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1998

2004 , ,
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, CTEX ,
DOS , CTEX Window , , CTEX
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cwTEX , , , ,
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, cwTEX ,
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2012

1 : , 2011.8.1.
2 : cwTEX , 2012.1.1.
2.1 : , , 2012.2.15.

.................................................................................. 2

........................................................................ 3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

Taylor
Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209


Riemann Darboux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Riemann Riemann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Riemann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

n
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
6


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

0.1

, , (
) , , ,
, .
, Steen Mathematics tomorrow
(Calculus is one of the great triumphs of the human
intellect). , ,

.
, ,
, : (),
, .

0.1

(calculus) (differential calculus) (integral calculus) ,

(1) , :
f (p + h) f (p)
.
h0
h

f (p) = lim

(2) , ,

, :
Z

f (x) dx = lim
a

n+

n
X

f (tj )xj .

j=1

.
, , ,
, Newton Leibniz , .

0.2

, (
), ,
, Archimedes Newton .
, .

0.2

, (set thoery) .
, . , .
Cantor .

(1) (set) (element): Cantor :

. ? ?
, , , , .
x A x A, x 6 A. A P (x)

, A = {x | P (x)}, ( A = {x : P (x)}).
(2) (subset): A, B ,
A B (x A x B).
def

(3) (equal): A, B ,
A = B (x A x B) (A B B A).
def

(4) (proper subset) : A, B ,


A $ B (A B A 6= B).
def

(5) (empty set): = {x | x 6= x}.


(6) (union): A, B, A1 , , An , ,
A B = {x | x A x B}.
def

n
[

j=1

Aj = {x | j {1, . . . , n}, x Aj }.
def

A B A B A B .

0.2

+
[
j=1

10

Aj = {x | j N, x Aj }.
def

01: A B

02: A B

(7) (intersection):
A B = {x | x A x B}.
def

n
\

j=1
+
\
j=1

Aj = {x | j {1, . . . , n}, x Aj }.
def

Aj = {x | j N, x Aj }.
def

(8) (difference): A, B ,
A \ B = {x | x A x 6 B}.
def

03: A \ B

(9) (power set): P(A) = {B | B A}.


def

(10) (ordered pair): x, y ,


(x, y) = {{x}, {x, y}}.
def

:((x, y) = (a, b) x = a, y = b).


(11) (Cartesian product): A, B ,
A B = {(x, y) | x A y B}.
def

A = {1, 4}, B = {2, 3}, A B = {(1, 2), (1, 3), (4, 2), (4, 3)}.
A = [1, 4], B = [2, 3],
A B = {(x, y) | 1 x 4, 2 y 3},

(1, 2), (4, 2), (4, 3), (1, 3) , :

0.2

11
Y

AB

.........................................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................

B
2
1

0
0

-X

04
(12) (function): A, B ,
(
1. f A B,
f A B
def
2. x A, ! y B (x, y) f.

(x, y) f , y = f (x) .

(: : A x, B y .

, , ).
Y

(i) f : A B : f (x) = ;

(ii) f : A B : x 7 .

, ,
,

AB

....
.....
.
.
.
f.....
..
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.....
.....
........ ................
............

-X

,
y = x2 ;
sin x
y=
, x 6= 0;
x
z = x2 y 2 .

{z
A

05

(13) (domain) (range) : , A f , Df ;

A x (variable), , f (x) x (value),


f , Rf , ( B
(co-domain)).
(14) (image) (inverse image) : f : A B , S A,
f (S) = {f (x) | x S}
def

0.2

12

S f .


, f Rf f , Rf = f (Df ) .

06
T B,

f 1 (T ) = {x A | f (x) T }
def

T f . B Rf A.

07
(15) (injective or 1-1): , :
f : A B ( x1 , x2 A)(x1 6= x2 f (x1 ) 6= f (x2 )).
def

(16) (surjective or onto): B A ,

:
f : A B
def

y B, x A y = f (x)

(Rf = B).

(17) (bijective or 1-1 onto) : .


(18) (equality of two functions) : f g ( f = g) ,

:
(i) Df = Dg ,

(ii) x Df , f (x) = g(x).

; :
h
i
f 6= g Df 6= Dg x Df f (x) 6= g(x) .

0.3

13

(19) (inverse function) : f , f 1 = {(y, x) | (x, y) f }, f 1

f (invertible), f 1 f .
Y

f 1

..
...........
...
.........
....
....
......
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
..
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y=x

..
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....
...
.
.
....
...
....
...

-X

08
, f 1 f y = x.

0.3

2 ,

, , , Dedekind, Cantor, Weierstrass


. , Peano
, , ,
, , ,
(completeness), , ,
, , R .
(real number system) (complete ordered field).
(1) (field) F
(i) (F, +) : x, y, z F ,
x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z;

0 F 0 + x = x + 0 = x;

x F, y F x + y = 0; y x ,
y = x;

x + y = y + x.

0.3

14

(ii) (F , ) , ( F = F \ {0}), x, y, z F ,
x (y z) = (x y) z;

1 F 1 x = x 1 = x;

x F , y F x y = 1; y x ,
y = x1 ;

x y = y x.

(iii) : x, y, z F, x (y + z) = x y + x z.
(2) (ordered field) F :
( i ) : x F, x x.

(ii) : x y y x x = y.

(iii) : x y y z x z.

(iv) : x, y F, x y y x.

( i ) ( x, y, z F )(x y x + z y + z);

(ii) ( x, y, z F )(0 z, x y x z y z).

(3) (complete ordered field) : F :


(
(1) F ;
(2) F .

(F, +, ) .

, :
E (partial order) (
), E (partially ordered set), 6= S E, :
M S (maximum element) ( M = max S),
(
(i) M S,
(ii) x S x M.

m S (minimum element) ( m = min S),


(
(i) m S,
(ii) x S m x.

u S (upper bound),
(
(i) u E,

(ii) x S x u.

0.4

15

l S (lower bound),
(
(i) l E,

(ii) x S l x.

sup S = S . S (supremum).
def

inf S = S . S (infimum).
def

, (bounded set).

R , . :
R = R \ {0}, .
def

R+ = {x R | x 0}, .
def

R+ = {x R | x > 0}, .
def

1. R sup inf , .
(a) A = N;

(b) B = (0, 3];

(c) C = {x Q | x2 3}.

(a) max A , min A = 1, sup A , inf A = 1;


(b) max B = 3, min B , sup B = 3, inf B = 0;

(c) C = [ 3, 3] Q, max C min C , sup C = 3,

inf C = 3.

0.4
(1)

. A R,

A (inductive set), 1 A (x A x + 1 A).

,
N=

def

(2)

\
{A | A } = {1, 2, 3, . . .}.

Z = {x R | x N x N x = 0} = {0, 1, 1, 2, 2, . . .}.
def

0.5
(3)

16

.
Q=

def

nm
o

m,
n

n
=
6
0

.
n

: N 0, , Z+ .
:

Peano

Naturale (= natural)

Dedekind

Zahl (= number)

Peano

Quoziente (= quotient)

Cantor

Reelle (= real)

Q Bourbaki () .

0.5

(extended real number system) R = R {, +},

, + 6 R , .
(1)

(2)

, x, y R,

x + y = +, (x R, y = +) (y R, x = +) (x = y = +),

, (x R, y = ) (y R, x = ) (x = y = ),
() + (+) .

, x, y R,

+, (x > 0, y = +) (y > 0, x = +) (x < 0, y = )

(y < 0, x = ) (x = y {, +}) ,
xy =

, (x < 0, y = +) (y < 0, x = +) (x > 0, y = )

(y > 0, x = ) (x, y {, +} x 6= y),


0 +, 0 .
(3)

:
(i) x, y R , ;

(ii) x R, < x < +.


R +, (positive infinity) (negative
infinity).

0.6

0.6

17

f : A B, n, m N.
(1) A, B R, f (real-valued function of a real variable);
(2) A Rn , B R, f (real-valued function of several (real)
variables);
(3) A R, B Rn , f (vector function), ().
(4) A Rn , B Rm , f (vector function of several (real)
variables);

,
, , .

0.7

(1) (constant function)


Y

f : R R : f (x) = c.
(2) (polynomial function)
f : R R : f (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn .
(3) (absolute value function)
| | : R R : x 7 |x|,

.....
.
.....
.....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.....
.
..
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.....
..
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
..... ........
..........
.

09 .

-X

09

(4) (greatest integer function)


[ ] : R R : x 7 [x] = x .

010 . [ ] (floor function),


: [x] [[x]] x.

, (ceiling function),
:
: R R : x 7 x = x .

0.7

18

011 . ,
(

x =

x Z,

x,

x + 1, .

2
1

0
0

-X

0
0

010

-X

011

(5) (square-root function)

. : [0, +) R : x 7

x.

2
1
0

..........
..............
..............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........
..........
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
......
.....
....
..
..

-X

012
(6) f : A( R) R,
f (increasing) ( x1 , x2 A)(x1 < x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 ))
def

f (decreasing) ( x1 , x2 A)(x1 < x2 f (x1 ) > f (x2 ))


def

f (non-decreasing) ( x1 , x2 A)(x1 < x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ))


def

f (non-increasing) ( x1 , x2 A)(x1 < x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ))


def

(monotonic functions). :
. .

0.8

19

: () , ,
, .

0.8

, , ,
.
(1) (sum): f + g : Df Dg R : (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x).
def

....
..............
...
.............
...
....
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...........
...
..........
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
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.
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.........
...
. . . ...............
....
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.
.
.
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.
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...
..

f (x) =

x, g(x) = 1 x ,

f + g .

f +g

-X

013
(2) (difference): f g : Df Dg R : (f g)(x) = f (x) g(x).
def

(3) (product): f g : Df Dg R : (f g)(x) = f (x) g(x).


def

(4) (quotient): f /g : Df Dg \ Zg R : (f /g)(x) = f (x)/g(x).


def

Zg = {x Dg | g(x) = 0}, g (zero set of g).


def

(5) (composition) : f : A B, g : B C,
h : A C : h(x) = g(f (x))

f g (composite function of f and g), g f .

014.

0.8

20

............................
..................
......
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...
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...
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.
.
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.
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.
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................................

.x

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.
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..................................

. f (x)

h=gf

. g(f (x))

014
: , f g , Rf Dg . f

g , , f g
h : f 1 (Rf Dg ) C : h(x) = g(f (x)).

015.

015
1. f (x) = 1 x2 , g(x) =
(a) g f ;
(b) f g.

x.

0.8

21

(a) f (, 1] g [0, +) ,

f 1 (Rf Dg ) = f 1 ((, 1] [0, +)) = f 1 [0, 1]


= {x R | 1 x2 [0, 1]}
= {x R | 0 1 x2 1}
= {x R | 1 x2 0}
= {x R | 0 x2 1}
= {x R | 1 x 1}.

g f : [1, 1] R : (g f )(x) = g(f (x)) =

1 x2 .

(b)

(f g)(x) = f ( x) = 1 ( x)2 = 1 x,

, Df g = R; x < 0 , g(x) = x 6 R,

(f g)(x) = f ( x) , . :

x Dg = [0, +), g(x) Df = R,

f g : Dg (= [0, +)) R : (f g)(x) = f ( x) = 1 x.

(6) : f g , f < g, :
(i) Df = Dg ,

(ii) x Df , f (x) < g(x).

f g.
2. f : R R : f (x) = |x 1|,

g : R R : g(x) =

: a, b 0,
a+b
ab, (x 1)2 a, 1 b,
2
2

...
.
..
...
..
..
..
..
...
.
.
... ..
.. ...
.... ..
.. ...
... ...
.. ....
.... ..
... ...
.......
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.
......
.
....
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.......
......
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....
....
...
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....
.
.
.
.
.....
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.....
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........
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...........
... ..............................
....
.
.
...
..
.... ......
.......
.

x 2x + 2
x 2x + 1 + 1
=
2
2
2
(x 1) + 1
=
2
p
(x 1)2 = |x 1|

g(x) =

1
0

= f (x), x R.

016 .

x2 2x + 2
, : f g.
2

016


-X

22

: (imply)

: (and)
: (or)
: (for each)
: (there exists)
! : (there exists uniquely)
: (if and only if)
: (to be defined as)
def

= : , (let = )
def

23

0-1 :
(a) ;

(b) ;

(c) ;

(d) ;

(e) ;

(f) .

0-2 R sup inf.


o
n
1
n

N
;
(a) A = 1

n
(b) B = (0, 1) \ Q ;
r
2x
(c) C = Df , f (x) =
;
3+x
(d) D = Rg , g : (0, 3) R : g(x) = |(x 1)(x 2)|.
0-3 A .
0-4 B = {x R | ax2 + bx + c < 0}. : a, b, c sup B inf B

. sup B, inf B ?

0-5 A, B R , C = {a+b | a A, b B}, : sup C = sup A+sup B.


0-6 E R , :
(
a = sup E

(i) a E ,
(ii) > 0, x E, a < x.

0-7 A B R, : a A, b B, a b, sup A inf B.


0-8 a < 0 < b, : |x| < min{|a|, b}, a < x < b.
0-9 f : R R, x R, f (x) = f (x), f (even function);
x R, f (x) = f (x), f (odd function); : R R

[ ] f (x) + f (x) f (x) f (x).


0-10 , () ,

, , .
t . ( f : A B : f (t) = , AB

).

24

0-11 f (x) = x2 , g : (i) g(x) = ax + b, a, b ,


(ii) g(f (x)) = f (g(x)), x R.



0-12 A = x R |x(x 1)| < 41 , A , sup A inf A
().

Chapter 1

.
, ,
.
, , .
, , .
, , .

1.1

, , ,
,

x 2 2x 5

lim
=?
x3
x 3 2x 6

, . ,
Cauchy(1789-1857) , Weierstrass
(1815-1897) . ,
f : R R : f (x) =

sin x
,
x

, x 0 , f (x) ? 0 x ,
0. , x f (x) :

25

1.1

26

f(x)

x
2

0.454649

0.841471

0.5

0.958851

0.01

0.999983

0.998334

0.1

1+

..............................................f
...............
.......................
...
...............

0.001 0.999999

-X

11
(1) ?

x p , f (x) l.
(2) f (x) l ?

(l , l + ) , f (x) l : , f (x)
, , > 0, f (x) (l , l + ), > 0, |f (x) l| < .

(3) x ? x Df ? x Df ?

, x Df , f (x) . x Df , ,
f (x) = x 0 .

(4) x ?

p x; , x 0 < |x p| < , x N (p). (


).

(5) ? ?

! x Df . > 0 . :
> 0, ( x)(x N (p) |f (x) l| < ).
(6) :
> 0, > 0, ( x)(x N (p) |f (x) l| < ).

1.2

1.2

27

lim f (x) = l , Df ? p
xp

Df ? ,
f : R R : f (x) =

sin x
,
x

Df = R , x 0 f . p Df

? ,
lim

x2

1 x2 =?

[1, 1], x 2, , p
x , , ,
, , .

1.1
p R, > 0,

N (p) = {x R |x p| < } = (p , p + )
def

p (-neighborhood). N (p) = N (p) \ {p} p


def

(deleted -neighborhood) . ( 12).

p+

p+

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

12
: :
x N (p) |x p| < ;
x N (p) 0 < |x p| < .

1.2

28

1.2
A R, p R, p A (accumulation point),
> 0, N (p) A 6= .

A A , A (derived set). A
, A (isolated point)
: p A , A () p, p A \ {p}

( inf) 0.

1. A = (0, 1), A .

1 p A, p A ;

2 p = 0,

> 0 N (p) = (, 0) (0, )


N (p) A = (0, ) (0, 1) = 0, min{, 1} =
6
p A .

, 1 A .

3 p > 1, = p 1 > 0,


N (p) A = (1, p) (p, 2p 1) (0, 1) =

p A . p < 0, p A .
A A = [0, 1].

2. A =

n1
o

n N , A = {0} A A .
n

1 p =

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
, n > 1,
<
, =
,
n
n n+1
n1 n
n n+1
h 1
1[1 2
1 i
A = .
,
,
N (p) A =
n+1 n
n n n+1

p A .

1
2 p = 1, = , p A .
2
1

3 p = 0, > 0, n0 > ,

1
(, ) A,
n0

p A .

1.3

29

4 A .

3. A = Q, A = R, ().
1.3
A R, p R, p A (interior point),
> 0 N (p) A.

A A , A (interior).

4. A = [0, 1], A = (0, 1).

5. A = [0, 1] \ Q, A = .

1.3

, Cauchy-Weierstrass .
1.4
f : Df R, p (Df ) , f p (limit) l,
lim f (x) = l

xp


> 0, > 0, ( x) x N (p) Df f (x) N (l) ,

> 0, > 0, ( x Df ) 0 < |x p| < |f (x) l| < .

, . 13
{l , l + } f {p , p + }. , , ,

1.5 , . f
p , l R lim f (x) = l.

xp

1.3

30
Y

l+
l
l

.......
.........
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
........
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.......
.......
.
.
.
.
.
......
......
......
.
.
.
.
.
....
......
.....
.
.
.
.
.
....
......
...... f
.
.
.
.
...

-X


p p+
p

13

1. f : R R : f (x) = c, - lim f (x) = c, p


xp

:

> 0, > 0, ( x R) 0 < |x p| < |f (x) c| < .

|f (x) c| < , .

: , , ,
. , : ,
, .
2. - lim x =?
x2

f (x) = x, 2 ( 14), :

> 0, > 0, ( x Df ) 0 < |x 2| < |f (x) 2| < .

> 0,

|f (x) 2| < |x 2| <


0 < |x 2| < ,

lim x = 2.
x2

( = )

1.3

31
Y

f............

.....
.....
.
.
.
.
2+
..
.....
2
.....
.
.
.
.
.
2
..
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
...
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
..
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
...
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
...
.....

.....
.
.
.
.
.. 0

-X

2+

14

, , ,
.
3. - lim x3 =?
x2

..
...
.
.
6
...
...
....
8+
..
...
....
...
..
.
8
..
...
....
...
...
.
8
...
..
....
.
...
6
....
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..
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....
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...
4
....
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...
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..
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..
...
2
.....
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...
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...
...
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..
....
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.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
...
...
..
.
.... 2 ......
.
........ ........
.
0
.
.......
..
...
..

...........................................
.......
........
......
......
......
....
.
.
.
.
...
..
...
...
...
...
.
...
..
.
...
....
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..
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..
..
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
1/3
...1/3
...
.
.
....
..
.....
....
......
.....
.......
.....
.........
......
......................................


2
(8+)
(8)
-X

15
f (x) = x3 , :

> 0, > 0, ( x Df ) 0 < |x 2| < |f (x) 8| < .

1.3

32

: ( , 15 ).
|x3 8| < < x3 8 <
8 < x3 < 8 +
(8 )1/3 < x < (8 + )1/3
(8 )1/3 2 < x 2 < (8 + )1/3 2
|x 2| < min{|(8 )1/3 2|, (8 + )1/3 2}, ( 0-8 )
0 < |x 2| < ,
( = min{|(8 )1/3 2|, (8 + )1/3 2}. )

: .
|x3 8| < |(x 2)(x2 + 2x + 4)| <
|x 2| < /19 |x2 + 2x + 4| < 19
|x 2| < /19 |x 2| < 1,

[]

|x 2| < min{/19, 1}
0 < |x 2| < , ( = min{/19, 1} )
[]

|x 2| < 1 1 < x < 3


(1 < x2 < 9, 2 < 2x < 6)
7 < x2 + 2x + 4 < 19.

4. f (x) = x1/n , - : lim f (x) = p1/n , p Df , n N.


xp

n , Df = R; n , Df = [0, +), n , p = 0
p > 0 , :
( i ) n p > 0;
(ii) n p = 0;
(iii) n ( p = 0 p 6= 0 ).

(i), .
1 0 < < p1/n ,

|x1/n p1/n | < p1/n < x1/n < p1/n +


(p1/n )n < x < (p1/n + )n , ( 16 )
(p1/n )n p < x p < (p1/n + )n p
|x p| < min{|(p1/n )n p|, (p1/n + )n p}
0 < |x p| < ,
( = min{|(p1/n )n p|, (p1/n + )n p} ).

1.4

33
Y

p1/n +

p1/n

p1/n

.
........
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
...........
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.......
.......
.
.
.
.
.
...
......
.....
.
.
.
.
...
...
....
..

(p1/n )n

-X

(p1/n + )n

16
2 p1/n , 0 =

1/n

0 . 1 ,

0 < |x p| < 0 |x1/n p1/n | < 0 =

p1/n
< .
2

: 1. , 1 2 , > p1/n , 1 ,

: n = 2, p = 1, = 4, (p1/n )n p = (1 4)2 1 = 8 .

2. x 0 , , , ,
, , x p ,

, , lim x = 0 .
x0

1.4

, - , ,
, . , , p
.
1.5 ( )
, .
f p l1 l2 , l1 < l2 . = 21 (l2 l1 ), l1 f p
, 1 > 0,

x N1 (p) |f (x) l1 | < f (x) < l1 + .

l2 f p , 2 > 0,
x N2 (p) |f (x) l2 | < l2 < f (x).

1.4

34

N1 (p)

N2 (p)


l2 < f (x) f (x) < l1 +

l2 l1 < 2 = l2 l1 .

1. lim ( 1 x + x 1) =?
x1

! , ,

lim ( 1 x + x 1) = lim 1 x + lim x 1 = 0,


x1
x1
x1

, f (x) = 1 x + x 1, Df = {1},
Df , 1.

: ()
. , , ,
.
1.6 ( )
f g , p Df Dg , lim f (x) = a, lim g(x) = b,
xp

xp

lim (f + g)(x) = a + b.

xp

> 0, x Df Dg ,
|f (x) + g(x) (a + b)| < |f (x) a| + |g(x) b| <
|f (x) a| < /2 |g(x) b| < /2
0 < |x p| < 1 0 < |x p| < 2 ,
[ lim f (x) = a, lim g(x) = b, () ]
xp

xp

0 < |x p| < , ( = min{1 , 2 } )


() > 0, /2, lim f (x) = a, 1 > 0
xp

x Df , 0 < |x p| < 1 |f (x) a| < /2.

() ,
, , ,
, , ,
(), .

1.4

35

1.7
f , f (bounded), f . p
Df (Df ) . f p (locally bounded), p

N(p) f (Df N(p)) .

, f p ( p )
. p Df (Df ) , , :
2. f : R R : f (x) = x R,

. f p .

...
6

1
p 6= 0
x
, 0 . f

3. f : R R : f (x) =

R , f .

...
...
...
...
...
...
.
1- ............................
................
-

...............................
.........
..... 0
...
...
..
...
...
..
..
...

17
1.8 ( )
f g , p Df Dg . f p lim g(x) = 0,
xp

lim (f g)(x) = 0.
xp

1 f p , 1 > 0, M > 0
x Df N1 (p) |f (x)| < M.
2 lim g(x) = 0, /M > 0, 2 > 0
xp

x Dg N2 (p) |g(x)| < /M.


3 N (p) = N1 (p) N2 (p),
x Df Dg

N (p)

x Df N1 (p)
x Dg N2 (p)

|f (x)| < M

|g(x)| <
M
|f (x)g(x)| < .

lim (f g)(x) = 0.
xp

1.4

36

1.9 ( )
f g , p Df Dg . lim f (x) = a, lim g(x) = b,
xp

xp

lim (f g)(x) = ab.

xp

1 : f g p . = 1, lim f (x) = a, > 0


xp

x Df N (p) |f (x) a| < = 1


a 1 < f (x) < a + 1,

f (Df N (p)) . g p .

2 :
h
i
lim f (x)g(x) = lim (f (x) a)(g(x) b) + a(g(x) b) + b(f (x) a) + ab
xp

xp

= lim (f (x) a)(g(x) b) + lim a(g(x) b)


xp

xp

+ lim b(f (x) a) + ab


xp

= 0 + 0 + 0 + ab = ab,
[]

[]

lim (f (x) a) = 0, 1 g b p ,
xp

lim (f (x) a)(g(x) b) = 0;

xp

1.10 ( )
f g , p Df Dg , , R. lim f (x), lim g(x)
xp

xp

lim (f (x) + g(x)) = lim f (x) + lim g(x).

xp

1.6 1.9 .

xp

xp

1.4

37

1.11 [ (sign-preserving theorem) ]


lim f (x) = l 6= 0,
xp

(1) l > 0, p N (p)


l
x N (p) Df f (x) > .
2
(2) l < 0, p N (p)
l
x N (p) Df f (x) < .
2

l
(1) ( 18 ), = , lim f (x) = l, > 0
xp
2
x Df N (p) |f (x) l| <
l < f (x) < l +

l
< f (x).
2

f
l+
l
l
O

....................................
............
...
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
...
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
...
...
....
.
.
.
...
....
...
.
.
.
...
...

.
.
..
..
.
.
p p p+
..
..

-X

18
(2) (1), =

|l|
l
= .
2
2

: l , p
x f (x) , , 18 . l .

1.12 ( )
f g , p Df Dg \ Zg . lim f (x) = a,
xp

a
f (x)
= .
lim g(x) = b 6= 0, lim
xp
xp g(x)
b

1.4

38

1
1
= , 1.9, . :
xp g(x)
b
1
1

< .
> 0, > 0, x N (p) Dg \ Zg
g(x) b

: lim

1 lim g(x) = b 6= 0, > 0


xp

2
1


g(x)

|b|
x N (p) Dg |g(x)| >
2
1
2



< .
g(x)
|b|

, x Dg \ Zg ,
b g(x)
1


<
<
b
bg(x)
1
2
1



|g(x) b| < b2
<
g(x)
|b|
2

0 < |x p| < 0 < |x p| < , ( 1 )


0 < |x p| < min{ , }.

= min{ , } .

1.13 [ (order-preserving theorem) ]

(1) lim f (x), lim g(x) ;


xp

xp

(2) > 0 x N (p) D, f (x) g(x), ( D = Df Dg ).

lim f (x) lim g(x).


xp

xp

: lim f (x) > lim g(x), , > 0


xp

xp

x N (p) D f (x) g(x) > 0,

[]

0 = min{, },
x

N0 (p)

x N (p) D

f (x) g(x)

x N (p) D
f (x) > g(x),

( [] ).


1.4

39

: lim f (x) lim g(x) , . :


xp

xp

f : R R : f (x) = sin

1
x

:
( x Df , f (x) 1) ( lim f (x) lim 1 = 1 ).
x0

x0

lim f (x) , ( 6 112. )


x0

1.14 [ (sandwich principle) ]

(1) lim f (x) = lim h(x) = l,


xp

xp

(2) p Dg ,
(3) p N (p) x N (p) Dg , f (x) g(x) h(x),

lim g(x) = l.
xp

..
..
..
...
.
...
...
...
..
.
...
...
...
..
.
....................
...
...........
...
.......
...
.. .......
.
... .....
... ....
.......
........................................
...........................
.
.
.
............
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
......
.........
..........
...................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........................................ .......
.
..........
....... .......
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
...
.........................
...
..
...
.
..
..
..
..
..
..

-X

19
> 0,
1 lim f (x) = l, > 0
xp

x Df N (p) l < f (x) < l + .

2 lim h(x) = l, > 0


xp

x Dh N (p) l < h(x) < l + .

1.4

40

3 0 = min{, , },
1,
2 ,

x Df N (p) l < f (x) < l + ,

x Dh N (p) l < h(x) < l + ,


x Dg N0 (p)

x Dg N (p) f (x) < g(x) < h(x),


l < g(x) < l + .

lim g(x) = l.

xp

4. lim

x0

h1i
x2 =? [ ] .
x

h1i 1
1
, ( t = 1/x )
1 <
x
x
x
1

h1i
1
x R ,
x2 x2
1 x2 <
x
x
x
i

h
1
1 2
1
x = 0.
1 x2 = 0 = lim x2 , lim
lim
x0
x0
x0
x
x
x
t R, t 1 < [t] t x R ,

1.15 ( )

(1) lim f (x) = l,


xp

(2) p Dg ,
(3) p N (p) x N (p) Dg , f (x) = g(x),

lim g(x) = l.
xp

f = h .

5. lim [x] =? [ ] .
x3/2

f : R R : f (x) = 1,
g : R R : g(x) = [x];

x (1, 2) = N1/2 ( 23 ),

[x] = 1 = f (x),

lim f (x) = 1, lim [x] = 1.

x3/2

x3/2

2
1

0
0

f
-X

110

1.4

41

1.16 ( )
lim f (x) = l, p A A Df , lim f |A (x) = l.
xp

xp

: f : Df B, A Df , g : A B : g(x) = f (x), f
A (restriction), f |A . ( 111).

lim f (x) = l > 0, > 0, x N (p) Df |f (x) l| <




> 0, > 0, x N (p) A f |A (x) l <

xp

lim f |A (x) = l.
xp

............
.
.
.
.
.
..... f |

...............................
...................
..........
........
.........
........
.......
.......
......
......
......
.
.
.
.
.
......
....
.
.
.
.....
.
...
.....
.
.
.
.
...
A
...
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
......
.......
........
........................

-X

111
: : . f , Df A
B p A B ,

lim f |A (x) 6= lim f |B (x),

xp

xp

lim f (x) .
xp

6. lim sin
x0

1
=?
x


1
f : R R : f (x) = sin , ( 112)
x


)
(
(
)

1
1

A=
k Z+ , B =
k N ,
k
+ 2k
2

1.4

42
Y

...........................
.... .. . . ...
......
... .. ... ... ...... .....
...
.. .. .... .... ...
.... f
.... ..... .............. .......... ........
. ... ... . .
..
... ... ......... ......... .. ...
...
....
..... .... ........... ............ ..
. .. ........ ........ ..
.
... .. ...... ....... .. ...
.... .... ................ ............... .... ...
.
.. .. ...... 0 ....... .. ..
.
..
.... ... ......... .......... .... ....
..
... .. ...... ...... .. ..
....
...... ...... ......... .. ...
..
.
...... ...... ....... ... ...
.
.
.
.... .... ...... .....
..................................

-X

112


o
1
1 n

+ 2k k Z+ sin = 1;
x
2
x
1
1
{k | k N} sin = 0;
x B
x
x

0A 0B;
x A

lim f |A (x) = lim 1 = 1; lim f |B (x) = lim 0 = 0,

x0

x0

x0

x0

, f 0 .

: , , A B ,
, : (i) (ii) p
, , , p
.
1.17
A = {x Df | x > p}, lim f |A (x) , f p
xp

(right-hand limit) lim+ f (x) f (p+ ). .


xp

, ,
, p .
1.18
f , A B Df , A B = Df , p A B , lim f (x)
xp

lim f |A (x) lim f |B (x)

xp

. , .

xp

1.5

43

1 lim f |A (x) 6= lim f |B (x) , lim f (x) .


xp

xp

xp

lim f |A (x) = lim f |B (x) = l, ,


xp

xp

x A N (p) |f (x) l| < ,


x B N (p) |f (x) l| < ,

= min{ , }, ,
x Df N (p) |f (x) l| < .

lim f (x) = l.

xp

7.
f : R R : f (x) =

lim f (x) =?

x2 , x Q,
x4 , x R \ Q.

x0

: 1.18.
A = Q, B = R \ A,

lim f |A (x) = lim x2 = 0,


x0
x0

lim f |B (x) = lim x4 = 0,


x0

lim f (x) = 0.
x0

x0

: .
x (1, 1), 0 f (x) x2 , lim x2 = 0, lim f (x) = 0.
x0

1.5

x0

, , :
(1) .
(2) , ,

, .
(3) , : f

{p} ( p Df ), , f p ?

f p , ?

1.5

44

.................................................
............
.........
.....

.......
..................
.........
.......

.............................

......
..

