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Chapter - 1

Semiconductor Diodes & Applications


In this chapter, a brief review of the PN junction diode, its characteristics, its applications in
the different type of rectifier circuits along with filtering circuits and a large number of
university exam questions and problems are being presented. A brief summary of the
formulae listing is also provided.

INTRODUCTION

Diode is a two electrode or a two terminal device. A semiconductor diode is a PN

junction with a connecting lead on each side as shown in the Fig.


A diode is a one way device, offering low resistance when diode is forward biased and
high resistance when reverse biased, i.e., conducts in one direction (forward) & does not

conduct in the reverse direction.


Thus, diode can be used as a switch, i.e., ON when forward biased and OFF when
reversed biased. Low current diodes are used in switching circuits.

P-N junction Diode:-

Fig. : PN junction diode

A PN junction provided with copper wire acting as conductors (connecting leads)


becomes an electronic device known as a diode & is as shown in the Fig. .
Fig : Diode symbol

In diode symbol, the arrowhead indicates the conventional direction of current flow

when the diode is forward biased as shown in the Fig. .


The P-side of the diode is always the positive terminal for forward bias and is termed as

the anode.
The N-side negative terminal for forward bias and is termed as cathode.
A PN-junction diode can be destroyed by a high level of forward current overheating the
device and by a large reverse voltage causing the junction to breakdown.

Silicon diode Forward & Reverse characteristic (Si):

The forward and reverse characteristics of the diode are also called as the v-i
characteristics of the diode.

For silicon diode, the forward current IF remains very low (<A) until the diode forward

bias voltage VF exceeds approximately 0.7 V.


Above 0.7 V, IF increases almost linearly with increase in VF. The diode reverse current
IR is very much smaller than its forward current IF. For silicon, IR is normally less

than 100 nA, and it is almost completely independent of the reverse-bias voltage.
IR is due to minority charge carriers and is called reverse saturation current.
When reverse bias voltage VR is sufficiently increased, the diode goes into reverse

breakdown which may get destroyed.


Reverse breakdown occurs at 75V as shown in the Fig.

Fig. : Forward & Reverse characteristics (VI characteristics) of silicon diode

Germanium diode Forward & Reverse characteristic (Ge):-

Fig : Forward & Reverse characteristic of germanium diode

For silicon diode, the forward current IF remains very low (<A) until the diode forward

bias voltage VF exceeds approximately 0.3 V as shown in the Fig. .


Above 0.3V, IF increases almost linearly with increase in VF. The diode reverse current
IR is very much smaller than its forward current IF. For silicon diode, IR is normally

less than 1 A, and it is almost completely independent of the reverse-bias voltage.


IR is due to minority charge carriers and is called reverse saturation current.
When reverse bias voltage VR is sufficiently increased, the diode goes into reverse

breakdown which may get destroyed.


Reverse breakdown occurs at 50 V.

Diode parameters:
The diode parameters are :
1) Forward voltage drop V
2) Maximum forward current IF(max)
3) Reverse saturation current IR
4) Reverse breakdown voltage VBR
5) Dynamic resistance rd
Each parameter is explained one below the other as follows

1) Forward voltage drop (V):


It is the voltage drop across a diode when it conducts, i.e., VF > V then diode conducts. It is
also called as cut-in voltage.

For silicon diode V = 0.7 V and for the germanium diode V = 0.3 V.

2) Maximum forward current (IF(max)):It is the maximum current a diode can pass under forward bias condition, without
permanent damage to PN junction due to over-heating.

3) Reverse Saturation current (IR):The reverse saturation current IR is the nominal current which flows through the diode
when it is reverse biased. For silicon diode, it is in the order of nA and for germanium diode
IR is in the order of A.

4) Reverse Breakdown voltage (VBR):The reverse breakdown voltage VBR is the reverse bias voltage at which the PN junction
breaks down & permanently damages the diode. For silicon diode, VBR is less than 50V and
for germanium diode VBR is about 100V.

5) Dynamic resistance rd or ac resistance:The dynamic resistance rd of a diode is the reciprocal of the slope of the forward
characteristics beyond the knee as shown in the Fig.

Fig. : Forward characteristics

Vf
If
Slope of the forward characteristics =
Vf
If
Dynamic resistance rd = reciprocal of slope of forward-characteristics, i.e., rd =
26 mV
If
The dynamic resistance can also be calculated by r =
d

Exam Problem : Calculate the dynamic resistance for a diode passing = 10mA forward
current.
Given : IF = 10 mA

26 mV
26 mV
If
10 mA = 26
Sol : rd =
=

Exam Problem : Determine the dynamic resistance at a forward current of 70 mA for the
diode characteristics given in figure

Fig. : Figure for the above problem


Sol : Given, IF = 70 mA
From the figure,

Vf
0.25 V
I f = 60 mA = 0.42
rd =
26 mV 26 mV
I f = 70 mA = 0.37
rd =
Exam Problem : Calculate the forward and reverse resistances offered by a silicon diode
with the characteristic in figure at IF = 100 mA when VR = 50V.

Fig. : Figure for above problem


Sol : From the figure, at IF = 100 mA, VF = 0.75 V

Vf
0.75 V
I
Forward resistance RF = f = 10 mA = 7.5
At VR = 50 V, IR = 100 A

Vr
50 V
I
r
Reverse resistance RR =
= 100 nA = 500 M
Diode Approximation:
The diode approximations for 3 types of diodes are shown in the figures below.

(a) Ideal diode

(b) Silicon diode


Fig. : Diode approximations

i) Ideal diode characteristics:Ideal diode has [Fig. (a)]

Zero forward resistance (RF = 0)


Zero reverse current (IR = 0) &
Infinite reverse resistance (RR = )

ii) Silicon diode characteristics: [Fig. (b)]

(c) Germanium diode

Silicon diode has

Silicon diode has 0.7 V cut-in-voltage


It has low forward resistance.

iii) Germanium diode characteristics: [Fig. (c)]


Germanium diode has

Germanium diode has 0.3V cut-in voltage


It has low forward resistance.

Piecewise linear characteristics:

The straight line approximation of the forward characteristics of a diode (Fig. ) is called

piecewise linear characteristics.


Piecewise linear characteristic is conducted first marking VF on the horizontal axis
(point A) as shown in the Fig. and then a straight line (point B) is drawn with a slope
equal to the diode dynamic resistance.
Fig. : Forward characteristics of a diode

Fig. : Piecewise linear approximation

DC equivalent circuit of diode:

An equivalent circuit is a circuit that represents the device behavior. The diode DC
equivalent circuit consists of voltage sources and resistors.

Fig. : Diode
Fig. : Basic DC eq. circuit of diode
A conducting diode (Fig. 11) can be represented as a voltage source equal to constant

cut-in voltage V and zero series resistance as shown in Fig. .


Equivalent circuit includes the diode dynamic resistance rd in series with the constant
voltage source V and ideal diode is also included as shown in Fig.
Fig. : Diode

Fig. : Basic DC eq. circuit of diode

Exam Problem 4 : Calculate IF for the diode current in the figure assuming that the diode
has VF = 0.7 V and rd = 0 then, recalculate the current taking rd = 0.25 .

Fig. : Figure for the above problem


Given :i) VF = Vr = 0.7 V, rd = 0

Fig. : Equivalent circuit with rd = 0


Applying KVL, we get the KVL equation for the equivalent circuit as
V IFR1 VF = 0

If

V VF 1.5v 0.7v

80 mA
R1
10k
IF = 80 mA

ii) With rd = 0.25 & VF = Vr = 0.7 V

Fig. : Equivalent circuit with rd = 0.25

Applying KVL, we get

V I F R 1 I F rd VF 0
V VF I F R 1 rd 0
I F R 1 rd V VF
IF

V VF
1.5 v 0.7 v

R 1 rd 10 k 0.25

I F 78 mA
DC load line:-

Fig. : Diode resistor series circuit


The Fig. shows a diode in series with a resistance R1 and a supply voltage V. The polarity
of V is such that the diode is forward biased, so a diode forward current IF flows.
Applying KVL to the circuit, we get
V IF R1 VF

VF

V IF R1

VF + IFR1 .. Eq. (1)

Fig. : DC load line & Q-point.

