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Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) that consist of coplanar waveguide periodically loaded with resonant tunnel diode are capable of shaping signal waveforms during transmission. Such system is the basis of very interesting microwave signal generation circuits and it has a lot of applications in electronics. Pspice is used to model analog to digital converter by generating short electrical pulses on a nonlinear transmission line. Nonlinear transmission line is realized as electrical lattice with N electrical cells coupled by inductor and resistor in series. Each cell consists of a resonant tunnel diode in parallel with both resistor and capacitor. Attenuation represented by the resistor is cancelled by nonlinear effect. This cancellation produces the desired effect.

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org/rap

A/D Conversion

Hala J. El-Khozondar1,* , Rifa J. El-Khozondar2 , B. Z. Essimbi3

Islamic Universitz of Gaya, Al-Aqsa University, University Duisburg-Essen

EE department, P. O. Box 108, Gaza, Palestine, Physics Department, Al-Aqsa University, P.O. box 4051, Gaza,

Palestine, Optoelectronics, University Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg, Germany

*1

Abstract

Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) that consist of

coplanar wave guide periodically loade d with resonant

tunne l diode are capable of shaping signal wave forms

during transmission. Such syste m is the basis of ve ry

inte resting microwave signal ge ne ration circuits and it has

a lot of applications in e le ctronics. Pspice is use d to mode l

analog to digital converte r by ge nerating short e le ctrical

pulses on a nonlinear transmission line . Nonline ar

transmission line is realize d as e lectrical lattice with N

e lectrical ce lls couple d by inductor and resistor in series.

Each ce ll consists of a resonant tunne l diode in paralle l

with both resistor and capacitor. Attenuation re prese nted

by the resistor is cance lle d by nonlinear e ffect. This

cance llation produces the desire d effe ct.

Keywords

Nonlinera Transmission Line; Resonant Tunneling Diode;

Signal Reshaping; Analog to Digital Converter

Introduction

The high speed performance of most digital systems

is limited by distributed transmission line effects of

packaging and interconnects, instead of switching

speed of semiconductor devices. In many cases, the

quest of higher performance is centering on layout

and topological considerations. System performance

can be improved by studying transmission line

effects (Winklestein et al., 1991).

The nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) has three

fundamental and quantifiable characteristics just as

any nonideal transmission line. These are

nonlinearity, dispersion, and dissipation. Along with

some other characteristics (e.g. impedance, length,

etc.), they define a transmission lines behavior with

arbitrary simulation. What distinguishes one class of

line from another is the degree to which these

characteristics occur and interact. Resonant tunneling

diodes have demonstrated maximum frequency of

12

frequency among active devices, RTDs have been

employed in oscillator, mixer, and switching

applications (Hoffmann, 1987; Liu and Coon, 1987;

zbay et al., 1993).

NLTLs consisting of coplanar waveguide (CPW)

periodically loaded with resonant tunneling diodes

(RTD) provide nonlinearity due to the N-shaped of

current-voltage characteristic of the RTD, dispersion

due to the periodicity, and dissipation due to the finite

conductivity of the CPW conductor and parallel

resistance of the diodes (Brown et al., 1991).

These NLTL are capable of generating picosecond

electrical pulses (Juger, 1985). An important related

application is pulse sharpening for the more traditional

non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data transmission in digital

circuits by improving the rise and fall times of the

pulses. Improving the transitions by shrinking the rise

and fall times of pulses can be useful in other

applications, such as high speed sampling and timing

systems (Afshari and Hajimiri, 2005).

It has shown by previous studies that pulse reshaping is

closely related to the N-shaped current-voltage

characteristic of RTD (Vorontsov, 1964). Essimbi and

Juger (2010) have performed a study of gen erating short

electrical pulses using a schottky transmission line

periodically loaded with RTD. They have been able to

break down single wide pulse into multiple pulses.

This work is focused on the properties of microwave

transmission lines periodically loaded by RTD. Next

section presents the model of NLTL. Then, Pspice

simulation results and their significance are presented,

followed by conclusion in the last section.

