona hukufika P = Answer. ule. an e is added to the far demon.. not yet). and as an first " not 1 " or. either in point of place or time. wale. viz. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi.

" huisi. human Mwida is being. Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard.. in Kiam. haisi. viz. ghasia). Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form). When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself.57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons)." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time. Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or. questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined." Example. beings. coming and going (and thus want of privacy. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds. Its meaning quite different. he does not know (recognize) me. look out for ." etc. of animate Wowawili = both. fudifudi = to lie face downwards. Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible. Si-isi =" I do not know " . To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. in anything but the negative present. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam. haniisi = he does not know. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. you do not know. all three.

would be used in Kimv. I leave mwenyewe.e. . and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. or (it) hivyo. it is it is for you to say. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. (Proverb) what it to you. i." Examples. akaitwa (jina lake)." (Hitieri -hitiari. bora azima = never mind. " give (a piece of) tambuu.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi. as you please. just like that. is largely used in both Kimv.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. used is best. person. for the Kimv. generally used of a male child much as in Kimv. is inside the your business. I don't first consideration). This is health is big. where shauri lako. Example. now at once. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam. hivyo. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv. well built. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. generally used as a reply to some taunt.

however.) The rule is the same for every word. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. pijana. town of Pate in the darkness) beat. always changes to th. of in multiplying examples. with a few further changes and a few exceptions.e. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate.B. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. not occur. grammar. Practically all that has been said of Kiam. Examples. appear to be always pronounced with j... There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. (i. how hand its Kimv. suffix or particle. Kiamu baraza = verandah. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. rejeza. Examples. The following words. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. and whether the z is prefix. strike return .KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . with regard to changes of letters. form. infix. audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . Also. 9. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I.

Ku-tawala (N. shall not get. form. a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them. future which takes the particle -te. green = to ripen. There appears to be a slight difference in the neg.) = white flesh of a dafu = unripe. although the latter is understood in Pate. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc. etc.in place of -to-. Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. Negative Future.an egg I (pi. and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house). Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam. Examples.B. chimney. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. cylinder. these (trees) hini Hinu . This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. .

roping for Utuku . to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. . Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . Taka and Kitao. Kishela kitanda bazaar. strife = departed. south of Amu. III. is stir up strife). A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. Manda. .KIPATE. . Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. to 10. many of the people took refuge in On viz. . .. Amu. " . IV. the dialect of the town of Shela.

although remaining many years in Ainu. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. chiefly Examples. This was the origin of the town of Shela. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. Kishela may follow either. and I III. . so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. directly they received permission. made use of this form. however follow Kipate. differ of Kiam. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. ." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. of The Manda people. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. as they were in the large town of Amu. The j of Pate in place of g is not used. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used. must have kept very much to themselves for. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. When They Pate words from Amu. The word mahali is used for "place. after all the variations in this met with. they moved out in a body to Shela. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. with a few small exceptions. The dialect. It is curious that. Manda. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. Kimgao. the oldest in the neighbourhood.

Any is changes in ki. ch is used. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to.for the concord of the plural of the thi-. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. its idioms and grammar belong more I. 11. That is to say that . Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. Amu except the zi. Kiam. as snte (Kiam. Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect. is local idioms in use but. These are similar to It and Pate. j observed above. form. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. hold good.) like. last three it will be observed return to the Kimv. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza.class. differing Amu.) = we all hoyo (Kiam. Examples.) = this (person).63 KISIU KISHELA. IV. though = (Kiam.

as in Kitikuu. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. Changes of II. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry.KISIU 64 N.. Jy) . t's Do not confuse with Kiung.. Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. Nouns of the ma.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter. Examples. which the called for mats. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three.) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . For this change however see the next dialect.B. for Ar. Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. local words of which Examples. III. brought in. in such words as kitambaa. person = a canoe = people. etc. Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam. .

Kisiu. Toma kwa toma hathitomani.KISIU. Kiam. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. -akwe is used in Kisiu. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. for the possessive.class Kimgao in concords. Kiam. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. changes to ch. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. as in Kishela.. (You English. Examples. Kisiu. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. town of Faza or Paza. in place of -ake. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. they only slip past one another.) This is said of two strong each other. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. Kitikuu 12. which is hurt is the grass. for . Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. When two elephants jostle against one another that English. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu . Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not. The cerebral t. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. the dialect of Rasini. I. viz. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

KITIKUU II. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get. Chu- takes the place of tu. (pi. Examples. the latter not being used. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa .tense of Kiam. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get.they have died. leg Iguu (pi. -kitowaku- is used. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. 52 .as the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. Example. mashikio) = foot. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. class has. of the n. machako) Ichiunbo (pi. Perfect.to : us (two) be going. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects. used as in Siu in place of -ake. (pi.class change n. the prefix i- viz. In place of the -kito. like in the plural. Some nouns first : i-. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. (pi. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. nail = shoulder = milk.

KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n.but may be prefixed.class . Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for . mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n.. Examples.

neap tides (or. A heavens).69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N. 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish. The changes of idiom are very great. Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . (pi. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes.) only means a growing tree. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick. Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before. (Kit.) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. Examples of the -ndo. Examples. .. mbavu) Uvueha na chembe .tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used. The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words. ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish.B. ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV.

BANADIR DIALECTS.

70

All boats coming from Rasini,
called

viz.

KINGOVI
string-tied,

are elsewhere

mtepe.

itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
which
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
prows
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini

:

Mchwana = the block just
Mtindikani

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the

mchwana

mast and resting on the bulwarks either
13.

and the
side.

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects

of

semblance to Kitikuu

vocabulary.
those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these
dialects.

Example,

Shembee

Some words however

(Kit.)

= kishembere (Banadir) -a

knife.

pass almost unchanged through a series of

dialects.

Example, Magadi

= potash
(Banadir)
14.

for

is

Kingazija

(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =

magatho

the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

15.
Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old

language."

Such words are

:

Ku-ima
Ku-uza

Uwao
Ng'andu
-akwe
Ku-soto

for

ku-simama
ku-uliza

ubao
thahabu
-ake
ku-shoto.

Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.

KINYUME

KINGOVI.
It contains

71

an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.

am

I

told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-

is

that a well-educated and well-read Swahili

stand

it.

Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several
;

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word

it.

Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be

in

Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,

is

the chief feature of Swahili

poetry.

For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his
public.

So any old or

difficult

word he can discover he

careful to

is

string in.

Here

is

an example of a Kinyume word,

viz.

pani

(for

nipa)

being thrown into a verse.
"

Pani

kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.

Na

farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda

si

kitumbua cha Mafia."

Translation,

"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing

is

as

if

I

was

still

walking.

And

falling

from a horse

by a donkey.

is

not (so good as) being carried

KIALABI

72

The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.

slave

And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."

bread

is

is

not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.

Kialabi.
suffixing

Each of these possesses a name of

its

The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain

own.

them

all.

to each syllable.

Example,
Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri
shakiri,

which means

:

Kitabu changu kimekwisha.
Translation,

My

book

is

finished.

Praise be to Allah.

APPENDIX
EXAMPLE OF KINGOVI WORDS
THE INKISHAFI, A Northern
N.B.

Words

OLD POETRY

IN

Version

(Lamu

?)

believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.
N.B.
8.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

1
nikapange lulu kula tarafi
4
3
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi

Na
9.

The strophes

2

;

.

;

nuru na mianga itathalali 7
8
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6

;

;

10.

;

Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu
11.

Moyo wangu

nini

huzundukani

Hunelezi nami kalibaini
12.

Moyo wangu nini

13

14.

Raj ami

10

11

zimughuriye

likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.

;

hu'itabiri

15
Huyui dunia ina ghururi

13.

hila za

;

12

14

?

;

;

twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye

.

?

:

?

Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18
;

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua

ni

Ni kama kisima

kisicho

;

kwa kula hasara

ombe 21

;

chenyi

uhasiriye.

mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa

ng'ombe,
15.

1

2

Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.

4

Kinipukiye

(?),

fr.

kw-epuka
fr.

16

Tatasi = matata.

17

Tesi = -kali.

18

Masi=mashaza.

19

Aurakibuo,

20

M wasi = adui.

21

Ombe = wall round mouth

(?).

Kitamsi=kiovu.

UjuhaU = uwinga,

JL^..

7

Ku-tathalali

8

Ku-taamali=ku-zingatia.

9

Kimaake = kisa.

23

Rajami = the devil Iblis.
Ku-ghuri=ku-hadaa.

24

Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?

26

11

12

18

.

^&

3

10

;

wakati

Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =
closed.

3

24
kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.

22

25

fr.