A DC load line is a straight line on the diode forward characteristics which describes all

the DC conditions that exists in the operation of the circuit as shown in the Fig. .
To determine DC load line points (i.e. A & B) as shown below in the 2 cases.

Consider Eq. (1) as


V = IFR1 + VF
Case (i): Determining point A,

Case (ii) : Determining point B,

when IF = 0, in eq. (1)

when VF = 0 in eq. (1)

V = VF

V = IF R1

Vf
R
IF = 1
Now, point A & B are joined to get a DC load line.

Q-Point:

Q-Point is the point on the diode forward-characteristics, where the DC load line

intersects the forward characteristics of the diode.


Q-Point is also called as Quiescent point or the DC bias point.

Consider eq. (1)


V = IFR1 + VF
IFR1 = V VF

V Vf

R
R1
IF = 1
VF V

R
R1
1
IF =
1
V
VF
I F
R1
R1

Eq. (2) represents a straight line.


It is in the form y = mx + c, where y = IF, m =

(1/R1), x = VF & c = V/R.

Exam Problem : Draw the DC load for the circuit in Fig. 20 (a). The diode forward
characteristic is given in Fig. (b).
Fig. (a)
Sol :-

w.rt. the circuit,

IF

V VF
R1

i) When IF = 0 (Point A)
v = VF
V=5V

ii) When VF = 0 (Point B)

Fig. (b)

V
5

50 mA
R
100
1
IF =
IF = 50 mA

Fig. : DC load line & Q-point.

Exam Problem 6 : Determine the required load resistance for the circuit in Fig. (a) using
the device characteristics in Fig. (b).
Fig. (a)

Fig. (b)

Sol : When V = 5 V, IF = 30mA, R1 = ?


w.r.t. the circuit,

IF

V VF
R1

IFR1 = V VF
Determining DC load line points,
When IF = 0, V = VF = 5 V (point A) . w.r.t. Fig.
Now plot Q-point in Fig. (b) at IF = 30 mA

Fig. : DC load line & Q-point.

VF
5V

IF 37.5 mA
From the load line, R1 =
R1 = 133

Temperature effects in a diode power dissipation:

The product of voltage drop VF across the diode and the current IF flowing through the
diode gives the power dissipation in a diode.
Fig. : Power temperature curve of a diode

The slope of the curve in Fig (a). defines the de-rating factor as given by
P

Derating factor = T

The equation for the new maximum power dissipation when the temperature changes is
given by

P2 P1 at T1 T derating factor
where the change in temperature is given by T T2 T1 .

Exam Problem : A diode with 700 mW maximum power dissipation at 250C has a 5 mW/C
derating factor. If the forward voltage drop remains constant at 0.7 V, calculate the
maximum forward current at 250C and at 650C temperature.
Given :- P = 700 mw, T1 = 250C, T2 = 650C, derating factor = 5 mw/C, VF = 0.7 V
To find out :- IF = ? at 25 0C & IF = ? at 65 0C
Sol :i) At 25 0C,

VF IF

IF

P 700 mW
VF = 0.7 v

IF

1A

T2 T1 = 65 0C 25 0C

40 0C

P2

P1 at T1 T derating factor

700 mw [400C 5m/0C]

500 mw

IF

P2 500 mW
VF = 0.7 v

IF

714 mA

ii) At 65 0C,

Junction Capacitance:
The junction capacitance is defined as
i)

When diode is reverse biased, depletion layer capacitance or transition capacitance, which

occurs at the junction is called as the junction capacitance.


ii) When diode is also forward biased, the diffusion capacitance occurs at the junction, this is
also called as junction capacitance.
i) Depletion or Transition layer capacitance (Cpn):Fig. : Depletion layer capacitance.

When a diode is reverse biased, the depletion region around the junction behaves like a

dielectric as this region is free of carriers.


As reverse voltage is increased, the width of the depletion region increases.
We know that a dielectric between two conducting plates acts as a capacitor and is given
by

C pn

A
d

where C is capacitance in farad.


A is the area of plate in m2
d is the distance between the plates in m.
is the permittivity of the dielectric between the plates.

ii) Diffusion Capacitance (Cd):

Fig. : Diffusion capacitance


When a forward biased junction is suddenly reversed, a reverse current flows which is
initially large and slowly decreases to the reverse saturation current level. The effect is
similar to that of the discharge of a capacitor and is called diffusion capacitance Cd.

Cd

dQ
dV

where Q is injected charge in coulombs &


V is the forward bias voltage in volts

AC Equivalent condition:
i) Reverse-biased condition:
A reverse biased diode can be simply represented by the reverse resistance RR in parallel
with the depletion layer capacitance Cpn.

Fig. : Equivalent circuit for a reverse-biased diode.


ii) Forward-biased condition:

Fig. (a) : AC equivalent circuit for a forward

Fig. (b): AC equivalent circuit for a forward

biased diode.
biased diode.
Fig. : Forward biased condition equivalent circuits
A forward-biased diode is represented by two parallel circuits as shown in figure above.

Fig (a). comprises of forward voltage drop V in series with dynamic resistance rd in parallel
with Cd.
Fig (b). consists of the dynamic resistance rd in parallel with Cd.
Reverse Recovery time:
Consider a voltage pulse with a +ve and ve voltage applied to the diode as shown in Fig. .

Fig. : Diode Switching time

When the diode is forward biased, it conducts, i.e., large number of electrons diffuses
from N-side into P-side and vice-versa. So, a large number of minority carriers exists in

each type material.


Now, if the polarity of the applied bias voltage is suddenly reversed to make the diode
reverse biased, then ideally the diode should change its condition from ON to OFF

instantly.
However, practically this does not happen because of large number of carriers in each

side, established in forward biased condition.


The diode current simply reverses and remains at this value for a certain period of time,
called storage time ts as shown in Fig. . Thus, diode remains in ON condition during

storage time ts.


After ts, the minority carriers return to their majority carrier state in the opposite
material, current reduces and reaches its reverse saturation value after certain time

called the transition interval ts.


Therefore, the sum of storage time and transition interval is known as reverse recovery
time (trr) for the diode.

i.e.,

trr = Ts + tt

Fig. : Reverse recovery time figure


i.e.,

tp >> trr
The reverse-recovery time is kept minimal by ensuring that the fall time tr of the
applied pulse be much larger than the reverse recovery time trr as shown in the Fig. .

i.e.,
usually,

tf >> trr
tf (min) = 10 trr

Exam Question : Define reverse recovery time in a diode. How is the reverse recovery
time kept minimal ?

Fig. : Diode switching time

Reverse recovery time of a diode is defined as the time taken by the diode in reverse bias
condition to turn OFF the diode from the ON state.

Mathematically, Trr = ts + tt
i.e., it is the sum of the storage time and the transition time.