-X

-X

114 p

113 p
Y

.........................
................ ........................
....

.....
.............
........

-X

.
......
........
.....................

115 p

-X

116 p

1.19
f : Df R, p Df ,
p Df lim f (x) = f (p),
xp

f p (continuous at p).
, , ,
.
I.

p Df lim f (x) = f (p) .

II.

p 6 Df , or

xp

p Df , lim f (x) = f (p).


xp

III. > 0, > 0, ( x Df )(|x p| < |f (x) f (p)| < ) .

1.5

45

I II : (P Q) ((P Q) (P )) .
II III . III I

A (B C) A (B C)
A (B C)
A B C
(A B) C
(A B) C.

III A, p Df B, lim f (x) = f (p) C,


xp

III I .

III , .
f , p Df , f p . f p ,

p f (discontinuous point). f p (right-continuous),

f |A p , A = Df [p, +), . , f A

, p A Df , f p .
1. : f : R R : f (x) =
?

p R ,
1
1
= = f (p),
xp x
p

lim f (x) = lim

f .

...
6
..

...
...
...
...
...
...
..
1- ...........................
......................

117, f , ,

xp

................................
...........
..... 0
....
...
...
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

-X

117
2. : f : [0, +) R : f (x) = x1/n , n N.
4, lim x1/n = p1/n . f .
xp

: n = 2 , f
.

1.5

46

3. : f : R R : f (x) = |x| .

- : lim |x| = |p|.

xp

.....
.
.....
.....
.....
.....
.
.
.....
.
.
.....
...
.....
.....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.....
.
...
.....
.....
.....
..... .........
.........
.

1 p > 0, 0 < < p,




|x| |p| < |x p| <

0 < |x p| <

0 < |x p| < , ( = ).

118

lim |x| = |p|.


xp

2 p < 0, .
3 p = 0, > 0,


|x| |0| < |x 0| <

0 < |x 0| < , ( = ).

lim |x| = |0|.

x0

1, x < 0,
4. sgn : R R : sgn(x) =
0, x = 0,

1, x > 0,

(signum function), sgn .

sgn

-X

119
sgn (, 0) sgn|(,0) 1, sgn

(, 0) . , sgn (0, +) . sgn 0

,
lim sgn(x) = 1, lim+ sgn(x) = 1.

x0

x0

1.5

47

1.20 ( )
f, g p, p .
p Df Dg , f g p. p Df Dg

, . , . 

1.21 ( )

( i ) f : A B lim f (x) = b,
xp

(ii) g : B C b,

A, B, C R . lim g(f (x)) = g(b) = g(lim f (x)).


xp

xp

, g b , > 0
y B N (b) |g(y) g(b)| < ,

(1)

lim f (x) = b, , > 0


xp

x A N (p) |f (x) b| <


f (x) B N (b)
|g(f (x)) g(b)| < , ((1) )

lim g(f (x)) = g(b).

xp

f
....
.................... ...........................
........
......
......
....
...
......

.....
......
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
......
......
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
......
......
.....
.....
.....
.....
......
.....

gf



b ......

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
......
.

B
g



g(b)

120

: g p 0, g(p) 6= 0.

1.5

48

: : g b b f p , lim g(f (x))


xp

lim g . | |,

, , [x]

, , g
b (= lim f (x)), g b , .
xp

5. lim

x2

x3 + 2x + 4
=?
x2 + 5

lim

x2

h x3 + 2x + 4 i
x2 + 5

=?

1 ,
r
r
r
4
x3 + 2x + 4
x3 + 2x + 4
16
= lim
=
= .
lim
2
2
x2
x2
x +5
x +5
9
3
2 , ,
h x3 + 2x + 4 i h
x3 + 2x + 4 i h 16 i
lim
= lim
=
= 1.
x2
x2
x2 + 5
x2 + 5
9

6. lim [2 + 2x x2 ] =? ( [ ] ).
x1

lim (2 + 2x x2 ) = 3, [ ]

x1

, 1.21. x = 1 + h,
0 < |h| < 1,
lim [2 + 2x x2 ] = lim [2 + 2 + 2h 1 2h h2 ]

x1

h0

.....
..... ......
...
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
..
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

= lim [3 h2 ] = 2.
h0

1.21, :
lim [2 + 2x x2 ] = [lim (2 + 2x x2 )]

x1

-X

121

x1

= [3] = 3.

1.22
f : A B p , g : B C f (p) , g f p

p 6 A , g f p . p A , 1.21,
lim g(f (x)) = g(lim f (x)) = g(f (p)).

xp

g f p .

xp

1.5

49

7. : f (x) = [x] +

p
10 [x] ?

1 f .

p

Df = {x R [x] + 10 [x] }


= {x R 10 [x] 0} = {x R x < 11}
= (, 11).

2 f Df .

p Df Z,
f p lim f (x) = lim+ f (x) = f (p)
xp

xp

p
p
p 1 + 11 p = p + 10 p
p
1 2 11 p + 11 p = 10 p
p = 10.

: f p {n Z | n < 10} .

1.23 ( Bolzano )
f : Df R, I , [x1 , x2 ] I, f (x1 ) f (x2 ) < 0,
p (x1 , x2 ) f (p) = 0.

f (x1 ) < 0 < f (x2 ) .

S = {x [x1 , x2 ] | f (x) < 0},

S , sup S ,
p = sup S. B = (p, x2 ], f |B

.........................
......
.........
..
......
.
.
.
.
x1 S .......
.
.
.
.
.
x2
..
..... p B
.....
.
.
.
.
..
.....
......
...........

-X

121

f |B (x) 0,

f (p) = lim f |B (x) 0,


xp

p S , ( p 6 S > 0 (p , p) S = , p 6= sup S. )

f |S (x) < 0,

f (p) = lim f |S (x) 0.


xp

f (p) = 0.

Bolzano (1781-1848) , .

1.5

50

1.24 [ (intermediate-value theorem) ]


f : Df R, I , [x1 , x2 ] I, f (x1 ) < c < f (x2 )
f (x2 ) < c < f (x1 ), p (x1 , x2 ) f (p) = c.
Y

g : [x1 , x2 ] R : g(x) = f (x) c,

f (x2 )
c

( 122 ), g(x1 ) g(x2 ) < 0,

Bolzano , p (x1 , x2 )
g(p) = 0, f (p) = c.

f (x1 )

..............................
.......
......
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
...
.....
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........

g
...................................
......
......
......
.....
.....
...
.....
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
....
....
...
....
1
2
....
.
.
.
....
....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.......
..........

-X

122
1.25 ( )
f : Df R, I , f (I) .
, : y1 < y2 J , y1 < c < y2 ,
c J, J () (interval).
f (I) .

: , . ,
. .

1.5

51

1.26
f : Df R, p, q Df ;
(1) x Df , f (x) f (p), f p (absolute
maximum).

(2) x Df , f (q) f (x), f q (absolute


minimum).

(3) , (absolute extremum).


Y

f......................
....
....
....
.
.
....
..
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
.
.
...
..
...
...
...
..
....
..
.
..
.
...
.
.
.
.....
.
...
...................
..
...
...
....
.
.
.
...... .....
.........
q

-X

123

1.27
f I = [a, b] , f I .
: f I .
1 c = (a + b)/2, f [a, c] [c, b] .
(
[a, c], f [a, c] ,
I1 = [a1 , b1 ] =
[c, b], f [a, c] ,

I1 . , In = [an , bn ] [an1 , bn1 ]


, f In .
n N, bn an =

ba
.
2n

2 A = {an | n N}, a an b, n N, p = sup A

(compact interval) R , I = [a, b].

1.5

52

(i) n N, an p ;

(ii) n N, p bn ,

j, m N, j < m aj am < bm bj ,

n N, bn A .
(iii) f p, f p , ( 1.9 ),
> 0 f (N (p) I) .

3 ,

ba
2n
p < an p bn < p + , ( 2 (i), (ii) )

> 0 n N >

In N (p) I, ( In I )
f (In ) , ( 2 (iii) )

1 , .

1.28 [ (Extreme Value Theorem) ]


f I = [a, b] , , f (I)
.
1.27 f I , f (I) .
m = inf f (I), M = sup f (I).
1 c I f (c) = M :
I x f (x) = M ,

g(x) = M f (x),
() g(x) > 0, x I
1

I
g
1

I , ( )
g
1
< k, x I
k > 0,
g(x)
1
k > 0, g(x) > , x I
k
1
k > 0, M > f (x), x I
k
1
sup f (I) M < M.
k
M .

()

1.6

53

2 d I m = inf f (I) .

: , (),
f Df , .
. , , 1.25
, , , (
).

1.6

f : Df R , , p

+ , + , :

lR

l = +

l =

IV

p = +

II

VI

VII

p =

III

VIII

IX

pR

I , , ,
, , ,
-. p
N (p) = (p , p + ),

N (p) = (p , p + ) \ {p}.

+ ? ,
+, , , , .
, f (x) l ,
> 0, . . . , f (x) N (l),

, + ,
> 0, . . . , f (x) > ,

> 0, . . . , f (x) (, +).

, (c, +) + , c . (, c)
, c . ,

1.6

54

: , , , II I ;
, .
I. lim f (x) = l
xp

def

h
i
> 0, > 0, (x)(x N (p) Df f (x) N (l)) .

h
i
lim f (x) = l > 0, R, (x)(x (, +) Df f (x) N (l) ) .

II.

x+

III.

def

lim f (x) = l

def

h
i
> 0, R, (x)(x (, ) Df f (x) N (l) ) .

h
i

IV. lim f (x) = + R, > 0, (x)(x N (p) Df f (x) (, +) ) .


xp

def

V. lim f (x) =
xp

VI.

def

h
i
R, > 0, (x)(x N (p) Df f (x) (, ) ) .

lim f (x) = +
h
i
R, R, (x)(x (, +) Df f (x) (, +) ) .

x+

def

VII.

lim f (x) =
h
i
R, R, (x)(x (, +) Df f (x) (, ) ) .

x+

def

VIII.

lim f (x) = +
h
i
R, R, (x)(x (, ) Df f (x) (, +) ) .

def

IX.

lim f (x) =
h
i
R, R, (x)(x (, ) Df f (x) (, ) ) .

def

, , , .
1.29
f Df , l R,
h
i
lim f (x) = l > 0, > 0, ( x Df )(x > f (x) N (l) ) .
x+

def

( 124).

+ Df .

1.6

55
Y

l+
l l

.......
..................................................
........................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........
........
.......
.
.
.
.
.
....
f
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
....
....
....
.
.
.
.
...
.....

......
.
.
.
.
.

....
O

-X

124
: Df , , Df = N,
, .
1
1. f : R R : f (x) = , lim f (x) = 0.
x+
x
> 0,
1

|f (x) 0| < <
x
1
x>

1
x > , =

lim f (x) = 0.
x+

1.30
f : Df R, p Df ,
h
i
lim f (x) = + R, > 0, x N (p) Df f (x) (, +) .
xp

( 125 ).

def

1.6

56
Y

..
..
...
..
..
.
.
..
..
..
.....
.
...
...
.
.
..
....
.
.
.
....
.......
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........................................

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
... f
....
.....
.......
.........
.................
............................
.......................

p p p+

-X

125
: f p , l R lim f (x) = l,
xp

lim f (x) = + lim f (x) = ,

xp

xp

f p . , f p ,
; p = .
, ,
( p + , N (p) (, +) (, ) )

II IX , , ,
.

1.31
f g , p R Df Dg . lim f (x) = l, lim g(x) = m,
xp

xp

l, m R,
(1) l + m R , lim (f (x) + g(x)) = l + m.
xp

(2) l m R , lim f (x)g(x) = l m.


xp

1
= 0.
xp f (x)

(3) l {, +}, lim

1
= +.
f (x)
1
= .
(5) l = 0 f (x) p , lim
xp f (x)

(4) l = 0 f (x) p , lim

xp

1.6

57

(3) p , l = + , ,
.
h
i
> 0, > 0, x N (p) Df f (x) >
h
1i
1
<
> 0, > 0, x N (p) Df 0 <
f (x)

1 1i
h


, ()
> 0, > 0, x N (p) Df
<
f (x)

lim f (x) = +

xp

1
> 0, = , () , > 0

1
1


x N (p) Df
0 < = .
f (x)

lim

xp

1
= 0.
f (x)

2 [x]
=?
x+ 3x + 4
,

2. lim

x > 0 x 1 < [x] x

, lim

x+

x1
[x]
<
1,
x
x

[x]
= 1.
x

2 [x]

x = 0 1 = 1.
= lim x
4
x+
3+0
3
3+
x

3. lim

x+

 1 [x] 1/3
5x + 3

=?

1 [x]
. x > 0 ,
x+ 5x + 3

1 lim

x 1 < [x] x 1 x 1 [x] < 2 x

1 [x]
2x
1x

<
, ( )
5x + 3
5x + 3
5x + 3

1
1
1
1x
= lim x 3 = ,
x+ 5 +
x+ 5x + 3
5
x

lim

1
2x
= . ,
x+ 5x + 3
5
lim

1
1 [x]
= .
x+ 5x + 3
5
lim

1.6

58

2 , g : R R : g(y) = y 1/3 , 2 , g ,
lim

x+

 1 [x] 1/3
5x + 3

 1 [x] 

1 [x] 
= g lim
x+ 5x + 3

= lim g
x+
5x + 3
 1
1
=g
= 1/3 .
5
5

4. f : R R : f (x) = x [x] ( (mantissa) ). lim f (x) =?


x+

( 126 ).

f
1

.
.
.
.
....
...
...
...
...
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....

-X

126
f (x) = x [x], A = {1.5, 2.5, 3.5, },

lim f |N (x) = 0,
x+

lim f |A (x) = 0.5,


x+

, .

5. : ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 , a, b, c, d R a 6= 0.
f : R R : f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d,

f , f ;

b
c
d 

lim f (x) = lim ax3 1 +


+ 2 + 3 = sgn(a) (+);
x+
x+
ax ax
ax

c
d 
b
+ 2 + 3 = sgn(a) ().

lim f (x) = lim ax3 1 +


x
x
ax ax
ax

, f , R, x0 R f (x0 ) = 0.

59

: , [ ] .

1-1 = 1, > 0 0 < |x 4| < | x 2| < = 1 .

: lim x = 2.
x4

1
1
= .
x3 x 1
2

1-3 f (x) = 1 x2 , g(x) = 4x x2 3.


1-2 - : lim

(a) : lim f (x) =? lim g(x) =?


x1

x1

(b) :
lim (f (x) + g(x)) = lim f (x) + lim g(x)
x1

x1

x1

? ?
1-4 :

x2
(a) lim
;
x4
x4

1 x+1
(b) lim
;
x0
x
1
;
(c) lim
x0 [x]
[x3 ] 27
;
x3
x3 27
h1i
(e) lim
x;
x0 x
(d) lim+

(f) lim [n(2 + 2x x2 )], ( n Z );


x1

(g) lim+
x0

[x]
;
x

(h) lim (x2 [x2 ]);


x+

(i) lim

x+

(j) lim

x+

1 x2
;
2x + 1
(1 + x2 )1/2
.
x

x + 5, x < 3 ,
1-5 f : R R : f (x) = 9 x2 , 3 x 3 ,

5 x, 3 < x.

f (3 ), f (3+), lim f (x), f (3 ), f (3+ ) lim f (x).


x3

x3

60

1-6 :
(a) f (x) =

1
;
x2 + 16

5
r
2x
(b) g(x) =
;
3+x
(c) h(x) = |x [x] 0.5| .

x, x < 0,
1-7 f : R R : f (x) =
1, x 0.

1, x < 0,
g : R R : g(x) =
x, x 0.
(a) : f g 0 ;
(b) f g, .

sin x,
x c,
1-8 f : R R : f (x) =
b, c , a f c
ax + b, x > c,
.
1-9 f : R R 0
x, y R, f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y).

: f .
1-10 f : R (0, +), (i) x, y R, f (x + y) = f (x)f (y), (ii) f
0 . f (0) =? f .

1-11 f : R R .
(
x2 , x Q,
1-12 f : R R : f (x) =
f ?
x4 , x R \ Q,
1-13 f (x) =

4
, g(x) = x, h(x) = sgn(x), :
3x 5

(a) f g h ;

(b) h f g .

1-14 n , a1 , a2 , , an1 . :
xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x = 0

.
1-15 f : R R x Q, f (x) = 0, : f = 0.

61

1-16 f g [a, b] f (a) < g(a) < g(b) < f (b); : p (a, b)

f (p) = g(p) .

1-17 , 15000 .

, : 2000 , :
2 .
(a) x ( x 0 ) ;
(b) ?
(c) (a) , ( Cases ) .
1-18 f, g : R R , : h(x) = max{f (x), g(x)} .
1-19 f I = (a, b) , a < b +,
lim f (x) = lim f (x) = +,

xa

xb

p I f (p) f (x), x I, ( f ).

Chapter 2

, , Newton
Leibniz , ,
.

2.1

, , : .
? , , ,
: . ? : Q

P . ,
Fermat (16011665) : , (

) , , . ,
.
Y

6
......
........
.
........
..
........
.......
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
..........
. .....
..................
. . ........................ .................
........
...........................
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
.................
......
..................
.
.
.
.
.
.....
...........
..............
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.............
.
.
.
.
.
.
...... . .....
....
....
....
.
. . ...
.

.
..

. ..
.
....
...
.
.
...
...

..

..

....
.

..

-X

21
62

2.1

63

2.1
f : Df R, p Df Df ,
(1) fp : Df \ {p} R : fp (t) =

f (t) f (p)
f p
tp

(difference quotient function).


f (t) f (p)
(2) lim fp (t) = lim
, f p (differtp
tp
tp
df (p)
dy

, f p
entiable), f (p) Df (p)

dx x=p
dx
(derivative).

(3) lim+ fp (t) , f p (right-differentiable),


tp

f+ (p) D+ f (p), f p (right derivative).


.
(4) f : E R : x 7 f (x),
E = {x Df | f x }

f (derivative).
( 21 ) P (p, f (p)) Q(t, f (t))

. , ,
, :
Y

f .............................................

.
............
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........
......
.....
.
.
.
...
...
....
..
...
.
... (p, f (p))
.
..
...
.
..
...
.....
.
.
.
.
....
.......
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......

x=p

22

-X

2.1

64

2.2
(1) f p , y = f (p)(x p) + f (p) f (p, f (p))

(tangent line);

f (x) f (p)


(2) f p lim
= +, x = p f
xp
xp
(p, f (p)) () .

(differentiate) f , f

f , : ( ) ,
, 2.1 .

1. f : R R : f (x) = c, f .
R, ,
f (t) f (x)
cc
= lim
= 0,
tx
tx t x
tx

f (x) = lim

f : R R : f (x) = 0, , .

2. f : R R : f (x) = x, f .
R, ,
f (t) f (x)
tx
= lim
= 1,
tx
tx t x
tx

f (x) = lim

f : R R : f (x) = 1.

3. n N, f : R R : f (x) = xn , f .
n = 1 , n > 1 ,
f (t) f (x)
tn xn
= lim
tx
tx t x
tx
n1
(t x)(t
+ tn2 x + + xn1 )
= lim
tx
tx

f (x) = lim

= lim (tn1 + tn2 x + + xn1 )


tx

= nxn1 .

f : R R : f (x) = nxn1 .

( n = 1 , , x0 1. )

2.1

65

4. f : R R : f (x) = 1/x, f .

R , ,
1 1

f (t) f (x)
1

t
x = lim x t
f (x) = lim
= lim
= 2.
tx
tx
tx
tx
tx
(t x)(tx)
x
1
f : R R : f (x) = 2 .
x

5. f (x) = (x + 1)3 .
f (x) = (x + 1)3 , f (x) = 3(x + 1)2 .

1 (x0 , y0 ),
(
y0 = (x0 + 1)3 ,

m = f (x0 ) = 3(x0 + 1)2 ,

..
.. ...
.. ....
.........
..
f ................
6
..
......
.....
.........
......
.......
...........
......
.....
.
..
.
.
4
...
.......
...
........... ( 1 , 27 )
...... 2 8
....
..........
...
.......
..........
.
2 ...............
..
......
.......
... .....
. ..
... ....
.... ......
... ....
..... ......
.
.
.
.
.
.
-X
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
....
.... 1
0
1
..
...
..

y = m(x x0 ) + y0
= 3(x0 + 1)2 (x x0 ) + (x0 + 1)3 .

(1)

2 , (1)
0 = 3(x0 + 1)2 (x0 ) + (x0 + 1)3 .

,
(x0 + 1)2 (1 2x0 ) = 0.
1
x0 = 1 x0 = , (1) ,
2
27
y = 0 y = x.

4

23

f , f ( : Df ), f
f p ,
f (t) f (p)
, ( ).
(f ) (p) = lim
tp
tp
, f (p), f p (second derivative),
f (p), f (4) (p), f (5) (p), , f (n) (p) .

f , f , f f -prime, f -double-prime, f -triple-prime, f (4)

f (4th derivative).

2.2

66

2.3
f . n N, f n f (n) (n-th
derivative of f ) :

( i ) f , f (1) = f ;
(ii) f m f (m) , f (m) , f (m+1) = (f (m) ) .
dn y
, f f , f D f n .
dx
, , .
(0)

2.2

(n)

, ,
, , ,
, .
2.4 ( )
(1) f p , f p ;
(2) f p , f p .

(2), p+ p, f+ (p) f (p) (1) .


h f (x) f (p)
i
lim+ f (x) = lim+
(x p) + f (p) = f+ (p) 0 + f (p) = f (p),
xp
xp
xp
f p .

: f p , f p ; f p ,
f p ?

1. : f p , f p
? ( p Df . )
1/3

f : R R : f (x) = x
lim+

t0

.
........... f
.........
.......
.
.
.
.
.
....
.....
....
.
.
..
...
...
...
-X
..
....
.... O
.
...
...
.
.
.
.
.....
......
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........

t1/3
f (t) f (0)
= lim+
= +,
t0
t0
t

f 0 , f 0 ()
, ( 2 ).

24

2.2

67

2.5
f . f f , f (continuously
differentiable). , f (n) : Df R , f n (n-th

order continuously differentiable), f C n .

2.4 , :
f n f n
f n 1

f
f
f
f .

, :

x2 sin 1 , x 6= 0,
x
f : R R : f (x) =

0,
x = 0,

( 25), () , () . ( ).
Y

.
.

.
.
.

y = x2....

.
.
.
.
.

...
...
....
....

.
.

.
.
..

... ..
..
..
... ..
..
..
.
.
.
f ..... ......
.....
.... ..
.. .. ..
...
.....
... ..
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.... ...................
.
.
. . ....................... .. .. .....
..........
... .. ..............................
...
....
... .......
...
..
..
..
-0.2 .........
0
.. .0.2
.. ..
.
.
.. ...
.
....
..
.....
..
.
......
.
.
.
.
.
2 ...
.
.

y = x

.
.
.
.
.

-X

.
.
.
.
.
.

25

2.2

68

2.6 ( )
f, g p , p ( ) ,
(1) (f + g) (p) = f (p) + g (p) ;
(2) (f g) (p) = f (p) g (p) ;
(3) (f g)(p) = f (p)g(p) + f (p)g (p) ;
 f 
f (p)g(p) f (p)g (p)
(p) =
, ( g(p) 6= 0 ) .
(4)
g
g 2 (p)

(1)
(f + g)(t) (f + g)(p)
tp
tp
(f (t) + g(t)) (f (p) + g(p))
= lim
tp
tp
g(t) g(p)
f (t) f (p)
+ lim
= f (p) + g (p).
= lim
tp
tp
tp
tp

(f + g)(p) = lim

(2) (1).
(3)

(f g)(t) (f g)(p)
tp
tp
f (t)g(t) f (t)g(p) + f (t)g(p) f (p)g(p)
= lim
tp
tp
g(t) g(p)
f (t) f (p)
= lim f (t)
+ lim g(p)
= f (p)g(p) + f (p)g (p).
tp
tp
tp
tp

(f g)(p) = lim

(4)
 1 
g

g (p)
(1/g)(t) (1/g)(p)
g(p) g(t)
= lim
= 2 .
tp
tp g(t)g(p)(t p)
tp
g (p)

(p) = lim

(3),
 f 
g

 1 
g (p)
1
+ f (p) 2
(p) = f
(p) = f (p)
g
g(p)
g (p)

f (p)g(p) f (p)g (p)


.
=
g 2 (p)

2. f . : Df n (x) = nf n1 (x)f (x), n .


( : f n f (n) ).

2.2

69

:
D(f1 fn )(x) = f1 (x)f2 (x) fn (x) + f1 (x)f2 (x) fn (x) +
+ f1 (x)f2 (x) fn (x).

f1 = f2 = = fn = f , Df n (x) = nf n1 (x) f (x).

3. f (x) = xr , r =

m
, m N, n m , .
n

Df = R.
1 x 6= 0 , ,
t1/n x1/n
tx
tx

Dx1/n = lim

= lim

tx (t1/n )n1

1
(t1/n )n2 x1/n

++

(x1/n )n1

1 1 1
xn .
n

f (x) = (x1/n )m ,
f (x) = m(x1/n )m1

1 1 1
x n = rxr1 .
n

2 x = 0 ,
lim+ f0 (t) = lim+
t0

t0

tm/n 0
1
= lim+ (nm)/n = +.
t0 t
t0

f 0 . ( 26 ).
f : R R : f (x) = rxr1 .
Y

........
.
........
2
f......................
........
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.......
....
......
.......
...... 1
......
.
.
.
......
.
.
..... ........
.... ....
...

2 1

-X

26A m , n

f ........
.......................
.................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 .........
..
...
..
.
0 ...
2 1...............0 1 2
...........
...................
.........................

26B m, n

: r 1, f 0 .
2.7 [ (Chain Rule) ]
f p , g f (p) , D(g f )(p) = g (f (p)) f (p).

-X

2.2

70

f (x) f (p) , x 6= p,

xp
f : Df R : f (x) =

f (p),
x = p,

f p x Df , f (x) f (p) = f (x)(x p).

g(y) g(f (p)) , y 6= f (p),

y f (p)
g : Dg R : g (y) =

g (f (p)),
y = f (p),

g f (p) y Dg , g(y) g(f (p)) = g (y)(y f (p)).


x Df , y = f (x) Rf Dg ,

g(f (x)) g(f (p)) = g (f (x))(f (x) f (p))


= g (f (x))f (x)(x p),

f g f p,
g(f (x)) g(f (p))
= lim g (f (x))f (x) = g (f (p))f (p).
xp
xp
xp
lim


1 1/3
4. F (x) = 1 +
.
x
1
1
f : R R : f (x) = 1 + ,
x
1/3
g : R R : g(y) = y ,

g(f (x)) = (f (x))

1/3


1 1/3
= F (x).
= 1+
x

F f, g .
2

g y = 0 , f (x) = 0
, g (f (x)) , f (1) = 0,
x = 1 . 2.1,
F (t) F (1)
[1 + (1/t)]1/3
= lim
t1
t1
t (1)
t+1
1
= lim 1/3
t1 t
(t + 1)2/3
lim

= ,

F 1 .

6
..
...
...
...
...
.... F
........
.....................
............

1
.....................
........
...
...
..
...
...
...
2 1
0
....
....
....
....
1
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
.

2-6

-X

2.2
3

71

x R \ {1},
1
1
1
F (x) = g (f (x))f (x) = (f (x))2/3 2 =
2/3 .
3
x
3x2 1 + x1

F : R \ {1, 0} R : F (x) =

5. f (x) =

1
3x2 1 +


1 2/3
x

x3 x4 .

f ,
Df = {x R | x3 x4 0}
= {x R | x3 (1 x) 0}
= {x R | x(1 x) 0} = [0, 1].

..........................
....
f........................
...
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
......
...
.............

F : [0, 1] R : F (x) = x3 x4 ,

G : [0, +) R : G(y) = y,

-X

28

G y = 0 , F (x) = 0 (
x = 0 1 ) , , .
( 28 ).
3x2 4x3
1 x (0, 1), f (x) =
2 x3 x4 .
2 f 1 ,

x3 x4
x3
= ,
= lim
lim
x1
x1
x1
1x
3 x = 0, f (0) = lim+
x0

x3 x4 0
= 0.
x0

2
4x3
3x

, x 6= 0,
f : [0, 1) R : f (x) = 2 x3 x4

0,
x = 0.

2.2

72

: , , ,
, , , .
1 f (x) =

x3 x4 = (x3 x4 )1/2 ,
3x2 4x3
1
f (x) = (x3 x4 )1/2 (3x2 4x3 ) =
2
2 x3 x4 .

()

2 x {0, 1} , () 0, f 0 1 .

2.8
f x , r , f (x) > 0, Df r (x) = r f r1 (x)f (x).
g : (0, +) R : g(x) = xr , f r (x) = g(f (x)), ,
Df r (x) = g (f (x))f (x) = r f r1 (x)f (x).

m
, m N, n , f (x) < 0,
n
Df r (x) = rf r1 (x)f (x). f (x) = 0 , f r (x) , r

: f x , r =
1 , .

6. f : (, 1] R : f (x) = 1 x. f n .
1
1 x < 1, f (x) = (1 x)1/2 ; f 1 ,
2

1x
f (x) f (1)
1
= .
lim
= lim
= lim
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
1x
2 , x < 1,

1 1
f (x) = (1 x)3/2 ,
2 2
1 1 3
f (x) = (1 x)5/2 .
2 2 2
1 1 3 5
f (4) (x) = (1 x)7/2 .
2 2 2 2
(n)
n 2 , f : (, 1) R :
f (n) (x) =

1 3 (2n 3)
(1 x)(2n1)/2 .
n
2

2.3 ()

2.3

73

()

, ,
, t , f (t), , t0 t
f (t) f (t0 )
,
t t0

t t0 , , t0 (instantanous
velocity),
lim

tt0

f (t) f (t0 )
= f (t0 ),
t t0

................................
..................
......
...................
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.......
.
.
.... f
....
.....
.
..
.
.
.....
.
...
.
.
.
.....
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
..
...............................
....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
...
-X
..............

t0 t

29
. , .
, (related rate).
x y, : y = f (x). f [p, t], :
p t t p , f f (p) f (t) f (t) f (p) (

: ),
f (t) f (p)
tp

f p t (average rate of change).


. , t p , ,
f p (instantaneous rate of change), f
p . , , t.

1 ;

2.3 ()

74

2 , , ( ) ;
3 ;
4 , .

1. 60 , 2000 300
. t , ? t = 6 ,
? ( P , A ).
( : )

P.........
.
....
.....

p
S : [0, +) R : S(t) = (60t)2 + (300t)2 + 22 ,

1
dS
= (93, 600 t2 + 4)1/2 (2 93, 600 t).
dt
2

t0 = 6 = 0.1 ,
dS
= (93, 600 0.12 + 4)1/2 93600 0.1
dt t0
4, 680
9, 360
=
=
940
235
305.289 (/).

.....
.....
.....
.....
......
..
...
...
....
..
....
..
...
....
..
...
..
....
.......
..
.....
...
.....
............
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
............
..
............
..... .........
............
. ...
............
........................
...........
.
.
.
.
............
....
............
.....
............
.....
............
...........
.....
..
.....
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
..

............
A

210

2. 8 10 ( ), 5 ,
6 , ? ( ).
t , y , x , V ,
y
10
2y
, = , x = ,
x
4
5
4y 3
x2 y
=
V =
3
75 ,

t ,
4y 2 dy
dV
=

.
dt
25
dt

dV
= 5, y = 6,
dt
dy
25
dV
25
125
=

=
5=
0.2763 (/).
2
dt
4 y
dt
4 36
144

2.3 ()

75
8
.....................................................
................................
..............
..
..............
.........
...
......
.........
.
......
...