^^s>j

= he

rode.

of a well.

Ku-ta=kutonga.
Paa=utosi.
Katu=kabisa.
Ku-enga=ku-angalia.
Kushisha = causative of shika.

27 Manaya = mauti. 24 Ar. Takaburi. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. Mwa-tami = fr. fr> k^-euka. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. 32 Lathati =raha=laza. Ar. fr. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. 8 14 . sweet. fr. Asifidi 18. Ikalifu 21. 22. . 10 Kilabu. ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . hudiye. twaye. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. ! kiburi = pride. Hadimu = a breaker. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. Kiwavu =mbavu. Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. . to Hayani = pi. Tandi = tanzi. 19 Khasaisi. misfortune. vastator. Nambwa=na mbwa. Ar. . find in. Ndeo = swollen headedness. . . . 30 kali. Labibu. . the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. . for mume- tenda. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. fr. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. 25 si fr. ikaribu. Dunia 19. shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . 23. 12 hutukiza[i]ye. . ^ . ungi welevu ulikithiriye . Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. ^- Ar. Ku-etuka= to shine. was 22 8il=uii. 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. . . 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. Ku-wania=ku-telea. de- . ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. ku-atama=to gape. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . spoiler. 24. ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye. Ngea=chele = epuka.H VERSION N. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. 8 asirithiye. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . 25. . Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. * Mvi-chembe. ^JL^ = a dog. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . ^^J = intelligent. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16.

ku- ignor- . 76 VERSION N. Ar. = foolishness. fr. . 31. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. Ku-hizini = to store up. ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. Ruhu=roho. . fr. . Au 30. ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . Sijida = prayer. Kamaye = kama yeye. ku-ona. si lile. 32 f r . nusuha 5 yangu. 21 Nusuha = entreaties. lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . moya hwona izimishiye. Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. . . 12 11 sijida . . Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. Zana=akiba. j 3 Kievu =kidevu. is Ajinani =majini (jins). Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. Safihi. tense is finished. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . wamuluku = those who possessed. . niusikiye. . Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. = ku-amsha and 4^. fr. Uwaweneo = umezoona. Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. ku -lala (-e-e tense). 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. fr. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . 34. 22 Zati = za tiati. 16 Hudumu. saa 29. milele. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao .pta0^=jua.26. 32. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . . . 17 isi=viumbe. Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza. 19 ance. Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. . 29 ziniye 35. Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. Ku-futu = ku-kosa. . 33. is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage. K u-oka = ku-sitawi. .

. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . 8 9 10 fr. Kumbi 40. 32 & fr lU-paka.N. Mao = malalo. = rows. Kaa=sandaU. . shiye. . . Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. mwongo). 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. fr. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. = incense. tele sufufu . 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. 19 Waja = watu. ^ \^ . . sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. 24 Majodori =magodoro. . 4 Jamil =wengi. 39. . (pi. crowd. siye. Fusi=kivumbi. 41. Nahari = mtana. Nyemi = furaha kuu. Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. Miyongo (pi. tense) (?). . 18 Kele = kelele. = green. !1 ranks. Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . . Hudama = watumwa. a group. Tafahuri = f r. 5 Mbake = mpia. 1 to 10 persons. fr. . VERSION zao shingo. pi. 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. of usiku. ku-tia 23 . Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. 7 Sufuri = shaba. Sufufu of safu) indoors. 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. understood). Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. 22 zishitadiye . 17 Situru= cloister. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. . of 3 of fr. .

VERSION N. Kula'= chakula. Makinda =zij ana. . . bird green which eats dates. Zitefute zao . . Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. . 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. 49. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. or. 47. . 77 2 . . dung. . Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. 41 = to turn. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. . Bumu=owl. Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. sauti . Sasa walikee 1 45. Pili wingu yamefungana). wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. See note 16 above. Ku-mia=to nod. . Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. Mta=mchwa. 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. > . 35 = piri = puff-adder. Matandu = cob. See note 10 above. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. be cut short. 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. Ku-taathari = ku-oza. moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. Hisi = sauti. 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo. Matukutu = tuka kuu. 28 Kitati = a very small bird. fr. Bombwe = maggot. 31 Yande = yande. . 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. ::8 54. 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. Ziwele = zimekuwa. . maziwio. Tame = -gofu. makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. Ku-siri=ku-wa. matter. 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . 40 Waja^watu. 52.webs. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. . . enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. 27 Kiku = adove. Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. . . 50. Wasakha = pus. ku-angama. shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. 30 ng'ende . Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). 29 fr. 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo.