The reverse recovery time is kept minimal by ensuring that the fall time tr of the applied
pulse be much larger than the reverse recovery time trr as shown in Fig. .

i.e.,
Usually,

tf >> trr
tf (min)=10 trr
Fig. : How to keep the reverse recovery time minimal

Exam Problem : Find the minimal fall-time for voltage pulses applied to a diode with
reverse-recovery time of 5 ns.
Given :- trr = 5 ns
Sol: The minimal fall-time is given by
Tf(min) = 10 trr
Tf(min) = 10 5 ns
Tf(min) = 50 ns

Exam Problem : Estimate the reverse-recovery time of a diode for an input with 1 s falltime
Given:- tf = 1 s
Sol:-

tf >> 10 trr
Trr(max) = tf / 10 = 1 s /10
Trr(max) = 0.1 s

Effect of temperature on the forward voltage drop across a diode

Fig. : Variation of VF with temperature


The voltage drop across a forward biased pn-junction changes with temperature, i.e.,
i)
ii)

1.8 mV/0C for a silicon diode and


2.02 mV/0C for a germanium diode

The change in the forward voltage drop at any temperature can be calculated as:

VF (T2 ) VF (T1 ) T2 T1 V
where
VF(T1) is the forward voltage drop at temperature T1
VF(T2) is the forward voltage drop at temperature T2
V is the voltage temperature co-efficient.

Dynamic resistance of arbitrary temperature:


The dynamic resistance of the diode at 25 0C is given by

rd

26 mV

IF

The dynamic resistance at any junction temperature T in 0C is given by

rd

26 mV T 273

I F 298

Exam Problem : A silicon diode with a 0.7 V forward voltage drop at 25 0C is to be operated
with a constant forward current up to a temperature of 100 0C. Calculate the diode voltage
VF at 100 0C. Also, determine the junction dynamic resistance at 25 0C and at 100 0C if the
forward current is 26 mA.
Given:- T1 = 25 0C, VF1 = 0.7 V, T2 = 100 0C
To find : VF = ?, rd = ? @ 25 0C & 100 0C
Sol:- For a Silicon diode, V = 1.8 mv/0C

VF (T2 ) VF (T1 ) T2 T1 V
= 0.7 V + (100 0C 25 0C) (1.8 mv/0C)
VF(T2) = 0.565 V
At T = 25 0C, IF = 26 mA

rd
rd

26 mV T 273

I F 298

26 mV 25C 273 C

26 mA
298 C

rd = 1

At T =100 C , IF = 26 mA

rd

26 mV 100 C 273 C

26 mA
298 C

rd = 1.25

Zener Diode
Zener diode as voltage regulator:
Exam Question : With neat circuit diagram, explain zener diode voltage regulator.
Exam Question : Explain how zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator.

Fig. : Zener diode voltage regulators

The zener diode is called as voltage regulator or diode because it maintains a constant

o/p voltage even though the current through it changes.


The I/P voltage Vi the unregulated (varying) DC voltage. The zener diode is used in the
reverse biased region. Under this condition, the current through the diode is very small

i.e., in terms of A.
When sufficient reverse voltage is applied, the zener breakdown occurs (zener diode
conducts) & a large current flows through the diode, which is called as avalanche

breakdown.
The voltage at which zener diode conducts is called zener voltage Vz. Under this
condition, the voltage across the zener is constant & equal to Vz. As Vz is connected
across the load, the load voltage Vo is equal to the zener voltage Vz.

Thus, the zener diode acts as an voltage regulator.


,

V0 = Vz

From the zener diode circuit Fig. , the current


I

Iz + IL

Iz

I IL .. (1)

Vi V0
R
..(2)

The current I is given by

Substituting Eq (2) in Eq (1), we get

Iz

Vi V0
IL
R

Iz IL

Vi V0
R

Cross-multiplying, we get

Vi V0
Iz IL

The load resistance is given by

RL

V0
IL

The power is given by


Pz max = Iz max Vz

Exam Question : What is voltage regulator ? Why is it necessary ?

Fig. : Zener diode voltage regulator

A voltage regulator is a circuit which accepts unregulated DC as i/p & provides a


construct DC o/p voltage irrespective of the changes in the line voltage & the load

current.
Most of the electronic circuits require a stable DC voltage for their proper operation.
Hence, it is necessary to regulate the voltage before giving as i/p to the electronic
circuits.

The Fig. shows the example of regulated DC power supply.

FORMULAS
1)

o/p voltage V0 = Zener voltage, Vz ; i.e., V0 = Vz

2)

The current in the circuit is given by I = Iz + IL ; Iz max = Iz

3)

Zener current IZ = I IL

4)

Vi = IR + V0

5)

Vi V0
R

R
6)

Vi V0
Iz IL

R min
7)

8)
9)

10)

i)

RL

Vi ( max) V0

R max

I z ( max) I L (min)

ii)

V0
IL

Pz max = Iz max Vz ; P0 = Pz max

I z (max)

Pz (max)

11) For Vi (min) :

12) For Vi (max) :

Vz
Iz

Iz (min)

Iz (min) + IL

Vi (min)

IR + V0

IZ

Iz (max)

Vi ( min) V0
I z ( min) I L (max)

Iz (max) + IL

Vi(max)

IR + Vo

Exam Problem : Design a zener regulator to meet the following specifications: Output
voltage 10 V, load current 10 mA, Unregulated DC input voltage = 15 2 V, Zener voltage =
500 mW and Iz (min) = 5 mA.
Given :- V0 = Vz = 10 V, IL = 10 mA
Vi(min) = 13 V,
Vi(min) = 15 2 = 13 V
Vi(max) = 17 V
Vi(max) = 15 + 2 = 17 V
Izmin = 5 mA, Pzmax = 50 mW
ILmax = ILmin = IL = 10 mA, R = ? & RL = ?
Sol :-

RL

V0 10 mV

1 K
I L 10 mA

R max

Vi (min) V0
I z (min) I L (max)

I z (max)

R min

Pz (max)
Vz

13 V 10 V
200
5 mA 10 mA

500 10 -3
50 mA
10

Vi ( max) V0
I z ( max) I L (min)

17 V 10 V
116 .66
50 mA 10 mA

Fig. :

Exam Problem : A 24 V, 600 mW zener diode is used for providing a 24 V stabilized supply
to a variable load. If the input voltage is 32 V, Calculate.
i) The value of series resistance required
ii) Diode current when the load is 1200
Given:- Vz = 24 V, Pz(max) = 600 mW, V0 = 24 V, Vi = 32 V
Sol:-

R
i)

Vin Vz
I z I L ; Since, I & R is not given, so I = 0
L
1
L

Vin Vz
I z(max)

WKT PZ(max) = Iz(max) . Vz

I z(max)
R

Pz(max)
Vz

600 mW
25 mA
24

Vin Vz 32 V 24V

32
I z(max)
25 mA

ii) When load is 1200 & R = 400 find Iz = ?

IL

V0
24 V

20 mA
R L 1200

IL

Vin V0 32 V 20 V

20 mA
R
400

WKT I = IZ + IL
IZ = I IL = 20 mA 20 mA = 0 A
When load is 1200 , current Iz = 0 Amps

Fig.

Exam Problem : Design the zener regulator for the following specifications :
Output voltage = 5V, Load Current = 20 mA, Zener voltage
Pzmin = 500 mW, Input voltage =125 3V
Given :- Vz = V0 = 5 V, IL = ILmin = ILmax = 20 mA, Pzmax = 500 mW
Vi = 12 V 3V, i.e., Vi(min) = 12 V 3V = 9 V
R = ? RL = ? Vi(max) = 12 V + 3 V = 15 V
Sol:-

RL

V0
5V

250
I L 20 mA

I z(max)

R min

Pz(max)
Vz

500 mW
100 mA
5V

Vi(max) V0
I z(max) I L(min)

15 V 5 V
83.33
100 mA 20 mA

Fig.

Exam Problem : In a zener diode regulator, the input DC is 10 V 20 %. The output


requirements are 5V & 20 mA. Assuming Iz(min) & Iz(max) as 5 mA and 80 mA, design the zener
diode regulator.
Given:- Vin = 10 V 20 %, V0 = Vz = 5 V, IL = 20 mA
Iz(min) = 5 mA, Iz(max) = 80 mA, Vi(min) = 10 V 2 V = 8 V
Vi(max) = 10 V + 2 V = 12 V & IL = IL(min) = IL(max) = 20 mA
Sol:-

RL

V0
5V

250
I L 20 mA

R min
R max

Vi(max) V0
I z(max) I L(min)
Vi(min) V0
I z(min) I L(max)

12 V 5 V
70
80 mA 20 mA

8V 5V
120
5 mA 20 mA

Fig.
Exam Problem : In the zener voltage regulator shown in Fig., zener ratings are Vz = 10 V at
zener current of 32 mA with R2 = 0. Find the range of RL and IL for load voltage to be
constant. What is the maximum voltage of the diode ?

