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STRESS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN/

MECHANIC OF MATERIALS
EM302/ EV202
Columns

Buckling of Columns
Definitions:
Columns are long, thin, weak, slender members that are
subjected to axial loads.
Critical load:
Whenever a member is designed, it is necessary that it satisfy
specific strength, deflection, and stability requirement in the
preceding chapters, we have discussed some of the method
used to determine a members strength & deflection, while
assuming that the member was always in stable equilibrium.

Some members, however, may be subjected to compressive


loadings, and if these members are long and slender the
loading may be large enough to cause the member to deflect
laterally or sideway.
To be specific, long slender members subjected to an axial
compressive force are called column and the lateral deflection
that occurs is called buckling.
Quiet often, the buckling of a column can lead to a sudden
and dramatic failure of a structure or mechanism, and a
result, special attention must be given to the design of
columns so that they can safely support their intended
loadings without buckling.

10.2: Stability of Structures


In the design of columns, cross-sectional area is
selected such that
- allowable stress is not exceeded

P
all
A

- deformation falls within specifications

PL
spec
AE

After these design calculations, may discover that the


column is unstable under loading and that it
suddenly becomes sharply curved or buckles.

10- 4

10.2: Stability of Structures


Consider model with two rods and torsional spring. After a
small perturbation,

K (2 ) = restoring moment
L
L
P sin = P = destabilizing moment
2
2
Column is stable (tends to return to aligned
orientation) if
L
P < K (2 )
2
P < Pcr =

10- 5

4K
L

10.2: Stability of Structures


Assume that a load P is applied. After a
perturbation, the system settles to a new
equilibrium configuration at a finite deflection
angle.
L
P sin = K (2 )
2
PL
P

=
=
4 K Pcr sin
Noting that sin < , the assumed configuration
is only possible if P > Pcr.

10- 6

10.3: Buckling of Columns (Eulers formula)


For ideal column with pin supports:
P > Pcr =

2 EI
L2

P
P
> cr = cr
A
A
2 E Ar 2
cr =
L2 A
2E
=
= critical stress
2
(L r )

( )

L
= slenderness ratio
r

r, Radius of gyration of the cross section


Buckling occur about the axis where this ratio gives the
greater value.

10.4: Extension of Eulers Formula


A column with one fixed and one
free end, will behave as the
upper-half of a pin-connected
column.
The critical loading is calculated from
Eulers formula,

Pcr =

cr =

2 EI
L2e

2E

(Le r )2

Le = 2 L = equivalent length
10- 8

10.4: Columns having various types of supports:

Try (b) 200kN


load NOW!!!

Example 10.1
2 EI
Pcr = 2
Le
2E
cr =
(Le r )2

Pcr
FS
P
= all
A
Pall =

Since is smaller than the


allowable stress, a 100 x
100 mm cross section is
acceptable.
10- 10

10- 11

Try these questions:


Q.10.9
Q.10.10
Q.10.21

Sample Problem 10.1


An aluminum column of length L and rectangular
cross-section has a fixed end at B and supports a
centric load at A. Two smooth and rounded fixed
plates restrain end A from moving in one of the
vertical planes of symmetry but allow it to move in
the other plane.

L = 0.5 m
E = 70 GPa
P = 20 kN
FS = 2.5

10- 13

a) Determine the ratio a/b of the two sides of the


cross-section corresponding to the most
efficient design against buckling.
b) Design the most efficient cross-section for the
column knowing that L = 0.5 m, E = 70 GPa, P =
20 kN, and that a factor of safety of 2.5 is
required.

Sample Problem 10.1


SOLUTION:
The most efficient design occurs when the
resistance to buckling is equal in both planes of
symmetry. This occurs when the slenderness ratios
are equal.
Buckling in xy Plane:
1 ba 3
I
a2
2
z
12
=
=
rz =
12
ab
A

Le, z
rz

rz =

a
12

0.7 L
a 12

Most efficient design:


Le, z

Buckling in xz Plane:
ry2

Le, y
ry
10- 14

Iy
A
=

1 ab3
12

ab

2L
b / 12

rz
b2
=
12

ry =

b
12

Le, y
ry

0.7 L
2L
=
a 12 b / 12
a 0.7
=
b
2

a
= 0.35
b

Sample Problem 10.1


Design:

Le
2L
2(0.5m ) 3.464
=
=
=
ry b 12 b 12
b

Pcr = (FS )P = (2.5)(20 kN ) = 50kN

cr =
cr =
L = 0.5 m
E = 70 GPa
P = 20 kN
FS = 2.5
a/b = 0.35

10- 15

Pcr 50000N
=
A (0.35b )b

2E

(Le r )

2 (70 x 109 Pa )

(3.464 b )2

50000 N 2 70 x 109 Pa
=
(0.35b )b
(3.464 b )2
b = 39.7 mm
a = 0.35b = 13.9 mm