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You are on page 1of 11

Experiment 1

under Flexure

Date of Experiment 18/08/2016

GroupB1

Asish Yadav CE13B030

Karthikeyan D CE13B087

Hemachandra KV - CE13B096

Rahul K.L. - CE12B072

DETAILS OF THE TEST SPECIMEN:

APPARATUS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

DEMEC strain gauge to measure strains along the depth of the beam.

Crack-width microscope to measure the crack-width.

Dial-Gauge to measure the deflection of beam at different loads.

Pellets which are placed along the depth for accurate DEMEC

measurements.

THEORY:

Reinforced beams are generally classified into two types - singly reinforced beams

and doubly reinforced beams.

Singly reinforced beams:

Under reinforced: A beam is said to be under reinforced if the tensile steel yields

before the failure of concrete due to compression. Hence, the failure will be

ductile, which is the preferred failure by construction industries.

Over reinforced: A beam is said to be over reinforced if the concrete reaches its

maximum stress before steel yields. Hence, this failure will be brittle, which is not

preferred.

Balanced Section: A section is said to be balanced if both the compression

concrete and the tensile steel reach their respective maximum stresses

simultaneously.

Doubly reinforced beams:

A doubly reinforced beam is one in which steel is provided on both tension and

compression sides.

1. Plane sections remain plane after bending, that is, the strains observed

along the depth of the section shall be linear.

2. The tensile forces are resisted by the tension steel only and not by

concrete.

3. Stresses applied are in elastic region.

Cracking Moment:

The Cracking Moment (Mcr) is the moment that when exceeded causes concrete

to begin cracking. This moment is necessary to find out which Moment of Inertia

should be used while calculating deflection.

PROCEDURE:

1. The test for compression was performed on three cubes of dimensions

150mm x 150mm x 150mm according to IS:516 and the compression

strength of the concrete was calculated.

2. The under reinforced RCC beam is placed in the compression testing

machine and a controlled two point load is applied.

3. The deflections of the beam were calculated at three different points using

the dial gauges and the strains were measured using the DEMEC gauge

along varying depths of the beam.

4. Starting from 0 kg, the axial load on the column was gradually increases by

250 kg. For every increase all the measurements were taken.

5. When cracks appeared on the column, for a particular crack the crack width

was measured for varying loads.

6. The process was continued till the beam failed completely.

OBSERVATIONS:

Concrete cube testing:

Weight

(Kg)

Cross-sectional Area

(mm^2)

8.2

8.2

8.2

Failure load

(ton)

22500

22500

22500

Compressive strength

(Mpa)

51

22.236

52

22.672

50

21.8

DEMEC Reading

Load

(Kg)

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

1

20.22

20.21

20.29

20.4

20.41

20.5

20.59

20.81

20.98

21.09

21.21

21.44

2

3

4

18.98

20.3

18.68

18.97

20.25

18.71

19

20.26

20.61

19.02

20.16

18.34

19.02

20.15

18.3

19

19.92

17.96

18.91

19.68

17.47

18.84

19.24

16.65

18.67

18.78

15.77

18.65

18.62

15.46

18.56

18.42

14.9

18.48

18.13

14.35

5

18.17

18.12

18.05

19.7

19.67

19.02

16.45

15.13

14.1

13.7

12.96

12.18

CRACK

LOAD(tonnes)

WIDTH(mm)

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.125

0.175

0.225

0.225

0.3

1

Main

7

7

7

8

8

8

9

9

10

11

12

2

Vern

Main

Vern

Main

82

6

75

92

6

88

99

6

91

6

7

2

62

7

41

82

7

82

39

8

41

61

9

5

98

10

66

64

11

38

76

12

64

3

Vern

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

4

3

6

36

76

78

91

21

62

72

58

82

66

81

Strain (10^-6)

Load

(Kg)

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

1

0.0000

0.4946

-3.4619

-8.9021

-9.3966

-13.8477

-18.2987

-29.1790

-37.5865

-43.0267

-48.9614

-60.3363

Strain (*10^-3)

2

3

4

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.5269

2.4631

-1.6060

-1.0537

1.9704 -103.3191

-2.1075

6.8966

18.2013

-2.1075

7.3892

20.3426

-1.0537 18.7192

38.5439

3.6881 30.5419

64.7752

7.3762 52.2167

108.6724

16.3330 74.8768

155.7816

17.3867 82.7586

172.3769

22.1286 92.6108

202.3555

26.3435 106.8966

231.7987

5

0.0000

2.7518

6.6043

-84.2047

-82.5537

-46.7804

94.6615

167.3088

223.9956

246.0099

286.7364

329.6643

Deflection

LOAD(tonnes)