Fig.
Given : V0 = Vz = 10 V, Iz = 32 mA, Rz = 0 , Vin = 50 V, R = 1 K,
To find out : RL = ?, Pz(max) = ?

Vin V0 50 V 10 V

40 mA
R
1 K

I Iz IL
I L I I z 40 mA 32 mA 8 mA

RL

V0 10 V

1250
I L 8 mA

Pz(max) I z .V0 32 mA 10 V 320 mW

Exam Problem : Design a zener regulator with the following specifications.


V0 = 12 V, Vin = (25 to 35) V, IL = (35 to 55) mA and Iz = (25 to 45) mA

R min

Vi(max) V0
I z(max) I L(min)

35 V 12 V
287.5
45 mA 35 mA

R max

Vi(min) V0
I z(min) I L(max)

R L(max)
R L(min)

V0
I L(max)
V0
I L(min)

25 V 12 V
162.5
25 mA 55 mA

12 V
218.18
55 mA

12 V
342.85
35 mA

Fig.
Exam Problem : A zener diode has a breakdown voltage of 10 V. It is supplied from a
voltage source varying between 20 - 40V in series with a resistance of 820 . Using an
ideal zener model, obtain the minimum and maximum zener currents.
Given : R = 820 , V0 = Vz = 10 V, Vi(min) = 20 V, Vi(max) = 40 V.
To find : Zener equivalent model = ?

I min
I max

Vi(min) V0
R
Vi(max) V0
R

20 V 10 V
12.195 mA
820

40 V 10 V
36.585 mA
820

For an ideal zener model, Iz(min) = 0 Amps.


IL(min) = 0 A, when the o/p terminals are open.

I max I z(max) I L(min)


I max I z(max)
I z(max) I max 36.585 mA

Fig.

Exam Question : Explain the difference between Avalanche breakdown & Zener
breakdown w.r.t. zener diodes.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Avalanche Breakdown
Take place in lightly doped diodes
Occurs at higher reverse voltage
Carrier multiplication is present
It destroys the junction
Depletion region is wider
It is gradual

Zener Breakdown
Take place in heavily doped diodes
Occurs at lower resource voltage
Carrier multiplication is absent
It will not destroy the junction
Depletion region is small
It is sharp & sudden

RECTIFIERS
Rectification :
Rectification is the process of converting alternating current (ac) into direct current (dc).

Rectifier:Rectifier is a device that converts ac (alternating current) into dc (direct current)


Semiconductor diodes are used as rectifying elements to do this process of conversion from
ac to dc.

Rectifiers are classified into:


1. Half wave rectifier (HWR)
2. Full wave rectifier (FWR)

Full wave rectifier can be built up in 2 ways:


1. Full wave rectifier using 2 diodes & a centre tapped transformer (FWR).
2. Full wave bridge rectifier using 4 diodes & an ordinary transformer (FWBR).

HALFWAVE RECTIFIER (HWR) :

Fig.
Half wave rectifier consists of a single diode in series with a load resistance & the voltage
across the load can be taken as the output voltage V0. The ac voltage across the secondary
winding A & B of the transformer changes the polarities after every half a cycle.

Operation:
During positive half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes positive with respect to
end B, the diode D is forward biased and acts as a short circuit, thus the current flows in
the circuit as shown in the Fig. 2. The load voltage is then given by V0 = IL RL

Fig 2

Fig 3

During negative half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes negative with respect to
end B, the diode D is reverse biased and acts as a open circuit, thus no current flows in
the circuit as shown in the Fig. 3. The load voltage is given by V0 = 0 RL.

Therefore, V0 = 0 V

The dc output waveform is expected to be straight line, but the half wave rectifier gives the
output in the form of positive sinusoidal pulses. Hence, the output is called as a pulsating
dc waveform.
The load current is given by:

IL

where

Im

I m sin(in , 0 t

0, t 2

Vm
RL

1) Average or dc load current (Idc or Iav):2

Idc

1
I L d t
2

Idc

1
I m sin t.d t
2

I m sin t.d t

Im
cos( t ) 0
2

Im
cos() cos(0)
2

Im
1 1
2

Im
2
2

Im

2) Average dc load voltage (Vdc):-

Vdc

I m sin t.d t 0.d t

Idc RL ;

I dc

Im

Vdc

V
Im
Im m
RL
RL ;

Vm
R L . R
L

Vm

3) RMS value of load current (IRMS):- square root of the mean of the square of the
instantaneous values of the current.
2

IRMS

1
I 2L d t
2

1
2
1
2

Im sin t

.d t

I m sin
2

t .d t

sin 2

1 cos2
2

cos 2

sin 2
2

I 2m 1 cos 2 t

.d t
2
2

I 2m
4

1 cos2 t .d t 1 cos2 t .d t

I 2m
sin2 t

4
2
0

I 2m
sin2 t
0
4
2

I 2m
sin2 sin2(0)

4
2
2

I 2m
0 0 0
4

I 2m

; cos 2t = 0

=
=

I 2m
4
Im
2

4) RMS value of the load voltage (VRMS):-

VRMS

IRMS . RL

Im
RL
2

Vm
.R L
2R L

Vm
2

Im
; IRMS = 2

Vm
R
; Im = L

5) DC output power (Pdc):-

PDC

2
I dc
.R L
2

I 2m
Im
.R L

.RL
2

=

Vm
1

. .R L
2
RL

Vm2
=

R 2L 2

Vm

.R L
2

1
RL

6) AC output power (Pac):-

PAC

I 2RMS . R L

Im

RL
2

7) Rectification efficiency (%):The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ratio of the dc power output to ac power input & is
given by

Pdc
DC o/p power
AC i/p power = Pac

0.406

40.6 %

I 2m
1
.R L
2
1 4
2
2 0.406
2
1
1
Im

4
.R L
= 4

In HWR, maximum 40.6 % ac power gets converted to dc power in the load.


8) Ripple factor:Ripple factor is defined as the ratio of the RMS value of the ac component present in the
rectified output to the dc component present in the rectified output.

WKT

WKT

RMS value of the ac component of o/p


dc component of o/p

I ac
I dc

IRMS

I 2rms

2
2
I ac
I dc

2
I ac

2
I 2rms I dc

I ac

IDC

.. Eq. (1)

2
2
I ac
I dc

2
I 2rms I dc

.. Eq. (2)

Im
Eq. (3)

Substituting Eq. (2) & (3) in Eq. (1), we get,

I dc

I 2rms
2
I dc
1
1

=
r

Im

1
=

4 1

2
I dc

Im

2
I 2rms I dc

2
I 2rms I dc

I ac
I dc

I 2rms
2
I dc

2
I dc
2
I dc

2
1
4

1.21

This indicates that the amount of ac present in the output is 121 % of the dc voltage.

Peak Inverse voltage (PIV):PIV is the maximum voltage present across the diode, when the diode is reverse biased.

Fig. :
Applying KVL to the circuit, we get.
V2 + Vr IL RL

; IL = 0

V2 + Vr 0 RL

V 2 + Vr

Vr

V2

; V2 = Vm sin(mt)

Vr(max)

[Vm sin(mt)]max

; Vr max = Vm & (sint)max=1

Vr(max)

Vm

Therefore, for HWR (PIV) =

Vm

Advantages of HWR:1. Only one diode is required.