...
..
............
...
...
...
....
.....................
........
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
... .............................................................................................................. ..
.
...
...
...
..
...
...
.
...
...
...
..
...
.
... .................................................................................... ....
.
.........
{z .......}.............
......................................... |
................................. ...
...
.
x ....
...
...
..
...
..
...
..
.
.
...
..
...
...
...
..
.
...
..
...
..
... ....
... ...
... ...
....

|
|
y
|
|

|
|
|
|
|
10
|
|
|
|
|

211

3. x mm, 0.2 mm,


5 mm , ? , C0 ,
V0 , C0 V0 .

4  x 3 3
= x,
V =
3 2
6

t ,

dV

dx
= x2 ,
dt
2
dt

x = 5 ,

dV

= 52 0.2 = 2.5
dt
2

(mm3 /).

212
2

V =

3
x , x
6
x=

V = V0 ,

 6V 1/3

dx  6 1/3 1 2/3 dV
=
V

,
dt

3
dt
1  6 1/3 2/3
dx
=
V0
C0 .
dt
3

2.4

2.4

76

, .
, ... ,
, ,
.
2.9
f : Df R, p, q Df .
(1) p N(p), x Df N(p), f (x) f (p), f
p (local maximum) (relative maximum).

(2) q N(q), x Df N(q), f (x) f (q), f


q (local minimum) (relative minimum).

(3) , (relative extremum).

, ,
, , .
Y

............
.... .......
...
...
...
...
.
.
...
.
..
...
....
...
.
...
...
....
...
......
...
...
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.....
.
......
.....
.....
...
.........
...
.....
....
............
...
......
....
.
...
.
.
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
..
......
..
...
..
......
.
.
.
....
..
.
....
.
... ........
....
..
...........
....
...
.....
.
.
.
........ ........
......

213

2.10 ( )
f : Df R,
(1) p Df ;
(2) f p ;
(3) f p .

f (p) = 0.

-X

2.4

77

f p ().
p Df , 1 > 0 N1 (p) Df ;
f p , 2 > 0 x N2 (p) Df , f (p) f (x);
= min{1 , 2 } > 0, x N (p),

f (p) f (x). f p
(
f (t) f (p) 0, p < t < p,

fp (t) =
tp
0, p < t < p + ,

6
...
... f
...
...
....
...
.
...
..
...
...
...
.
.
...
..
...
.....
...
..... .......
...............

f p ,
0 fp (p ) = lim fp (p) = fp (p+ ) 0,
tp

f (p) = 0.

p


-X

214

2.11

f p , p Zf (Df \ Df ) Sf ,

Zf = {x Df | f (x) = 0}, ( f (x) = 0 ).

Df \ D f , ( ) .
Sf .

p 6 Zf (Df \ Df ) Sf ,
(i) f p ;
(ii) p Df ;
(iii) f (p) 6= 0.

f p , (i) (ii) f (p) = 0, (iii) .

Zf (Df \ Df ) Sf f (set of critical points).

f p p f ,

. , .
.

Df , Df \ Df .

2.5

2.5

78

, ,
, , .
2.12 ( Rolle )

(1) f [a, b] ,
(2) f (a, b) ,
(3) f (a) = f (b) .

p (a, b) f (p) = 0.
f [a, b] , 1.28 f [a, b] p
, q .
(1) f (p) = f (q), f . , p (a, b), f (p) = 0.

(2) f (p) > f (q), f (p) > f (a) f (q) < f (a). f (p) > f (a) = f (b),

p [a, b] , f p , 2.10 , f (p) = 0.


, f (q) < f (a), q (a, b) f (q) = 0.
Y

f (a) = f (b)

.........
...... ...........
...
.....
....
....
....
....
...
...
...
...
....
...
...
..
.
....
..
....
...
.....
.
.
.
......
....................

215
2.13 [ (Mean Value Theorem) ]

(1) f [a, b] ;
(2) f (a, b) .

p (a, b) f (p) =

f (b) f (a)
.
ba

-X

2.5

79

f [a, b] , (a, b) ,
f (b) f (a)
(x a).
ba

: [a, b] R : (x) = f (x)

[a, b] , (a, b) ,
f (b) f (a)
(a a) = f (a),
ba
f (b) f (a)
(b a) = f (a),
(b) = f (b)
ba

(a) = f (a)

Rolle , p (a, b) (p) = 0,


f (p) =

f (b) f (a)
.
ba

f : [a, b] R

, (a, b) ,
, p
f (p) (a, f (a)) (b, f (b))
f (b) f (a)

; ,
ba
216 .
,

(b, f. (b))

..
........
..... .
...... .
..... ...
.
.
.
.
....
..
......
..
......
......
..
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
..
.....
..
......
......
.. ..............
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.. .....
.....
.....
.....
............
......
......
......
............
......
.
.......
......
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
..... ........................................
.............
.
..............................................
..........
......
.....
..........
......
......
..........
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
....
........
......
.....
...
..... ..
.....
......
...
...... ..
......
......
...
...... ..
......
.....
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
. ....
... .. ..........
...... ........
......

(a, f (a))

: f a b
f (b) f (a)

f p
ba
f (p).

-X

216

2.14 [ (Zero Derivative Theorem) ]

f I , I I ; x I, f (x) = 0,

f I .

2.5

80

: x1 , x2 I x1 < x2 ,

f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).

f [x1 , x2 ] ,

f (x1 , x2 ) ,

, c (x1 , x2 )

f (x2 ) f (x1 )
f (c) =
,
x2 x1

x1

x2

-X

217

f (c) = 0, f (x2 ) = f (x1 ).

2.15

f, g I , I I ; x I, f (x) = g (x),

c f (x) = g(x) + c, x I.

F : I R : F (x) = f (x) g(x). , F I , I

, x I,

F (x) = f (x) g (x) = 0,

2.14 , c R, x I, F (x) = c,
x I, f (x) = g(x) + c.
( ).


Y

.....
....... .............
.....
....
....
....
....
.
.
.
...
..
....
...
....
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
. ........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
..... .............. ......
..
.
.
.
.
.....
........ ...
.
...........
..
....
............
...
...........
...
....
...............................
....
....
........
........
...
........
....
...
....
.
....
..
.
.
.
........
........ .....
...
.
........ ...
.
.
...........
...........
....
............
........................
........
........
........
........

218

g
-X

2.5

81

2.16 ( )

f I , I I ;

(1) ( x I, f (x) > 0 ) ( f I );

(2) ( x I, f (x) 0 ) ( f I );

(3) ( x I, f (x) < 0 ) ( f I );

(4) ( x I, f (x) 0 ) ( f I ).

(1) x1 , x2 I x1 < x2 . f
[x1 , x2 ] . , f [x1 , x2 ] ,

(x1 , x2 ) . :
p (x1 , x2 )
f (p) =

f (x2 ) f (x1 )
,
x2 x1

f...

.
...
...
.
.
..
...
...
.
.
..
...
....
.
.
.
...
...
....
.
.
.
....
.....
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
...........

x1

f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = f (p)(x2 x1 ) > 0,

x2

-X

219

f (x1 ) < f (x2 ).

(2) x I,
fx (t) =

f (t) f (x)
.
tx

f I , t I \ {x}, fx (t) 0,
f (x) = lim fx (t) 0.
tx

, f (x) 0, (1) f I .

(3) (1) .
(4) (2) .

1. 2x3 3x2 + 6x + 6 = 0 .

f : R R : f (x) = 2x3 3x2 + 6x + 6.
1 f R ( 5 ), f (x) = 0 .
2 x R,

f (x) = 6x2 6x + 6 = 6

h

f , .

1 2 3 i
> 0.
+
2
4

2.5

82

3 a , f f (x) = 2(xa)3 , , f (x) = 6(xa)2

, f > 0 , .

2. f : [0, 8] R : f (x) = x1/3 (x 7)2 . f .


x (0, 8] ,

1
f (x) = x2/3 (x 7)2 + 2x1/3 (x 7)
3
1 2/3
(x 7)(x 7 + 6x)
= x
3
7
= x2/3 (x 7)(x 1),
3

x1/3 (x 7)2
f (x) f (0)
= lim+
= +, f
x0
x0
x0
x

0 , Zf (Df \ Df ) Sf = {0, 1, 7, 8}.

0 , lim+

30

20

10

.......................
.....
....
....
.....
.... f
...
....
...
....
...
...
...
...
...
....
...
...
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
...
...
....
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
....
....
...
....
...
...
....
....
....
...
....
...
....
....
....
.....
....
.....
.....
...
.....
...
......
....
......
.......
...
......
..........
..
...............................

-X

220
,
x

f (x)

1
+

min

max min

8
+

max

f 0 7 , 8 1 ; ,
f (0) = f (7) = 0 < f (8) = 2 < f (1) = 36,

2.5

83

f 0 7 0, 1 36. ( 220 ).

: , .
3. l , , ,
? ?

l
...
... ....
... ....
...
...
.
...
...
...
..
...
...
.
...
.
...
...
.
...
.
.
.
..
.
.........................................................

........................
.....
...
...
...
..
..
.....
..
...
..
...
...
.
.....
.
........................

221
x, l x, r, a,

r=

lx
x
, a=
,
2
3

 x  2 3  l x  2
x2
(l x)2
.
+
=
+
A : [0, l] R : A(x) =
2
4
3
4
12 3

A (x) =
Z

lx
l
x
=0 x=
.
2
6 3
3 3+

l o
, SA = , DA \ D A = {0, l}.
3 3+

x
A (x)

l
3 3+

max

min

max

l2
l2
< A(l) =
,
4
12 3
l
, ,
, l ,
3 3+
.

A(0) =

2.5

84

: , A(x) , ;
, , , A [0, l].
2.17 ( )
f N (p) p .
(1) lim f (x) = b R, f (p) = b ;
xp

(2) lim f (x) = , lim fp (x) = , ( f p .)


xp

xp

(1) x N (p) , f [p, x] ( [x, p]), ,

cx , p x ,
f (cx ) =

f (x) f (p)
xp .

(1)

lim f (x) = b,
xp

> 0, 1 (0, ) ( x)(0 < |x p| < 1 |f (x) b| < ),

(2)

0 < |x p| < 1 0 < |cx p| < 1


|f (cx ) b| < , [ (2) ]

f (x) f (p)


b < , [ (1) ].

xp

f (x) f (p)





> 0, 1 (0, ) ( x) 0 < |x p| < 1
b < .
xp
f (x) f (p)
= b.
xp
xp

f (p) = lim

(2) (1) , .

: , N (p) (p, p + ), x p
x p+ , f (p) f+ (p). .

4. 2.17 f (x) =

x3 x4 0 1 .

4 , f . ,
3x2 4x3
3x1/2 4x3/2

x (0, 1), f (x) =


=
.
2 1x
2 x3 x4

lim f (x) = , f 1 . lim+ f (x) = 0,


x1

f (0) = 0.

x0

2.5

85

2.18 ( Cauchy )

(1) f, g [a, b] ;
(2) f, g (a, b) .

f (b) f (a) f (p)

p (a, b)
g(b) g(a) g (p)

x (a, b),




= 0.


f (b) f (a) f (x) f (a)

F : [a, b] R : F (x) =
g(b) g(a) g(x) g(a)

f (b) f (a) f (x)

F (x) =
g(b) g(a) g (x)

, F [a, b] , (a, b) , F (a) = F (b) = 0,


Rolle p (a, b) F (p) = 0,


f (b) f (a) f (p)


= 0.



g(b) g(a) g (p)

Cauchy , ( g : [a, b] R : g(x) = x),

Cauchy , , lHospital
Cauchy .
, Cauchy , .
, ,
Z
, , [x] dx =? .
2.19 ( )
f [p, q] .
(1) f (p) < c < f (q), t (p, q) f (t) = c;
(2) f (p) > c > f (q), t (p, q) f (t) = c.

2.6

86

(1) f (p) < c < f (q), F : [p, q] R : F (x) = f (x) cx.


F [p, q] F [p, q]
t [p, q] F t
t (p, q) F t ,

[]

t (p, q), F (t) = 0


t (p, q), f (t) c = 0.
[]

F (p) = f (p) c < 0, t 6= p. F (q) = f (q) c > 0,

t 6= q .

...
...
.
.
.
..
...
f........
.
...
....
.
.
.
...
....
.....
.
.
.
....
.
.....
....
.....
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
F..........
....
.......
.......
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........
.......
........
.......................................................

-X

222
(2) f (p) > c > f (q), g = f (1) .

: f I , f f (I) , f
,

x2 sin 1 , x 6= 0,
x
f : R R : f (x) =

0,
x = 0,

2.6

Leibniz ,
dy
dx ,
dx x , (infinitesimal) ,

|dx| .


1

2

2.6

87
dy = f (x + dx) f (x) y = f (x) ,
dy =

dy
dx.
dx


3

4

. dx ,
x ,

dy
|dx|
|dx| ?
f
2
dx

f (t) f (x)
dy
= lim
,
tx
dx
tx

dy
, dy dx , : 1
dx
, , 2 ,

, , :

f (t) f (p)
d
f (p) = lim
;
tp
dx
tp
d
f (x + x) f (x)
f (x) = lim
.
x0
dx
x

dy
: 1 , 2
dx
. ( ,

).
.
3
4 dy dx , dy = f (x)dx

df (p, h) = f (p) h, h dx, , ,

dy = f (x)dx , ,

, , . , df (p, h) =
f (p) h , ,

2.20
f ,
df : Df R R : df (x, h) = f (x) h,

f (differential function), df (x, h) f x () h


(differential of f at x relative to h).

2.6

88

, df (x, h) = f (x)h dy = y dx, h


, , , df (x, h) ,
, .
2.21
f , p Df Df . :
(1) f p .
(t)
= 0, (t) = f (t) f (p) m(t p).
tp t p

(2) m R lim

1 f p , 2.1, f (p) . m = f (p),


(t)
f (t) f (p) f (p)(t p)
lim
= lim
= f (p) f (p) = 0,
tp t p
tp
tp
(t)
= 0,
tp t p

2 m R lim

f (t) f (p) m(t p) + m(t p)


f (t) f (p)
= lim
= m,
tp
tp
tp
tp

lim

f p .

: f p , m = f (p), t = p + h,
f (t) f (p) f (p)h
f (t) f (p) df (p, h)
(t)
= lim
= lim
.
h0
h0
h0 t p
h
h

0 = lim

f (t) f (p) df (p, h) 0 h .


Y

f
..
...
...
.
.
..
...
...
.
.
.
...
....
...
.
.
..
Q.............................
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .... o
............. T
............
.
......
df (p, h)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.......
P
.........
.
.
.
.
....
R
.......
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.....................

p+h
||
t

223

T Q = |(t)|.
, f (p) > 0

h > 0,
, ( ).

-X

2.6

89

: QR = f (p + h) f (p) f , P T P ,

f (p), f (p)h = df (p, h) T R, QR T R

P R = h .



T Q = f (p + h) f (p) df (p, h) ,

, , , :

2.22
A V (approximate value), E V A
V = A + E,

V (true value), E A V (error).


A V , E ; A V , E .
, A V , |E| , E

,
(
A1 = 4 , 0.9 < E1 < 0.8,
A2 = 3 , 0.14 < E2 < 0.15.

E1 < E2 , , |E1 | > |E2 |, A2 A1 .

f , 2.21 t p + h, , |h| ,
f (p + h) f (p) = f (p) h + (t) f (p) h = df (p, h).

(1) |h| , f (p)h f (p + h) f (p) ;

( dy = y dx y = f (x + dx) f (x) . )
def

(2) |h| , f (p) + f (p)h f (p + h) .

: (differential) , ,
. ,
.

2.6

1.

90
4.01 .

f (x) =

x, p = 4, h = 0.01,

4.01 = f (4.01) = f (4 + 0.01)

= f (p + h)
f (p) + f (p) h

= f (4) + f (4) 0.01

1
= 4 + 0.01
2 4
= 2.0025.

............
..................
.................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............
.............
............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
........
.......
.
.
.
.
.
4.01
....
...

...

-X

224


2. h(t) t ( : , ), h (12) = 3.8


(/), 150 , .


h(12.25) h(12) + h (12) (12.25 12) = 150 + 3.8 0.25 = 150.95 cm,

150.95 . ( h (12) = 3.8 12


, 3.8 . )

, ,
, .

91

: , [ ] .

2-1 :
1/3

(a) f (x) = x

x+1
;
x1
(d) f (x) = |x| [x] .

(c) f (x) =

(b) f (x) = (x + |x|)3/4 ;


2-2 f : R R : f (x) =

x2 , x Q,
0,

(a) : f 0 , f (0) ;
(b) f p 6= 0 ?
2-3 f : R R f (0) 6= 0 f (a + b) = f (a)f (b), a, b R,
(a) : f (0) = 1 ;
(b) f 0 , : f c , f (c) = f (c) f (0).
2-4 f : [0, 3] R : f (x) = [x] +
(a) f 1 ?

p
x [x].

(b) f ( 12 ) =?
2-5 f (x) =

x2

1x
n .
1+x

2-6 f (x) =
2-7 f (x) =

1
, g(x) = x 1, h(x) = x2 , h g f .
+1

x+

x + x, f .

2-8 f (2) = 2, f (2) = 9, f (2) = 12, f (4) = 45, f (4) = 52, f (4) = 24.
(f f ) (2) =?

2-9 f (x) =

x, g(x) = 2x2 + k.

(a) k f g .

92

(b) ( ).
(
x + 1, x 0,
2-10 f : R R : f (x) =
ax + b, x < 0.
(a) a, b f 0 .
(b) .
[] .
2-11 y = x2 1 P (0, 1) Q(1, 0). P Q

; .

2-12 180 , 3 2.4 , 1 ,

?
[ ] x, y x .
2-13 f (x) = (x a)1/3 , a . :
(a) f ;

(b) (a, 1) f .
2-14 (a) y = x2 y = x2 + 10x 17 .
(b) .

2-15 y = mx + b f : R R , y = mx + 2b
x
g : R R : g(x) = 2f ( ) .
2
2-16 5 , 1.5Z,

2-17 y = 6 x2 , X . :

2-18 r . .
2-19 , P (t) = 50t2 t3 ,
(t : , t = 0 0 ),
(a) ?
(b) ?

93

(c) ? ?

1
2-20 : x (0, 1) (1, +), 2 x > 3 .
x

1
[ ] 2 x + 3.
x
2-21 : r 1 ,
rar1 (b a) < br ar < rbr1 (b a),

0 < a < b.
2-22 : f ,

f = 0 f

2-23 f : R R x, y R , |f (x) f (y)| (x y)2 . : f .

3
2-24 f (x) = (x 1) x2 ? ?
y1
2-25 f : R R , y > 0, f (y) = , F : R R : F (x) = f (x4 ).
y

(a) F (x), x 6= 0 ;
(b) F 0 . [ ] .

2-26 (a) f 0 , : f (0) = 0.


(b) (a) , :
f f (x) = f (x)
f (x) = f (x), ( )
f (0) = f (0)
f (0) = 0.
2-27 f [0, 1] , f (0) = 0, f (0,1) . :

g : (0, 1) R : g(x) = f (x)/x .

Chapter 3

. ,
, . ,
; ,
, . ,
.

3.1

, : f : A B ,
f 1 = {(y, x) | (x, y) f },

f 1 , f , f 1 f . (x, y) (y, x)
y = x, f 1 f y = x, 31 32.
, ,
.
3.1 ( )
f : A B , :
I. f ;
II. B A g g f = IA , f g = IB .

IA : A A : IA (x) = x, ( A ); IB .
.

g f = IA




g(f (x)) = x, x A .
94

3.1

95

: (1) g f , y = f (x), x = f 1 (y),


g(y) = g(f (x)) = x = f 1 (y), y B .
(2) . f ,

f : A Rf , f .

1. f (x) = 2rx x2 , 0 x r.
2r 2x
1 f (x) =
> 0, x (0, r).
2 2rx x2
f [0, r] ; f (0) = 0, f (r) = r,
f [0, r], , f : [0, r] [0, r]

2 , 0 x, y r,
y=

2rx x2 y 2 = 2rx x2
r 2 y 2 = r 2 2rx + x2
p
r x = r2 y 2
p
x = r r2 y 2,

f 1 : [0, r] [0, r] : f 1 (y) = r

r2 y 2.

f...................................
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
....
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
f 1
..
..
..
..
.
....
.
..
.
..
..
..
... . . . . . . . .
.. . . . .
0

31

-X

, .
.
3.2 ( )
f : [a, b] R .

(1) f x0 f (x0 ) 6= 0, (f 1 ) (y0 ) =

1
, y0 = f (x0 ).
f (x0 )

(2) f x0 f (x0 ) = 0, f 1 y0 = f (x0 ) .


f (x) f (x )

0
(3) lim
= +, (f 1 ) (y0 ) = 0, y0 = f (x0 ) .
xx0
x x0

, g = f 1 .

(1) ,

f (x) f (x0 ) , x 6= x ,
0

x x0
f : [a, b] R : f (x) =

f (x0 ),
x = x0 .

3.1

96

g y0 ,
g(y) g(y0)
=
y y0

1
y y0
g(y) g(y0)
1
1
=
=
,
f (g(y)) f (x0 )
f (g(y))
g(y) x0

gy0 (y) =

g y0 f x0 = g(y0) , f g y0 ,

lim gy0 (y) = lim

yy0

yy0

1
f (g(y))

1
f (g(y

0 ))

1
f (x0 )

1
f (x0 )

1
...
...
...
.
....
...
..
....
...
....
...
.
....
.
...
..
...
....
...
....
...
...
.
.
.
....
...
..
...
...
....
....
...
...
.
.
.
....
....
..
...
...
0
0
....
...
....
...
.
....
.
....
..
...
...
....
....
...
...
.
.
....
...
..
...
...
....
....
...
...
.
.
....
.
.
.
..............
..
....
.............
...
...
.............
...
..............
...
....
.............
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
....
..
..............
..
....
.............
... .....
..............
.............
... .....
..............
....................................
0 0
....
....
....
...
.
.
.
.

f
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
..
....
....
..
...(y , x )
..
...
....

y=x

.
..
...
f.....
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
.............
.......................
(x , y )

-X

32
(2) f (x0 ) = 0, g y0 , , g(f (x)) = x x0

,
1 = D(g f )(x0 ) = g (f (x0 )) f (x0 ) = g (y0 ) 0 = 0,

.
(3)
f: [a, b] R : f(x) =

x x0
, x 6= x0 ,
f (x) f (x0 )

x = x0 .
f x0 , f g y0 ,
g(y) g(y0 )
g(y) x0
g (y0 ) = lim
= lim
yy0
yy0 f (g(y)) f (x0 )
y y0
= lim f(g(y)) = f(g(y0)) = 0.
yy0

0,

32 : f x0 f 1 y0
y = x, f (x0 ) (f 1 ) (y0 ) .

3.2

97

3.2

, , Hipparchus
, , ,
Albert Girard sin, cos, tan, ,

L. Euler , , .
sin cos ,
tan =

sin
cos
1
1
, cot =
, sec =
, csc =
.
cos
sin
cos
sin

sin cos : P

, X x, ( X , x
, ), P (ax , bx ), :
(
sin : R [1, 1] : sin x = bx ,

............
.............. ...................
......
......
.....
..
.
.
.
.......P (ax , bx )
.... ...
....
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
.
.
....
...
..
....
.
.
.
....
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.. .... ..
...
.... ... x
...
...
...
.... 1
.
...
..
...
..
....
..
.
.
.
.....
....
......
.....
........
....................................

cos : R [1, 1] : cos x = ax .

, sin cos .

33

3.3
f, g : R R
f = g, g = f, f (0) = 0, g(0) = 1,

f (sine function), g (cosine function), sin


cos.
,
sin, cos : R R

sin x = cos x, cos x = sin x, x R,


sin(0) = 0, cos(0) = 1.

:
(1) : , , x R,
x
x3 x5
x2n+1

+
+ (1)n
+ ,
1!
3!
5!
(2n + 1)!
x2 x4
x2n
cos x = 1
+
+ (1)n
+ .
2!
4!
(2n)!
sin x =

3.2

98

(2) :
(
f, g : R R f = g, g = f, f (0) = 0, g(0) = 1,

f1 , g1 : R R f1 = g1 , g1 = f1 , f1 (0) = 0, g1 (0) = 1,

f = f1 , g = g1 .
,
: R R : (x) = (f (x) f1 (x))2 + (g(x) g1 (x))2 ,

()

x R,
(x) = 2(f (x) f1 (x))(f (x) f1 (x)) + 2(g(x) g1 (x))(g (x) g1 (x))
= 2(f (x) f1 (x))(g(x) g1 (x)) 2(g(x) g1 (x))(f (x) f1 (x)) = 0,

C; () 0 x, C = (0) = 0, :
(x) = (f (x) f1 (x))2 + (g(x) g1 (x))2 = 0,

, f (x) = f1 (x), g(x) = g1 (x).

cos

sin
...........................
.........................
...1
.......
....................
....... ......................
......
.......
.....
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
..... .....
.....
...
.....
.....
.....
......
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
....
.
.
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.....
...
..
....
....
.....
..
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.
.....
.
.

....
.
.
.
.
.....
.....
.
0
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.....
.....
2
....
...
.....
2
.....
.....
..... ......
.....
......
......
.......................
.........
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
.................................
..........................

-X

34
. :
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1,
sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y,
cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y,
sin(x) = sin x, cos(x) = cos x,
sin(x y) = sin x cos y cos x sin y,
cos(x y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y,
sin(2x) = 2 sin x cos x,
cos(2x) = cos2 x sin2 x = 2 cos2 x 1 = 1 2 sin2 x,

3.2

99

. = 2 min{x > 0 | cos x = 0},

. .

3.4
D1 = R \ { 2 + k | k Z}, D2 = R \ {k | k Z}.
sin x
(tangent function);
cos x
cos x
(2) cot : D2 R : cot x =
(cotangent function);
sin x
(1) tan : D1 R : tan x =

(3) sec : D1 R : sec x =

1
(secant function);
cos x

(4) csc : D2 R : csc x =

1
(cosecant function).
sin x

, (trigonometric functions).

, . ,
, .
35, 36, 37 38.
Y

.
..
...
4
...
tan...
.
...
....
.
2
..
....
.
.
..
....
.
.
.
...
....
.....
.

.
.
2 ..... 0
.
...
..
.
.
.
2
..
..
....
..
...
....
..4

.
..
...
...
.
...
..
....
..
..
....
.
.
..
....
.
.
.
....
.....
.......
2 .....
...
..
....
.
..
...
....
.
..
...
..

.
..
...
...
.
...
..
....
..
..
....
.
.
..
....
.
.
.
....
-X
.....
3 .......
5
.
.
2 ...
2
...
...
...
..
....
...
...
....
..

35

...
..
...
..
4
..
...
..
...
...
...
...
2
...
...
...
....
....
.....
....
....

...
...
...
..
2.......
...
...
...
...
4 ......
..
..

...
...
..
..
...
...
..
..
..
..
..cot
...
..
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
....
....
....
.....
.....
....
....
.
....
.
.
0

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
..
...
..

36

-X

3.2

100

...
.
...
...
..
...
.
.
...
.
..
...
... 3
...
.
.
...
.
..
...
...
...
.
.
...
.
..
....
......................

sec

3
2 ......................
2
...
.
...
...
...
.....
...
.
...
...
...
..
....
...
..
....
...
...
...
..
..
...
..

6
.

...
.
..
...
...
..
...
....
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
...
.
...
...
..
...
.
.
....
........................

..
..
..
...
...
..
.
..
.
...
..
..
... csc
.
.
...
.
..
...
...
...
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
......
...................

3
1
5
2

-X

..................
...... 1
....
...
...
....
...
...
...
...
..
...
..
...
3
...
...
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
..

37

............
...... .........
...
...
...
....
...
.....
...
...
...
...
.....
...
...
...
...
....
..
..
...
..

-X

38

3.5 ( )
D1 = R \ { 2 + k | k Z}, D2 = R \ {k | k Z},
(1) x D1 , D tan x = sec2 x ;
(2) x D2 , D cot x = csc2 x ;
(3) x D1 , D sec x = sec x tan x ;
(4) x D2 , D csc x = csc x cot x .

, .

1. : x > 0, sin x < x.

1 x (0, /2], sin ,

sin [0, x] (

), p (0, x)

sin x
= 1.
x0 x

2. : lim

sin

y=x

..
...
....
...
...
.
.
.
...
.... ........................
..........
........
........
.
.
.
.
.
..
.......
......
.........
.......
.
.
.
.
.........
......
......
......
...
.
.
...
...
....
...
....
.
.
.
..

sin x sin 0
= sin p = cos p < 1,
x0
( 0 < p < x /2); , sin x < x.

x > , sin x 1 < < x.


2
2

39

/2

-X

3.3

101

,


sin x
sin x sin 0
= lim
= D sin x x=0 = cos x x=0 = 1.
x0 x
x0
x0
lim

3.3

, , , .
, (restrict), .
.

3.6
h i
I = , , sin |I : I [1, 1] .
2 2

1 sin |I ;

D sin |I (x) = D sin x = cos x > 0, x I,

sin |I .

2 sin |I ; I , sin |I ,
sin(/2) = 1, sin(/2) = 1, [1, 1].

3.1 sin |I , :
3.7
sin |I
h i
: sin1 (y) = x sin |I (x) = y
sin1 = (sin |I )1 : [1, 1] ,
def
2 2

(arcsine function).
arcsin , sin1 , , sin1 x
(sin x)1 . 310 , .

3.3

102
Y

1
... sin
.....
1
..
........
... .............. sin |I
...................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........

.......
2
............
......
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
-X
.
.
.
.
.
........
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
1 ........................... 0
1
......
........
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..... ..
................
...
1
...
...
.
2

310

3.8
x (1, 1), D sin1 (x) =

1
. sin1 1 1 .
2
1x

x (1, 1), y = sin (x), x = sin |I (y) y


,
,
2 2

1
1
1
=
=p

sin |I (y)
cos y
1 sin2 y
1
1
=
.
=p
2
1 x2
1 sin |I (y)

D sin1 (x) =

2 : sin1 1 1 .
lim (sin1 ) (x) = lim

x1

x1

1
= +;
1 x2

lim + (sin1 ) (x) = lim +

x1

x1

1
= +.
1 x2

.
3.9
I = [0, ], cos |I : I [1, 1] .

1 cos |I ;
D cos |I (x) = D cos x = sin x < 0, x (0, ),

cos |I .

3.3

103

2 cos |I ; I , cos |I ,
cos = 1, cos 0 = 1, [1, 1].

3.10
cos |I
cos1 = (cos |I )1 : [1, 1] [0, ] : cos1 (y) = x cos |I (x) = y
def

(arccosine function).
311.
Y

..
...
...
...
...
....
....
.....
.....
....
1 .........
cos
.....
.....
....
1 ............................................
............
............
... ..........
.. .........
..
.....
.....
.
..

.....
.....
....
.....
.....
.....
...
I .................
........
................

-X

cos |

311

3.11
x (1, 1), D cos1 (x) =

1
. cos1 1 1 .
1 x2

1 x (1, 1), y = cos1 (x), x = cos |I (y) y (0, ),


1
1
1
=
=p

cos |I (y)
sin y
1 cos2 y
1
1
=p
=
.
2
1 x2
1 cos |I (y)

D cos1 (x) =

2 cos1 1 1 , sin1 .