Hata masikizi 56. Jahimu. 19 fr. okoka. . 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. 68. 65. Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. .^fr. . 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. 63. . wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. . . mahuwa 21 . usikutwae. 5 . " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. Kituzo = arresting. VERSION . ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. Ngowa =matakwa. wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. mtanga. 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave. ku-atama. wenyi nyuso .). 55. nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. 20 30 30 nitagamiye . Sao-hao. makadhi wamua 14 haki. . Kamao = kama wao. ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. ku-amua. 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . ku-isa (i8ha). nambia walipo kawamkiye. fr. 26 . 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . . 57. Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. 28 fr. Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike. 20 29 malijaa . 10 Ziuli = maua. nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. Aimi=mimi. Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. Ku-uza=ku-uliza. Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). 14 fr. zidiwa = kama ndiwa. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67.Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. Ar. 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. . fr. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. Hbonya=nionya. Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. Mahuwa =: marehemu. ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. 16 liamu. mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. . . .78 N. 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. . U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye.

Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. . Namuwa na huyu. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. Kitana = sumbuko. 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. N^imi = pl.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . Makina =makini.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. 29 hells. (Kiam.N.)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. . (vii) Hutama. 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. (v) Latha. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. Mitokoto.)). . menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. 13 12 73. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. 70. . . 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. of ulimi. 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. (iii) Hawia. Azimamu=ugwe. (iv) Sai'ri. Mgi=mwingi. ni moto mkali hau makina [75.] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. 2(3 PL of moto. 9 10 72. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. Ny umu = -kali. shiye. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. Jahanamu. 6 . . Ku-ungua = to disjoint. See on these hells. Eu-kimu=ku-amkua. Rikabu = a riding animal. 69. : 30 hutama 31 . (vi) Hamimu.] Fahamia tena siyo . 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv. . 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. . nae. cut joints apart. ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. 1 Kwima = ku-simama. Jabari = bila kifano. ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. ku-shitaki. Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye. 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. . yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . 7 . (ii) Jahimu.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. . VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. fr. 31 Hutama = one of the hells. 19 Kiyali = spark. 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. . Namuwa = hukumu. ku-tokota. Daiyani = a name for God. 71.

(S. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. perh. alt. =word Ngoz. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. w. Mv. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. = perhaps. A. = Authority = Arabic. = version obtained at Mombasa. = at the place referred to. usu. Mombasa language or = usual. W. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. Southern. ad loc. 1.) = North. sc. mod. N. = various authority or reading. obtained in the AL. = South. = probably.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. =from. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading. V. or Auth. cf. Kimvita. E." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). alternative reading. lit. fr. = perfect. = alternative. = modern. Northern. or would. = meaning. "li-Mambasii. (N.) pf. -ly. S. or cfr. = with. prob. alt. = compare.V. wd.. VL. Ar.) or Authorities. = literal. = Mombasa. Archipelago. = Captain Stigand's. usually. who This revision spread over .

It will be noted that the N. the poet. which I secured in 1884. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number. of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo.S. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. The first-mentioned. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension. with Mwalimu Sikujua. now I think of The Mrima. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. the the five eight [16]-[18]. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. Eliminating these last. Lamu. It is seldom that a MS. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i. as media for Prose. Poetry. now Museum. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. the note on 12. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. Mombasa. though original. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. MS.and others too numerous to mention. general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. if I remember rightly.) . All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali. . (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. country. RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. and Trade jargon respectively. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. of T'akaungu. who me Another special revision was made. . but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll.

which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . the Arabic dhad and tha. cerebrals. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is.. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make .. e. the dh is a composite sound. The gh. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh. involves a guttural effort. because of the i in the preceding syllable. thus sala (prayer*) is sala. partly that. etc.g. namely on the d and t. at Zanzibar etc. Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech. exactly the same as at Mombasa. 1. 'Athman. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). a broad a The also.B. . like s. etc.. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect. Bismillahi. when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style. partly that dh. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. especially of the a's which succeed them. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all ." in them than at Lamu.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North. d and t. The effect of pronounced with the dentals. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi. N. : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa.. not dhati *. tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. said my teacher. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill . e. produced with the upper blade upon the palate. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple. dh and th. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All. . at Lamu. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati. But Billahi. like "awe. in 1 precedes is Allah. as at Mombasa. etc.g.