2. No centre-tap is required on the transformer.
3. PIV is same as secondary output voltage.

Disadvantages or demerits of HWR:1. The ripple factor is too high, i.e., = 1.21
2. Rectification efficiency is low i.e. 40.6%

FWR with centre-tapped transformer:Exam Question : Explain with the help of a neat circuit diagram the working of a full
wave rectifier & derive expressions for
i) Idc

ii) Irms

iii) Ripple factor

iv) Rectifier efficiency

Fig. : FWR using two diodes & a centre-tapped transformer.


Operation:
During +ve half cycle:

During +ve half cycle of the ac input voltage, and A becomes +ve with respect to end B,
the diode D1 is forward biased and conducts while the diode D2 is reverse biased and
acts as open circuit and will not conduct as shown in Fig 2.

The diode D1 supplies the load current. The conventional current flow is through diode
D1, load resistor RL & the upper half of secondary winding as shown by the dotted
arrows.

During ve half cycle:Fig. 2

Fig. 3

During ve half cycles of the ac input voltage, end A becomes ve with respect to end B,
the diode D2 is forward biased and conducts while the diode D1 is reverse biased and

acts as open circuit and will not conduct as shown in fig3.


The diode D2 supplies the load current. The conventional current flow is through diode

D2, load resistor RL & the lower half of secondary winding as shown by the solid arrows.
From fig 2 & 3 it can be observed that current in the load RL is in the same, direction for

both half cycles of an input voltage.


For both the half cycles, the current flows through load in the same direction. Hence we
get half cycles for one complete input signal.

I/O Waveforms:

Fig. : Voltage and current waveforms


(a) Secondary waveform (b) &(c) Diode current waveforms
(d) Load current waveform (e) Load voltage waveform

1) Average or dc load current (Idc or Iac):


Consider one cycle of the load current IL from 0 to to obtain the average value which is dc
value of load current.

Idc

1
I L d t

1
I m sin t.d t

Im
cos( t) 0

Im
cos() cos(0)

Im
1 1

Idc

Im
2

2I m

2) Average dc load voltage (Vdc):-

Vdc

Vdc

I dc

2 Im

Idc RL ;

V
2 Im
Im m
RL
RL ;

2 Vm
R L . R
L

2 Vm

3) RMS value of load current (IRMS):

IRMS

1 2
I L d t

I m sin t

.d t

Im sin
2

t .d t

I 2m 1 cos 2 t

.d t

2

Im
=

1 cos2
2

cos 2

sin 2
2

1 cos 2 t .d t
0

1.d t cos2 t .d t

Im

1
sin2 t
t0
2
2

Im

1
1

0 sin 2 sin 2(0)


2
2

Im

1
1

0 0 0
2
2

= Im

1
2

sin 2

; sin 2t = 0

Im

Im
IRMS

4) RMS value of the load voltage (VRMS):-

Im
VRMS

IRMS . RL

Im
2

.R L

2 RL

Vm
R
; Im = L

RL

Vm

; IRMS =

Vm
2

=
5) DC output power (Pdc):-

PDC

2I m
; But, Idc =

2
I dc
.R L

2I m

.R L

4I 2m
2

Vm
R
; But, Im = L

.R L
2

Vm
1
. .R L
2
RL

4 Vm2
2 R L

6) AC output power (Pac):-

PAC

I 2rms.R L

; But, Irms =

Im
=

Im

.R L

I 2m
.R L
2

7) Rectification efficiency ():- The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ratio of output dc
power to input ac power & is given by

I 2m
4
.R L
2
4 2
2
2 0.812
2
1
1
Im

2
.R L
= 2
4

Pdc
DC o/p power
AC i/p power = Pac

0.812

81.2 %

8) Ripple factor (r):-

RMS value of the ac component of o/p


dc component of o/p

I ac
I dc
Im

I 2rms
2
I dc

1
4
=
r

2 Im

1
=

2 1

1 2

2 4 =

I 2m

4 I 2m
=

2
1
8

0.48

This indicates that the amount of ac present in the output is 0.48% of the dc voltage.

Peak Inverse voltage (PIV):PIV is the maximum voltage across the diode, when the diode is reverse biased.

Fig. : Full-wave rectifier, using two diodes & a centre-trapped transformer.


Applying KVL to the circuit, we get
V2 + V2 Vr

; But, IL = 0

Vr

2 V2

; But, V2 = (Vm sin mt)

Vr(max)

2 Vm sin mt

; But, V2(max) = Vm & (sint)max = 1

2 Vm

Therefore, for FWR


PIV

Advantages of FWR:1. The efficiency is twice that of HWR, i.e., 81.2%


2. The ripple factor is much less than that of HWR

3. The dc output voltage and load current value are twice than HWR.
4. Large dc power output.

Disadvantages of FWR:1. PIV of the diode is higher.


2. Cost of centre-tap transformer is higher.
3. Output voltage is half of the secondary voltage.
4. Cost of the FWR is high as it involves more number of components

Full WAVE BRIDGE Rectifier (FWBR):-

Fig. : Full wave bridge rectifier


Operation:During +ve half cycle:-

Fig.

During +ve half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes +ve with respect to end B.

This makes diodes D1 & D2 forward biased, while D3 & D4 are reverse biased.
Therefore only diodes D1 & D2 conducts. The conventional current flows through the
load resistance RL and is shown by the arrows.

During ve half cycle

Fig.

During ve half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes ve with respect to end B.

This makes diodes D3 &D4 forward biased, while D2 & D2 are reverse biased.
Therefore only diodes D3 &D4 conducts. The conventional current flows through the

load resistance RL and is shown by the arrows.


For both the half cycles, the current flows through load in the same direction. Hence we
get two half cycles for one complete input signal.

I/O Waveforms:

Fig. : Voltage and current waveforms in full-wave bridge rectifier.

1) Average or dc load current (Idc or Iac):Consider one cycle of the load current IL from 0 to to obtain the average value which is dc
value of load current.

Idc

1
I L d t

Idc

1
I m sin t.d t

Im
cos( t) 0

Im
cos() cos(0)

Im
1 1

Im
2

2I m

2) Average dc load voltage (Vdc):-

Vdc

Vdc

I dc

2 Im

Idc RL ;

V
2 Im
Im m
RL
RL ;

2 Vm
R L . R
L

2 Vm

3) RMS value of load current (IRMS):

IRMS

1 2
I L d t

I m sin t
0

.d t
;

sin 2

1 cos2
2

Im sin
2

t .d t

I 2m 1 cos 2 t

.d t

2

Im
=

sin 2
2

1 cos 2 t .d t
0

1.d t cos2 t .d t

Im

1
sin2 t
t0
2
2

Im

1
1

0 sin 2 sin 2(0)


2
2

Im

1
1

0 0 0
2
2

Im

= Im

1
2

cos 2

; sin 2t = 0

Im
IRMS

4) RMS value of the load voltage (VRMS):-

Im
VRMS

IRMS . RL

Im
=

Vm
R
; Im = L

RL

Vm

; IRMS =

.R L

2 RL
Vm

5) DC output power (Pdc):-

PDC

2
I dc
.R L

2I m
; But, Idc =

2I m

.R L

; But, Im =

Vm
RL

4I 2m

.R L

V
1
4 m . 2 .R L
RL

4 Vm2
2 R L

6) AC output power (Pac):-

PAC

; But, Irms =

Im
=

Im

I 2rms.R L
.R L

I 2m
.R L
2

7) Rectification efficiency ():- The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ratio of output dc
power to input ac power.

I 2m
4
.R L
2
2 4 2 0.812

1
I 2m
2 1
2
.R L
= 2
4

Pdc
DC o/p power
AC i/p power = Pac

0.812

81.2 %

8) Ripple factor (r):-

RMS value of the ac component of o/p


dc component of o/p

I ac
I dc
Im

I 2rms
=

2
I dc

1
4
=
r

0.48

2 Im

1
=

2 1

1 2

2 4 =

I 2m

4 I 2m
=

2
1
8

2
2

This indicates that the amount of ac present in the output is 0.48% of the dc voltage.