Model Description

The equivalent circuit of the n onlinear transmission line

www.seipub.org/rap

1. The equivalent circuit consists of N repeated cells

of resonant tunneling diode (RTD) in parallel with

capacitor (c) and parallel resistor (Rp). Each cell

connected in series with inductor (l) and resistor (R).

Using Kirchhoff laws we can write the equations

which govern the processes of the nonlinear waves in

this equivalent circuit.

The experimental electric circuit is composed of N=80

elements, where the values of the parameters are as

follows: R=0.25, c =53.1fF, l=37.3pH, and Rp=10K.

The input resistor RI =50 is introduced at the input

port of the circuit to an input voltage and the output is

set free. Equation (1) and (2) are solved numerically

using Pspice simulation program.

dV n

V

= I n I n +1 J n n

dt

Rp

(1)

dI

L n = V n 1 V n RI n

dt

(2)

with amplitude 0.5V and frequency 2GHz. The output

at N=30, 40, and 50 for U1=0.1V and U2=0.2V, S1=S2, is

shown in FIG. 3. The output signal has a kink and

node and current entering the nth node, and Jn is the

current through the RTD defined by

th

J n = BV n (V n U 1 )(V n U 2 )

the measurement with U1=0.1V and U2=0.3V where S1<

S2, we get FIG. 4. In this case, we notice that the pulse

(3)

as it propagates. However, when U1=0.2V and U2=0.3V

which is determined by the slope at V=0. Equation (3)

shows that the RTD current-voltage characteristic

obeys the cubic relation.

l/2

Ri

R/2

l/2

R/2

Jn

Vn

l/2

Rp

Vi

R/2

where S1> S2, the pulse will propagate while its width

decrease as exhibited in FIG. 5.

Conclusion

l/2

R/2

Ro

equation (3), for different values of U1 and U2 are

plotted in FIG. 2.

FIG. 2a shows the RTD

characteristic curve at U1 = 0.1V and U2 = 0.2V. In this

case, the area S1 that is above the zero current line

equal the area S2 under the zero current line. While

FIG. 2b represents the characteristic curve at U1 = 0.1

V and U2 = 0.3V. Here S1 < S2. The RTD characteristic

curve at U1 = 0.2V and U2 = 0.3V is plotted in FIG 2c

where S1 > S2.

electrical cells consisting of RTD in parallel with

capacitor and resistor coupled by inductor and resistor

in series are capable of shaping signal waveform during

transmission. Such system is the basis of very

interesting microwave signal generation circuits and it

has a lot of digital applications. Pspice is used to model

analog to digital converter by generating short electrical

pulses on a nonlinear transmission line. Attenuation

represented by the resistor is cancelled by nonlinear

effect. This cancellation producing kink and antiknik

pulses which have a fast rise time is an indication of the

usefulness of the system in converting analog to digital

signal.

Current (A)

Voltage (mV)

13

www.seipub.org/rap

Current (A)

Voltage (mV)

Current (A)

Voltage (mV)

FIG. 2 The CHARACTERISTIC CURVE of THE RTD at DIFFERENT VALUES of U1 and U2 as INDICATED in the FIGURES

Voltage (mv)

n=30

Voltage (mv)

n=40

Time (ps)

Voltage (mv)

n=50

Time (ps)

FIG. 3 PULSE PROFILE VERS US NORMALIZED TIME at n=30, 40, 50, U1=0.1 and U 2=0.2.

14

www.seipub.org/rap

Voltage (mV)

n=30

Time (ps)

(V)

Voltage (mV)

n=40

Time (ps)

n=50

Voltage (mV)

n=40

Time (ps)

FIG. 4 PULSE PROFILE VERS US NORMALIZED TIME at n=30, 40, 50, U1=0.1 and U 2=0.3.

Voltage (mV)

n=30

Time (ps)

Voltage (mV)

n=40

Time (ps)

15

www.seipub.org/rap

Voltage (mV)

n=50

Time (ps)

FIG. 5 PULSE PROFILE VERS US NORMALIZED TIME at n=30, 40, 50, U1=0.2 and U 2=0.3.