being breath consonants. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). etc. . etc. d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained.] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. which from the chest . "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. The vowels are rather 6.. t'. nj. and when it occurs in Lamu. i. e. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). Jomvu (Jo-mvu). The explosive consonants p'. a dissyllable and in to the : . and and kh and gh. not as sing-ing. for the 62 . i. I. far as I . e. but as si-nging Nghad . when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. o. s. etc. u to .. the other t " in whatever zone. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. nd. ng. Therein every used. respectively. differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc. and singing. t'. h (*. Here note The Accent. nd. but especially the d. [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware).S. k'.). be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili.e. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout.. letter aspirated initials and they correspond . ch'. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. a.. not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. (Welsh). pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar.

nd. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word.K. This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. Permanency of Dialect.] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. Bisumiriahi. [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt. easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . as above. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. yet in some words it is so separated. established.84 S.) full value. (') except seldom separated thus I'l. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem. S. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable .P. n'de. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. n' in thus . generally. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1. moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. Zituzo za mato. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. Stanza 1. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t). 3. m' and syllables as in . There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. etc.C. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius .

The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. and Lamu. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. lately and some other Northern Dialects. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. in all the important languages of the world where a regular. However. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. of the with the ever. use of Scripture has obtained. have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. . vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. strong. which. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). where genius exists. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics. popular.S.

ku-awaza. because ni with following e may elide its i. Cp. himdi. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. 9 =kuzingatia. etc. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. Hence. of 1 from Ar. Text wd. || niidiriji || i| || || || . majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. neravoLo. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. || || 6. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . not from ku-euka. 4 =niweneze. but may never become ni. arahamani above with the article. Gr. AL. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. manukuu. kiniukiye therefore as in N. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana. from =ziwaenee. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . namba wazi^siflti. |j 7. 8 kineukie. || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. . ite laili = cast out the night. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. || 5. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. 1. without the h. Kwimakwe || asiondoe. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . from ku-euka . but the first word is exceptionally accented. = exactly. AL. || 9. tfcalali= mists. by elision .) 2 In 8. Mohamadi. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech.INKISHAFI. (N. n. in which such 1's are found. nakala xnankulun. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4. Ngozi. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae..B. Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. This from MS. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. etc. and verbal information.) (kuoa= write. with stress on every syllable. || him'di niitushize 3. . MS. if correct be from ku-uka.

ikawa mayuto yasimsie. || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. siikaribu ewelaibu. Suu ulimwengu.'s.. bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie. V. Note.10." . has here. makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. See Prelim. kuwania S. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. 11. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. MS. 12 and in its In a S. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. halibaini. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. u. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. MS. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). and on 16 18 matakwao. the S. shrewd turns. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). akishishiye. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah. second paragraph. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . : dialects. same words. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. though yu. 12. and A. vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. form correctly wd. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14. zitukuzie i || hali gani. An linga maie. 13. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. stanza 31 occurs twice. || || || || kunwa 15.] mwenyi [17." = bargains. to contend for (it). "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. kuwania situkuzie. hakioni k'itu akishishie || . both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form. Hunambii kwani. Dunia ni jifa. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18.] || || . : endure. "I have not tolerated = do not . ~ 15. soS. MS. Note In Lamu.. to embrace. ? 11 =lina ndia. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. makata-yakwe. Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. 16 in the Translation. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. which Auth. "cuts. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari.] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. MS. etc. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. namba situkuzie S. or. and may mean. and Auth. Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. || 19.

kuzima taratibu moto. 23 This wd. hi S. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. Version. but the text is as S. 20. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha. except as a trisyllable.V. 24 =kuzama kabisa. Auth. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. ni k'avu mno. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . omits by error.88 S. riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. " and Authorities. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". MS. which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. S. Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. hupa mat'ongea. this identical stanza here and also after 12." Ar. MS. || || || || mtenzile kwangu. Auth. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. The last eleven syllables read in S. k' = ni k. " and not die down merely slowly. 21 N. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. : izimikapo. MS. 25. Ewe moyo wangu. form \ jjtf . Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. ikamba " Safari. hudumu nao! || || || 30. etc. as the 13. AL. Auth. || || 22." In MS. MS." Swa.. Caught. ulio weuni katika shaka. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. zalikuwae || ! || 23. See on other emendations [18]. S 31 . and by S. mkohozi akohoao. RECENSION . The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. i. wingu katika kwaka. 22 "Strangled. MS. || hata 27. haiziwiliki. by slip. haina muanga tena." now rather as in a trap or snare.e. Auth. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. 28 S. but is inserted from good S. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. 21. synonym of Death. S. AL. . Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II . kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. . of S. ! || [| ! || 31. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. || huiona izimishie. MSS. to smite under the ribs. S.kupiga kikumbo. walotaladhudhi from Ar. pasi zao. || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . tena S. ewe moyo. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. MS. ghaitha. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo.