3.3

104

1. : x [1, 1], sin1 x + cos1 x =

.
2

, . :
: [1, 1] R : (x) = sin1 x + cos1 x,
1
1
+
= 0, x (1, 1),
2
1x
1 x2

, , (0) = sin1 0 + cos1 0 = ,


2

1
1
x [1, 1], sin x + cos x = .
2

(x) = D sin1 x + D cos1 x =

.
3.12
 
I = , , tan |I : I R .
2 2

1 tan |I ;
D tan |I (x) = D tan x = sec2 x > 0, x I,

tan |I .

2 tan |I ; I , tan |I ,
lim tan |I (x) = +,

x/2

lim

x/2+

tan |I (x) = ,

, R.

3.13
tan |I
1

tan

= (tan |I )

def

 
: tan1 (y) = x tan |I (x) = y.
:R ,
2 2

(arctangent function).
312.

3.3

105
Y

.
...
...
....
..
..
..
..I
....
...
..
...
....
..

...
...
....
2
.
..
............................
..
...
........................
.. ...............
.
.........
.
.
......
.......
......
......
.....
.
.
.
.

.....
...........
2
2
..............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........... ......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.....................................
..
..

...
....
..
2
....
..
...
....
..
...
...
....
..
..
..
..
....

tan|

tan1

-X

312
, sin1 , cos1 , tan1 ,
, .

3.14
x R, D tan1 (x) =

1
.
1 + x2

x R, y = tan1 x, y (/2, /2),


D tan1 (x) =

1
1
1
1
1
=
=
=
=
.
2

2
2
tan |I (y)
sec y
1 + tan y
1 + tan |I (y)
1 + x2

cot1 , tan1 , : I = (0, ),


cot1 = (cot |I )1 : R (0, ) : cot1 (y) = x cot |I (x) = y.
def

D cot1 (x) =

313.

1
, x R.
1 + x2

3.3

106
Y

...
..
...
..
...
...
I
...
...
...
..
..
..
...
.......................................................
...
...
1 ...............................
..
........
...
...
......
..
.....
..... ......
..... ....
..... ...
...........
............
... ........
.... ...........
.............................
....
....
.............................
....
.....
....
....
....
....
...
...
...
..
..
...
..
..
...
..
..
..
...
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
....
...
..

cot |

cot

2. : x R, tan1 x + cot1 x =
1 .

.
2

313
sec , E = [0, /2) (/2, ], F = (, 1] [1, +),
sec1 = (sec |E )1 : F E : sec1 (y) = x sec |E (x) = y.
def

D sec1 : (, 1) (1, +) R : D sec1 x =

1
.
|x| x2 1

.
..
..
.
.
.
.
1..........
sec
............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....................

....

0
1 0
1

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
..

....................
.............................
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.....
...
....
1 2

.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

..

...

314 (: sec |E )

-X

-X

3.3

107

csc , E = [/2, 0) (0, /2], F = (, 1] [1, +),


csc1 = (csc |E )1 : F E : csc1 (y) = x csc |E (x) = y.
def

D csc1 : (, 1) (1, +) R : D csc1 x =

.
|x| x2 1

sec1 csc1 .
Y

2
..........................................
.................
......... 1
....
. . ......
.....1
.. ..
. ..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.. .
.....
.... .

.... . .
.......
1
..........csc
........................
..............................

-X

315 ( : csc |E )
: (sin x)1 , ARCSIN, arcsin, ASIN
asin , ARCCOS, ARCTAN acos, atan
, Excel ASIN, ACOS,
ATAN.
x 1
.
3. f : R \ {1} R : f (x) = tan
x+1
x R \ {1},
x 1
f (x) = D tan1
x+1
x1
1
=
 x 1 2 D
x+1
1+
x+1
1
1
2
=
=
.
2
2
2
(x + 1) + (x 1) (x + 1)
1 + x2
(x + 1)2
1

f
f : R \ {1} R : f (x) =

1
1 + x2 .

3.4

108
Y

..........
...............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..........................

- /2
y = /4
.............................................
f
...............................
................

.....
.........
......
.
.
.
.
.
1 0............. 1
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
...
......
......

-X

- /2

316 f (x) = tan1

x 1
x+1

: tan1 (x) ( 1 ),

, , ,
.

3.4

: a b , ab ? ,
3
, 2 . .
, a = 0, b , ab = 0, (a = 0, b = 0 , ab
). a 6= 0.
: b .

1 b = n Z+ , an =

a, n N,

|a {z
}

1,
n = 0,
h
an a n (a raised to the nth power), a (base), n

(exponent), .

2 b = n, n N, an =

: b =

1
.
an

1
( n ).
n

1 n , a > 0, ab = x, x xn = a .
( a ).

3.4

109

2 n , ( a ), ab = x, x xn = a .

: b Q .
1 b > 0, b =

).

m
, m, n , ab = (a1/n )m , ( n , a
n

2 b < 0, ab =

1
.
ab
b

: b , a ,

2 , ?

? :
.
ln : (0, +) R : ln x =
1

x
1

dt
t.

exp x = ln (x) a = exp(b ln a), . (


ln , , ).
.
b

a =

lim a ,

rb,rQ


1 n
,
e = lim 1 +
n+
n

exp x = ex , ln x = exp1 (x), .

. , .

3.15
f : R R (i) f (x) = f (x), x R, (ii) f (0) = 1, f ()

(exponential function), exp,

exp : R R x R, exp x = exp x, exp 0 = 1.

. sin, cos , ,
(1) :
exp x = 1 + x +

x2
xn
++
+ .
2!
n!

(2) : f, g : R R f (x) = f (x), g (x) = g(x), x R

f (0) = 1, g(0) = 1, f = g.

3.4

110

1 : f (x) 6= 0, x R,
: R R : (x) = f (x) f (x),

(x) = 0, , f (0) = 1, (x) = 1, f (x) 6= 0,

x R.

2 : R R : (x) =
(x) =

g(x)
,
f (x)

g (x)f (x) f (x)g(x)


g(x)f (x) f (x)g(x)
=
= 0, x R,
2
f (x)
f 2 (x)

C R C = (x) =

g(x)
, f (0) = g(0) = 1, C = 1,
f (x)

g(x) = f (x), x R.

3.16
a, b R, exp(a + b) = (exp a)(exp b).

f : R R : f (x) = exp(x) exp(a + b x),


f (x) = exp(x) exp(a + b x) exp(x) exp(a + b x) = 0, x R
f
f (0) = f (a)
exp(a + b) = (exp a)(exp b).

3.17
(1) exp(x) exp(x) = 1, x R.
(2) exp x > 0, x R. ( exp ).
(3) exp(x1 + x2 + + xn ) = exp(x1 ) exp(x2 ) exp(xn ), x1 , , xn R.

(1) .
(2) x R, exp x = exp
exp x > 0, x R.

x
2


x 2
x
= exp
0, (1) exp x 6= 0,
2
2

(3) 3.16 .

3.4

111

3.18
exp 1 exp 1, Euler (Eulers number),
e .

1. : 2 < e < 3.

1 exp [0, 1], , p (0, 1)


exp 1 exp 0
,
exp p =
10
e 1 = exp p = exp p > exp 0, ( exp ).

e > 2.
2 e < 3 Taylor , .

Taylor ,

exp

...
...
...
...
...
...
3
..
...
e
....
.
...
..
.
.
2
..
..
...
.
.
.
....
....
.
.
.
.
1.......
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
...........
...............
..........................

2.71828 1828 45 90 45 .

e , exp
:

317

2. : lim exp x = +;
x+

lim exp x = 0.

1 : x > 0, exp x > x + 1.

f : R R : f (x) = exp x x, x > 0,


f (x) = exp x 1 = exp x exp 0 > 0, ( exp )

f [0, +) , f (x) > f (0) = 1, x > 0,

exp x 1 > x.

-X

3.4

112

2 1 lim (x + 1) = + lim exp x = +.


x+

x+

x = t,
1
= 0.
t+ exp t

lim exp x = lim exp(t) = lim

t+

3.19
r Q, er = exp r .

1 r = n N,
exp(n) = exp(1 + + 1) = exp(1) exp(1) = e e = en .
| {z }
| {z }
n
n

p
2 r = , p, q N,
q

 p q
p 
e = exp(p) = exp
++
= (exp r)q ,
= exp
q
q
q
|
{z
}
q
p

p

q er = exp r.
3 r ,

exp r =

1
1
= r = er .
exp(r)
e

4 r = 0, .

3.20
ex = exp x, x R .
def

e , ,
? , , .
3.21
x y ,
(1) ex+y = ex ey ;
(2) Dex = ex .

3.5

113

3.16 ex , .

3.22
exp : R (0, +) .

1 exp , exp x = exp x > 0, x R, exp .

2 exp , exp R , , ,

2
lim exp x = +,

x+

lim exp x = 0,

x R, exp x > 0, exp (0, +).

3.5

3.22 exp : R (0, +) , ,

, , .
3.23
exp

ln = exp1 : (0, +) R : ln x = y exp y = x

(natural logarithmic function).


ln , natural log, lawn.

Irving Stringham 1893 .


, y = x.
Y
6
.
y=x
..
...
.... exp
e
.
..
..
...
....
...
....
.
.
....
...
..
....
...
....
...
.
...
.
....
...
...
....
....
...
...
.
.
.
.
...
..
...
.........
.....
....
....
....
............
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
....
......
...
........
.......
....
...
.............
.....
.
....
.
.
.
.....................
.
.
.
...
...
...
....
....
....
....
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
...
....
....
..
...
.
.
.
.
.
..
....
...
....
..
...
....
..

ln

..
..
...

318

-X

3.5

114

3.24 ( )
(1) ln 1 = 0, ln e = 1.
(2) x R, ln(exp x) = x.
(3) x > 0, exp(ln x) = x.
(4) x, y > 0, ln(xy) = ln x + ln y.
x
= ln x ln y.
(5) x, y > 0, ln
y
(6) x > 0, ln x =
(7)

1
.
x

lim ln x = +,

x+

lim ln x = .

x0+

(1) exp 0 = 1, exp 1 = e .


(2) ln exp .
(3) ln exp .
(4) u = ln x, v = ln y, x = exp u, y = exp v,
ln(xy) = ln[(exp u)(exp v)] = ln[exp(u + v)] = u + v = ln x + ln y.
(5) (4) x = 1/y, ln(1/y) = ln y,
 1
x
1
= ln x
= ln x + ln = ln x ln y.
ln
y
y
y
(6) , x = exp y,
1
1
1
D ln x =
=
= .

exp y
exp y
x
(7)
lim ln x = + > 0, > 0, (x > 0)(x > ln x > ).

x+

def

> 0, = e , x > ln x > , lim ln x = +.


x+

, t = 1/x,

lim+ ln x = lim+ ln

x0

x0

1
= lim ln t = .
t+
x

1. f : (0, +) R : f (x) = 2x + ln x, : f , f 1
2 (f 1 ) (2).

1 f ,
f (x) = 2 +

f .

1
> 0, x > 0.
x

3.5

115

2 f , f , Df ,
lim f (x) = ,

lim f (x) = +.

x+

x0+

f R.
3 y = 2 , y = 2x + ln x x = 1, f (1) = 2,
(f 1 ) (2) =

1
f (1)

1
2+

1
1

1
= .
3

: f f 1 .
2. , : 0 6= x > 1,

x
< ln(1 + x) < x.
1+x

ln ,
f : (1, +) R : f (x) = ln(1 + x).

f , f [0, x] [x, 0] , f
, p (0, x) p (x, 0),

f (x) f (0)
ln(1 + x) ln 1
1
=
= f (p) =
.
x0
x
1+p

ln(1 + x) =

x
.
1+p

(1)

x > 0,

y=x

0< p< x 1< 1+p < 1+x


1
1
>
1>
1+p
1+x
x
x
x>
>
1+p
1+x
x > ln(1 + x) >

1 < x < 0,

x
.
1+x

..
...
....
....
...
.
.
.
...
....
....
....
...
...
.
.
............
.... ........
.... .........
.
...
.
. .
.. .. ... ... ...
......... . . . ..
........ . . .
........ . .
.
.
.
.
.
....
..........
......
......
.......
.
.
.
..
......
.... ..
... ..
.... ...
... .. ..
.
.
... .

. ..
... ..
..... ...
.
..
2
...
.
..
...
..
..
...
.
..
..

y = ln(1 + x)
x
y=
1+x
-X

319

1 < x < p < 0 0 < 1 + x < 1 + p < 1


1
1

>
>1
1+x
1+p
x
x
<
<x

1+x
1+p
x

< ln(1 + x) < x.


1+x

3.6

3.6

116

3.25
a > 0, expa : R (0, +) : expa (x) = exp(x ln a) a
def

(exponential function with base a).

, a = e , expe (x) = exp(x ln e) = exp x, expe exp


. , , .
Y

a=e

a=e

...
.
..
..
...
...
a.. = 2
.
.
...
...
4
...
...
..
...
.
.
...
..
...
...
...
...
....
..
...
.
.
...
...
..
..
..
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
...
..
.
...
.
...
.
...
...
3
...
.. .....
...
...
...
... ......
...
.
...
...
.. ..
...
...
.. ...
...
.. ........
... ...
.
...
.
.
..
... ..
... .. 2
... .....
... ..
... ..
... ........
.
.... ..
.
.
.
.... ..
..
.... ..
............
..... ..
........
............
.......
........ ...........
.... .....
a=1
1.....................................................................
.............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....................
.. .
........ ....
..........................
......... .....
.......... ....
........... .....................
............ .......
...............................................
...............................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
...
...........
...........

a = 0.5
...

-X

320

: expe exp1/e ? expa exp1/a


?

3.26
(1) expa 0 = 1, expa 1 = a.
(2) expa x > 0, x R.
(3) expa (x1 + + xn ) = expa (x1 ) expa (xn ), x1 , , xn R.
(4) x R, D(expa x) = (ln a) expa x.

(1) .
(2) exp .

3.6

117

(3) 3.17,


expa (x1 + + xn ) = exp (x1 + + xn ) ln a

= exp(x1 ln a + + xn ln a)
= exp(x1 ln a) exp(xn ln a)
= expa (x1 ) expa (xn ).

(4) D(expa x) = D exp(x ln a) = (ln a) exp(x ln a) = (ln a) expa x.

3.27
a > 0, r Q, ar = expa r .

3.19 .

3.28
a > 0, b R, :
(1) ab = expa b = exp(b ln a) = eb ln a ;
def

(2) 0a = 0.

def

: ? ,
,

= exp( 3 ln

2) = exp

 3
2

=? ,


ln 2 .

, Taylor ln x exp x ,
. , f (x)

f (x)

g(x)

g(x)

, ,

exp[g(x) ln(f (x))], f (x) > 0,


0,

f (x) = 0.

00 , 00 = 1, ,
, , 00 .

3.6

118

3.29 [ (laws of exponent) ]


(1) ax ay = ax+y ;
(2)

ax
= axy ;
ay

(3) (ax )y = axy ;


(4) (ab)x = ax bx ;
(5) (a/b)x = ax /bx .

(1), .
ax ay = expa x expa y = expa (x + y) = ax+y .

3.30
r R,

(1) Dxr = rxr1 , x > 0 ;

(2) Dax = ax ln a, a > 0, x R .

(1) xr = exp(r ln x),


Dxr = D exp(r ln x) =

r
r
exp(r ln x) = xr = rxr1 .
x
x

(2) 3.26
Dax = D expa x = (ln a) expa x = ax ln a.

1. f (x) = xx .
Df = (0, +), x > 0 , f (x) = xx = exp(x ln x),
f (x) = exp(x ln x) (ln x + 1) = xx (1 + ln x).

3.31
a > 0 a 6= 1, expa : R (0, +) .

3.7

119

expa x = exp(x ln a), x ln a exp .


exp , .

2. y = 2cos
f (x) = 2cos

= exp(cos1 x ln 2), Df = [1, 1].

1 x (1, 1),
ln 2
ln 2
1
f (x) = exp(cos1 x ln 2)
= 2cos x
.
1 x2
1 x2
2 x = 1, lim f (x) = , f 1 . 1
x1

f : (1, 1) R : f (x) = 2cos

3.7

ln 2
.
1 x2

, , ,
. ,
,
loga (xy) = loga x + loga y,

loga xk = k loga x.

John Napier.
3.31 , a > 0, a 6= 1 expa , .
3.32
a > 0, a 6= 1, expa
y
loga = exp1
a : (0, +) R : loga x = y (a =) expa y = x

a (logarithmic function with base a).

3.7

120

...
Y
...
...
6
...
...
...
...
...
....
... log
....
...
...
.
.
.
a
.
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
...
....
...
....
...
.
.
.
...
.
....
....
...
.....
...
...
.....
...
....
...
.....
.
.
.
.
..
..
....
1......................................
.
.
. ...
.... .. ..........
exp
... ... .......................
................................. a
...
...
....
.
...
.
-X
.
.
....
.
....
.....
.... O
...
1
.
.
.
.....
....
.....
...
....
......
....
......
...
.
.
.......
...
.
.
..
........
.
.
.
...
.........
..........
...........

..
..
..
.
.
..
....
...
....
expa ......
...
.
.
.
..
..
....
....
...
....
...
...
.
.
a
.
.
.
..
...
.........
...
....
....
........
....
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
...
.....
....
loga
....
......
......
....
.....
......
.
.
.
1
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
...
....
...
..............
....
....
.....................
....
....
...
.
.
.
-X
.
.
.
....
..
.... O
..
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
a
....
.. 1
....
...
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
..
...
....
...
...
....
..

a>1

0<a<1

321 loga

3.33
a > 0, a 6= 1.

ln x
;
ln a
(2) loga 1 = 0, loga a = 1 ;

(1) x > 0, loga x =

(3) x R, loga (ax ) = x ;


(4) x > 0, aloga x = x ;
(5) x, y > 0, loga (xy) = loga x + loga y ;
(6) x > 0, k R, loga xk = k loga x ;
1
(7) x > 0, D(loga x) =
.
x ln a

(1) y = loga x, expa y = x,


ln x = ln(expa y) = ln(exp(y ln a)) = y ln a,

ln a 6= 0, loga x = y =

ln x
.
ln a

(2) (1) .
(3) loga expa , loga (ax ) = loga (expa x) = x .
(4) aloga x = expa (loga x) = x .
ln x ln y
ln(xy)
=
+
= loga x + loga y .
(5) loga (xy) =
ln a
ln a ln a

3.8

121

ln xk
ln(exp(k ln x))
k ln x
=
=
= k loga x .
ln a
ln a
ln a
1
ln x
=
.
(7) D(loga x) = D
ln a
x ln a

(6) loga xk =

1. : e < e .
f : (0, +) R : f (x) =

ln x
,
x

> 0, 0 < x < e,


1

ln
x
f (x) =
= 0, x = e,
x2

< 0, x > e.

0.5

f e ,

ln
ln e
f () < f (e)
<

............................................. f
...................................
........
..........................
...
....
...
.
-X
...
....
.
e
....
..

0.5

e ln < ln e

322

ln e < ln e
e < e .

, e ,
, , : a (0, +) \ {e},

ae < ea , .

3.8
(1)

:
I ,
f : I (0, +)

f (t)
= k, t I, ( k )
f (t)

C R f (t) = C ekt , :
f (t)
= k, t I
f (t)
D ln(f (t)) = k, t I
C0 R, ln(f (t)) = kt + C0
C0 R, f (t) = exp(kt + C0 )
C R, f (t) = C ekt , [ C = exp(C0 ) ].

a = b, [a, b] , (degenerate interval).

3.8

122

f (exponential growth). k (growth constant).


k < 0, = k > 0, (decay constant),

f (t) = C et .
6

...
.........
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
............
.............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
f (t) = C ekt
................

C
-

f (t) = C et
.................
....................
.......................
...........................
........

323
:

324

1. 100 , 110 , 10%,


f (t + 1) f (t)
t =
.
f (t)
2. 100 , 106 , 12%,
f (t + 0.5) f (t)
t () =
. , f
0.5 f (t)
t ,
f (t)
f (t + h) f (t)
=
,
r(t) = lim
h0
h f (t)
f (t)

f t () . (
).
f (t)
= k, t I,
f (t)

f () .
1. P (t) t ( : ) , P (t) P (t) ,
t = 0 30,000, 4 600,000. P (t).
,
P (t) = kP (t) P (t) = P0 ekt , ( P0 = P (0) = 30, 000 )
P (4) = P0 e4k , ( t = 4 )
600, 000 = 30, 000 e4k
e4k = 20
4k = ln(20)
k=

P (t) = 30, 000 e0.7489t .

ln(20)
0.7489.
4


3.8

123

2. P (t) = P (0) ekt ( : ). 10


. k.
t = 0 P0 = P (0), t P (t), k.
P (t) = P0 ekt P (10) = P0 e10k , ( t = 10 )
2P0 = P0 e10k , ( )
e10k = 2
k=

(2) 14 C

14

ln 2
0.0693.
10

(decay) , ,

C (Carbon dating) , , 1947

W. F. Libby , 1960 .

14

12

C ( 1 : 1012 ),

14 CO2 , ,
, ,

14

C ,

(half-life) 5730 . , .
h ( : ),
1
P0 = P (h) = P0 eh ,
2

: =

ln 2
,
h

: P (t) = P0 exp

3.

14


1
 1 t/h
 t ln 2 
= P0
.
h
2

C 5730 . .
ln 2
0.000121,
5730
 t ln 2 


P (t) = P0 exp
= P0 exp ln 2t/5730
5730
 1 t/5730
P0 e0.000121 t .
= P0
2


1 , =

4. , ,
79 %. .

14

14

3.8

124

14 C 14 C . 79 %. t

14

C P (t) ,
2
P (t) = P0

P0

14

C .

 1 t/5730
2

 1 t/5730

P (t) = 0.79P0 P0
= 0.79P0
2
 1 t/5730

= 0.79
2
t ln 2

= ln(0.79), ( ln )
5730
ln(0.79) 5730
1948.6 .
t=
ln 2

(3)

(compound interest).
, P (principal), r (interest rate),
n , A (amount),
A = P (1 + r)n .

, (monthly compound interest),


r 12n
, , m ,
A = P 1 +
12

r nm
A=P 1+
.
m
m +, (continuously compound interest), ,


r nm
A = lim P 1 +
m+
m

= P lim+ (1 + h)nr/h , ( h = r/m)


h0
 ln(1 + h) 
= P lim+ exp nr
h0
h

ln(1 + h) 
= P exp nr lim+
h0
h


ln(1 + h)

nr
= P e , lim+
= ln 1 = 1.
h0
h

: n .

5. , 2%, , .

3.8

125

r = 2% = 0.02,
20000 = 10000e0.02 t e0.02 t = 2
0.02 t = ln 2
t=

ln 2
34.66 .
0.02

6. 2% , r
, r =?
,

0.02 12
,
A1 = P 1 +
12

A2 = P er .

0.02 12
= er
12

0.02 
= 0.0199834.
r = 12 ln 1 +
12

A1 = A2

1+

, n ( (amount)) A,
r , (present value) P ?
A = P enr , P = A enr .
7. 3%, , 4 10,000 . ?
A = 10, 000, r = 0.03, t = 4,
P = 10, 000 e0.034 = 10, 000 e0.12 10, 000 0.88692 = 8, 869.2 ().

8. t f (t) = 750000 e0.6 t . 5 .


5 t ,
13.4%.

f (t)
d
d
=
ln f (t) = (ln 750000 + ln e0.6 t )
f (t)
dt
dt

d
1 1
= (ln 750000 + 0.6 t) = 0.6( )t 2
dt
2
0.3
= .
t

0.3
f (5)
= 0.1345 = 13.4%, t = 5 ,
f (5)
5


3.9

3.9

126

, , y = f (x)g(x) ,
, , Johann Bernoulli .
:
1 y = f (x)g(x) .
2 ln y = g(x) ln(f (x)) x ,
3 y = y

y
d
=
(g(x) ln(f (x))) = .
y
dx

d
(g(x) ln(f (x))).
dx

1. y = xx .
(0, +).
2

: x > 0, y = xx = exp(x2 ln x),


2

y = exp(x2 ln x) (2x ln x + x) = xx (x + 2x ln x).

: ,
2

y = xx ln y = x2 ln x

y
= 2x ln x + x, ( )
y
2

y = y(2x ln x + x) = xx (x + 2x ln x).

, , ,
; .
2. f (x) =

1 + x2 (3x + 2)3
p
.
5
x2 (x + 1)

, .
. Df = R \ {0, 1},

x Df \ {2/3} ,

1 + x2 (3x + 2)3
f (x) = p
5
x2 (x + 1)
2
1
1
ln |f (x)| = ln(1 + x2 ) + 3 ln |3x + 2| ln |x| ln |x + 1|
2
5
5
x
9
2
1
f (x)
=
+

f (x)
1 + x2 3x + 2 5x 5(x + 1)
 x

9
2
1
f (x) = f (x)
.
+

1 + x2 3x + 2 5x 5(x + 1)

3.10

127

x = 2/3 ,

lim f (x) = 0, f (2/3) = 0.

x2/3

: f f : Df R :

f (x) =

f (x)

3.10


x
2
9
2
1
, x 6= ,
+

2
1+x
3x + 2 5x 5(x + 1)
3
2
0,
x= .
3

exp ,
, , . ,
. , .

3.34

(1) sinh : R R : sinh x =


tion).

ex ex
, (hyperbolic sine func2

(2) cosh : R R : cosh x =

ex + ex
, (hyperbolic cosine
2

(3) tanh : R R : tanh x =

ex ex
, (hyperbolic tangent
ex + ex

(4) coth : R R : coth x =

ex + ex
, (hyperbolic cotanex ex

(5) sech : R R : sech x =

ex

function).

function).

gent function).

function).

(6) csch : R R : csch x =


function).

ex

2
, (hyperbolic secant
+ ex

2
, (hyperbolic cosecant
ex

(hyperbolic functions).
(hanging cable), (catenary).

3.10

128

6
.....
....
......
.....
............
.
.....
.
.
....
...
.....
cosh.....................
.....
.....
3
..
.....
.
.
...
....
..........
.....
.....
............
.....
.
.
.
.....
.....
......
.....
........
2
......
..............
.....
.
.
.
x
x .........
..........
y = e 2 .................................. ...................................... y = e2
....
............ ...... ...
..... 1
.....
... .
......
..... ..
....... ........... ...
....
..
..........................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.. .........
...........
...............
..... ...............................................
..............................
0.............
2 1 ......... 0
1
2
.
....
.
.
.
.. 1
...
...
.
.
...
sinh...... 2
.
..
...
....
3
..
...
...

6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
...
.

3
2

-X

325

coth

. . . . ..
.. .
................
1
.
.
.
.
.
. ......
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
tanh
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0......
2 1............... 0
1
2
.......
............................ 1
. . ..
...
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
3..

-X

326 coth

ex
ex
y=
,
2
2
325, tanh coth 326, sech csch 327

, sinh cosh y =

328.
Y

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
...
....
.....
...... csch
.........
..............
..........................

2
1

sech

................................
........
.........
.........
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.................
........
............
.......................

327

1
-X

...........................
0
......
2....................1
.....
....
...1
...
...
..
..
...
..
2
..
..
..
...
.
3......

-X

328

exp , exp ,
.

3.10

129

3.35
(1) x R, cosh2 x sinh2 x = 1 ;
(2) x R, 1 tanh2 x = sech2 x ;
(3) x R , coth2 x 1 = csch2 x .

(1) x R ,


1
(ex + ex )2 (ex ex )2
4
4
1 2x
1
= (e + 2 + e2x ) (e2x 2 + e2x ) = 1.
4
4

cosh2 x sinh2 x =

(2) 1 tanh2 x = 1

1

cosh2 x sinh2 x
1
sinh2 x
=
=
= sech2 x.
2
2
cosh x
cosh x
cosh2 x

(3) (2) .

3.36
x, y R,
(1) sinh(x + y) = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y ;
(2) cosh(x + y) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh y ;
(3) tanh(x + y) =

tanh x + tanh y
;
1 + tanh x tanh y

(4) sinh(x) = sinh x ;


(5) cosh(x) = cosh x ;
(6) tanh(x) = tanh x .

3.24 .

3.37
, :
(1) D sinh x = cosh x ;
(2) D cosh x = sinh x ;
(3) D tanh x = sech2 x ;
(4) D coth x = csch2 x ;
(5) D sech x = sech x tanh x ;
(6) D csch x = csch x coth x .

3.11

130

(1) (3) ,
(1) x R,
D sinh x = D
(3) x R,
D tanh x = D

1. lim sinh
x

 [x] 
x

1

 1
(ex ex ) = (ex + ex ) = cosh x.
2
2

 sinh x 
cosh x

1
cosh2 x sinh2 x
=
= sech2 x.
2
cosh x
cosh2 x

=? 1?

sinh ,
lim sinh

 [x] 
x

= sinh

, , p (0, 1)
sinh 1 =

3.11

[x] 
= sinh 1.
x x
lim

sinh 1 sinh 0
= sinh p = cosh p > cosh 0 = 1.
10

x R, D sinh x = cosh x > 0, sinh

1 x
(e ex ) = +,
x+ 2

lim sinh x = lim

x+

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........
..
.........
.. ........
.
.
.
.
. ....
........
.......
.....
.
.
.
.....
......
........
.
.
.
.
.
......
.......
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
...... .
....... ...
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

sinh

sinh

2
1

1 x
(e ex ) = ,
x 2

lim sinh x = lim

sinh , , sinh

(inverse hyperbolic sine func-

tion).
sinh1 : R R : sinh1 x = y sinh y = x.

3 2 1 0
1

2
3

329 sinh

arcsinh argsinh , .

-X

3.11

131

3.38
(1) x R, sinh1 x = ln(x +

x2 + 1) ;

(2) sinh1 , x R, D sinh1 x =

1
x2

+1

(1) y = sinh1 x,
1
y = sinh1 x x = sinh y = (ey ey )
2
(ey )2 2x ey 1 = 0

ey = x x2 + 1, ( ey )

ey = x + x2 + 1, ( ey > 0 )

y = ln(x + x2 + 1).
(2) x R,
D sinh1 x = D ln(x +

x2 + 1) =



1
x
1

1+
=
.
x + x2 + 1
x2 + 1
x2 + 1

cosh , Y , ,

cosh |R+ : R+ [1, +)

, (), ,

(inverse hyperbolic cosine function),

..
...
...
..
.
.
R+......
..
..
.
...
...
..
1
..
.
.
.
...
...
.............
.
..
............
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
........
....
.....
.......
.....
......
.......
.
.
.
...............
.
..

cosh |

cosh

....
....
.....
.
..

0
cosh

= (cosh |R+ )

: [1, +) R+ :

cosh1 (x) = y cosh |R+ (y) = x.

330

330.
3.39
(1) x [1, +), cosh1 (x) = ln(x +

x2 1) ;

(2) cosh1 (1, +) , x (1, +),


D cosh1 x =

1
x2

-X

3.11

132

3.38 , .

x R, D tanh x = sech2 x > 0, tanh ,

ex ex
1 e2x
lim tanh x = lim x
= lim
= 1,
x+
x+ e + ex
x+ 1 + e2x
ex ex
e2x 1
lim tanh x = lim x
=
lim
= 1,
x
x e + ex
x e2x + 1

tanh (1, 1), tanh : R (1, 1) ,

(inverse hyperbolic tangent function);

tanh1 : (1, 1) R : tanh1 x = y tanh y = x.


Y

1
.. tanh
....
.
..
..
..
.
.
.....
1
... . . . . . .
tanh
...... . . .
.
.
.......
....
.
.
.
.
.
0...............
2 1. . . ............ 0
1
2
. .
. . . ..
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
..1
..
....
.
...
..

