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MECHANIC OF MATERIALS

EM302/ EV202

Columns

Buckling of Columns

Definitions:

Columns are long, thin, weak, slender members that are

subjected to axial loads.

Critical load:

Whenever a member is designed, it is necessary that it satisfy

specific strength, deflection, and stability requirement in the

preceding chapters, we have discussed some of the method

used to determine a members strength & deflection, while

assuming that the member was always in stable equilibrium.

loadings, and if these members are long and slender the

loading may be large enough to cause the member to deflect

laterally or sideway.

To be specific, long slender members subjected to an axial

compressive force are called column and the lateral deflection

that occurs is called buckling.

Quiet often, the buckling of a column can lead to a sudden

and dramatic failure of a structure or mechanism, and a

result, special attention must be given to the design of

columns so that they can safely support their intended

loadings without buckling.

In the design of columns, cross-sectional area is

selected such that

- allowable stress is not exceeded

P

all

A

PL

spec

AE

column is unstable under loading and that it

suddenly becomes sharply curved or buckles.

10- 4

Consider model with two rods and torsional spring. After a

small perturbation,

K (2 ) = restoring moment

L

L

P sin = P = destabilizing moment

2

2

Column is stable (tends to return to aligned

orientation) if

L

P < K (2 )

2

P < Pcr =

10- 5

4K

L

Assume that a load P is applied. After a

perturbation, the system settles to a new

equilibrium configuration at a finite deflection

angle.

L

P sin = K (2 )

2

PL

P

=

=

4 K Pcr sin

Noting that sin < , the assumed configuration

is only possible if P > Pcr.

10- 6

For ideal column with pin supports:

P > Pcr =

2 EI

L2

P

P

> cr = cr

A

A

2 E Ar 2

cr =

L2 A

2E

=

= critical stress

2

(L r )

( )

L

= slenderness ratio

r

Buckling occur about the axis where this ratio gives the

greater value.

A column with one fixed and one

free end, will behave as the

upper-half of a pin-connected

column.

The critical loading is calculated from

Eulers formula,

Pcr =

cr =

2 EI

L2e

2E

(Le r )2

Le = 2 L = equivalent length

10- 8

load NOW!!!

Example 10.1

2 EI

Pcr = 2

Le

2E

cr =

(Le r )2

Pcr

FS

P

= all

A

Pall =

allowable stress, a 100 x

100 mm cross section is

acceptable.

10- 10

10- 11

Q.10.9

Q.10.10

Q.10.21

An aluminum column of length L and rectangular

cross-section has a fixed end at B and supports a

centric load at A. Two smooth and rounded fixed

plates restrain end A from moving in one of the

vertical planes of symmetry but allow it to move in

the other plane.

L = 0.5 m

E = 70 GPa

P = 20 kN

FS = 2.5

10- 13

cross-section corresponding to the most

efficient design against buckling.

b) Design the most efficient cross-section for the

column knowing that L = 0.5 m, E = 70 GPa, P =

20 kN, and that a factor of safety of 2.5 is

required.

SOLUTION:

The most efficient design occurs when the

resistance to buckling is equal in both planes of

symmetry. This occurs when the slenderness ratios

are equal.

Buckling in xy Plane:

1 ba 3

I

a2

2

z

12

=

=

rz =

12

ab

A

Le, z

rz

rz =

a

12

0.7 L

a 12

Le, z

Buckling in xz Plane:

ry2

Le, y

ry

10- 14

Iy

A

=

1 ab3

12

ab

2L

b / 12

rz

b2

=

12

ry =

b

12

Le, y

ry

0.7 L

2L

=

a 12 b / 12

a 0.7

=

b

2

a

= 0.35

b

Design:

Le

2L

2(0.5m ) 3.464

=

=

=

ry b 12 b 12

b

cr =

cr =

L = 0.5 m

E = 70 GPa

P = 20 kN

FS = 2.5

a/b = 0.35

10- 15

Pcr 50000N

=

A (0.35b )b

2E

(Le r )

2 (70 x 109 Pa )

(3.464 b )2

50000 N 2 70 x 109 Pa

=

(0.35b )b

(3.464 b )2

b = 39.7 mm

a = 0.35b = 13.9 mm

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