RECENSION

S.

32.

Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
wamrushae
awapo mngine

Sulaiinani

maliki

||

ukamkhini
wangapi uwaweneo

ulimfutue

89
ya

insi

ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
iwafusie.
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,
33.

Watoto

||

!

||

||

||

||

||

35.

||

dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
wakenenda
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi

,

||

!

|j

||

||

36.

||

wakaapo
misongo
wawatandie

ili

pot'e

||

vitengo

||

asikari

wema,

.

37.

zikinawiri

zao nibak'e

Nyumba

kwa

||

taa za k'oa na za sifuri;

||

masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
mkwasi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.
;

||

||

||

||

39.

sini

"Wapambie

za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"

||

katika

|j

k'elele za

yanawirie.
masituri, zikiterema

na za
na
za
furaha na nyemi
khudama;
waja

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za

||

mapambo

||

||

||

zishi-

tadie.

32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
"
"
33
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
"
"
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
boy
"
"
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
offshoot
lihadi, either the
scion,"
imp."
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
See
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.
;

;

;

idharusi.

35
AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
36
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
37
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
38
-TA
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then
!

;

;

;

prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
39
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from
:

previous clause.

40

AL.

S.

and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.

90

RECENSION

S.

41. P'indi walalapo

kwa

masindizi

||

wall na wakandi na wabembezi

1|

na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
Kwa
42.
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
waipashie.
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
ikawa
shubiri
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri
||

||

||

||

||

||

||

||

||

.

||

;

||

mi will

kutaathari,

||

usaha na damu zatuuzika,
p'ua
haiba na sura zigeushie.
hushuka
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,

||

||

na makanvva bombwe

47.

||

dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.

;

||

||

||

,

||

tatie.

launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,
yengeme

48.

Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao

zikasawidi
jilidi

||

||

||

||

;

||

||

yalitandie.
50.

k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
mende,
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde
||

;

||

yamesirie
51.

Madaka ya nyumba na
nyuni;

||

||

.

zisahani

bumu hukoroma

||

sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,

||

zichigi

wana wa
na k'uyu

wailalie.

41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
43
So S. Auth.;
S.
wakik'akiwa.
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of

kaa

as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.

44

The

N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
47
49
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
stone-built
50
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
Title.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
51
za, N. A.
45

46
Zitefute,
^
as here and

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

S.

52.

Wana wa

RECENSION

91

na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo
||

shingo nakupiga
waliweshiwie
||

;

||

.

53.

Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo
||

;

54.

||

||

;

ukete

shingo

||

ukita k'witikwi

ela

||

ni

mwengo

;

||

sauti

za wat'u zitindishie.
55.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?
mashikizi

56.

ukipulika

zituko zingapo huya'athika

||

k'wambie

||

la'ala yakutulie

?

||

tuza

!

Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...
||

:

||

||

57.

Mimi t'akwambia,
zisizo

58.

Yu

'Alii

wapi

Mwinyi
ndiae
59.

binu Nasiri?

||

:

||

||

na

za kiza-kiza

nyumba

wangizie

:

ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari

'Idarusi

?

||

||

!

Abu-Bakari?

wanzilepi kue?

||

mbonya

!

Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga
wangizie

60.

nipulikiza

mianga na miangaza

nyumba

||

wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,

Wa

\\

!

||

na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya
!

||

||

||

miti viwaalie.
61.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie
||

||

"

||

.

"

said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
52
Ch'igi
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
*
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."
="wame'

wekewa

[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
54
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
55
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
and
57
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
mianga^madirisha,
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.
53

:

;

;

" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
"
"
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
'
=
CL
what
Hence
Misr-el-Kahira
Pa,te-Sanspareil."
say
!).
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.
60

58
59

'Ali bin Nasir,

Pate-Yunga

a great

(not

man

Yungwa).