-X

331 tanh

3.40
1

(1) x (1, 1), tanh

1 1 + x
;
x = ln
2
1x

(2) tanh1 , x (1, 1), D tanh1 x =

1
.
1 x2

(1) y = tanh1 x,
x = tanh y =

tanh1 x =

ey ey
xey + xey = ey ey
ey + ey

1 1 + x
.
ln
2
1x

ey (1 x) = ey (1 + x)
1+x
e2y =
1x
1 + x
2y = ln
1x
1 1 + x
.
y = ln
2
1x

3.12

133

(2) x (1, 1),


1 1 + x 1
1
D tanh1 x = D ln
= D ln(1 + x) D ln(1 x)
2
1x
2
2
1 1
1
1 
=
=
+
2 1+x 1x
1 x2 .

, coth, sech csch coth1 , sech1


csch1 . sech , , .
.

3.12

f : A B f A B, x A,

! y B (x, y) f . x y F (x, y) = 0, F (x, y) = 0

{(x, y) | F (x, y) = 0} , .

1 {(x, y) | F (x, y) = 0} : F (x, y) = x2 y 1 = 0

{(x, y) | x2 y 1 = 0} , , ( 332 ),

f : R R : y = f (x) = x2 1.

F (x, y) = 0 (implicit function).


Y

..
3
...
...
...
..
.
.
...
..
...
..
2
..
...
.
.
...
..
..
..
...
..
.
.
...
.
1
..
...
...
...
.
.
...
.
...
...
...
..
.
....
.
2 1 ........ 0 ......... 1 2
.................

-X

................................... 1
.....
......( , 3 )

....... 3 .
.
.
.
.
.
....2
.
.... 2
2
....
...
...
...
....
...
.
....
...
..
....
-X
...
...
1
...
....
0
1
...
2
...
...
....
....
.
.
.....
.
....
......
.....
.........
.....................................

333

332
2 {(x, y) | F (x, y) = 0} :
F (x, y) = x2 + y 2 1 = 0

3.12

134

C = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 = 1} , ( 333 ).

C , C ( 12 ,
N( 12 )

3
2

N(

x N

1
2

3
),
2

, !y N

3
)
2

1
2

 3 
2

(x, y) C.

C , C N( 12 ) f , f :
 3 
1

N
: y = f (x) = 1 x2 .
f: N
2
2
f F (x, y) = x2 + y 2 1 = 0 ( 12 ,
) .
C (1, 0), ,

1 N(1), 0 N(0)
( Y ), x N(1) x < 1 , y N(0)

(x, y) C, y N(0) (x, y) C.

F (x, y) = x2 + y 2 1 = 0 (1, 0)

F (x, y) = x4 y 2 = 0

C = {(x, y) | x4 y 2 = 0},
: , C .

3
)
2

(,

..
..
...
...
...
.
.
...
..
...
..
...
...
.
.
..
..
...
...
... 2
.
.
...
.
...
...
..
...
.
.
...
...
....
....
.....
.......................
0....... ...........
....
.
.
.
2 .. 0 ........ 2
...
...
...
..
...
....
.
...
... 2
..
...
....
...
...
...
...
...
.
...
.....
..

-X

334

, F (x, y) = 0 {(x, y) | F (x, y) = 0}

, , , .
, Apostol [4], 13.7
.
F (x, y) = 0 (x0 , y0) f : N(x0 ) N(y0 ), f

x0 , f (x0 )? :

(1) x , ( y x ).
(2) , y = .
(3) (x0 , y0 ) (x, y) .

1. xy = tan1

y
(2, 0) f 2 f (2) =?.
x

3.12

135

1 x , ( y = f (x) x ).
y + xy =

2 f (x) = y =

1
xy y
,

1 + ( xy )2
x2

y(1 + x2 + y 2 )
.
x(1 x2 y 2 )

3 (2, 0) (x, y) ,

f (2) =

0(1 + 22 + 02 )
= 0.
2(1 22 02 )

2. x3 x ln y + y 3 = 2x + 5, (2, 1) .

1 x , ( y x ),
3x2 ln y
2 , y =

xy
+ 3y 2y = 2.
y

2 3x2 + ln y
.
3y 2 xy

3 (2, 1) (x, y) ,

y =

234
= 10,
3 1 21

4 y 1 = 10(x 2).

3. y = f (x) x3 3xy + y 3 = 1 , f (0) f (0).


x 0 ,
0 0 + y 3 = 1.

y = 1, , (0, 1) .

x ,

3x2 3y 3xy + 3y 2 y = 0.

, y =
,

()

y x2
, (0, 1) , f (0) = 1. , () x
y2 x
6x 3y 3y 3xy + 6y(y )2 + 3y 2y = 0.

2x + 2y 2y(y )2
, (0, 1) (x, y), 1 y
, y =
2
y x

f (0) =

02+21
= 0.
1

3.13

136

: : x3 3xy + y 3 + 1 = (x + y + 1)(x2 xy + y 2 x y + 1), (


), |x| , x2 xy + y 2 x y + 1 y 2 y + 1 > 0,
x3 3xy + y 3 = 1 x + y + 1 = 0,

y = x 1, f (0) = 1, f (0) = 0.

3.13

(parametric equations)
(
x = f (t),
t S, (S R ).
y = g(t),
F : S R2 : F(t) = (f (t), g(t)) , f g S

; t (parameter). F R2

(parametric curve). ,
, .

1.

x = 1 + t,
y = 2t 3,

t R.

, 2x y = 5, y = 2x 5,
F : R R2 : F(t) = (1 + t, 2t 3).

F
.................................................
........
......
......
....
....
......

y = 2x 5

...
..
.
.
.
...
..
.
.
...
...
.
.
.
...
... t = 2
..
.
...
....
0 1 ...... t = 1
..
...
.
.
..
.... t = 0
.
.
..
...
....
5 .....
.
..

334 : t = 0 t = 0 F(t)

-X

3.13

2.

137


x = t2 ,
y = 2 t1 ,

t R .

t, y 2 = 4x, (x, y) 6= (0, 0), y 2 = 4x 6= 0,


F : R R2 : F(t) = (t2 , 2 t1 ). ( 336 ).
Y

F
.................................................
......
........
.....
......
....
.....

....
.........
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.......
...... y 2 = 4x 6= 0
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.....
2 ........... t = 1
...
..
....
..
-X
.....
...
.
0 .... 1 2 3 4
....
....
.....
........t = 1
2
......
......
......
.......
........
........
.........
........

336

x = t + ,
t
3.
1

y = t ,
t

t (0, +).

1 ,
x + y = 2t,
x y = 2/t,

x2 y 2 = 4, x2 y 2 = 4 .

2 , (x, y) x2 y 2 = 4 , ( x > 0 ).
p
y + y2 + 4
1
y = t t =
( t > 0 ),
t
2
p
y2 + 4 y
1
1
1
=
x=t+ , y =t .
t
2
t
t

x2 y 2 = 4 .

( 337 ).


1
1
F : (0, +) R2 : F(t) = t + , t
.
t
t

3.13

138

.
....
...
....
....
... ..
.
.
.
.... ...
... ..
... ..
.... ..
... ....
.
.
.. .
.... ...
.... ...
...
.
.... ...
.
.
.
....
...
...
....
....
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
....
...
....
....
...
...
...
.... ......
..
.
......
.
.
..
... ..
... ......
...
....
....
...
....
...
....
...
.
.
.
....
...
..
.
.
.
.
.
....
..
...
.... ....
.... ..
... ...
.... ..
.... ...
... ...
.... ...
.... ...
... ..
.... ...
.... .
...
....
....
...
.

x2 y 2 = 4

t>1

..................................................
......
........
.....
.....
....
.....

t = 1
2

-X

0<t<1

337
,
(
x = f (t),
y = g(t),

t S,

(x0 , y0) , x0 = f (t0 ), y0 = g(t0 ). f g t0


.
Y

F
................................................
.........
......
......
.....
....
.......

...................................
......
.......
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
....................................................................

.(x, y)
.
(x , y )
0

t0 t

-X

338 F = (f, g)
dx
. f (t0 ) 6= 0,
6= 0, x = f (t), y = g(t),
dt t0

g(t) g(t0 )
f (t) f (t0 )

(1)

(x, y) (x0 , y0 ) ; t t0 , (1) (


) ,
g(t) g(t0 )
dy

dy
g(t) g(t0)
t t0
= lim
= dt t0 .
= lim
dx
dx t0 tt0 f (t) f (t0 ) tt0 f (t) f (t0 )

dt t0
t t0

(2)

3.13

139

t0 ,

. f (t0 ) = 0 ,

dy
dy
= dt .
dx
dx
dt

dx
= 0.
dt t0

(i) g (t0 ) 6= 0, (1)




g(t) g(t0 )


g(t) g(t )



t

t
0
0
= +
lim
= lim
tt0 f (t) f (t0 )
tt0 f (t) f (t0 )




t t0
dy
( ),
, (x0 , y0 ) .
dx t0

(ii) g (t0 ) = 0, .

lim

tt0

dy
dy
dy
,
.
= lim
dx
dx t0 tt0 dx

dy
dy
= ,
.
lim

tt0 dx
dx t=t0

: , , x y , .

x = t + ,
t
4.

y = t 1,
t

t R ,

t 6= 0, 2 .

dx
= 1 t2 ,
dt

dy
= 1 + t2 , |t| =
6 1 ,
dt

dy
dy/dt
1 + t2
t2 + 1
=
=
=
.
dx
dx/dt
1 t2
t2 1

dy
=2
dx
t2 + 1
=2
t2 1

t2 + 1 = 2(t2 1)
t2 = 3


t { 3, 3}.

(3)

3.13

140

1 t = 3, (x, y)

1
4

x = 3 + = ,

3
3

1
2

y = 3 = ,
3
3

4  2
y = 2 x + .
3
3

t = 3, (x, y)

4
1

x
=
3+ = ,

3
3

2
1

y = 3 = ,
3
3

4  2
y = 2 x + .
3
3

5.

x = 4 cos t,
y = t2 ,

339

dy
, t = 0 .
dx

dx

= 4 sin t,

dt

dy

= 2t,
dt

t 6 {0, , 2} ,
2 t = ,

..
..

t [0, 2],

...

.
....
... .
... ...
....
... ...
....
.. ....
.
....
.. ..
..
.. ..
....
t>1
...
......
....
...
.....
...
.....
...
.
.
..
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
2
...
.....
...
...
...
......
...
... ......
...
.
.
.
.
...
.. .....
.... t = 1
.. ....
... .
-X
..
... ..
.. ..
.
...........
... ..
.. 2 ..
0
........
.
...
...
...
.......
...
...
..
........
.
..
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
..
...
.
.
.
.... 0 < t <
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
..
.
.
.
.
....
. ...
.
.
.
..
.. ...

t
dy
=
.
dx
2 sin t

dy

t


lim = lim
= +,
t dx
t
2 sin t

dy
, t = 2 , .
dx

3 t = 0 ,

dy
dy
t
1
= lim+
= ;
= lim+
dx t=0 t0 dx t0
2 sin t
2
1
(x, y) = (4, 0), y = (x 4).
2
( 340).

3.13

141
Y

40

..
..
...
.
...
...
.
.
.
...
.....
......
.
.
.
.
30
.
......
......
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
.........
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.........
......... 20
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
........
........
.
.
.
.
.
...
......
.....
....
10
...
......
.........
...........
................
....................
...........................
..................................
....................................
..................
0

-X

340 ( : )

6. (cycloid)
a , X , P .
(1) P , P ;
dy
(2) 0 t 2 ,
.
dx
Y

...... ............................
.......
................................................................................
........................
. ........
.
..........
.....
........................
.
.
.
........
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.......
...
...
.......
.
.
......
.
..
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
......
.
.
.
.....
.
..
.
.
.....
.
.
..
.
..
.
.
...
.
.....
.
.
.
.
..
... ..... ....................
.
....
.
......
... ... ............
.
.
....
......................................................
..
.
... ...
...
..
...
... ..
.. .........
.
.
.
..
.
... ...
.
.. ........
.
.....
.......
.....
......
.
.
.........
.
.
.
.
....
.
.........................
.

C
tQ

-X

341

(1) t, (0 < t < 2) , P (x(t), y(t)). t

, ( t /2 ), CP Q P CQ = t,
z{

P Q = a sin t, QC = a cos t, OT = P T = at,

, ,

at x(t) = a sin t, a y(t) = a cos t,

x(t) = a(t sin t),

y(t) = a(1 cos t).

3.13

142

dx(t)

= a(1 cos t),

dt
(2)

dy(t) = a sin t,
dt

0 < t < 2 ,

dy(t)/dt
sin t
dy
=
=
.
dx
dx(t)/dt
1 cos t

t {0, 2} ,

cos 2t
2 sin 2t cos 2t
dy
sin t

= lim+
lim+
= lim
= lim

t = +,
t0
t0 sin
dx t0+ 1 cos t t0+ 2 sin2 2t
2

2 sin 2t cos 2t
cos 2t
sin t
dy

lim
=
lim
=
lim
=
lim
t = ,
t2 1 cos t
t2
t2 dx
t2 sin
2 sin2 2t
2

dy
dy

.


dx t=0
dx t=2

7. (hypocycloid or Astroid)
, a a/4 A(a, 0),
.
(1) P ( A(a, 0) ) .

dy
d2 y
(2) 0 < < ,
2.
2
dx
dx
n o
dy
,
?
(3) 0,
2
dx
Y

.............................................
...............
..........
....
..........
........
........
.......
.......
.......
... ....
......
.
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
....
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
...
.
...
.
.
.
...
.
...
..
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
....
.
.
...
...
.
.
.
.
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
......... ...................
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.
.
...
.
.
.
..
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
..... ....
.
.
...
.
..
.
.
.
.........
..
...
.....
.
.
....
..............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
... ..... ...................... ..
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.....
.
................... .. .....
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........... ...... ...........
... .
..
............. .....
.......
. .............. ... ...
..............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.... .............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.....
.
........
...................
........ . ...............................
......................
.........
..
...
..
.......
...
...
.......
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
...
.
.
.......
.
.
..
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
......
...
....
...
......
...
......
...
...
.....
..
.....
...
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
....
.
..
...
....
...
...
....
...
....
...
...
...
...
.
...
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
...
....
..
...
...
....
...
....
....
... ....
...
....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
... ..
......
......
.....
.......
... ...
.......
.......
.........
........
.
.
........
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......................................................

342

Q P

B
A

-X

3.13

143

(1) C, Q C , = AOC, = BCP .


z{

z{

a = AB = P B =

a
,
4

= 4,

= 3.
2
2
 3a

3a
P (x, y), C
cos ,
sin ,
4
4


a
3a
a
3a
cos + sin(P CQ) =
cos + sin
3
x=
4
4
4
4
2
a
= (3 cos + cos 3) = a cos3 ,
4


a
3a
a
3a
sin cos(P CQ) =
sin cos
3
y=
4
4
4
4
2
a
3
= (3 sin sin 3) = a sin .
4

x = a cos3 ,
P
[0, 2]. ,
y = a sin3 ,
P CQ =

x2/3 + y 2/3 = a2/3 .


(2)

0 < < /2,

dx

= 3a cos2 sin ,

dy

= 3a sin2 cos ,
d

dy
dy/d
sin
=
=
= tan ,
dx
dx/d
cos
d
(dy/dx)
d2 y
sec2
1
d
=
=
=
sec4 csc .
2
2
dx
dx/d
3a cos sin
3a
(3) ,
dy
dy
=0;
= lim+ tan = 0,
lim+

0
0 dx
dx =0
dy
dy
.
= lim tan = ,
lim

/2
/2 dx
dx =/2

144


: , [ ] .

3-1 :

sin( 2 x)
;
(a) lim
x0
x
 [x] 
(b) lim ln
;
x+
x1
 1 sin x
;
(c) lim
x1 x

 x 
;
sin x

(d) lim x2 ln
x0

(e) lim (1 + x)1/x ;


x0

x [x]
, a > 1.
x+
a[x]

(f) lim

3-2 :
(a) f (x) = [x] sin x;

(b) f (x) = csc1 x + 1;

(c) f (x) = ln(x2 x) x tan1 (x/2);

(d) f (x) = x

x1

n
3-3 f (x) = ex sin x, n N, : f (n) (x) = ( 2)n ex sin(x +
).
4
3-4
f : R R : f (x) =

cos(1/x), x 6= 0,
0,

x = 0;

g : R R : g(x) = x f (x);
h : R R : h(x) = x g(x);

? ?
(
1
x2 sin , x 6= 0,
3-5 f : R R : f (x) =
f , .
x
0,
x = 0,
3-6 f : R R : f (x) = a ex b ex , a b . : f

, f 1 .

[ ]

lim exp x = + .

x+

3-7 x, y > 0 x + y = 2, : 4 2x + 2y < 5.


3-8 :

145

(a) a (0, 1], x > 0, sin x < xa ;

[ ] x (0, 1], sin x < x.

(b) x, y [/2, /2], x > y, sin x sin y < x y;


[ ] 0 < y < x, y < x < 0, y < 0 < x .

(c) 0 < a < b,

ba
ba
< tan1 b tan1 a <
;
2
1+b
1 + a2

(d) x (0, +), sinh1 x < x;


17
17
> 117 > 10 + .
(e) 10 +
20
22
  2
sin x
,
<
< 1.
3-9 : x 0,
2

x
3-10 expa (x + y) = expa (x) expa (y), a > 1. :
x Q, ax = expa (x).
3-11 f R ,
f (x + y) = f (x)f (y), x, y R.

: f = 0 R, f (x) = ex .
3-12 y =

8
.
1 + 3 ex

3-13 A B. , : ,

.
3-14 : ln x x 1, x > 0, (arithmetic-geometric-mean
inequality), ( n ),
n

x1 , . . . , xn > 0, (x1 xn )

3-15 y :
(a) 3xy = cot x + y ;

(b) x cosh y + xy = 7 ;
(c) ax + by = a2 b2 , ( a, b > 0), y .

1/n

1X

xj .
n j=1

146

1 1
+ = 1 (2, 2) , f .
x y

x = t t2 ,
dy d2 y
t R
3-17
,
.
dx dx2
y = t t3 ,

x = sin t,
t [0, /2].
3-18
y = cos 4t,
3-16

(a) t

dy
.
dx

(b) X , .

3-19 , 1 ,

1 , 5 ,
A, () B, t = 0
, A (1, 0), ,

..
B ...

(a) t , A B ;
(b) t = 3/4 , B ;
(c) 60 , t , B

.
3-20 P sin cos ,

P ( [0 , 90] ).
[ ] .

...
...
...
...
...
...5
...
.
Y ...
..
6 ..
...
A

..........................
.........
......
.....
......
....
...
...
...
.
...
..
.
...
....
...
...
..
..
.
...
..
...
..
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
...
...
....
...
......
....
........
......
..............................

-X

3-21 M , 7%, , 3M .
3-22 7% , r

, r =? ( ).
3-23 , 105 , 5 106 , n(t)

t .
3-24 r , m , m ,

m > k > 0 ,

1+

r k
r m 
> 1+
m
k .


3-25 :
(a) f : R R (injection) ;

(b) f : R R ;
(c) f : [a, b] R ;

(d) A B , f : A B (bijection);
(e) f : [0, 1] (2, 4) (surjection).

147

Chapter 4
Taylor
, ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, ?

,
. Taylor n , n
, , Taylor
.

4.1

Taylor
f (x)
= 0,
xp g(x)

lim

> 0, > 0, ( x)(0 < |x p| < |f (x)| < |g(x)|).

f (x) = o(g(x)), ( o(small-oh) ). :


sin x = o(1), ( x 0 . )

0, lim g(x) = 0, : x p , f (x) 0 g(x)


xp

0 , :

x2 = o(x), x3 = o(x2 ), x = o( x), ( x 0 . )

148

4.1 Taylor

149

f , p Df , , p N(p) ,

, f , , p N(p)

f g, : (i) g(p) = f (p); (ii) (x p) 0 ( x p)

, (f (x) g(x)) 0. , ( 41 ) f p

, (p, f (p)) , 2.21 , f p


,

f (x) (f (p)(x p) + f (p))


= 0,
xp
xp
lim

(p, f (p)) y = f (p)(x p) + f (p) f (x) o(x p),

(), f (x) , o((x p)2 ) o((x p)n ),

:
Y

..
.....
1
.....
.....
....
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
.....
....
.....
.....
.....
...............
...........................................................
.
.
.
..............
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........................
...
...........
. ........
................................................................................
..........
.....
.....
........
........
....
3
....
........
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.....
.....
...
..... ..
.....
...
..... ...
.....
...
..... .
...
..... ...
.
.
.
.
..
... ..
.
..
.
.
.
..
.....
...
..
..
..
.
.

g2

.
..
...
...
..

-X

41

4.1
f g ,

f (x) g(x)
= 0,
xp (x p)n
lim

g f p n (good approximation of n-th order).


, , , (
), Taylor , n ,
f p n .
, , .

4.1 Taylor

150

4.2 ( Taylor )
[a, b] Df , n N,
(1) f (n1) [a, b] ;
(2) f (n1) (a, b) .

c (a, b)
f (a)
(b a)2 +
2!
f (n) (c)
f (n1) (a)
(b a)n1 +
(b a)n .
+
(n 1)!
n!

f (b) = f (a) + f (a)(b a) +

()

g : [a, b] R :
g(x) = f (b)

n1 (k)
X
f (x)
k=0

k!

(b x)k Rn

(b x)n
,
(b a)n

Rn g(a) = 0.
g [a, b] ;
g (a, b) x (a, b),

g (x) =
=

n1 (k+1)
X
f
(x)
k=0
n1
X

k=0
(n)

k!

n1
X
f (k) (x)
n(b x)n1
(b x) +
(b x)k1 + Rn
(k 1)!
(b a)n
k=1
k

n2 (k+1)
X
f (k+1) (x)
f
(x)
n(b x)n1
k
(b x) +
(b x)k + Rn
k!
k!
(b a)n
k=0

n(b x)n1
f (x)
n1
(b x)
+ Rn
.
=
(n 1)!
(b a)n

g(a) = g(b) = 0 .

Rolle , c (a, b) g (c) = 0,


2 ,
0=

n(b c)n1
f (n) (c)
(b c)n1 + Rn
.
(n 1)!
(b a)n

f (n) (c)
Rn =
(b a)n . ,
1 a x, Rn ,
n!
f (a)
(b a)2 +
2!
f (n1) (a)
f (n) (c)
+
(b a)n1 +
(b a)n .
(n 1)!
n!

f (b) = f (a) + f (a)(b a) +

: n = 1, Taylor .
: [a, b] a b ,
, , .

4.1 Taylor

151

4.3 ( Taylor )
[a, b] Df , n N,
(1) f (n1) [a, b] ;
(2) f (n1) (a, b) ;

c (a, b)
f (b)
(a b)2 +
2!
f (n1) (b)
f (n) (c)
+
(a b)n1 +
(a b)n .
(n 1)!
n!

f (a) = f (b) + f (b)(a b) +

()

4.2 .

4.4
I , p I, f I n , x I \ {p}, c p x

f (p)
(x p)2 +
f (x) = f (p) + f (p)(x p) +
2!
f (n1) (p)
f (n) (c)
+
(x p)n1 +
(x p)n .
(n 1)!
n!

)
(

4.5
) n Taylor (Taylors
(1) (), (), (

expansion of nth order) n Taylor (Taylors formula).


(n)
) Taylor f (c) (xp)n (remain(2) (
n!
der), Rn (x).

(3) f p n ,
Pn (x) =

n
X
f (j) (p)
j=0

j!

(x p)j ,

n Taylor (nth degree Taylors polynomial).


(4) p 0, Taylor ()Taylor Maclaurin

() Maclaurin .

4.1 Taylor

152

, n , Taylor ,
, , .
4.6
I , p I, f I n , lim f (n) (c) = f (n) (p). c
xp

) . ( : c p x , x . )
4.4 (

f I n , , n ,
.

4.7
I , p I, f I n , Pn (x) f p n

f (x) Pn (x)
= 0.
xp
(x p)n
lim

Taylor Pn ,
f (n1) (p)
f (n) (c)
(x p)n1 +
(x p)n ,
(n 1)!
n!
(n1)
(n)
f (p)
f
(p)
(x p)n1 +
(x p)n .
Pn (x) = f (p) + f (p)(x p) + +
(n 1)!
n!
f (x) = f (p) + f (p)(x p) + +

,
f (x) Pn (x)
f (n) (c) f (n) (p)
lim
= lim
= 0.
xp
xp
(x p)n
n!

1. f : R R : f (x) = exp x .
(1) f n Maclaurin ;
(2) f n ;
(3) f, P1 , P2 , P3 .

(1) x R, c (0, x) or (x, 0),


f (n1) (0) n1 f (n) (c) n
f (0)
x++
x
+
x
1!
(n 1)!
n!
x2
xn1
ec
=1+x+
++
+ xn .
2!
(n 1)! n!

exp x = f (x) = f (0) +

4.1 Taylor

153

(2) f 1, 2, 3

P1 (x) = 1 + x,
x2
,
2!
x2 x3
P3 (x) = 1 + x +
+ .
2!
3!

P2 (x) = 1 + x +

(3) f, P1 , P2 , P3 :

42.

exp
..
.....
..
...
.... .. P3
. ..
... .....
6
..... .....
. ...
... ....
..........
P2
.
....... ....
5
...... ...
.......... ......
. .
....... .....
....... ...
4
.......... ......
. .
........ ....
...... ....
...............
P1
....
....
3
...
.........
....
................ ..........
....... .....
.......... ......
.
..... ......
.
.
2
...... ...
........ ......
..........
...........
.
.
.
.
....
............
......
......
......
.
.
P2 ................
.
.
1
.
.
.
.....
...........
.......
............. .....................................
.................... ....
.
.
...... .....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
exp ..................................... ........
P3
P1

.
..
.....
...
......
....
.....
....
....
...
.
.
..
....
...
....
...
....

42

2. f : R R : f (x) = sin x .
(1) f n Maclaurin ;
(2) f 1, 3, 5, 6 ;
(3) f, P1 , P3 , P5 .

(1)
f (x) = sin x,

f (0) = 0,

f (x) = cos x,

f (0) = 1,

f (x) = sin x,

f (0) = 0,

f (x) = cos x,

f (0) = 1,

f (4) (x) = sin x,


..
.

f (4) (0) = 0,
..
.

f (2k) (x) = (1)k sin x,


f (2k+1) (x) = (1)k cos x,

sin 0 0.

-X

4.1 Taylor

154

n , n = 2k + 1, k N, x R , c (0, x) or (x, 0)
f (0)
f (2k1) (0) 2k1 f (2k) (0) 2k
f (x) = f (0) +
x++
x
+
x + R2k+1 (x)
1!
(2k 1)!
(2k)!
x3 x5
(1)k1 2k1 (1)k cos c 2k+1
x
+
+
x
+
x
.
=
1!
3!
5!
(2k 1)!
(2k + 1)!

sin x n = 2k + 1 Maclaurin .
n , n = 2k, k N, x R , c (0, x) or (x, 0)
f (0)
f (2k1) (0) 2k1
x++
x
+ R2k (x)
1!
(2k 1)!
x
x3 x5
(1)k1 2k1 (1)k sin c 2k
=
+
+
x
+
x .
1!
3!
5!
(2k 1)!
(2k)!

f (x) = f (0) +

sin x n = 2k Maclaurin .
(2) f 1, 3, 5, 6
P1 (x) = x,
x3
,
3!
x3
+
P5 (x) = x
3!
x3
P6 (x) = x
+
3!
P3 (x) = x

x5
,
5!
x5
+ 0 = P5 (x).
5!

(3) f, P1 , P3 , P5 :
Y

1
.
...
...
....
...
.
.
.
...
...
....
...
...
...
....
...
... ..........................
.
.
...
... ..........................................................
...
..... ...........
...............
..... ...........
.............
...
. ....
...
.............
...
..........
... ...... ................
...
.
.
.
.....
...
.....
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
.....
....
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.....
...
......
...
...
.....
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
..... .....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
....
..... .....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
..
..
........
...
.................
........... .......
...
.................
........... .....
...
............
............. ........
.................
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........................................ ...
5
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
..
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
...
.
.
3
...
.
.
..

P. 3

P5

sin

-X

43 sin
, Maclaurin , 0
.

3. : exp(x 1) 1 + ln x, x > 0.

4.1 Taylor

155

f : (0, +) R : f (x) = exp(x 1) ln x, : f (x) 1, x > 0.


1 x = 1 , f (1) = e0 ln 1 = 1 ;

2 x (0, +) \ {1} , f 1

Taylor ,

1
f (x) = exp(x 1) ,
x
1
f (x) = exp(x 1) + 2 > 0,
x
f (x) = f (1) +

= f (1) +

f (c)
f (1)
(x 1) +
(x 1)2 ,
1!
2!
( c 1 x . )

y = exp(x 1)

..
..
.....
.
..
...
...
3
...
...
.
..
..
.. .................... y
.
.
.. ......
..........
...........
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
1 ...............
.... .
.......... ....
.
.
.
........ ....... .....

f (c)
(x 1)2
2!

..
..
..

0.........

= 1 + ln x

-X

...
..
..

44

> f (1) = 1.

: , f 1 .

4. f (x) = tan x Maclaurin Maclaurin .



f (x) = tan x,

f (0) = 0,

f (x) = sec2 x,

f (0) = 1,

f (x) = 2 sec2 x tan x,

f (0) = 0,

f (x) = 4 sec2 x tan2 x + 2 sec4 x,

f (0) = 2,

f (4) (x) = 8 sec2 x tan3 x + 16 sec4 x tan x,

f (4) (0) = 0.

x (/2, /2) \ {0}, c (0, x) or (x, 0)


f (x) = f (0) +
=

f (0)
f (0) 2 f (0) 3
x+
x +
x + R4 (x)
1!
2!
3!

x x3
+
+ R4 (x),
1
3

f Maclaurin ,
R4 (x) =

f (4) (c) 4 8 sec2 c tan3 c + 16 sec4 c tan c 4


x =
x.
4!
4!

f Maclaurin P4 (x) =

x x3
+ .
1
3

4.2

4.2

156

, . , :
, ,
. , , ,
.

4.8
f N (p) n ,
f (p) = = f (n1) (p) = 0, f (n) (p) 6= 0.
(1) n f (n) (p) > 0, f p ;
(2) n f (n) (p) < 0, f p ;
(3) n , f p .

f N (p) n , 4.6 Taylor f (n) (c) f (n) (p),

lim f (n) (c) = f (n) (p). ( : c p x )

xp

, , 0 < < , x N (p), f (n) (c) f (n) (p) .


(1) n f (n) (p) > 0, x N (p),
f (x) f (p) = f (p)(x p) + +
=

f (n) (c)
(x p)n > 0.
n!

f (n1) (p)
f (n) (c)
(x p)n1 +
(x p)n
(n 1)!
n!

f p , ( 45 ).
Y

...
.
...
..
..
...
.
.
...
.
....
..
....
....
.
.
.....
.
.......
....
..........................

p x

45

-X

..
...
....
...
...
.
.
...
......
...............................
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
....
...
....
.
...
....

p x

46

-X

4.2

157

(2) (1) .
(3) n ,

f (n) (p) > 0 , x N (p),


f (n) (c)
f (x) f (p) =
(x p)n
n!

> 0, x > p,
< 0, x < p.

f p , ( 46 ).
f (n) (p) < 0, .

4.9
f N (p) , f (p) = 0.
(1) f (p) > 0, f p ;
(2) f (p) < 0, f p .

4.10
Df , f (p) = 0.
(1) x Df \ {p}, f (x) > 0, f p ;
(2) x Df \ {p}, f (x) < 0, f p .

(1) x Df \ {p},
f (c)
(x p)2
f (x) f (p) = f (p)(x p) +
2!
f (c)
(x p)2 > 0, ( c 6= p)
=
2

(2) .

