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Accountancy, Business, and Management Strand of K-12

IA1404/Group 3

Theoretical Framework
The educational needs of the students change as fast as our technology evolves.
The ever dynamic economy of every nation has a direct impact on the changes in the
educational system of a country. Past approaches to teaching and the traditional
educational system have been effective so far but the present generation, with the help of
technology, is capable of learning more. The government together with educational
institutions should find ways on how to use the traditional education system while
integrating the new ones to form one innovative teaching method or system.
According to Charles H. Judd, the theory of generalization maintains that transfer
is a form of generalization which can be encouraged by training. It means that
experiences obtained in one situation are applicable to other situations. It puts emphasis
upon the value to understand, organize, and generalize specific experiences. There is a
need for the learner to interpret relationships and to be able to recognize and apply to
other situations the previously acquired facts or principles.
Additionally, Piagets theory of constructivism states that people produce
knowledge and form meaning based upon their experiences. Piagets theory covered
learning theories, teaching methods and education reform. Two of the key components
which create the construction of an individuals new knowledge are accommodation and
assimilation. Assimilating causes an individual to incorporate new experiences into the
old experiences. This causes the individual to develop new outlooks, rethink what were
once misunderstandings, and evaluate what is important, ultimately altering their
perceptions. Accommodation, on the other hand, is reframing the world and new
experiences into the mental capacity already present. Individuals conceive a particular

Accountancy, Business, and Management Strand of K-12

IA1404/Group 3

fashion in which the world operates. When things do not operate within that context, they
must accommodate and reframing the expectations with the outcomes.
On the other hand, according to the constructivism Theory of Jerome Bruner,
learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based
upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information,
construct hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so.
Cognitive structure (i.e, schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to
experiences and allows the individual to go beyond the information given.
Judds, Piagets, and Bruners theories are the most appropriate theories related to
this study. The theories suggests that past experiences as well as current knowledge of
something are tools that aid the change process. Also, one of the implications of these
theories is that the learner needs to gather all possible sources of knowledge and
experiences so mistakes in the past wont happen again. Just like the proponents, the
government, being the learner in this process, used its past understanding of the
educational system and developed a new one for its betterment, thus the birth of the K-12
Program.