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

Theoretical deflection(mm)

1

2

3

0

1.27E-05

2.55E-05

3.82E-05

5.09E-05

6.36E-05

7.64E-05

0.000102

0.000127

0.000153

0.000178

0

1.46E-05

2.93E-05

4.39E-05

5.85E-05

7.32E-05

8.78E-05

0.000117

0.000146

0.000176

0.000205

0

1.27E-05

2.55E-05

3.82E-05

5.09E-05

6.36E-05

7.64E-05

0.000102

0.000127

0.000153

0.000178

Deflection (mm)

1

2

0

0.01

0.017

0.024

0.08

0.1

0.157

0.179

0.316

0.382

0.494

0

0.013

0.016

0.027

0.066

0.107

0.166

0.23

0.391

0.463

0.589

3

0

0.04

0.042

0.055

0.085

0.126

0.136

0.222

0.346

0.23

0.545

LOAD(tonnes)

Moment

(kNm)

Curvature

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

0.000

0.736

1.472

2.207

2.943

3.679

4.415

5.886

7.358

8.829

10.301

11.772

0.0000E+00

7.9386E-06

-2.7378E-04

3.0105E-04

3.2905E-04

5.8983E-04

9.5669E-04

1.6476E-03

2.2087E-03

2.4435E-03

2.8387E-03

3.2849E-03

(mm)

0

-16.650

27.489

67.713

67.872

89.906

63.341

62.807

60.755

61.076

60.905

61.378

Graphs

400.0000

Strain vs Depth

Strain

350.0000

0 Kg

250 Kg

300.0000

500 Kg

250.0000

750 Kg

200.0000

1000 Kg

150.0000

1250 Kg

100.0000

1500 Kg

50.0000

2000 Kg

0.0000

2500 Kg

-50.0000

0.05

0.1

0.2

3000 Kg

3500 Kg

-100.0000

-150.0000

0.15

4000 Kg

Depth (m)

0.7

Deflection vs Load

Deflectiopn (mm)

0.6

0.5

0.4

Dial Gauge 1

0.3

Dial Gauge 2

0.2

Dial Gauge 3

0.1

0

0

0.004

2

Load (tonnes)

Curvature vs Moment

0.003

Curvature (/mm)

0.003

0.002

0.002

Curvature (/mm)

0.001

0.001

0.000

0.000

-0.001

100

5.000

10.000

15.000

Moment (kNm)

80

60

40

Neutral axis

20

0

0.000

-20

-40

5.000

10.000

Moment (kNm)

15.000

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

Crack width

0.1

0.05

0

-0.05

2

Load (tonnes)

Calculations:

Cranking moment =

Theoretical

= 0.12*0.15*.2*.2*22.236^(0.5)

= 3.395 kNm

Ultimate moment of resistance

Theoretical

Xu

= 217.92 mm

MuR = 11.83 kNm

Observed cracking moment at 1.5 tonnes load

Mcr

= 1.5*1000*9.81*0.5*0.6

= 4.414 kNm

Observed ultimate moment of resistance at 4.6 tonnes load

MuR = 4.6*1000*9.81*0.5*0.6

= 13.537 kNm

1. Ultimate load of the under reinforced concrete beam is 4.6 tons.

2. High deflections were observed in the beam before it failed. This indicates that the

failure observed was ductile because we clearly got an indication of i.e., the steel

yielded before crushing of concrete like in the case of under reinforced beam.

3. We know that, as the load is applied the neutral axis depth from top decreases and this

is also observed from the graph (Moment vs depth of NA). This is because the

compression in concrete at top should be equal to the tension at the bottom.

4. Experimental deflections observed were deviating with some error in the dial gauges.

The readings in dial gauge 2 were less than those of gauges 1 and 3 for lower loads as

observed in the graph

5. Cracks were observed on the beam when the load was 1500kg and the crack-width

increased continuously with the load. The experimental values were higher than

theoretical values, as the concrete used in the beam may have higher strength than the

concrete used in the cubes tested

6. Cracks were first observed at the bottom and propagated towards the top with increase

in load. This implies that the cracks were due to flexure.

7. The pointer in dial gauges started revolving continuously when load applied was 3500

kg, indicating that the steel started yielding

8. The deviation of experimental values from the theoretical values might be due to the

non-uniformity of the concrete (like dimension and composition of beam)

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