Advantages of FWBR:1. The need for centre-tapped transformer is eliminated.


2. The PIV is only Vm.
3. The transformer is less costly.

Disadvantages of FWBR:1. It requires four diodes.


2. It is quite expensive as it involves more number of components.

Peak Inverse voltages (PIV):PIV is the maximum voltage across the diode, when the diode is reverse biased.
Therefore, for FWBR
PIV

Vm

Application of rectifier circuits :


Rectifiers are used
1. In power supply circuits.
2. In rectifier type meters to convert ac voltage to dc type.

Comparisons of rectifier circuits with their formulas


No

Parameter

HWR

FWR

FWBR

.
1.
2.

3.

Peak Voltage
Peak load
current (Ideal)
Peak load
current

Vm 2 V2

5.

Vm
RL

Im

Vm
RL

Im

Vm
RL

Im

Vm
Rf RL

Im

Vm
Rf RL

Im

Vm
2R f R L

I dc

Im

I dc

2I m

I dc

2I m

I dc

Vm
1
.
Rf RL

I dc

2Vm
1
.
Rf RL

I dc

2Vm
1
.
Rf RL

DC load current

Load voltage

Vm 2 V2

Im

(Practical)

4.

Vm 2 V2

Vdc I dc . R L

Vdc I dc . R L

Vdc I dc . R L

RMS load
current

6.

or AC load
current
AC I/P power

7.

(Ideal)
AC I/P power

8.

(practical)
Percentage

9.
10.

regulation
RMS load Voltage
VRMS

I rms

Im
2

I rms

Im

I rms

Im
2

Pac I 2rms . R L

Pac I 2rms . R L

Pac I 2rms . R L

Pac I 2rms . R L R f

Pac I 2rms . R L R f

Pac I 2rms . R L 2R f

Rf
100
RL

Rf
100
RL

2R f
100
RL

Vrms

Vm
2

Vrms

Vm

Vrms

Vm
2

11.

O/P dc power Pdc

2
Pdc I dc
.R L

12.

% efficiency

Pdc
100 %
Pac

Pdc
100 %
Pac

Pdc
100 %
Pac

13.

PIV
RMS value of the

Vm

2 Vm

Vm

Vac = r Vdc

Vac = r Vdc

Vac = r Vdc

fin

2fin

2fin

14.

15.

ripple voltage Vac

V
r ac
Vdc
Ripple frequency
Ripple factor

16.

17.
18.

I ac
Vac
I
V
r = dc = dc
Diodes
Transformer

I rms

I dc

Vrms

Vdc

1
2

1 nos.
No centre tap

2
Pdc I dc
.R L

2
Pdc I dc
.R L

I rms

I dc
Vrms

Vdc

1
2

2 nos.
Centre tap reqd.

I rms

I dc
Vrms

Vdc

1
2

4 nos.
No centre tap

Exam Problem : In a full wave bridge rectifier, the transformer secondary voltage is 100
sint. The forward resistance of each diode is 25 and the load resistance is 950 .
Calculate
i) D.C. output voltage ii) ripple factor iii) Efficiency of rectification iv) PIV across nonconducting diodes.
Given : Vs = 100 sin(t), Rf = 25 , RL = 950
Sol : WKT, Vs = Vm sin(t), where Vm = 100 V

Im

Vm
100
0.1 A
2R f R L = 2 25 950

I rms

Im

0.1

2= 2

0.0707

2I m 2(0.1)
= = 0.063 A

I dc

Vdc I dc . R L = 0.063 950 = 59.85 V

I rms

I dc

r=

1
=

0.0707

0.063

1 0.048

2
Pdc I dc
. R L = (0.063)2 950 = 3.85 W

Pac I 2rms . R L 2R f = (0.0707)2 [ (2 25) + 950] = 5 W


Pdc
3.85 W
100 %
100 % 77 %
P
% = ac
= 5W
Exam Problem : In a two diode FWR circuit, the voltage across each half of the transformer
secondary is 100V. The load resistance is 950 and each diode has a forward resistance of
50 . Find the load current and the rms value of the input current.
Given : Vs = 100 V, Rf = 50 , RL = 950

Vs Vrms

Sol :

Im

Vm

2 ; Vm 2 Vs 2 100 141.42 V

Vm
141.42 V
R f R L = 950 50 = 0.141 A

I rms
I dc

Im
2=

0.141
2

0.0997 A

2I m 2(0.141)
=

= 0.090 A

Exam Problem : A bridge rectifier is driving a load resistance of 100 . It is driven by a


source voltage of 230v, 50Hz. Neglecting the diode resistances, calculate
i) Average DC voltage ii) Average direct currency iii) frequency of output waveform.
Given : Vs = 230 V, RL = 100 , f = 50 Hz
Sol : WKT, Vm 2 Vs 2 230 325 V

Vdc

2Vm 2 325

206 .9 V

Im

Vm 325

3.25 A
R L 100

I dc

2I m 2(3.25)
2.06 A
=

o/p frequency = 2 fin = 2 50 hz = 100 hz.

Exam Problem : In a full wave rectifier, the input is from a 30-0-30 v transformer. The load
and diode forward resistance are 100 and 10 respectively. Calculate the average voltage,
rectification efficiency and percentage regulation.
Given : Vs = 30 V, RL = 100 , Rf = 10
Sol : Vm 2 Vs 2 30 42.4264 V

Im

Vm
42.4264 V
0.3856 A
R f R L = 100 10

I dc

2I m 2(0.3856)
0.2455 A
=

I rms

Im
2=

0.3856
2

0.272 A

Vdc I dc . R L = 0.2455 100 = 24.55 V


2
Pdc I dc
. R L = (0.2455)2 100 = 6.027 W

Pac I 2rms . R L R f = (0.272)2 [ 10 + 100] = 8.177 W


Pdc
6.027 W
100 %
100 % 73.69 %
P
% = ac
= 8.177 W
Rf
100 10 100
R
Percentage regulation = L
= 100
= 10
Exam Problem : A diode with VF=0.7v is connected as a half wave rectifier. The load
resistance is 600 and the (rms) ac input is 24 v. Determine the peak output voltage, the
peak load current and the diode peak reverse voltage.
Given : Vf = 0.7 V, RL = 600 , Vs = 24 V
Sol : Vm 2 Vs 2 24 33.941 V

Im

Vm Vf 33.941 0.7

55.4018 mA
RL
600

PIV = Vm = 33.941 V

Peak o/p voltage, V0 = Im RL = 55.4018 mA 600 = 33.24 V


or V0 = Vm Vf = 33.941 0.7 = 33.24 V

Rectifiers with C-filters


Exam Question : What is a filter ? Why it is required.
Filter is a circuit used to reduce the ripple content present in the rectified output. The
ripple content of rectified output can be filtered out by connecting a capacitor in parallel
with R1. The output from rectifiers is not pure dc due to ripple content. In HWR ripple
content is 121 %, whereas in FWR it is 48 %. In order to obtain pure dc, filter circuits are
required.

HWR with capacitor filter:Fig.

Fig.

During +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diode is forward biased and conducts and charges
the capacitor to the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage to the
diode falls below Vm, the diode will stop conducting. Now, the capacitor starts discharging
through RL and the capacitor voltage decreases. The discharging of capacitor continues till
the diode starts conducting again and charges the capacitor in the next +ve half cycle of the
ac input voltage.