'

The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards
;

61

zimewafunga.

S. S. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. || || || || 69. 63." At this point. I dutifully respond.92 62. S. Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo . 66. 2nd sing. || leo ni waushi. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa. Lebeka. fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. ukamba. S. wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. kuk'akatika=(S. Auth. wasiza-ngoa || . sipeketeke . where in fact the S. both students and MSS.) kuudMka. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. Auth. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. " here am I The tedious. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. wapi makadhi wamua haki. kongo." Mod. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. Authorities. . manhttb = the one despoiled. together with the involved and strained constructions. || || || 72. Auth. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . ! || || || 63 65 Mod. mean =sifanye upuzi. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. wasirie wot'e 64. Ar. . Chinese. || " be found out" Auth. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . || wokokapo nawe wokoke. 67S. taadabu. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. be dried up. . "cangue". 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . Haya. Auth. Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. lisizime." The modern survival is only as "yoke. wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. = to VL. "Here am I. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory. waliushie. || . 72 S. Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. derivative wakazunduliwa wd.=mandak'ozi=kongwa. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. ! . 65. VL. || || ! || 70. S. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. Muungu 71. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem. kukwaka. Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo.

and substance of the original. I need hardly as an artist. with this proviso. would have been equally well known in other spheres. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. of the spirit. considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem. form. or even of English poetry . of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. that the form. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. the one Their opinion. religion. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. Homo sum. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment." However. nihil humani k me alienum puto. so far as I have been able to effect it. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. what have was been expected from the candour of say. which in : in . and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. might with such men. and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision. is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall. the other as a poet. without offence against the canons of European taste. the Northern Form. of Mid-China . of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. had they not been such missionaries. this that is to say.

and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. . and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. for instance. obtained in the year 1884. in which it may be seen. least. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. That the be idle to to know a date. the son. Africa in 1493. while in also been all The Mrima. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people. have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. is at least of the it Noun Classes. And truly. yet fix it has been my opinion. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. and second poet of that name. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. of the Poem. a valuable and perfect MS. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. . Swahili. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me.

. 95 ETC. The Utenzi of (i. Ramadban.THE TEXTS. these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar. ia^^jj). about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age.e. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi. That copy was made in a script as in which. Also.. while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character.

.) aye adore. four unique Companions. Praising The Compassionate. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. E. Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall . Then Allah. Abu Mohammed. Khallfah. And then write I for . ancestor the Quraish . Taylor. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. W. Despot Mighty. Caliphs by right divine . The Merciful. ! (Mind ye. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. is not in the Swahili text. the interpretation of the above doctrine. . since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. the Islam are agreed.") (namely. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. Great Allah we 2. 'Othman. Lest come some carping And 3. at fault-finding evermore. Thou Grant er of Requests. 5. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. critic. < ' . those forms to Islam 4. tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. Benedictions holy." the title of a true Caliph. But ere my Poem upriseth. 'Omar. Bakr. The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. 3 4 See note on 11. as . see next note. And The So dear. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. No Alhamdu crying. like as the dawn of day. 'All). 5 Mohammed. Sc. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. set duly at the fore. fie. the Ascription. link Arrahim. pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. This word. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. Bismillak. note. laud." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. God. 32. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful.THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. however. here ! fie.

hath he to fear. me. See the closing note. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. Islam. personified as such in the Gospels.ad monition. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. behold the Theme begin With stern self. lit. What. . The World. 13. my *heart. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. heart. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. ! 12. my heart. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. gloom convicted shall appear. as I school my heart within. Thus finishing the Foreword. Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. Mammon. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. lies : is clear. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. etc.THE INKISHAFI 6. for thee. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. Nay then. 7. a tossing billowy waste. 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. by which Apocalypse. front and rear. 11 S. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. 10. sin's tips. of seed-pearls secure it. I fear 11. Shamefastly 9. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. no less. 7 .

] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore. what find they? ah. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. [18. rushing on.] Thy fancies and thy follies. feet! All they shall draw thence. Who [17. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare. there's . mortal. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. but thou must taste thy bit. the anguish of despair. Faugh. Consider. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. in by the circles brim. . but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart. 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. and wherein thou hast a part. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary . with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. and have with curs thy share 20. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim. curious trifler. though food for dogs most fit. for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. its development. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business. nought but raging The water they had fancied it.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. But. him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. Vie in vain concupiscence. suit. 15.