(1) . ,

. .

(2) Zf (Df \ D f ) Sf .
(3) :

4.2

158

: .
: , f Df ,
, .
: , ( ).
: ( Cauchy ).

1. f : R R : f (x) = sin x x +

x3
.
3!

1 : : R R : (x) = cos x 1 +

x2
0 0.
2

x > 0, x > sin x, ( ),

< 0, x < 0,

(x) = sin x + x = 0, x = 0,

> 0, x > 0,

0 0. : , ,

(, 0] , [0, +) .

2 f . x R,

x2
,
2!
f (x) = sin x + x,

f (x) = cos x 1 +

f (x) = cos x + 1,
f (4) (x) = sin x,
f (5) (x) = cos x.

, 1 ,
f (x) = 0 cos x 1 + x2 /2 = 0 x = 0,

0 f ,
f (0) = f (0) = f (0) = f (4) (0), f (5) (0) = 1.

f 0 ( ) .

2. a1 < a2 < a3 < a4 , f (x) = |x a1 | + |x a2 | + |x a3 | + |x a4 |


.

4.2

159

|x aj | ,
(
1,
D|x aj | =
1,

x < aj ,
x > aj .

= sgn(x aj ), x 6= aj .

, x 6 {a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 },

f (x) = D

4
X
j=1

4,

2,
=
0,

2,

4,

|x aj | =

4
X
j=1

sgn(x aj )

.
..
...
.
...
..
...
...
...
.... f
...
..
...
...
.
.
...
.
...
..
...
...
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
...
.
.............................

x < a1 ,

a1 < x < a2 ,
a2 < x < a3 ,
a3 < x < a4 ,

a1

a2

a3

a4

-X

47

a4 < x.

f (, a2 ] , [a3 , +) , [a2 , a3 ] ,
f
f (a2 ) = |a2 a1 | + |a2 a2 | + |a2 a3 | + |a2 a4 |
= a3 + a4 (a1 + a2 ).

3. 80 , 6000 , ,
200 , , , 600

, (), , ?
200x , x, 80 x,
6000 + 200x 600 ,

P : [0, 80] R : P (x) = (80 x)(6000 + 200x 600)


= 432000 + 10600x 200x2 ,

> 0, 0 x < 26.5,


P (x) = 10600 400x = 0, x = 26.5,

< 0, 26.5 < x 80,

x = 26.5 , P , , P (26) = 1, 836, 000 =


P (27), , 6000+20026 = 11, 200 6000+20027 = 11, 400

4.3

4.3

160

, ,
, . , ,
.
[a, c] f , ( 48 ) [a, b] , [b, c]
. , f [a, b] ,
(x1 , f (x1 )), (x2 , f (x2 )) f . , [b, c] (x3 , f (x3 )),
(x4 , f (x4 )) f .
Y

6
..
...
....
..
.............
...
...... ............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..............................................................
...
....
..
.....
....
.... f
..
......
.
.
.
.
....
h
.. .
.
... .
....
..
... ..
....
... .
...
... ...
.
....
.
.. .
....
... .
... ..
.....
... .
.....
... ...
.
.
.
......
..
........ ..................
............

a x1

x2 b

x3

x4 c

-X

48
, :
4.11
I , f : I R,
f (convex) (concave upward)
() h ( 49)
def

x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 , x (x1 , x2 ), f (x) < h(x),




f (x2 ) f (x1 )
h : (x1 , x2 ) R : h(x) =
(x x1 ) + f (x1 )
x2 x1
x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 , (0, 1),

f (x1 + (1 )x2 ) < f (x1 ) + (1 )f (x2 ).

()

4.3

161

x2 x
,
x2 x1
x2 x1 = x2 x, x = x1 + (1 )x2 , f (x) = f (x1 + (1 )x2 );
x x1
1 =
,
x2 x1

() =

f (x2 ) f (x1 )
(x x1 ) + f (x1 )
x2 x1
x x1
=
(f (x2 ) f (x1 )) + f (x1 )
x2 x1

h(x) =

= (1 )(f (x2 ) f (x1 )) + f (x1 ) = f (x1 ) + (1 )f (x2 ).


Y

..
...
....
.
..
...
........
....... ...
.
.
.
.
.
.
h .......................... ....
.
.....
.......
.
.
.
.
....
.
......
....
....
...... ......................
.
.
.
.
..........
.....
...........
...........................

...............................
......
.....
....
.....
.
.
.
...
...
...
.
.
...
.....................
...
.
.
.............
.
...
..............
.
.............
..
.............
...
.............
.
................
.....
...
...
.
h
..
...
...
...
.
...
...
..

f
x1

-X

x x2

x1

49

x2

-X

410

, :

4.12
I , f : I R,
f (concave) (concave downward)
() h ( 410 )
def

x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 , x (x1 , x2 ), f (x) > h(x),




f (x2 ) f (x1 )
h : (x1 , x2 ) R : h(x) =
(x x1 ) + f (x1 )
x2 x1
x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 , (0, 1),

f (x1 + (1 )x2 ) > f (x1 ) + (1 )f (x2 ).

, ,
.

4.3

162

4.13
f : I R , I p,
fp : I \ {p} R : fp (x) =

f (x) f (p)
.
xp

1 p < x1 < x2 , ( 411 ), =


Y

x1 p
x2 x1
, 1 =
,
x2 p
x2 p
f

.
...
..
...
...
.........
............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
........
........
...
.........
........
....
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.
.
.
....... .................................................................................................
...........
.
.......................................

-X

x1 x2

411
f f (x1 ) = f (p + (1 )x2 ) < f (p) + (1 )f (x2 )
f (x1 ) f (p) < ( 1)f (p) + (1 )f (x2 )

f (x1 ) f (p)
(1 )f (x2 ) (1 )f (p)
<
x1 p
(1 )(x2 p)
f (x2 ) f (p)
= fp (x2 ).
fp (x1 ) <
x2 p
x1 < p < x2 , x1 < x2 < p, 1 .

4.14
f I , f I f .

f . x1 < x2 ,
x3 ,
f (x1 ) = lim fx1 (x)
xx1

fx1 (x3 ), ()
< fx1 (x2 ), ()
= fx2 (x1 )
lim fx2 (x) = f (x2 ).
xx2

.
.......

f ................

.....
....
.......
.
....
.
.
..
........
..........
.
.
...............
.
.
.
..
..........
...............................
..... .
............. ...................
.....
................. ........................
......................
......
.......
....

x1

x3

x2

-X

412
f (x1 ), fx1 (x3 ), f (x2 )

4.3

163

2 f . x1 x2 I x1 < x2 , h
(x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 )) . x (x1 , x2 ), h(x) > f (x).

g : [x1 , x2 ] R : g(x) = f (x) h(x). g(x1 ) = g(x2 ) = 0.

: g(x) < 0, x (x1 , x2 ).


x0 (x1 , x2 ), g(x0 ) 0

c (x1 , x2 ), g c , ( g )
g (c) = 0 g(c) 0
g (x) > g (c) = 0, x (c, x2 ], ( g = f h )
g (c, x2 ]
0 = g(x2 ) > g(c) 0.

, x (x1 , x2 ), g(x) < 0, x (x1 , x2 ), h(x) > f (x). 


4.15
f I ,

(1) x I, f (x) > 0, f I .


(2) f I , x I, f (x) 0.

f f , 4.14 .

, , :
f > 0 f 0

f < 0 f 0

f f f

f f f

: f f f .
4.16
p Df ,
(1) f p ;
(2) f p . ( (p , p) (p, p + ).)

(p, f (p)) f (point of inflection).

4.3

164
Y

6
..... .........................................
..... .......
.........
...........
.......
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
........
........
........
........
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
..............
................
.........................................................

-X

413

1. f : [0, 2] R : f (x) = cos x, f (x) = sin x, f (x) = cos x,


n 3 o
.
,
f (x) = 0 x
2 2

x
f (x)

, 0

 3
2

3/2

/2

, 0 f , ( 414 ).

1...................
0
1

.................
......
......
.....
.....
.
.....
.
.
.....
....
.....
....
.....
....
.
.
.
.
..
..
.........
.....3
.

2
..... 2
.
.
2 ..........
.
.
...
.......
...................................

-X

414

: f (p) = 0 , , : f : R R : f (x) = x4 ,
f (0) = 0, (0,0) f .

, , .

4.4

4.4

165

, ,
, . ,
, ( )
, .

1 Df =?
2 ;
: f , ( f (x) = f (x), x Df ), Y .

f , ( f (x) = f (x), x Df ), .

, .

: p f (x + p) = f (x), p f (period).

, .

: .
3 :
: lim |f (x)| = +, x = p f
xp

(vertical asymptote). ( 415 ).

415

4.4

166

: y = mx + b f (non-vertical
asymptote),

lim (f (x) (mx + b)) = 0.

f (x)
,
x x

m = lim

b = lim (f (x) mx).


x

y = mx + b f

lim (f (x) mx b) = 0

def x

b = lim (f (x) mx)


x
 f (x)

1
lim
m = lim (f (x) mx) = 0
x
x x
x
f (x)
m = lim
.
x x
Y

......
....... ...
............
...........
.............
.
.
.
.
.
..... ...
....... .....
....... ....
....... ....
.............
.
.
.
.
.
..
...... ....
...... ...
...... ...
...... ....
....... ......
.
.
.
.
.
.......
...
.......
.....
.......
......
.....
.
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
...
.......
....
......
.......
.....
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.......
......
....
......
.......
...
.
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
...
......
.....
.......
.......
.....
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
....
......
......
......

y = mx + b

...
........
.............
.................................

-X

416
4 Zf ;
5 : , .
6 : .

1. f (x) = x +

1
.
x

1 Df = R .
2 . f (x) = f (x), f .
3 . x 1/x , f .

lim lim lim .

x+

4.4

167

4 .
lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = ,

x0+

x0

Y f . ,
f (x)
1
= lim 1 + 2 = 1,
x x
x
x

m = lim

b = lim (f (x) mx) = 0,


x

y = mx + b = x f .
5 Zf , Zf . x 6= 0,

1
1
f (x) = x + , f (x) = 1 2 , f (x) = 2x3 .
x
x

f (x) = 0 {1, 1}. , x Df , f (x) 6= 0.


6 :
x

f (x)

f (x)
f (x)

1
+

max

min

:
Y

6
...
....
..
..... ...
...
..............
.
.
.
...
.
... ....
...
..... ......
..
..............
.
.
...
.
.
... ...
...
...... ......
...
...... ...........
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
. .
...... ................. .........
.
..........
....

.
....
...
...
....
...
.
.
....
...
....
....
...
.
.
.
....
...
...
....
...
.
.
...
....
...
....
...
.
.
....
...
....
....
...
.
.
....
...
....
...
...
.
.
.
..
....
.........................
....
...
........
....
... .......
.
.
.
..
....
....
...
... ......
.
.
.
.
..
...
.... ...
... .....
.
.
...
... ....
.
.
...
.. ....
.
.
... ....
.
..
.
.
.... ...
..
... ......
.
.
..
.... ..

4 3 2 1

-X

..
.....

..
.

417

4.4

168

2. f (x) = x2 ex .

1 Df = R.
2 f , f . f .
3 : f R , , ,
x
f (x)
= lim x = 0, ( lHospital , )
x+ e
x+ x
x2
b = lim (f (x) mx) = lim x = 0, ( lHospital , )
x+
x+ e

m = lim

y = mx + b = 0, X .
4 f
f (x) = 2xex x2 ex = x(2 x)ex ,
f (x) = (2 4x + x2 )ex .

f (x) = 0 x = 0,

5 :

f (x) = 0 ( x = 0 or x = 2 ),

f (x) = 0 ( x = 2 2 or x = 2 + 2 ).
0

2+

f (x)

f (x)

f (x)

min

max

f 0 , 2 . (2

(2 + 2, f (2 + 2)) .

2, f (2

2))

6 :
Y

...
...
...
...
... 2
...
...
...
...
... 1
f
...
.............................................
...
.................
..........................
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
................
...........................

418

-X

4.4

169

3.

 1
1

tan
, x 6= 0,

x
f (x) =

x = 0,
,
2

1 Df = R.
 1
 1 
= tan1
= f (x), (0, f (0))
2 x 6= 0, f (x) = tan1
x
x
, f . , f , .
3 .

|f (x)|

, f , ,
2
f (x)
= 0, ( )
x
 1 
b = lim (f (x) mx) = lim tan1
= 0.
x+
x+
x

m = lim

x+

y = 0 ( X ) f .
4 :

1
2
1
,
x 6= 0, f (x) =
x 1 2 =
1 + x2
1+
x

f 0 , f 0 . ,
x 6= 0, f (x) =

2x
.
(1 + x2 )2
0

x
f (x)

f (x)

f (x)

/2

min

f 0 , .
2

4.5

170

5 :
Y

....
....
.
.
.
.
.
....
......
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
...........................

/2

....
.........................
..............2
..........
.
.
.
.
.
...
......
.....
.
.
.
.
....

-X

419

4.5

4.7 , Taylor .
Taylor .
f N (p) n , x N (p), c (p, x) (x, p)
f (x) = f (p) + f (p)(x p) +

f (p)
(x p)2 +
2!
f (n1) (p)
f (n) (c)
+
(x p)n1 +
(x p)n .
(n 1)!
n!

= Pn1 (x) + Rn (x).

Pn1 (x) f p (n 1) Taylor , Rn (x) n .

, Pn1 (x) f (x) , Rn (x) .


1. e 106.
, exp Maclaurin
exp x = 1 + x +

x2
xn1
ec
++
+ xn .
2!
(n 1)! n!

x R , c 0 x .
1 : e < 3

.
1 x = 1, n = 3,
e = exp 1 = 1 + 1 +

ec
1
+
,
2! 3!

1 : 2 < e < 3.

4.5

171

c (0, 1), e/6,


e

e <

e
1
= 2.5 + (ec e) < 2.5, ( e > ec ),
6
6

6
2.5 = 3.
5

2 ,
1 Rn (x) =

ec xn
, 106 , ,
n!
ec
< 106
n!
3

< 106
n!
3, 000, 000 < n!

|Rn (1)| < 106

n 10, ()
( : 2! = 2, 3! = 6, 4! = 24, . )
1
1
e P9 (1) = 1 + 1 + + + = 2.71828 1525.
2!
9!

2. cos 35 .
0.0001/2 = 5 105. cos x
Maclaurin

cos x = 1

x2 x4
x2n
+
+ (1)n
+ R2n+1 (x),
2!
4!
(2n)!

cos(2n+1) (c) 2n+1


x
, c 0 x . P2n (x) cos 35
(2n + 1)!

, 35 x =
35 = 0.61087 (), ,
180
cos(2n+1) (c)



x2n+1 < 5 105
|R2n+1 (x)| < 5 105
(2n + 1)!
x2n+1

< 5 105
(2n + 1)!
105 x2n+1
< (2n + 1)!

R2n+1 (x) =

n 3.

n = 3, cos 35
P6 (0.61087) = 1

(0.61087)2 (0.61087)4 (0.61087)6


+

= 0.81915.
2
24
720

4.6

4.6

172

, ,
.
f : I R , I , f (x) = 0 .

, f (a) f (b) < 0, Bolzano r (a, b) f (r) = 0, , (a, b)

. (a, b) r x1 , f (x1 , f (x1 )) ,


X x2 ,
x2 = x1

f (x1 )
.
f (x1 )

..
..
....
...
..
.
.
..
...
........
... ...
.
.
... ..
... ..
....... ....
.......... ......
.
..
......
...
...
..........
.
.
...
....
.
...
.
.
..
.
.
...
.
.
..
.
...
.
.
.
..
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
. ....
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
..... ...
.
.
.
...
.
.
.. ... ...
.
.
.
...
.
.
.. ... ...
.
.
.
.
...
.
....
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
x
x
.
.
2
1
....
....... x3
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............

-X

420
(x2 , f (x2 )) , x3 , x4 , x5 , , x1 r ,

r, 420 .

f (x) = 0 k .
1 f (x) ;
2 g(x) = x

f (x)
;
f (x)

3 Bolzano , r , x1 .
x2 = g(x1 ), k + 1 ,
x3 = g(x2 ), k + 1 ,
..
.
xn+1 = g(xn ), k + 1 ,

xn+1 xn k + 1 .

4.6

173

4 xn k s .
5 : = 10k /2, f (s + ) f (s ) , s .
s < r < s + < r s < |r s| < =

10k
.
2

, x1 , {x1 , x2 , . . .} ,

4.17 [ (Newtons iteration) ]

( i ) r f (x) = 0 ,
(ii) f (r) 6= 0,
(iii) f r ,

(0, 1), > 0, n N, |xn r| 2n1 .


x1 (r , r + ), xn+1 = xn

f (xn )
.
f (xn )

: : , {xn }n f (x) = 0
r, ().

1. Newton x sin x + cos x = 0 .


f (x) = x sin x + cos x. , r ,
f , x {k | k N} ,
x sin x + cos x = 0 x = cot x,

y = cot x y = x x . 421

, r < .

1 , f : f (x) = sin x + x cos x sin x = x cos x.


x sin x + cos x
1
f (x)
= x
= x tan x .
2 g(x) = x
f (x)
x cos x
x

4.6

174

3 x1 = 3 ( 421 ),

x2 = g(x1 ) = 2.80921,
x3 = g(x2 ) = 2.79843,
x4 = g(x3 ) = 2.79839,
x5 = g(x4 ) = 2.79839,

, x4 x5 5
.
4 x5
s = 2.7984 .
5 :
(
f (2.79835) = 9.499 105 > 0,

f (2.79845) = 0.0001685 < 0,

..
..
....
.. .......
..
..... .........
.....
...
.
.....
.... .
...
... ...
.
.
.
....
y = x............. .....
..
.
..
...
.
..
.
y = cot x..
....
....
...
.
...
.
.
.
....
.
...
...
...
....
...
...
..
....
.
.
.
.
.
....
..
...
.. .......
..
... ......
....
..............
.
..
......
.... .
...
.
... ...
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
...
...
...
...
2
...
..
....
.
.
...
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.
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..
..
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...
...
....
.
.
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.
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.
.
..
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....
.
.
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.....
.....
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....
...
0 ........
.........
2
..
..
.
.
....
..
.
...
..
.....
.....
.
2 ...
..
..
...
.....
....
.
..
..
...
..
...
....
.
.
..
...
..
....
....
...
...

-X

s = 2.7984 r
.

421

2. y = sin x y = exp(x) (x0 , y0). x0


.
y = sin x y = exp(x) 422.
Y

y = ex

...
...
... 2
...
...
....
....
1 ............... ............................................ y = sin x
..........
......
.....
.. .....
....
..... ...........................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........................................
.
.
.
.
.
..... - X
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
... 0
............
....
..... 2
......
......
.
.
.
.
........
.
............................

1
2

422

1 f (x) = sin x ex , f (x) = cos x + ex .


2

g(x) = x

sin x ex
f (x)
=
x

.
f (x)
cos x + ex

4.6

175

3 sin x = ex x0 0 1 , x1 = 0.5,
x2 = g(x1 ) = 0.585644,
x3 = g(x2 ) = 0.588529,
x4 = g(x3 ) = 0.588533,
x5 = g(x4 ) = 0.588533,
4 x5 s = 0.58853 .
5 : f (0.588525) < 0, f (0.588535) > 0, x0 0.58853.

Newton , x1 ,
{x1 , x2 , x3 , , xn , } . .
3. f (x) =

4x
, r = 0 f (x) = 0 .
+3
4x
x(x2 + 3)
f (x)
x2 + 3
=
x

g(x) = x
= x
.
f (x)
4(x2 + 3) 8x2
3 x2
(x2 + 3)2

x2

(1) x1 = 1,

x2 = g(x1 ) = 1,

.......

..........
.......... ..
............ ....
.............
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.... .
..
6
........ ...
....... ....
...
.
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.
.
.
.
.
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...
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4
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
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...
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.
.
.
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2 .....................
.
.
.
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1
...
...........................
.
.
.
...
.
. ..
3
...
.................
.. .....................
..
5
..............

x3 = g(x2 ) = 1,

x
x
x

x4 = g(x3 ) = 1,
..
.

xn = g(xn1 ) = (1)n+1 ,

...

423

, ( 423 ).

1
x
x
x.
..

-X

(2) x1 = 1.1,
x2 = g(x1 ) = 1.4872,
x3 = g(x2 ) = 8.3437,
x4 = g(x3 ) = 17.838,

xn 0 , ( 424 ).
Y
6

............

........... .............................................
..............
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............. ....
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.
.
.
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1
3
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.........................................................

x
2

424

8x

10

12

-X

4.7

176

4.7

. , ,
:

sin1 x
,
x0
x

ln |x|
.
x0 cot x

lim

lHospital

lim

. Johann Bernoulli Guillaume de lHospital .

4.18 [ lHospital I (lHospitals rule I) ]

( i ) > 0, f, g (p, p + ) g(x) 6= 0, x (p, p + ) ;


(ii)

lim f (x) = lim+ g(x) = 0 ;

xp+

xp

(iii) lim+
xp

lim+
xp

f (x)
= l, ( l R ) .
g (x)

f (x)
=l.
g(x)

1 l R,
f1 (x) =
g1 (x) =

f (x), x 6= p,

0,
x = p,
g(x), x 6= p,
0,

x = p,

x (p, p + ),

(1) f1 , g1 [p, x] ;

(2) f1 , g1 (p, x) .

Cauchy , cx (p, x)

f (cx )
f1 (x) f1 (p)
= 1
,
g1 (x) g1 (p)
g1 (cx )

f (x)
f1 (x) f1 (p)
f (cx )
f (cx )
=
= 1
=
.
g(x)
g1 (x) g1 (p)
g1 (cx )
g (cx )

lim+
xp

(1)

f (x)
= l,
g (x)


f (x)




l < .
> 0, 0 > 0, ( x Df ) p < x < p + 0
g (x)

lHospital [lopi tal], .

(2)

4.7

177

lim+

xp

f (x)
= l.
g(x)

p < x < p + 0 p < cx < p + 0


f (c )



x

l < , [ (2) ]
g (cx )

f (x)


l < , [ (1) ].

g(x)

2 l = +, , (2)


f (x)
> .
> 0, 0 > 0, ( x Df ) p < x < p + 0
g (x)

(2)

.
3 l = , .

: (p, p + ) (p , p), p+ p . ,
.

x + ( ) , , :
4.19

( i ) > 0, f, g (, +) g(x) 6= 0, x (, +) ;
(ii)
(iii)

lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 0 ;

x+

x+

f (x)
= l, ( l R ) .
x+ g (x)
lim

f (x)
=l.
x+ g(x)

lim

 1
I = 0,
,

1

,
F : I R : F (t) = f
t
 

G : I R : G(t) = g 1 ,
t

( i ) F, G I G(t) 6= 0, t I ;
(ii)

lim F (t) = lim f (x) = 0,

t0+

x+

lim G(t) = lim g(x) = 0 ;

t0+

x+

4.7
(iii)

178

  1
1
f
2
F (t)
lim+
= lim+  t  t
1
1
t0 G (t)
t0
2
g
t
t
1
f
= lim+  t 
1
t0
g
t

1
f (x)
,
x=
= lim
x+ g (x)
t

= l,
F (t)
f (x)
= l, lim
= l.
x+ g(x)
G(t)

4.18 , lim+
t0

4.20 [ lHospital II (lHospitals rule II) ]

( i ) > 0, f, g (p, p + ) ;
(ii)

lim |f (x)| = lim+ |g(x)| = + ;

xp+

(iii) lim+
xp

lim+
xp

xp

f (x)
= l, ( l R ) .
g (x)

f (x)
=l.
g(x)

: 4.19 , x .
:
.
1. ( 00 )

0
,
, , 0 , 00 , 0 , 1 ,
0

1 sin x
=?
x/2 1 + cos 2x

lim

lHospital ,
1
1
cos x
= lim
= .
x/2 4 sin x
x/2 2 sin 2x
4

= lim

4.7

179

lHospital , .
x2 sin x1
2. lim
=?
x0 tan x

2x sin x1 cos x1
, , :
, lim
x0
sec2 x
2x sin x1 cos x1
g(x) =
,
sec2 x

n 1
o
n
o
1


A=
nN , B=
nN .
2n
(2n 1)

lim g|A (x) = 1, lim g|B (x) = 1.


x0

x0

: .
1
sin ,
x

1
= 0,
lim x sin
x0
x

x
1
= lim
cos x x sin
x0 sin x
x

1
x
= 1 1 0 = 0.
lim cos x lim x sin
= lim
x0
x0 sin x x0
x

3. (
)

x10000
=?
x+ e0.0001x

lim

, a = 10000, b = 0.0001,
xa
x+ ebx
axa1
, ( lHospital )
= lim
x+ bebx
a(a 1)xa2
= lim
= , ( a )
x+
b2 ebx
a(a 1) 3 2 1
= lim
= 0.
x+
ba ebx

= lim

: , 4.19 l = + :
ebx
bebx
=
lim
x+ xa
x+ axa1
b2 ebx
= lim
= , ( a )
x+ a(a 1)xa2
ba ebx
= +.
= lim
x+ a(a 1) 3 2 1
lim

4.7

180

4. ( )

 x
1 
=?

x1 x 1
ln x

lim

0
0

, lHospital .

x ln x x + 1
ln x + 1 1
= lim
1
x1 (x 1) ln x
x1
ln x + 1
x
1
1
x
= .
= lim
1
x1 1
2
+ 2
x x

= lim

5. (0 )


1
lim x ln 1 +
=?
x+
x

lHospital ,

1
1
1
1
ln(1 + )
2
x = lim 1 + x x = 1.
= lim
1
1
x+
x+
x
x2

, ab = exp(b ln a),

0
0

lHospital .

6. (00 )
lim+ xsin x =?
x0

lHospital ,
1


ln x 
x
= exp lim+
= exp lim+
x0 csc x cot x
x0 csc x


sin x
= exp lim+
tan x = e0 = 1.
x0
x

7. (0 )
lim x1/x =?
x+

4.7

181

lHospital ,
 ln x 
= lim exp
x+
x

ln x 
, ( exp )
= exp lim
x+ x
1

x
= exp lim
= e0 = 1.
x+ 1

8. (1 )


a bx
1+
=? a, b .
x+
x

lim

lHospital ,

a 
= lim exp bx ln(1 + )
x+
x
a

ln(1 + ) 
x , ( exp )
= exp b lim
1
x+
x
1
a
a

1 + x x2 
= exp b lim
1
x+
x2
= eab .

, :

1 x

lim 1 +
= e;
x+
x

1 x
= e1 ;

lim 1
x+
x

1 n

lim 1 +
= e, ( n N ) ;
n+
n

1 n

lim 1
= e1 , ( n N ) .
n+
n
, .


1 x
e =?
9. lim x 1 +
x+
x

4.7

182

1
y= ,
x

= lim+
y0

= lim+

(1 + y)1/y e
y
1
exp( y ln(1 + y)) e
y

y0

y
ln(1 + y)
1+y
= lim+ exp ln(1 + y)
, ( lHospital )
y0
y
y2
y
ln(1 + y)
1+y
= e lim+
, ( e )
y0
y2
1
1

2
(1 + y)
1+y
= e lim+
, ( lHospital )
y0
2y
1 (1 + y)
= e lim+
y0 2y(1 + y)2
e
1
= .
=e
2
2
1

1
1 
=?

x0 x2
tan2 x

10. lim

1
1  1
= , ( 4-22),

x0 x2
3
sin2 x


1
1
1
cos2 x 
= lim 2
lim

x0 x
x0 x2
tan2 x
sin2 x
1
1 sin2 x 
= lim 2
x0 x
sin2 x
1

1
= lim 2
+
1
x0 x
sin2 x
1
1 
= 1 lim 2
x0 x
sin2 x
2
1
=1 = .
3
3

: lHospital lim

: Maclaurin . 4
tan x = x +

4.6

x3
+ R4 (x),
3

R4 (x)
f (4) (c)
f (4) (0)
=
lim
=
= 0.
x0
x0
x4
4!
4!
lim

tan x = x +

x3
+ o(x4 ).
3

()

4.7

183

o(x4 )
= 0.
x0 x4

lim

() tan2 x = (x +

x3
2x4
+ o(x4 ))2 = x2 +
+ o(x5 )
3
3

2x4

+ o(x5 ),
tan2 x x2 =
3

2x6
2

x tan2 x = x4 +
+ x2 o(x5 ),
3
2 o(x5 )
2x4
5
+
o(x
)
+ 4
2
2
tan x x
3
3
x
=

=
6
2
o(x5 )
2x
2x
x2 tan2 x
+ x2 o(x5 )
+ 2
x4 +
1+
3
3
x
2 o(x5 )
+ 4
2
tan2 x x2
3
x
= lim 2
= lim
5 = .
2
x0 x tan2 x
x0
o(x )
3
2x
+ 2
1+
3
x

184

Taylor
4-1 Maclaurin :
(a) f (x) = ax , a (0, +) ;

(b) g(x) = ex cos x .

4-2 (a) : n N, x R,
cosh x 1 +

1 2n
1 2 1 4
x + x ++
x .
2!
4!
(2n)!

x
= 0.
x+ cosh x

(b) (a) , : R, lim

4-3 p = 1 n Taylor p = 1 n

:
(a) f : (0, +) R : f (x) = xa , a R \ Z;
(b) g : R R : g(x) = x ex .
4-4 : x > 0,

x2 x3
1
x2 x3
+

< ln(1 + x) < x


+
.
2
3 1+x
2
3

4-5 f (x) = ex + ex + 2 cos x .


(a) f Maclaurin ;
(b) (a) f 0 .

4-6 , () :
(a) f (x) = x2/3 (x 1)2 ;

x = 0,
1,
(b) g : [0, /2] R : g(x) = sin x

, x 6= 0.
x

4-7 : |x| < 2, |3x x3 | 2.

185

ax + b
2 1. f
(x 1)(x 4)
2 ? ?

4-8 a b f (x) =

4-9 P (0, p), Q(0, q) Y , 0 < p < q. X R(r, 0), r > 0,

QRP .
4-10 f : R R f (x) > 0, x R,
(a) : f .
(b) f (p) = 0, : f p .


x
4-11 f (x) = 2
x 4

4-12 f (x) = x + tan1

x1
.
x+1

4-13 f (x) = x exp(x2 ) .


(a) f ? ? .
(b) f .
(c) (a), (b) f , ( ).
4-14 f (x) = (x + 2)2/3 (x 2)2/3 .
4-15 f : R R : f (x) = |x|p , p f ().
[ ] .

4-16 f I , : x1 , , xn I ,
x + + x 
1
1
n
.
(f (x1 ) + + f (xn )) > f
n
n

4-17 f (x) = ln(1 + x) n Maclaurin Rn (x), lim Rn (1) =?


n+

4-18 ln(1 + x) n Maclaurin ln 2 ,


(a) n = 6, m 5 10m .
(b) 5 105 , n ?

186

4-19

3 , 5 105 .

(a) Taylor ;
(b) Newton .
4-20 Newton x = exp(x) .
4-21 M , 12 ,

.
(a) r, A r M ;
(b) M = 900, A = 12000, Newton r .

4-22 :
x(cos x 1)
(a) lim
;
x0
sin x x

(b) lim ( x) csc( x);


x/4 4
4

(c) lim ( x2 + 2x x2 2x);


x+

(d) lim

(2x 3)20 (3x + 2)30


;
(2x + 1)50

(e) lim+ xxln(x) ;

(f) lim+ xxln(x) ;


x0

(g) lim+ e1/x


x0

tan x

cos x exp(x2 /2)


;
x0
x4
1
1 
.
(i) lim 2
x0 x
sin2 x

(h) lim+

x0

4-23

0
0

lHospital , .

p
a+b+c
.
4-24 : lim ( 3 (x + a)(x + b)(x + c) x) =
x+
3

f (x + h) 2f (x) + f (x h)
=? f .
h0
h2

4-25 lim

4-26 lim+ (xx xx ) =?


x

x0

Chapter 5

.
, (global property), , ,
, , .
, f , F f .
, .