From the Fig. , we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage varies between zero and
Vm. With capacitor filter, the output voltage varies between { Vm Vr(p-p) } and Vm. This clearly
indicates that the shunting of R1 by C reduces the ripple content in the output voltage.
The ripple factor with C filter for a HWR is given by

1
2 3f c R L

FWR with capacitor filter:-

Fig. : Full-wave rectifier with capacitor filter


During +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diode D1 conducts and charges the capacitor to
the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage falls below Vm, the diode
stops conducting. Now the capacitor starts discharging through RL and the capacitor

voltage decreases. The discharging of the capacitor continuous until the diode D2 starts
conducting again in the next half cycle and charges the capacitor.
Figure shows the waveforms, we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage Vo varies
between zero and Vm. With capacitor filter the output voltage varies { Vm Vr(p-p) } and Vm.
This clearly indicates that the shunting of RL and C reduces the ripple content in the output
voltage. The ripple factor with C filter for a FWR is given by

1
4 3f c R L

Fig. : Charging & discharging of capacitor


T1 capacitor charging time
T2 capacitor discharging time

FWBR with capacitor filter:-

Fig. : Full wave bridge rectifier with capacitor filter


Operation :
During the +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diodes D1 & D2 conducts and charges the
capacitor to the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage falls below Vm,
the diode stops conducting. Now the capacitor starts discharging through RL and the
capacitor voltage decreases. The discharging of the capacitor continues until the diodes D1
& D2 starts conducting again in the next half cycle and charges the capacitor. Figure 2
shows the waveforms, we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage V0 varies between
zero and Vm. With capacitor filter the output voltage varies between { Vm Vr(p-p) } and Vm.
This clearly indicates that the shunting of RL and C reduces the ripple content in the output
voltage. The ripple factor with C filter for a bridge rectifier is given by

r
I/O Waveforms
T1 Capacitor charging time
T2 Capacitor discharging time

Ripple factor of HWR with C-filter:-

1
4 3f c R L

Note:Let,
T Time period of the ac input voltage.
T T/2 + T/2
T1 Time for which diode is conducting.
T2 Time for which diode is non-conducting.
During T1, capacitor gets charged. This process is very fast.
During T2, capacitor gets discharged through RL. Since time constant RLC is very large,
discharging process is very slow.
Let Vr be the peak to peak value of ripple voltage, which is assumed to be triangular wave.

The ripple factor is given by

Vr (rms)
Vdc

(1)

Fig. : Triangular approximation of ripple voltage


RMS value of a triangular wave is

Vr (rms)

Vr
2 3 (2)

To find the value of Vr:WKT the rate of change of charging is equal to the rate of change of discharging.
i.e.,

Q(charging)
Q = CV

Q=IT

w.r.t. charging
CVr

WKT

Q(dis-charging)

w.r.t. time
=

Idc T2

Vr

I dc T2
C .. (3)

T1 + T2

T2

>> T1

T2

1
f .. (4)

T2

Substituting Eq. (4) in Eq. (3), we get

Vr

I dc
V
I dc dc
f C ; Since,
RL

Vr

Vdc
f C R L . (5)

Substituting Eq. (5) in Eq. (2), we get

Vr
Vr(rms)

2 3

Vdc
2 3 f C R L .. (6)

Substituting Eq. (6) in Eq. (1), we get

Vdc
r

2 3 f C RL

1
Vdc

1
r

2 3 f C RL

Ripple factor of FWBR with C-filter:Note :Let,


T Time period of the ac input voltage.
T T/2 +T/2
T1 Time for which diode is conducting.
T2 Time for which diode is non-conducting.
During T1, capacitor gets charged. This process is very fast.
During T2, capacitor gets discharged through RL. Since time constant RLC is very large,
discharging process is very slow.
Let Vr be the peak to peak value of ripple voltage, which is assumed to be triangular wave.

Ripple factor is given by

Vr (rms)
Vdc

(1)

Fig. : Triangular approximation of ripple voltage


RMS value of the triangular wave is

Vr (rms)

Vr
2 3 (2)

To find the value of Vr :WKT the rate of change of charging is equal to the rate of change of discharging,

i.e.,

Q(charging)
Q = CV

Q=IT

w.r.t. charging
CVr

WKT

Q(dis-charging)

w.r.t. time
=

Idc T2

Vr

I dc T2
C .. (3)

T1 + T2

T2

>> T1

T2

T
2

1
f

1
2f .. (4)

T
T2

Substituting Eq. (4) in Eq. (3), we get

Vr

Vr

I dc
V
I dc dc
2 f C ; Since,
RL

Vdc
2 f C R L . (5)

Substituting Eq. (5) in Eq. (2), we get

Vr
Vr(rms)

2 3

Vdc
2 f C RL2 3

Vdc
Vr(rms)

4 3 f C R L .. (6)

Substituting Eq. (6) in Eq. (1), we get

Vdc
r

4 3 f C RL

1
Vdc

1
r

4 3 f C RL

Exam Question : With necessary circuit and wave forms, explain a bridge rectifier circuit
with capacitor filter. Derive an expression for the ripple factor.
Exam Question : Draw the circuit of a full wave bridge rectifier with capacitor filter and
explain its operation. Derive an expression for its ripple factor.

Exam Question : Draw the circuit diagram of a bridge rectifier with capacitor filter. Plot its
input and out waveforms. Derive an expression for its ripple factor.
Ans. :
Fig. : Full wave bridge rectifier with capacitor filter
Operation:
During the +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diodes D1 & D2 conducts and charges the
capacitor to the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage falls below Vm,
the diode stops conducting. Now, the capacitor starts discharging through RL and the
capacitor voltage decreases. The discharging of the capacitor continues until the diodes
D1&D2 starts conducting again in the next half cycle and charges the capacitor. Figure 2
shows the waveforms; we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage Vo varies between
zero and Vm. With capacitor filter the output voltage varies between { Vm Vr(p-p) } & Vm. This
clearly indicates that the shunting of RL and C reduces the ripple content in the output
voltage.
The ripple factor C filter is given by

1
r =

4 3 f C RL

I/O Waveform:
T1 Capacitor charging time
T2 Capacitor discharging time

Note :Let,
T

Time period of the ac input voltage.

T/2 +T/2

T/2 T1 + T2
T1

Time for which diode is conducting.

T2

Time for which diode is non-conducting.

During T1, capacitor gets charged. This process is very fast.


During T2, capacitor gets discharged through RL. Since time constant RLC is very large,
discharging process is very slow.
Let Vr be the peak to peak value of ripple voltage, which is assumed to be triangular wave.

Ripple factor is given by

Vr (rms)
Vdc

(1)

Fig. : Triangular approximation of ripple voltage


RMS value of the triangular wave is

Vr (rms)

Vr
2 3 (2)

To find the value of Vr:WKT the rate of change of charging is equal to the rate of change of discharging.
i.e.,

Q(charging)
Q = CV

Q=IT

w.r.t. charging
CVr
Vr
WKT

where

T1 + T2

Q(dis-charging)

w.r.t. time
=

Idc T2

I dc T2
C .. (3)

T
2

T2

>> T1

T2

T
2

1
f

1
2f .. (4)

T
T2

Substituting Eq. (4) in Eq. (3), we get

Vr

Vr

I dc
V
I dc dc
2 f C ; Since,
RL

Vdc
2 f C R L . (5)

Substituting Eq. (5) in Eq. (2), we get

Vr
Vr(rms)

2 3

Vdc
2 f C RL2 3

Vdc
Vr(rms)

4 3 f C R L .. (6)

Substituting Eq. (6) in Eq. (1), we get

Vdc
r

4 3 f C RL

1
Vdc

1
r

4 3 f C RL

Rectifiers with C-filter FORMULAEs Summary sheet

No.
1)

Parameter
Ripple factor

2)

DC o/p voltage

3)

Load resistance

HWR

1
2 3 f C RL

Vdc Vm

I dc
2f C

RL

FWR & FWBR

1
4 3 f C RL

Vdc Vm

I dc
4f C

RL

4)

Load resistance

2 3f Cr
V
RL m
I dc

5)