I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My . But. but rekindled ne'er . it. come. 28. vain. though brightly it had shined ah. Saying. Then listen and 111 tell thee. no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. my schooling still despise. I school thee often. ! 26. tell Yea. Kievu (mod. your ! no longer linger here. : flickers in the wind. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick. . protest. Vain. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. though Crying. it. and forthwith leads them off. I man swear the end . swearing by the beard. depart ye 23. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair.THE INKISHAFI 21. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. and without or tongue may make arrest. yea. if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. I swear ! 24. me that thou weariest of such impertinences. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. 22. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. take your journey hence. Up. And. quotha." The wrist is held to the chin. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me. kidevu) changu . span of life. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. 27. 'Tis past. Come. Hold thy my by beard peace. finished.

for to dare. All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. its place left black and drear. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground. it would toss him high in air. Yea. eyes Mammon's closed. umrl mchache . mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. I ! . become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. N. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom. our Ars longa. (In Ar. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. Both mighty King and Magus. heart. The Pelted. vita brevis. prithee oh. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. whose word none might ." Explained by the proverbial expression. 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. Ash shaitanur rajlm). the stocks Doom and shares.B. which the devil is thought to haunt. to heed well what I say Then heed me. 32. Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34. quenched. mambo makubwa. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. . 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. Sulaiman. of old. withhold Yet he by 33. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. Recension ad loc. . And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. Reapedst thou its choicest. . was.

40. . Gleaming in long rows. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. soft slumbers they would woo. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. their guards in ranks thereby Line up. 42. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . home -born. the wide world. Brilliance 38. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . 39. 43. and beauty are wreathed about them there. and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company. With garnishing that choice is. And everywhere they sit them. All goodly are their couches.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. their beds are exquisite.. And what time. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". in and out harem doth whisper. in art . : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41.. beyond compare. both teak and ebenine. attars in addition. Auth. the universe. Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. their lights trimmed with care. a-weary. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. The lampstands too are massy. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. . 37. I swear by Allah.THE INKISHAFI 36. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. good soldiers their errands for to bear. 73 . in every part complete. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view.

47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. to mate and to pair. 47. as of bear. The City that has lodged them. making ravages rude. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . 45. 51. " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. . "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness.THE INKISHAFI 102 44. Down. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. 49. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. not a voice." So. now empty and lone. . ! . the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. not a tone ! it o'er. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. or of filthy coarse baboon . 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. sun. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. crib 46. that bourne long and last. the natural history here is correct. . here gathereth most or Red-dove. midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . for the Summons forth hath passed Down. it yield a luscious food. green-dove. In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room . . Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. The Home they had dwelt in. down to the Tomb. Here snoreth the brown owl. were still extant in the last century. Thus far.

Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. come. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. 59. tell it forth plain. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. 53. 55. . Ah. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. though no doubt the latter was meant. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. . it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. Then bend low thine ear. ! . all. falchion or the bird. speak out in thy turn. My heart. . two contemporary Winston Churchills. wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. for the truth would I learn . 56. . zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. I ween. Or else have thou thy say. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there. there is the place.THE INKTSHAFI 52. 57. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. pi. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . man go. lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. Where princely Idarus. strain both neck and ! eye. 54. Where never opes window nor 58. how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. . Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. Nay./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation.

heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. Brother. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . be thou schooled. just Judges. What. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. me whither I I pray? too there would steer. ! stress. salve for sore eyes. 66. Potentates and mighty Viziers. Bethink thee. Oh. nor think still to scorn . ! . And And skulls be battered in. dried like 68. on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. 1 ? . heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. 67. heart. you ! my old comrades. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. ! 62. and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the .THE INKISHAFI 104 60. ! . Depart from the evil. shew 69. Ye too. What sayest thou. ye 64. and that sore. be thyself saved. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. Lo. "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. Yea. skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. who once. nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers.

All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. . it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. 73. in the S. nor given free. Text is accordingly a bathos. oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. Not of gold. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. 105 "Grant vengeance at length. See the note ad loc. my heart. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. ! 71. In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. Lord. He now but to threaten them doth deign. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. ) hells which follows in the present N. In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. Piecension. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain .THE INKISHAFI 70. on all his tyrannies. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. nor bought . 72.

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