5.1

, .
, .
, .

5.1
I , F, f : I R F = f , F f (antiderivative) (primitive).

1. f : R R : f (x) = sin x, f :
F1 : R R : F1 (x) = cos x,
F2 : R R : F2 (x) = cos x + 1,

F3 : R R : F3 (x) = cos x + 2,
F4 : R R : F4 (x) = cos x 2,
F5 : R R : F5 (x) = cos x ,
F6 : R R : F6 (x) = cos x 109 .
187

5.1

188

5.2
f, F, I 5.1, f
F

= {F + C | C R}.

f .
1 F ,

D(F (x) + C) = F (x) = f (x), x I.

2 F, G , G = f = F , 2.15 ,

C G = F + C, G F.

2. f : R R : f (x) = x2 , f
F

= {F + C | C R}, F : R R : F (x) =

x3
.
3

...
..
...
...
...
....
...
..
...
..
...
..
.
.
...
.
...
...
...
..
.
...
.
...
...
..
...
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
.
...
... 1
... f
...
...
.
....
.
.....
....
....
......
..........................

1
1

F +C

..
...
....
... .
.. ..
.... ....
. .
.. ..
... ..... ....
.
.
. . .
... .. ...
... .... ...
.
.
.
.
..... ..... ..... ....
............................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.. .. .
.
.
... .. ...
.....
.... .... .... .
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.... ... ... ...
..
...........................
. . .
...
...........
... .. ..
.... ........
.... .... ....
.
.
.. ...
.
. . .
...
... ...
........ .... .... ....
.. .
. .. ...
...............................
.
.
... ..... .........
.. .. .
... .. ....
..... .... ....
.
.
.
.
.
.... .... .....
........
... ...
. . .
.............................
... ....
.
... .... .... .........
.
. . ..
0 .......1...... ......
... .... ...
..
..... .... .... ......................................
...
. ... .... ......
....
.
.
... ... .....
.
...
.
.
.......
.. ... ...
..............................
... .... .... ..........
. . ..
... ... ....
.... .... ....
... .... ....
. .
... ....
..... ....
. ...
.
...
.....

-X

51

-X

5.1

189

5.3
f {F + C | C R}, f
Z
Z
(indefinite integral), f f (x) dx,
Z

f = {F + C | C R}.

f (integrand), C (integration
constant).

f (x) dx = F (x) + C.

()

Z
Z
: f f (x) dx , ,

, F (x) f (x), () .

, ,
. , , , ,
, .
3. ( , .)
: f : R R : f (x) = sgn(x) , ( .)
F : R R f ,
F (2) = f (2) = 1 < 0.5 < 1 = f (3) = F (3),

, t (2, 3) F (t) = 0.5, , f

4. ( , .)

f = F ,

x2 sin 1 , x 6= 0,
x
F : R R : F (x) =

0,
x = 0.

2x sin 1 cos 1 , x 6= 0,

x
x
f : R R : f (x) = F (x) =

0,
x = 0.

5.1

190

( 1.16 ), f 0 . F = f ,

f (x) dx = F (x) + C.

, ,
.
5.4
S T , h , k ,
S + T = {f + g | f S, g T },
S T = {f g | f S, g T },
h + S = {h + f | f S},
kS = {kf | f S}.

5.5
f g , Df = Dg ,
S = {f + C | C R},
T = {g + C | C R},
U = {f + g + C | C R},

(1) S + T = U,
(2) U S = T ,
(3) kS = {kf + C | C R}, k 6= 0.

(1) S + T U. , f + g + C U, f S, g + C T ,
f + g + C S + T.

(2) h U S, C1 , C2 R
h = (f + g + C1 ) (f + C2 ) = g + (C1 C2 ) T.

, g + C T ,
g + C = (f + g + C) f U S.
(3) .

5.2

191

5.2

, ,
, (),
, :
: (basic formulas).
: (integration).
1. (integration by substitution).
(general substitution);

(integration by trigonometric substitution);


(integration by hyperbolic substitution);

(integration by half-angle substitution).


2. (integration by parts).
3. (integration by partial fractions).

, , .
6 , .
1.

xn+1
x dx =
+ C, n Z+ .
n+1

2.

xn dx =

3.

xr dx =

4.
5.

xn+1
+ C, n N \ {1}.
n + 1

xr+1
+ C, r R \ {1}.
r+1

x1 dx = ln |x| + C.
ex dx = ex + C.

6. ( )
Z
Z
Z
(1)
(f (x) + g(x)) dx = f (x) dx + g(x) dx;
Z
Z
(2) 6= 0, f (x) dx = f (x) dx.
, x0 ; 00 =? ,
, , x0 1, f : R R : f (x) = x0 = 1.
R
1 n = 0 x0 dx = x + C.

5.3

F = f, G = g, 5.5,
Z
Z
(1)
f (x) dx + g(x) dx = {F + C | C R} + {G + C | C R}

(2)

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

192

ax dx =

= {F + G + C | C R}
Z
= (f (x) + g(x)) dx.
f (x) dx = {F + C | C R} = {F + C | C R}
Z
= f (x) dx.
ax
+ C, a R+ \ {1}.
ln a

sin x dx = cos x + C.
cos x dx = sin x + C.
sec2 x dx = tan x + C.
csc2 dx = cot x + C.
sec x tan x dx = sec x + C.
csc x cot x dx = csc x + C.

14.

15.

dx
= tan1 x + C.
1 + x2

16.

dx
= sin1 x + C.
2
1x

dx

= sec1 |x| + C.
x x2 1

: 1, 2, 3 , () ,
1 R, 2 (, 0) (0, +), 3 (0, +).

5.3

5.3

193

5.6 ( )
I , x I, f (x) = g(u(x))u(x), G (x) = g(x),
Z
Z
f (x) dx = g(u(x))u(x) dx = G(u(x)) + C.

D(G(u(x)) = g(u(x))u(x) = f (x).

:
1 u = u(x) u , f (x) = g(u(x))u(x);
Z
Z

2 f (x) dx = g(u) du, u g ;

3 u(x) u .

dy

dx
dy = f (x)dx, dx , df (p, h) =

: , : y = f (x) , f (x) =

f (p) h. , u = u(x) du = u (x) dx,

, , ,
.

1.

(1 + tan1 x)2
dx.
1 + x2

u = 1 + tan1 x, u (x) =
=

2.


1
dx 
,

du
=
,
1 + x2
1 + x2

u2 du =

1
u3
+ C = (1 + tan1 x)3 + C.
3
3

tan x dx.

u = cos x, u = sin x, ( du = sin x dx ),


Z
Z
du
sin x
dx =
= ln |u| + C = ln | cos x| + C.
=
cos x
u

:
3.

cot x dx, .

sec x dx.

5.3

194

sec x tan x, .
, u , tan x + sec x u .
Z
Z
Z
sec x(tan x + sec x)
d(sec x + tan x)
sec x dx =
dx =
tan x + sec x
tan x + sec x
= ln | tan x + sec x| + C.

:
4.

csc x dx, .

sin2n+1 x dx, n N.

sin2n x sin x, u = cos x , u


1.

sin

2n+1

sin x sin x dx = (1 cos2 x)n ( sin x dx)


Z
= (1 u2 )n du, ( u = cos x)
Z X
n  
n
(u2 )nk du, []
=
k
k=0
 Z
n
X
nk+1 n
u2(nk) du
=
(1)
k
k=0
  2(nk)+1
n
X
u
nk+1 n
=
(1)
+C
k 2(n k) + 1
k=0
  2(nk)+1
n
X
x
nk+1 n cos
+ C.
(1)
=
k
2(n

k)
+
1
k=0

x dx =

2n

 
n!
n
=
,
, Ckn .
k
k!(n k)!
Z
: cos2n+1 x dx, .
[]

5.

tann x dx, n N \ {1}.


Z

tan

x tan x dx = tann2 x(sec2 x 1) dx


Z
Z
n2
2
= tan
x sec x dx tann2 x dx
Z
Z
n2
= tan
x d tan x tann2 x dx
Z
tann1 x
tann2 x dx.
=
n1

tan x dx =

n2

5.3

195

(reduction formula):
Z
Z
tann1 x
n
tan x dx =
tann2 x dx.
n1

(1)

n , (1),
Z

tan0 x dx = x + C.

n , (1),
Z
tan x dx = ln | cos x| + C.

:
6.

tan x dx, 2


cotn x dx, .

sec2n x dx, n N.

n = 1, (10)
n > 1,
Z

sec

2n

x dx =
=
=

sec2 x dx = tan x + C.

sec2n2 x sec2 x dx
(1 + tan2 x)n1 sec2 x dx
(1 + u2 )n1 du, ( u = tan x )


Z X
n1 
n 1 2(n1k)
u
du
=
k
k=0
=

Z
n1 
X
n1
k=0

u2(n1k) du

 2n2k1
n1 
X
u
n1
=
+C
k
2n

2k

1
k=0
=


n1 
X
n 1 tan2n2k1 x
k=0

:
7.

2n 2k 1

csc2n x dx, .

sinm x cosn x dx, m, n Z+ .

+ C.

5.4

196

m n , 4 . m n ,
, , m = 4, n = 2 ,
Z
Z
4
2
sin x cos x dx = (sin x cos x)2 sin2 x dx
Z 
2  1 cos 2x 
1
=
dx
sin 2x
2
2
Z
1
(1 cos 4x)(1 cos 2x) dx
=
16
Z
1
(1 cos 2x cos 4x + cos 2x cos 4x) dx
=
16
Z 

1
1
1 cos 2x cos 4x + (cos 2x + cos 6x) dx
=
16
2


1
1
1
1
1
=
x sin 2x sin 4x + sin 2x +
sin 6x + C
16
2
4
4
12
x
1
1
1
=

sin 2x
sin 4x +
sin 6x + C.

16 64
64
192

5.4

x2 a2 , x2 + a2 a2 x2 , x = a sin ,

x = a tan x = a sec , , .

, . :
. a2 x2 , x = a sin

a2 cos2 , ( = sin1 (x/a)

5.6 u ); sin
, x,
, :
, sin .
. a2 + x2 , x = a tan
a2 sec2 , ( = tan1 (x/a)
5.6 u ); sin
, x,
, :
, sin .

..
.....
.... ....
.
.
.
... .....
....
.
....
.
...
....
...
.
.
.
.
....
...
.
.
... x
a........
..
...
..
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
...
....
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
....
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
...
............................................................
...............

a2 x2

......
.... ....
.
.
.
.. .
... ....
...
....
.
.
.
....
...
.
.
.
.
...
...
.
..
.

... x
...
.
2
2
.
.
a + x .....
...
.
...
....
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
.
...
.
....
.
.
.
.
...
....
.
.
...
....
..............
............................................................

5.4

197

. x2 a2 , x = a sec
a2 tan2 , ( = sec1 (x/a)
5.6 u ); sin
, x,
, :
, sin .

1.

.....
... ....
.
.
.
... ...
.... ....
.
.
..
....
....
....
....
.
.
....
....
.
.
....
x........
...
..
.
.
...
...
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
....
....
.
.
.
...
...
.
...
.
.
..................
.............................................................

x2 a2

dx
, a > 0.
x2 a2

1
, Df = (, a) (a, +),
a2
(, a) (a, +), ( ).

f (x) =

x2

1 (a, +), x = a sec , dx = a sec tan d,


 
1 x
,
0,
= sec
a
2
Z
Z
a sec tan d

=
= sec d
a2 tan2
x x2 a2

= ln | sec + tan | + C = ln +
+ C
a
a

2
2
= ln |x + x a | + C.
2 (, a), x = a sec , dx = a sec tan d,
x  
, ,
= sec1
a
2
Z
Z
a sec tan d

= sec d
=
a2 tan2
= ln | sec + tan | + C
x x2 a2


= ln
+ C
a
a

= ln |x x2 a2 | + C


1

= ln
+C
2
2
x x a

= ln |x + x2 a2 | + C1 , ( ).

2.

x2
dx.
9 x2

5.5

198

x = 3 sin , dx = 3 cos d,
Z
27 sin2 cos d
p
=
9 9 sin2
Z
= 9 sin2 d, []
Z

9
9
1
=
(1 cos 2) d =
sin 2 + C
2
2
2



2
x x 9x
9
sin1
+ C.
=
2
3
9
x = 3 sin , , = sin1 x3
p

, , ( 2 , 2 ), 9 9 sin2 = 9 cos2 = 3 cos ,

[]

3 cos .

5.5

x2 + a2 , x = a sinh t
a2 cosh2 t . x2 a2 , x = |a| cosh t, a2 sinh2 t

. a2 x2 , x = a tanh t, a2 sech2 t ,

, , , ,
. , ,
, .

1.

dx
, a > 0.
x2 a2

, ,
1

(, a) (a, +).
x2 a2
x
1 x (a, +), x = a cosh t, ( : t = cosh1 ),
a
Z
Z
Z
a sinh t dt
dx

= dt = t + C
=
x2 a2
a2 sinh2 t
x
= cosh1 + C
a
 x x2 a2 
+ C, ( 3.39 )
+
= ln
a
a

= ln |x + x2 a2 | + C .

5.6

199

2 x (, a),
Z
Z
dx
d(x)

= p
2
2
x a
(x)2 a2

= ln | x + x2 a2 | + C,

= ln |x + x2 a2 | + C , []
[]

2.

( (1) )

1 .

x2 + a2 dx, a > 0.

, ,
x
, x = a sinh t, ( : t = sinh1 ),
a
Z
Z q
x2 + a2 dx =
a2 (sinh2 t + 1) a cosh t dt
Z
Z
a2
2
2
(cosh 2t + 1) dt
cosh t dt =
=a
2

a2  1
=
sinh 2t + t + C
2 2
a2
= (sinh t cosh t + t) + C
2

a2 + x2
x
a2  x
+C

+ sinh1
=
2 a
a
a

x 2
a2
2
=
a + x + ln(x + a2 + x2 ) + C , []
2
2

[]
x R, sinh1 x = ln(x + x2 + 1).


5.6

5.7
I , u, v : I R ,
Z
Z
u dv = uv v du.
D(u(x)v(x)) = u (x)v(x) + v (x)u(x),
Z
Z

v(x)u (x) dx + u(x)v (x) dx = u(x)v(x) + C

v du +

u dv = uv + C.

5.6

200

v du
Z

u dv = uv

v du.

(integration by parts), by parts.

:
1 f (x) dx u = u(x), dv = v (x) dx f (x) dx = u dv;
Z

2 du v = v (x) dx, C ;

1.

u dv = uv

v du,

ln x dx.
dx
, v = x,
x
Z
Z
x
ln x dx = x ln x
dx = x ln x x + C.
x

u = ln x, dv = dx, du =

2.

tan1 x dx.
dx
, v = x,
1 + x2
Z
x dx
1
= x tan x
1 + x2
Z
1
d(1 + x2 )
= x tan1 x
2
1 + x2
1
= x tan1 x ln(x2 + 1) + C.
2

u = tan1 x, dv = dx, du =

sin

x dx,

cos

x dx,

cot1 x dx, .

sec x ,
.

5.6

3.

201

sec2n+1 x dx, n N.

u = sec2n1 x, dv = sec2 x dx, du = (2n 1) sec2n1 x tan x dx, v = tan x,


Z
Z
2n+1
2n1
sec
x dx = sec
x tan x (2n 1) tan2 x sec2n1 x dx
Z
2n1
= sec
x tan x (2n 1) (sec2 x 1) sec2n1 x dx
Z
2n1
= sec
x tan x (2n 1) sec2n+1 x dx
Z
+ (2n 1) sec2n1 x dx.
R
(2n 1) sec2n+1 x dx, 5.5 sec x

(reduction formula):
Z
Z
1
2n 1
2n+1
2n1
sec
x dx =
sec2n1 x dx.
sec
x tan x +
2n
2n

: n = 1 ,
Z

Z
1
1
sec x dx = sec x tan x +
sec x dx
2
2
1
= (sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x|) + C.
2
3

:
4.

csc2n+1 x dx, .
x2 ex dx.

u = x2 , dv = ex dx, du = 2x dx, v = ex ,
Z
2 x
= x e 2xex dx
Z


2 x
x
x
= x e 2 xe e dx , ( u1 = x, dv1 = ex dx )
= x2 ex 2xex + 2ex + C.

, .
, , x5 ex , by
parts, , (tabular integration by parts),

, :

5.6

202

f (0) = f ;
f

(1)

f , f

(1)

(x) =

f (2) f (1) , f (2) (x) =


..
.

f (x) dx ;
Z

f (1) (x) dx ;

I , f, g : I R, g ( ), f .
1 u = f (x), dv = g(x) dx, du = f (x) dx, dv = g (1) (x) dx,
Z
Z
(1)
f (x)g(x) dx = f (x)g
(x) f (x)g (1) (x) dx.
2 , , u = f (x), dv = g (1) (x) dx,
du = f (x) dx, dv = g (2) (x) dx,
Z
Z


(1)

(2)
f (x)g(x) dx = f (x)g
(x) f (x)g
(x) f (x)g (2) (x) dx
Z
(1)

(2)
= f (x)g
(x) f (x)g
(x) + f (x)g (2) (x) dx.
3 ,
Z
Z
n
X
j1 (j1)
(j)
n
f (n) (x)g (n) (x) dx.
f (x)g(x) dx =
(1) f
(x)g
(x) + (1)
j=1

, , , n = 4 ,
Z
f (x)g(x) dx = f (0) (x)g (1) (x) f (1) (x)g (2) (x) + f (2) (x)g (3) (x)
Z
(3)
(4)
f (x)g
(x) + f (4) (x)g (4) (x) dx
= f (x)g (1) (x) f (x)g (2) (x) + f (x)g (3) (x)
Z

(4)
f (x)g
(x) + f (4) (x)g (4) (x) dx
R
=
1
1
2
2+
3
3
4
4+
4
5.


1
1
1
1 , .

()

5.6

5.

203

x4 ex dx.

:
4 x

3 x

2 x

= x e 4x e + 12x e 24xe +

24ex dx

= x4 ex 4x3 ex + 12x2 ex 24xex + 24ex + C.

6.

eax sin bx dx, a, b .

I =

eax sin bx dx, :

D
eax

sin bx
1
cos bx
aeax
2
1
b
1
2 sin bx
+ a2 eax
2
3
b
Z
1 ax
a ax
a2
I=
eax sin bx dx
e cos bx + 2 e sin bx 2
b
b
b
+

1 ax
a
a2
e cos bx + 2 eax sin bx 2 I.
b
b
b

a2
I, 5.5
b2
I=

eax
(a sin bx b cos bx) + C.
a2 + b2

eax cos bx dx, .

5.7

7.

204

x2 + a2 dx, a > 0.

, .

x
x = a tan t, : t = tan1 ( , ) , dx = a sec2 t dt
a
2 2
Z q
a2 (tan2 t + 1) a sec2 t dt
=
2

=a

sec3 t dt, ( : sec t > 0 )

a2
(sec t tan t + ln | sec t + tan t|) + C, ( 3 )
2

 a2 + x2 x 
a2  a2 + x2 x
=
+ C, []
+ ln
+
2
a
a
a
a


a2
x 2
a + x2 + ln x + a2 + x2 + C .
=
2
2

p
a2 + x2
.
sec t = 1 + tan2 t =
a
=

[]

5.7

P (x)
, P (x) Q(x) ,
Q(x)
(integration by partial fractions) :

1 (improper fraction), (mixed fraction).


3 , (partial fractions).
2 .

1.

1
dx.
1 x2

1
1
1
1
1
=
+
.
2
1x
2 1x 2 1+x
Z
1
1
1
1

dx +

dx
=
2 1x
2 1+x
1
1
= ln |1 x| + ln |1 + x| + C
2
2
1 1 + x
= ln
+ C.
2
1x
Z

5.8

2.

205

x4 + 3x2 + x 2
dx.
x3 1

3x2 + 2x 2
1
2x + 3
x4 + 3x2 + x 2
=
x
+
=x+
+ 2
;
3
3
x 1
x 1
x1 x +x+1

Z 

x+

2x + 1 + 2 
1
dx
+ 2
x1 x +x+1

x2
=
+ ln |x 1| + ln |x2 + x + 1| + 2
2

dx
=
x2 + x + 1

5.8

dx
.
x2 + x + 1

d(x + 1/2)

(x + 1/2)2 + ( 3/2)2

Z

du
3
1
=
,

u
=
x
+
,
a
=
u2 + a2
2
2
1
u
= tan1 + C
a
a
 2
1 
2
= tan1 x + + C.
3
3
3

 2
x2
4
1 
+ ln |x3 1| + tan1 x + + C.
2
3
3
3

sin x cos x
Z
P (sin x, cos x)
I=
dx,
Q(sin x, cos x)
x
u = tan . , sin x, cos x dx u :
2

sin x2
2u
x
x
1
x

2 x

cos
=
cos
=
2
=
2
tan

,
sin
x
=
2
sin

x
x

2
2
cos 2
2
2 sec2 2
1 + u2

x
2
1 u2
2
cos x = 2 cos2 1 =

1
=

1
=
,
2 x
2 x
2

2
sec
1
+
tan
1
+
u

2
2

2 du

dx =
, :
1 + u2
x
1
x
1
x
1
u = tan du = sec2 dx = 1 + tan2
dx = (1 + u2 ) dx.
2
2
2
2
2
2
I , u ,
. , (integration by
half-angle substitution).

5.9

1.

206

1
dx.
1 + 3 cos x

1 u2
2 du
x
, dx =
,
u = tan , cos x =
2
2
1+u
1 + u2
u
2 du
Z
Z
d( )
1
du
2
1 + u2
=
=
 u 2
2 =
2
2u
1u
2
1
1+3
2
2
1+u


1 + u


1

2
= ln
+ C, ( 1 )
2 2 1 u
2


2 + tan x

1
2 + C.
= ln
2 2 2 tan x
2
Z

2.

dx
.
1 + 2 sin x

2u
2 du
x
, dx =
,
u = tan , sin x =
2
2
1+u
1 + u2
u + 2
2 du
Z
Z
d
2
2
2 du
3
1
+
u
=
=
=
 u + 2 2
2
4u
u + 4u + 1
3

1+
1
1 + u2
3
Z

2
u+2
dt

=
,

t
=
t2 1
3
3
Z

1 +
1
1 1 + t
= ln
+ C = ln
1t
3
3 1

x

2
+
tan
+ 3
1

2
= ln
+ C.
x
3 2 + tan 3
2

5.9

u+2

3
+C
u + 2

, ,
. : ,
, C0 .

5.9

207

1. f f (x) = tan1 x, x R, f y = x .

1 f
f (x) =

tan1 x dx = x tan1 x

1
ln(1 + x2 ) + C0 ,
2

C0 .
2 (x0 , y0 ).
f y = x f (x0 ) = 1
tan1 x0 = 1
x0 = tan 1.

(x0 , y0 ) = (tan 1, tan 1).


3 ,
1
ln(1 + x20 ) + C0
2
1
tan 1 = tan 1 tan1 (tan 1) ln(1 + tan2 1) + C0
2
1
1
C0 = ln(1 + tan2 1) = ln(sec2 1) = ln(cos 1),
2
2

() f (x0 ) = x0 tan1 (x0 )

f : R R : f (x) = x tan1 x

1
ln(1 + x2 ) ln(cos 1).
2

52.
Y

...
.
....
....
....
.... ...
.
.
....
.
.
4
....
... ......
....
f....................y... =
....
....
.........
....
........
....
..............
.
.....
.
.
.
......
.....
..........
.....
..........
.....
2
.....
.
.
.
.
.....
.......
...... (x , y )
.....
..
0 0
.....
..........
.
.....
.
.
......
.
.
.
.
.......
........
......................................
.
.
...
....
....

0...............
...
.
4 3 2 1
0
...
...
....

...
....
....
....
...
.
.
.
.
....
...
...
....
...
.
.
.
....

52 ( : x0 = tan 1 1.557. )

-X

()

5.9

208

2. 5 C, 20 C, 10e0.4t
( : C/hr ) , t ? 20 C?


f (t) =

f (0) = 5,

10e0.4t dt =

100 0.4t
e
+ C0 ,
4

100 0.40
e
+ C0 = 5, C0 = 20, t ,
4
f (t) = 25e0.4t + 20,

25e0.4t < 0, ( 53 ), , 20 C. ( t +. )
f (t)
6
........................
..............................................
................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
......
.......
.....
.
.
.
.
..
....
....
.
.
.
.
...
...
...
..
..
5
10

20

0
5

53

-t

209

5-1 : (d) (i) .


Z
Z
(a)
cot x dx;
(f)
sin1 x dx;
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

csc x dx;
cos

2n+1

x dx, n N;

cot x dx, n N \ {1};


csc

2n

x dx, n N \ {1};

(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

cos1 x dx;
cot1 x dx;
csc2n+1 x dx, n N;
eax cos bx dx, ab 6= 0.

5-2 : ( n Z, ab 6= 0 )
Z
Z
dx
x3
dx;
(f)
;
(a)
5
(x + 1)
a + b tan x
Z
Z
dx
(b)
dx;
(g)
ln(cos x) tan x dx;
1 + ex
Z
Z
x2 + 1
dx
;
(h)
dx;
(c)
x(xn + 1)
x4 + 1
Z
Z
sin x cos x dx
2x 3x

(d)
;
(i)
dx;
9x 4x
a2 sin2 x + b2 cos2 x
Z
Z 2
x + 2x
3
3
(e)
tan x sec x dx;
(j)
dx.
x

5-3 :

210

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

sin x sin 2x sin 3x dx;

(e)

(1 x2 )3/2
dx;
x6

x2
dx;
(1 x)100

(f)

dx
, (a 6= 0);
3
x(a + x3 )

(g)

1 x2 dx;

(h)

dx
;
x2 + x + 1

(i)

(j)

dx
.
sin x cos4 x

1 cos x dx, x [0, 2];

ln(x + 1) ln x
dx;
x(x + 1)

dx
;
1 x2 1
4

5-4 :
Z
(a)
x2 cos2 x dx;
(b)

(c)

cos(ln x) dx;
3x2 1

tan1 x dx;
2x x

5-5 n N \ {1},

5-6 :
Z
dx
, (a 6= 0);
(a)
(x2 a2 )2
Z
x dx
(b)
;
x3 + 1

(d)

ex (1 + sin x)
dx;
1 + cos x

(e)

sec1 x dx;

(f)

dx.

sinn x dx .

(c)

(e)

dx
;
x(x3 + x2 + x + 1)
dx
.
+1

x4

5-7 :
Z
(a)
x2 4 dx;
(b)

sin1 x dx
p
;
(1 x2 )3

(c)

x + sin x
dx;
1 + cos x

(d)

x+1
dx.
x(1 + xex )

211

5-8 f : R R x

x
.
x2 + 9

(a) f (4, 8), f (x) =?


(b) 2f (2) = f (4), f (x) =?
5-9 P (x) n , a 6= 0, :
Z

n
X
1
eax P (x) dx = eax
(1)k ak P (k) (x) + C.
a
k=0

Chapter 6

:
1 : , ,

, ? ,
: (), (),
, 6 , 61 :
() 6 , 6 2 3 , , 2

, 3 . 2 3.5, 7 , (
62), 2.5 3.5, 8 34 , ( 63),
a, b, (),
a b. .

61

62

63

2 ,

, ( 64). ,
2, ( 65). ,
, ( 66) .

212

213

64

65

66

3 , ,

, , n ,
( 67 ), n + ,

r, , r r = r2 . (

, ).

67
4 Newton-Leibniz .

Archimedes () ,
, ,
, Newton Leibniz ,
() () , ,

.
.............................
...................
........
..............
.....
............
...
...........
...
.........
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.....
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.....
.
.
..
.
.
.
....
.
.
..
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
..
.
....
.
...
.
..
...
.
.
.
....
...
..
...
..
..
...
..
...
..
....
.
.
....
.
.....
..
.....
..
.....
..
.....
..
......
..
.
......
..
......
...
.......
....
.......
....
.........
.....
.
.
...........
.
.
.
.
...
................
.....................................

68
5 Riemann .
Newton Leibniz ,

, ,

6.1 Riemann Darboux

214

, , : ?
, ? ,
. , Cauchy

f (x) dx = lim
a

x0

n
X

f (xk1)x.

k=1

, . 1850 , G.B. Riemann


Riemann , ( :
, ).
6 Darboux, Stieltjes .

, Riemann ,
, Darboux , ,
. Stieltjes Riemann , ,
, .
7 Lebesgue .

Riemann Stieltjes , , ,
Riemann , Lebesgue ,

, .

6.1

Riemann Darboux

Riemann , Riemann ,
, Darboux , Riemann ,
Darboux , Riemann ,
.
6.1
f : I = [a, b] R ,
(1) P = {x0 , x1 , , xn }, I (partition),

a = x0 < x1 < < xn = b ;


P
P
(2) U(f, P ) = nk=1 M(Ik )xk L(f, P ) = nk=1 m(Ik )xk , f

P (upper & lower sum), k {1, . . . , n},

Ik = [xk1 , xk ], xk = xk xk1 , M(Ik ) = sup f (Ik ), m(Ik ) = inf f (Ik ). (

69 ).

6.1 Riemann Darboux

215

69 () ()
6.2
f, I 6.1,
Z



(1)
f = inf U(f, P ) P I , f I (upper inteI
Z b
gral);
f.
a
Z



(2)
f = sup L(f, P ) P I , f I (lower inte

gral);

f.

(3)

Z
I

f =

f , f I Riemann (integrable),
I

f=
I

Z
I

f=

f,
I

f I Riemann (Riemann integral),


Z b
f (x) dx.

Riemann , . , Riemann
, Riemann .

6.1 Riemann Darboux

216

1. : f : [a, b] R : f (x) = c
Z b
Riemann
f (x) dx = c(b a).

P = {x0 , x1 , . . . , xn } [a, , b]
, M(Ik ) = m(Ik ) = c,
U(f, P ) =

n
X
k=1

L(f, P ) =

n
X
k=1

M(Ik )xk = c(b a),

....................................................

-X

610

m(Ik )xk = c(b a).

Z b
a




f = inf U(f, P ) P I = c(b a),




f = sup L(f, P ) P I = c(b a).

f (x) dx = c(b a).

2.
f : [0, 1] R : f (x) =

0, x [0, 1] Q,
1, x [0, 1] \ Q,

( Dirichlet function ), f Riemann ? ?

P = {x0 , x1 , . . . , xn } [0, 1] ,
U(f, P ) =
L(f, P ) =

n
X

k=1
n
X

M(Ik )xk = 1,
1

..........f.....

m(Ik )xk = 0.

k=1

Z 1
0

0



f = inf U(f, P ) P I = 1,

611




f = sup L(f, P ) P I = 0,

f Riemann .