REFERENCES

B. Z. Essimbi, D. Jger. "Ge ne ration of e lectrical short pulses

using a schottky transmission line pe riodically loade d

with tunne ling diode s." phys. Scr. 81(2010): 1-4.

D. Jge r. "Characteristics of trave lling waves along nonlinear

transmission lines for monolithic inte grate d circuits." A

re vie w, int. J. Electron. 58 (1985): 649-669.

D. Winkle ste in, M. B. Steer, R. Pomerleau. "Simulation of

arbitrary transmission line ne tworks and nonlinear

transmissions." IEEE T Circuits Syst. 38 (1991): 418- 422.

E. Afshari, A. Hajimiri. "Non-line ar transmission lines for

pulse shaping in silicon." IEEE solid state circuits, 40

(2005): 744-752.

E. zbay, D. M. Bloom, D. H. Chowand, J. N. Schulman, 1.7

ps, Microwave. "Integrate d-Circuit-Compatible

InAs/AlSb Resonant Tunne ling Diodes." IEEE Ele ctr

De vice L.,14(1993): 400 - 402.

E. R. Brown, J. R. Soderstrom, C. D. Parker, L. J. Mahoney, K.

M. Molvar, and T. C. McGill. "Oscillations Up To 712

GHz in InAs/AlSb Resonant-Tunne ling Diodes." Appl.

Phys. Le tt., 58(1991) 400-402.

H.C. Liu, D. D. Coon. "Hete rojunction Double -Barrier

Diode s for Logic Applications." Appl. Phys. Le tt. 50

(1987): 1246-1248.

R. K. Hoffmann. "Handbook of Microwave Inte grate d

Circuits." Artech House , Inc., Norwood, 1987.

Y. I. Vorontsov. "Ce rtain prope rties of de lay lines containing

tunne l diodes." Radiote khnika I e lectron+. 9(1964): 478483.

16

Te rritory. She got her B.Sc. in Physics from BirZe it

Unive rsity, Palestinian Territory in 1987. She earne d her

Ph.D. in physics from NMSU, USA in 1999. She joine d the

physics faculty at BirZe it Unive rsity in 1987. She had a

Postdoc award at Max Planck Institute in He ide lbe rg,

Ge rmany in 1999.

In 2000, she worke d as assistant professor in e lectrical and

computer e ngineering (ECE) de partme nt at Islamic

Unive rsity of Gaza. In 2007, she had promote d to an

associate d professor and currently she is a Professor. she

worke d as a vice dean for e xte rnal re lations at Islamic

Unive rsity of Gaza till 2011. She advises se ve ral graduate

and unde rgraduate stude nts. She participate d in seve ral

confere nces and workshops. He r research inte rests are

focuse d on studying Wire less communication, optical

communication, optical fibe r se nsors, magne to-optical

isolators, optical filte r, MTMs de vices, biophysics, e lectrooptical waveguides, and nume rical simulation of

microstructural e volution of polycrystalline mate rials.

She is a recipie nt of inte rnational awards and re cognitions,

including Fulbright Scholarship, DAAD short study visit,

Ale xande r von Humboldt-Stiftung Scholarship, Erasmus

Mundus, and Islamic Unive rsity Deanery Prize for applie d

scie nces.

Rifa J. El-Khozondar was born in Gaza. She is an associate

professor at the physics de partme nt at Al-Aqsa Unive rsity.

She got he r B.Sc. in physics from Birze it Unive rsiy at

Pale stine in 1986, and M.Sc. in physics in 1996 and her Ph. D.

in computational material scie nce in 2002 from Ne w Me xico

State Unive rsity in the USA. He r main research inte rests are

material scie nce , numerical me thods and waveguide se nsors.

She has atte nde d se veral national and inte rnational

confere nces. She also has bee n awarde d se veral scholarships

including the DAAD and the Ale xande r von HumboldtStiftung scholarship.

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