Peak rectified voltage

Vm 2 V2(rms)

6)

o/p resistance of filter

7)

% Regulation

R0
100
RL

R0
100
RL

8)

Peak rectified voltage

R
Vm Vdc 1 0
RL

R
Vm Vdc 1 0
RL

I
Vm Vdc dc
4f C
Vdc I dc .R L

Vdc I dc .R L

11)

Vr (rms)

12)
13)
14)
15)

Vr(rms)
Ripple factor

Vm 2 V2(rms)
R0

9)
10)

4 3f Cr
V
RL m
I dc

Vr

Vr (rms)

2 3

Vdc
2 3 f C RL

Vr (rms)

Vr(rms)
r

Vdc

Vr (rms) r Vdc
Vr (rms)

1
4f C

I dc
2 3f C

Vr
2 3

Vdc
4 3 f C RL

Vr (rms)
Vdc

Vr (rms) r Vdc
Vr (rms)

I dc
4 3f C

Exam Problem : A full wave rectifier using centre tapped transformer supplies a resistive
load of 1K. The transformer secondary end to end voltage is 60 V rms at 50 Hz. The filter
capacitance is 500 F. Calculate:
i) Ripple factor ii) Output resistance of the filter (R0) iii) Vdc iv) Idc v) regulation
Given : RL = 1 K

Vrms = 60 V

r
Sol : Ripple factor,

f = 50 Hz

C = 500 F

4 3 f C R L = 4 3 1 10 3 50 500 10 6

Output resistance of the filter,

00058

1
1
10
4f C = 4 50 500 10 6

R0

Vm 2 Vrms 2 30 42.42 V

R
Vm Vdc 1 0
RL

I dc

Vdc

Vm
R
1 0
RL

42.42
10
1

1 10 3 = 42 V

Vdc
42

42 mA
R L 1 10 3

R0
10
100
100 1 %
3
R
% regulation = L
= 1 10

Exam Problem : Design a full wave rectifier with C-filter for the following specification:
Output dc voltage = 35V; Maximum load current = 250mA: Ripple factor < 0.06
Given : Vdc = 35 V

Sol :

RL

r 0.06 f = 50 hz

Vdc
35

140
I dc 250 10 3

1
4 3 f C R L ; ,

Vm Vdc

Idc = 230 mA

1
4 3 f r RL

1
4 3 50 140 0.06

250 10 3
I dc
35
38.53 V
4 50 343.66
4f C =

Vm 2 Vrms , ,

Vrms

Vm
2

38.53
27.3 V
2

Fig.

343 .66 F

Exam Problem : A full wave bridge rectifier is supplied from the transformer secondary
voltage of 100 V. Calculate the dc output voltage and peak inverse voltage of the diodes
employed.
Given : Vrms = 100 V
To find : Vdc = ?

PIV = ?

Sol : Vm 2 Vrms = 2 100 141 .42 V

Vdc

2Vm 2 141 .42

90 V

PIV = Vm = 141.42 V

Exam Problem : Draw the circuit diagram of a full wave rectifier with capacitor filter. The
circuit uses a capacitor of 1000 F and provides a dc load current of 500 mA at 2 % ripple.
Assume f = 50Hz.
Calculate: i) D.C output voltage ii) Peak rectified voltage and % regulation.
Given : C = 1000 F

r
Sol : Ripple factor,

RL

Idc = IL = 500 mA

f = 50 hz

1
4 3 f C RL
1

r = 2 % = 0.02

4 3f Cr = 4 3f Cr

1
4 3 50 1000 0.02

144 .34

DC o/p voltage = Vdc = Idc . RL = 500 mA 144.34 = 72.17 V

Vm Vdc

500 10 3
I dc
72.17
74.67 V
4f C =
4 50 500 10 3

or

R
Vm Vdc 1 0
RL

72.17 1
74.67 V
144.34
=

Output resistance of the filter,

R0

1
1
5
4f C = 4 50 1000 10 6

R0
5
100
100 3.64 %
R
L
144.34
% regulation =
=
Exam Problem : Design a FWR with a capacitor filter to meet the following specifications.
DC output voltage =15V, Load resistance =1 K. RMS ripple voltage on capacitor <1% of
DC output voltage. Assume the AC supply voltage as 230 V, 50 Hz.

Given : Vdc = 15 V RL = 1 K

r = 1 % = 0 .01

f = 50 hz

Vrms = 1 % of Vdc

Sol : Vrms = 0.01 15 = 0.15 V

1
4 3 f C R L ; ,

I dc

1
4 3 f r RL

1
4 3 50 1 10 3 0.01

288 .675 F

Vdc
15

15 mA
R L 1 10 3
Vdc Vm

WKT

Vrms

Vm
2

I dc
15 10 3
I dc 15
15 .25 V
V Vdc
4f C ; , m
4 50 288 .675
4f C =

15.25
2

10.31 V

Fig.

Exam Problem : Design a power supply using a FWR with capacitance filter to give an
output voltage of 10V at 10 mA from a 220 V, 50 Hz supply. The ripple factor must be less
than 0.01, i.e., 1 %.
Given : V0 = Vdc = 10 V

IL = 10 mA

f = 50 hz

r < 0.01

To find : RL = ? C = ?

Sol :

RL

V0
10

1 K
I L 10 10 3

1
4 3 f C R L ; ,

1
4 3 f r RL

1
4 3 50 1 10 3 0.01

288 .675 F

Fig.

Exam Problem : In a FWR with a capacitor filter, the load current from the circuit
operating from 230 V, 50 Hz supply is 10 mA. Estimate the value of capacitor required to
keep the ripple factor less than 1 %.
Given : V2 = 230 V

f = 50 Hz IL = 10 mA

Sol : Vm 2 V2 =

2 230 325 .269 V

RL

Vdc
IL

RL

Vdc
207 .07

20.70 K
I L 10 10 3

r = 1 % = 0.01

Vdc

2Vm

Vdc

2 325.269
207 .07 V

1
4 3 f C R L ; ,

1
4 3 f r RL

1
4 3 50 20 .70 10 3 0.01

13.94 F

Exam Problem : A full-wave bridge rectifier supplies a load of 400 in parallel with a
capacitor of 500F. If the ac supply voltage is 230v sin 314t v, find the i) Ripple factor and
ii) D.C load current.
Given : RL = 400

Vm = 230 V

r
Sol :

C = 500 F

Vm sin(t) = 230 sin(314 t)

= 314 ; 2 f = 314

314
50 hz
2

4 3 f C R L = 4 3 50 400 500 10 6

I dc

2I m

I dc

2I m 2Vm 2 230

0.366 A

R L 400

0.0144 1.44 %

Exam Problem : A full wave rectifier has a load of 2 k. The AC voltage applied to the
diodes is 200-0-200 V. Assuming ideal diodes,
Calculate i) Average DC current ii) average DC voltage and iii) Ripple voltage.
If a capacitor of value 500 F is connected across the load, what is the new value of the
ripple voltage? Assume f = 50 Hz.
Given : RL = 2 K

Vs = 200 V

f = 50 hz

C = 500 F

Sol : Vm 2 Vrms = 2 230 282 .842 V

Im

Vm
282.842
0.1414 A
R L = 2 10 3

I dc

2I m 2 0.1414
0.09 A
=

DC o/p voltage = Vdc = Idc . RL = 0.09 A 2 103 = 180.03 V

Vac
Vdc ; , V = r V
ac
dc

WKT for FWR r = 0.48


Vac = 0.48 180.03 = 86.4 V
If now a capacitor filter of C = 500 F is used, then

4 3 f C R L = 4 3 50 2 10 3 500 10 6
r

WKT

Vr(rms)

Vdc ; , Vr(rms) r Vdc

Vr(rms) 2.8867 10 3 180 .03 0.5196 V

2.8867 10 3