..............
0

-X

6.2 Riemann - Riemann

6.2

217

Riemann - Riemann

Darboux , Riemann ,
Riemann , Darboux , Riemann
.
, P, P , P , P .
6.3
f, I, P ,
(1) T = {t1 , , tn }, tk Ik , k = 1, , n,
S(f, P, T ) =

n
X

f (tk )xk

k=1

f P T Riemann (Riemann sum) ;


(2) kP k = max{x1 , , xn } P (norm) ;
(3) l R
> 0, P ( P )


P P

S(f, P, T ) l <
,
T

f I Riemann , lim S(f, P, T ) = l .


kP k0

f , f (tk )xk f (tk ) xk () ,


S(f, P, T ) , ( 612.) Darboux
T , , , .
Y

f
......................
.......... . .. . .. . ..............
. . . . . ...
. . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .....
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .....
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . ...
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . .
...
. . . . . . . .
... S(f, P, T )
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .... .
. . . . . . . . . . .
...
. . . . . . . . . . . .....
...
. . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . .... .
. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . ..... . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .....
. . . . . . . . . . .
. .. . .
. ...... . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .......
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1. . .2 . . . . . .k . . . . . . . . n
. .
.
......
.
0
1
k
n
...

t t
x x

. . . xt . . . x t .
xk1

612

-X

6.3 Riemann

218

Riemann

6.3

6.4 ( )
f : [a, b] R , P P [a, b] , P P ( P P

),

L(f, P ) L(f, P ) U(f, P ) U(f, P ).


( , , . )

613 , .

6.5 ( )
f [a, b] f Riemann (Riemann
condition):
> 0, P U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < .

Z b
a

f=

f ,

f=




f = sup L(f, P ) P I ,

6.3 Riemann

> 0, P
Z

219
Z

f L(f, P ) < . ,
2

f=

Z b
a




f = inf U(f, P ) P I ,

> 0, P U(f, P )

f <

. P = P P , P P P
2

U(f, P ) L(f, P ) U(f, P ) L(f, P )


Z b
Z b

= U(f, P )
f+
f L(f, P )
a

< .
2 > 0, P U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < .
L(f, P )

Z b
a

Z b
a

Z b
a

f U(f, P ),

f U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < ,


Z

f = 0.

: .

6.6 ( Darboux Riemann )


f I = [a, b] Rieamnn
l R lim S(f, P, T ) = l.
kP k0

f = l.

6.3 Riemann

220

6.7
I = [a, b], f : I R , Pn [a, b] ,
Z b
Z b
(1)
f = lim U(f, Pn ),
f = lim L(f, Pn ) .
n+

n+

(2) f I Riemann ,
Z

f = lim S(f, Pn , Tn ),
n+

Tn .

(1) , .
(2) , , ,
(), 6.3, .
1. f : [0, 1] R : f (x) =

0,

x Q,

x2 , .

f Riemann .
n 1 2
no
Pn = 0, , , ,
[0, 1] , k = 1, , n,
n n
n
n
k o k2
k1

= 2;
x
M(Ik ) = sup x2 x R \ Q,
n
n
n
n
k1
ko

m(Ik ) = inf 0 x Q,
= 0;
x
n
n

6.7 ,

Z 1
0

f = lim U(f, Pn ) = lim


n+

n+

n
X
k2
k=1

n2

1
n

n
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
1 X 2
k = lim
= lim 3
n+
n+ n
6n3
k=1

1
= .
3

f = 0, f [0, 1] .

(regular partition) .

6.3 Riemann

221

6.8
f : [a, b] R , f Riemann .
f , . Pn [a, b]
ba
, xk =
, k = 1, . . . , n, f ,
n
M(Ik ) = f (xk1 ), m(Ik ) = f (xk ).
Y

....
....
....
....
....
f
.....
.....
.....
......
.......
........
.........
...........
..............
..................
........................
.................

x0 x1

xk

............ xn
.
xn1
..

-X

614

U(f, Pn ) L(f, Pn ) =
=

n
X

k=1
n
X
k=1

M(Ik )xk

n
X

m(Ik )xk

k=1

ba X
ba
f (xk1 )
f (xk )

n
n
k=1

ba
{[f (x0 ) + + f (xn1 )] [f (x1 ) + + f (xn )]}
n
ba
(f (x0 ) f (xn ))
=
n
ba
(f (a) f (b)).
=
n
=

, n >

(b a)(f (a) f (b))


,

U(f, Pn ) L(f, Pn ) < .

6.5 f [a, b] .

2.

n+1

[x] dx =? n N, [ ] .

6.3 Riemann

222

f : [n, n + 1] R : f (x) = [x], [n, n + 1]


n
o
n
1
2
1
2
m 1o
Pm = n, n + , n + , , n + 1 ; Tm = n, n + , n + , , n +
,
m
m
m
m
m
f , ,
Z n+1
[x] dx = lim S(f, Pm , Tm ),

( 6.7 )

m+

= lim

m+

= lim

m+

m
X

k=1
m
X
k=1

f (tk )
n
,
m

1
,
m

( 615 )

( f (tk ) = n, k )

= n.
Y

n+1
n

n1

f (x) = [x]

-X

.
....
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................
....
....
....
...
.
1 .......
.
m ..

n 6
n+
n+ m2

n+1

615 ( : X Y )
6.9
f : [a, b] R , f Riemann .
f [a, b] ,

> 0, > 0, ( x, y [a, b]) |x y| < |f (x) f (y)| <
n >

ba
, Pn [a, b] ,


,
ba

, , Rudin: Principles of
Mathematical Analysis.

6.3 Riemann

223

U(f, Pn ) L(f, Pn ) =
<

n
X
k=1

n
X
k=1

(M(Ik ) m(Ik ))xk


n

ba X

=
= .
ba
n
n
k=1

f [a, b] Riemann , .
Z b
3.
x3 dx =?

f : [0, b] R : f (x) = x3 , , [0, b]

n b 2b
o
n b 2b
o
Pn = 0, , , , b , Tn =
, , , b .
n n
n n

6.7,
Z

f (x) dx = lim S(f, Pn , Tn )


n+

n
 kb  b
X

f
= lim
n+
n
n
k=1
n
X

b4
k3 4
= lim
n+
n
k=1

b4 n2 (n + 1)2
b4
= lim 4
= .
n+ n
4
4

6.10
f, g I = [a, b] , R,
Z
Z
(1) f f = f ;
I

(2) f + g

(f + g) =

f+

g;

(3) Rf , f ;
(4) f g ;
Z

g;
I

Z Z


(6) |f | f |f | .
I

...
...

f.......

...
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
.
...
...
.
.
..
....
......
.....................
b
0 nb kb
n

(5) f g,

616

-X

6.3 Riemann

224

(1) 6= 0 , f I , > 0 P
( P )

P P ,

T = {t1 , , tn }, tk Ik ,
Z



S(f, P, T ) f <
||
I
Z



|| S(f, P, T ) f <
ZI



S(f, P, T ) f < .
I

lim S(f, P, T ) =
kP k0
Z
Z
f = f .
I

f . 6.6 , f ,

(2) f g I , > 0 P
(
R

P P ,
|S(f, P, T ) I f | < 2 ,

( P )
R
T = {t1 , , tn }, tk Ik ,
|S(g, P, T ) I g| < 2 ,

S(f + g, P, T ) = S(f, P, T ) + S(g, P, T ),


Z 

Z


f+ g
S(f + g, P, T )
I
I
Z
Z



= S(f, P, T ) f + S(g, P, T ) g
I
ZI
Z




S(f, P, T ) f + S(g, P, T ) g

< + = .
2 2

(3) .
(4) (1) (2),
f g f + g f g
(f + g)2 (f g)2 ,

[]

4f g = (f + g)2 (f g)2
f g .
[]

: R R : (t) = t2 , , (3)
(f + g)2 = (f + g)

, (f g)2 .

6.3 Riemann

225

(5) f, g I = [a, b] ,
f g gf 0
Z

(g f ) 0,

( Riemann )

g
g

( (1) (2) )

f 0,
f.

(6) | | , |f | ,
f |f |

f |f |,

(5) ,
Z

|f |

|f |,

|f |

|f |.

(1) (2) Rieamnn ; (5) .


f 0 f 0 , (6) , , : ( +
, ).
Y

...............................
.....
.....
+ .........f
...
...
...
...
....
a
b
....
....
.....
.....
.......
..................

|f |

-X

......................
...............................
......
.....
.
.
.
.
....
....
.
+ .......... ......... +
... ....
.....

617
, f < g,

f<

g , .

-X

6.3 Riemann

226

6.11 ( Bliss )
f I = [a, b] , g I , P = {x0 , x1 , , xn } I

T = {t1 , , tn }, T = {t1 , , tn }

, tk , tk [xk1 , xk ], k = 1, . . . , n,
lim

n+

n
X

f (tk )g(tk )xk

k=1

f (x)g(x) dx.
a

: , .

6.12 [ (additive law of integrals) ]


a < c < b. f [a, c] [c, b] , f [a, b] .
, f [a, b] , f [a, c] [c, b] .

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx +

f (x) dx.

1 f [a, c] [c, b] , P P [a, c] [c, b] ,

P = P P ,

L(f, P ) + L(f, P ) = L(f, P )

L(f, P )

f+

f
b

Z b
c

f L(f, P )

L(f, P )
b

f L(f, P )

f;

6.3 Riemann

227
Y

...
................................................
.........................................................................................................
.
.
.
.
.
.......................................
............................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.
.
.
.
.
....................................................
.................................................................................
........ . ...................................................
........................................... .. . .. .........................................................................................................................................................
. . . . . . . . ..........................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................................................
...................................................

-X

618

Z b
a

f
Z

Z c

f+

Z b

f.

f+

Z b

f [a, c] [c, b] ,

f
c

f=

f=
a

f=

Z b
a

f=

Z c

f+

Z c

f,

f+
a

f,

Z b
Z

f=

Z b

f,

f.

2 f [a, b] , c [a, b], 6.5 , > 0 [a, b] P

U(f, P )L(f, P ) < . P c, P c

c, , U(f, P )L(f, P ) < . P = P [a, c], P = P [c, b],

0 (U(f, P ) L(f, P ) + U(f, P ) L(f, P )) = U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < .

U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < , U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < .

f [a, c] [c, b] .

4.

[2x] dx =? n N.

k ,
k+1
k
x<
k 2x < k + 1
2
2
[2x] = k,

6.3 Riemann

228

, 2 ,
Z

(k+1)/2

[2x] dx =

k/2

k
2.

(1)

k+1 kk1 -

k
2

-X

k
62 +1
k+1
2

619
Z

[2x] dx =

1
2

[2x] dx +

=0+

1
1
2

[2x] dx + +

1 2
2n 1
+ ++
,
2 2
2

[2x] dx

n 21

( (1) )

n(2n 1)
1
.
= (1 + 2 + + (2n 1)) =
2
2

Riemann , a = x0 < x1 < < xn = b,


Z a
f [a, b] ,
f (x) dx ; , f
a
Z a
[a, b] ,
f (x) dx . ,
b

, .

6.13
(1) a Df ,

f (x) dx = 0.
a

(2) f [a, b] ,

a
b

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx.
a

, , .

6.3 Riemann

229

6.14
f I , a, b, c I,
Z b
Z c
Z b
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx.
a

()

a, b, c, , :
a b c, a c b, b a c, b c a, c a b, c b a,

a, b, c , () , .
, 6.12 , 6.12 6.13
. c < b < a ,
Z c
Z b
Z a
Z b
Z a  Z b
Z b
f+
f =
f+
f =
f+
f +
f
a
c
c
c
c
b
c
Z a
Z b
=
f=
f.
b

6.15
f I = [a, b] , g I , c I

f (c)

g(x) dx =

f (x)g(x) dx.

m = min{f (x) | x I}, M = max{f (x) | x I}, g , x I,


mg(x) f (x)g(x) Mg(x).

,
Z b
Z b
Z b
m
g(x) dx
f (x)g(x) dx M
g(x) dx.
a

1
2

(1)

g(x) dx = 0, (1) ,
a
b

f (x)g(x) dx = 0, .
a

g(x) dx > 0, (1) ,


a

Rb
a

f (x)g(x) dx
M.
Rb
g(x)
dx
a

f , , c I
Rb
f (x)g(x) dx
f (c) = a R b
.
g(x)
dx
a

6.4

230

6.16 [ (mean value theorem for integrals) ]


f I = [a, b] , c I
Z b
f (x) dx = f (c)(b a).
a

g : R R : g(x) = 1,
Z

f (x) dx =

f (x)g(x) dx = f (c)
a

g(x) dx = f (c)(b a).

Z 1
t0
t
5. t0 (0, 1)
=
dt ?
5
5
1 + t0
0 1+t
( 620 , ).

, f (t) =

t
[0, 1] , , t0 [0, 1]
1 + t5

1
f (t0 ) =
10
t0
=
1 + t50

f (t) dt,

t
dt.
5
0 1+t
t
t (0, 1), 0 <
< t,
1 + t5
Z 1
Z 1
1
t
dt <
t dt = .
0<
5
2
0
0 1+t

(1)
f (t0 )

6.4

t0

-X

620

(1) , t0 0 1,
t0 (0, 1).

......................
........
.....
......
.
.
.
.
..
.............................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................
.....................................................................................................................................

, Newton Leibniz
. f
Rx
A(x) = a f (t) dt f (x); , f [a, b] Riemann

, ( f ). ,
, .

6.4

231

6.17 [ (fundamental theorem of calculus) ]


f , I = [a, b] ,
Z x
A : [a, b] R : A(x) =
f (t) dt.
a

f x0 [a, b] , A x0 , A (x0 ) = f (x0 ).



A(x) A(x0 )
A (x0 ) = lim
xx0
x x0
Rx
f (t) dt
= lim x0
xx0
x x0
Rx
(f (x0 ) + f (t) f (x0 )) dt
= lim x0
xx0
x x0
Rx
(f (t) f (x0 )) dt
= f (x0 ) + lim x0
xx0
x x0

= f (x0 ) + 0,

[]

................
..........................
.................. .....
..
..................................... .........
....
.............................
.................
... .... ..
.........................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

A(x)

-X

621
[]

f x0 , > 0, > 0,

0 < |x x0 | < |f (x) f (x0 )| < .


2

x0 < x < x0 + ,
Z x
Z x



|f (t) f (x0 )| dt
(f (t) f (x0 )) dt

x0
x0



x x0
x x0




Z x

dt

x0 2

= < .
x x0
2
Z x
Z x
(f (t) f (x0 )) dt
(f (t) f (x0 )) dt
x0
x0
= 0, lim
= 0.
lim+
x x0
x x0
xx0
xx0
1: f : [a, b] R , x [a, b],
Z x
d
f (t) dt = f (x).
dx a
f f .

6.4

232

6.18

(1) f : Df R , Df , a Df ;
(2) u : I Df , I .
Z u(x)
d

f (t) dt = f (u(x))u(x).
dx a


F : Df R : F (x) =

f (t) dt,

6.17 , F (x) = f (x), x Df ;


Z u(x)
x I, F (u(x)) =
f (t) dt .
a

d
dx

d
1.
dx

x2

u(x)

f (t) dt =

d
F (u(x)) = F (u(x))u(x) = f (u(x))u(x).
dx

et dt =?
0
4

= exp(x2 )2 D(x2 ) = 2xex .

2. lim e
x+

dt =?

lHospital ,
Z x
e t dt
= lim 0 x
x+
Ze x
d
e t dt
dx 0
, ( + )
= lim
d x
x+
e
dx

e x
= lim
x+ ex

= lim exp( x x) = 0.
x+

6.4

233

6.19 ( )
f , I = [a, b] , F : [a, b] R x I,
F (x) = f (x),

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).

P = {x0 , x1 , , xn } I , k {1, 2, , n}, F


Ik = [xk1 , xk ] , tk Ik

F (xk ) F (xk1 ) = F (tk )(xk xk1 ) = f (tk )xk .

T = {t1 , , tn }, f I , 6.7 ,
Z b
f (x) dx = lim S(f, Pn , Tn )
n+

= lim

n+

= lim

n+

n
X

f (tk )xk

k=1

n
X
k=1

(F (xk ) F (xk1 ))

= lim (F (b) F (a)) = F (b) F (a).


n+

2: f , :
Z x
A : I R : A(x) =
f (t) dt.
a

x I, A (x) = f (x) x I, A (x) = F (x), ( )


C R, x I, A(x) = F (x) + C
x I, A(x) = F (x) F (a), []
Z b
x I,
f (t) dt = A(b) = F (b) F (a).
a

[]

0 = A(a) = F (a) + C.

3: F : [a, b] R , ,
Z b
b

F (t) dt = F (x)

a.

F F ().
Z b
b
h
ib

f (x) dx = F (x) F (x) .


a

6.4

234

3. lim

n+

n
X
k=1

n2

n
=?
+ k2

6.7,

= lim

n+

n
X
k=1

1
1

1 + ( nk )2 n
[]

= lim S(f, Pn , Tn ),
n+
Z 1
1
dx, ( f )
=
2
0 1+x
1

= tan1 x = .
0
4

1
,
f : [0, 1] R : f (x) =
1 + x2
n1 2
n 1 2
no
no
, Tn =
.
, , ,
Pn = 0, , , ,
n n
n
n n
n

[]

1 ............................

.......
......
...... f
.......
.......
........

xk

-X

622


4. f : I R , I , f .
Z x
F : R : F (x) =
f (t) dt, a I ,
a

x I, F (x) = f (x).

,
. max, min
.

5.

|x| dx.

F : R R x R, F (x) = |x|,
Z

, F (x) =

x R.

|x| dx = F (x) + C.

|t| dt, , F (x) = |x|,

6.5

235

x2

Z x
, x < 0,
2
F (x) =
|t| dt =
2

x , x 0.
2
1
= x|x|.
2

......
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....................
........
...... O
.
.
.
.
1
....
....
....
.
.
..

1
|x| dx = x|x| + C.
2

F .

d
6.
dx

..
....

F............

-X

623

f (t) dt = f (x) .


f : R R : f (x) =

0, x < 0,

1, x 0.

Z x
0, x < 0,
f (t) dt =
F : R R : F (x) =
def 0
x, x 0.

F 0 , f (0) = 1, x = 0 ,
Z x
d
f (t) dt = f (x)
dx a
.

6.5

6.20
u : [a, b] R , g : u[a, b] R , x [a, b],

f (x) = g(u(x))u(x),
Z

f (x) dx =

g(u(x))u (x) dx =
a

u(b)

g(u) du.

u(a)

G g , ,
Z
g(u(x))u(x) dx = G(u(x)) + C.

()

6.5

236

Z b
b

()

=
g(u(x))u
(x)
dx
=
G(u(x))
= G(u(b)) G(u(a)),

() =

u(b)

u(a)

u(b)

= G(u(b)) G(u(a)).
g(u) du = G(u)
u(a)

1 f (x) u = u(x) u , f (x) = g(u(x)) u (x);

f (x) dx = g(u(x)) u (x) dx = g(u) du;


2

u(b)

g(u) du; ().

u(a)

u(b)

u(a)

3 .

1.

x x2 1 dx =?

1: u = x2 1, du = 2x dx,

Z
1 8
1 2 3/2 8 1 3/2 16 2
u du = u = 8 =
=
.
2 0
2 3
3
3
0

2: , u = x2 1, du = 2x dx, ,
Z
Z
1
1 2
1
2
u du = u3/2 + C = (x2 + 1)3/2 + C.
x x 1 dx =
2
2 3
3

3 1
2
1 2
16

= (x 1)3/2 = ((32 1)3/2 0) =
.
3
3
3
1

2. p > 0 f , :
Z a+p
Z p
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx, a R.
a

6.5

237

624

Z

a+p

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx +
a

f (x) dx +

a+p

f (x) dx.

()

, t = x p, x = t + p,
Z a+p
Z a
f (x) dx =
f (t + p) dt
p
0
Z a
=
f (t) dt, ( p f )
0
Z 0
=
f (t) dt.
a

() ,

3.

a+p

f (x) dx =
a

f (x) dx.

x sin x
dx =?
1 + cos2 x

, , I. y = x,
Z
Z 0
x sin x
( y) sin y
I=
dx
=

dy
2
1 + cos2 y
0 1 + cos x

Z
Z
y sin y
sin y
dy
dy
=
2
2
0 1 + cos y
0 1 + cos y
Z 1
du
=
I, ( u = cos y )
1 + u2
1

I=

4. :


2

tan1 u = (tan1 1 tan1 (1)) = ( + ) = .
2
2
2 4
4
4
1

/2
0

sink x
dx, k .
sink x + cosk x

6.6

u=

238

x, x = u, dx = du.
2
2
Z 0
Z /2
sink ( 2 u) du
sink x
dx
=

k
k
sink x + cosk x
/2 sin ( 2 u) + cos ( 2 u)
0
Z /2
cosk u
=
du.
cosk u + sink u
0
2

/2

sink x dx
=
sink x + cosk x
=

6.6

/2

/2
0
/2
0

Z /2
sink x dx
cosk x dx
+
sink x + cosk x
sink x + cosk x
0

sink x + cosk x
dx = ,
k
k
2
sin x + cos x

sin x dx
= .
k
4
sin x + cos x

Riemann , : , ; ,
. ,
. , , .
Z +
1.
xk dx.
1

Riemann , , ,
f (x) = xk [1, t] , . ,
1k
Z t
1
t
, k 6= 1,
k
1k
F : [1, +) R : F (t) =
x dx =

1
ln t,
k = 1.

625 f (x) = xk

6.6

239

1 k = 1, lim F (t) = lim ln t = +, ().


t+

t+

1
t1k 1
=
.
t+ 1 k
k1

2 k > 1, lim F (x) = lim


t+

t1k 1
= +, ().
t+ 1 k

3 k < 1, lim F (x) = lim


t+

6.21
f [a, t] , t > a, F : [a, +) R : F (t) =
(1) F (improper integral),

f (x) dx .

f (x) dx.

(2) lim F (x) , (convergent), ,


Z + t+
f (x) dx .
a

(3) lim F (x) , (divergent).


t+

f (x) dx, ,

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx :

f (x) dx +

f (x) dx,
c

( c , 0.) , , .

2.

exp(x ex ) dx ?
Y

0.4

...........
..... .......
....
...
.
.
.
...
..
.0.3
...
.
.
...
.
.
...
...
.
..
.
.
..
.
.
...
...
.
... f (x) = exp(x
0.2
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
0.1
....
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
...
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
................... X

626 ( : X Y )

ex )

6.6

240

, u = ex , du = ex dx,
Z
Z
Z
x
x ex
exp(x e ) dx = e e dx = eu du

= eu + C = exp(ex ) + C.

0
x

exp(x ex ) dx

s
0
x
= lim exp(e ) = 1 e1 ;
s
s
Z +
Z t
exp(x ex ) dx = lim
exp(x ex ) dx
t+
0
0
t

= lim exp(ex ) = e1 0 = e1 ;
exp(x e ) dx = lim

t+

1 e1 + e1 = 1.

6.22 ( )
f g [a, +) , ,
Z +
(1)
f (x) dx
a

M > 0, t a,

(2) x a, g(x) f (x),


Z +
Z
g(x) dx
a

f (x) dx M.

f (x) dx .

f (x)
= c,
x+ g(x)

(3) x a, g(x) > 0, lim


1 0 < c < +,
"Z
+

g(x) dx

2 c = 0,

"Z

3 c = +,

g(x) dx

"Z

f (x) dx

f (x) dx

g(x) dx

f (x) dx

6.6

241

(1) f 0, F (t) =
Z

f (x) dx .

f (x) dx lim F (t)


t+

F [a, +) , ( F )
M > 0, t a, F (t) M.

(2)

g(x) dx , M,
a

t a,

t
a

f (x) dx

g(x) dx M.

(3) c , .
f (x)
=c
x+ g(x)
h
> 0, b a, x b
lim

h
b a,

h
b a,
h
b a,

(2) ,

g(x) dx

3.

x2 dx

x7 + 1


f (x)
i


c <

g(x)
ci
f (x)
c


, ( = )
c <
x b
g(x)
2
2
i
c
f (x)
c
x b c <
<c+
2
g(x)
2
i
3c
c
x b g(x) < f (x) < g(x) .
2
2
Z +

f (x) dx .

x3 dx

.
x7 + 1

1
x2
r
x7
x7 + 1
lim
= 1,
= lim
1
x+
x+
x7 + 1
x3/2
Z +
Z +
x2 dx
3/2

x
dx ,
x7 + 1
2
2

x3
r
x7
x7 + 1
lim
= 1,
= lim
1
x+
x+
x7 + 1
x1/2
Z +
Z +
x3 dx
1/2

x
dx ,
.
x7 + 1
2
2

6.7

242

4. ,

x1 ex dx, ?
1

x2 dx ; lHospital ,

x+1
x1 ex
=
lim
= 0,
x+ ex
x+
x2
lim

x1 ex dx .

6.7

.
, , .
1.

xk dx.

0+


F : (0, 1] R : F (t) =

1
t

1k
1t , k =
6 1,
xk dx =
1k

ln t,
k = 1.

627 f (x) = xk
1 k = 1,
lim F (t) = lim+ ln t = +, ( . )

t0+

t0

2 k > 1,
lim+ F (x) = lim+

t0

( ).

t0

1 ( 1t )k1
1 t1k
= lim+
= +,
t0
1k
1k

6.7

243

3 k < 1,
lim+ F (x) = lim+
t0

t0

1 t1k
1
=
.
1k
1k

6.23
f [t, b] , t (a, b], F : (a, b] R : F (t) =
(1) F ,

f (x) dx .

f (x) dx.

a+

(2) lim+ F (x) , (convergent), ,


ta
Z b
f (x) dx .
a+

(3) lim+ F (x) , (divergent).


ta

f (x) dx =
a+

f (x) dx, ,

f (x) dx :

a+

f (x) dx +

a+

f (x) dx, a < c < b,


c

, , .

f (x) dx ,

a+

, .

2.

1+

dx
.
x(x 1)

+
1+

dx
=
x(x 1)

1+

dx
+
x(x 1)

+
2

dx
x(x 1)

()

, ( ,
, ).
Z 2
Z 2
dx
1
1
dx
= lim+

t1
x1 x
1+ x(x 1)
t
h
i2
= lim+ ln |x 1| ln |x|
t1

= lim+ ( ln 2 ln(t 1) + ln t)
t1

= +.

6.7

244

, ( 628 ).
Y

10
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
...
...
1
...
f (x) =
...
.....
x(x 1)
........
................
...................................................................
.................

0
0

-X

.........
... .....
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
.....
...
..
...
....
...
.
...
....
..
...
...
.
...
.....
...
...
....
...
...
.

10

628 ( : X Y )

3.

ln x dx , .

0+

1
0+

ln x dx = lim+
t0

ln x dx = x ln x x + C,

ln x dx
t

h
i1
= lim+ x ln x x
t0

= lim+ (1 t ln t + t)
t0

ln t
+0
t0 1/t
1/t []
,
= 1 lim+
t0 1/t2

= 1 lim+

= 1.
[]

lHospital .

629

6.7

245

6.24 ( )
f g (a, b] , ,
Z b
(1)
f (x) dx
a+

M > 0, t (a, b],

f (x) dx M.

(2) x (a, b], g(x) f (x),


Z

b
a+

g(x) dx

(3) x (a, b], g(x) > 0, lim+


xa

1 0 < c < +,

"Z

2 c = 0,

3 c = +,

g(x) dx
Z

f (x) dx

a+

f (x) dx
a+

g(x) dx

f (x) dx

a+

6.22 .

4. ,
(1)

x1 ex dx ?
0

(2) (), : ( + 1) = (), > 0.


(3) : (n) = (n 1)!, n N.
Y

0.3

.....................
......
....
..... f (x) = x1 ex
....
.....
......
....
...
......
......
....
......
......
....
.......
.........
...
...........
...
..............
......................
...
..............
..

a+

f (x)
= c,
g(x)

g(x) dx

"Z

f (x) dx .

a+

b
a+

a+

"Z

630 = 2

-X

6.7

246

gamma , .
(1)

+
1 x

dx =

1
1 x

dx +

x1 ex dx,

4 , ( ),
Z +
Z 1
1 x
x e dx
x1 ex dx
0
Z0 1


x1 ex
=
1

x1 dx , lim+
x0
x1
0
1 > 1
> 0.
(2) > 0,
( + 1) =

+
x

x e

t+

dx = lim

x ex dx

Z t
t
i
x
x1 ex dx , ( )
x e +

= lim
t+
0
Z +
=
x1 ex dx,

[]

= ().
[]

t
= 0.
t+ et

lHospital , lim

(3)
(1) =

ex x0 dx = lim

t+

n N \ {1},

ex

it

= 1.

(n) = (n 1)(n 1) = (n 1)(n 2)(n 2)


= = (n 1)(n 2) 2 1 (1) = (n 1)! .

5.

1+

x dx
.
x5 1

f, g : (1, 3] R : f (x) =
1 f > 0, g > 0;

x
1
,
, g(x) =
x1
1

x5

0 < < 1 , () ,

, 0+ 0.

x1 ex dx
0+

6.7
2
3

247

f (x)
x
1
= lim+
= ;
x1 g(x)
x1
x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1
5
Z 3
Z 3
h
i3

g(x) dx = lim+
(x 1)1/2 dx = lim+ 2(x 1)1/2 = 2 2, .
lim+

t1

1+

t1

1 X 1
=?.
6. lim
n+
n k=1 k
n1 2
n 1 2
no
no
1
, Tn =
.
, , ,
f : (0, 1] R : f (x) = , Pn = 0, , , ,
x
n n
n
n n
n

n
n
n
k 1
X
X
1 X 1
1
1
= lim
p
,
f
lim
= lim
n+
n
n
n k=1 k n+ k=1 k/n n n+ k=1
Z 1
dx
,
6.7
x
0+
() , .
1 Pn ,
k

f (x), ( 631A )
n
Z xk
 k  1 Z xk  k 
=
dx
f
f (x) dx
f
n
n
n
xk1
xk1

f xk1 x xk , f

n
k  1 Z 1
X
f


f (x) dx = 2
n
n
+
0
k=1

n
k  1
X
2.
lim
f
n+
n
n
k=1

..
...
..
..
..
...
...
...
...
... f
...
...
...
....
.....
......
........
..........
..............
....................
............

1 2
n n

631A

..
...
..
.. f
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
.....
......
........
..........
..............
....................
............

-X

1 2
n n

631B

-X

6.7

248

2 ,
h
k 1
i
k > 1, xk1 x xk f
f (x) , ( 631B )
n
Z xk
 k 1  1 Z xk  k 1 
=
dx
f (x) dx
f
k > 1, f
n
n
n
xk1
xk1

n
n
k  1 X
k 1 1 Z 1
X

f
>

f
f (x) dx
n
n
n
n
1/n
k=1
k=2

Z 1
n
k 1
X
lim
f (x) dx = 2.
f
lim
n+ 1/n
n+
n
n
k=1
n

1 X 1
= 2.
1 2 , lim
n+
n k=1 k

249

Darboux

Riemann sum
Riemann

250

6-1 f : [0, 1] R : f (x) =

x,

x Q,

x, .
Z 1
f ?
f (x) dx =?
0

6-2 f : [0, 4] R : f (x) = x [x].


(a) f ;
(b) P = {0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, 5/2, 3, 7/2, 4}, U(f, P ) L(f, P ) ;
Z 4
(c) f [0, 4] ? ,
f (x) dx .
0

[ ] .

6-3 f : R R : f (x) =
Z 4

f (x)dx.

0, x Z,
2, .

f [0, 4] ? ,

6-4 , f I = [a, b] , |f | I . , |f |
I , f ? ?

6-5 :
n
X
1

=?
(a) lim
2 + k2
n+
n
k=1

n
X
1
(k 1)
sin
=?
n+
n
n
k=1


1
1
1

(c) lim
+
++
=?
n+
n2 + 1
n2 + 2
n2 + n

(b)

lim

6-6 f : I = [a, b] R , g : I R .
(a) f + g ? ?
(b) g ? ? R .

251

6-7 :
Z 2
(a)
|2x x2 x3 | dx ;
(b)

1
1

x 1 + x x dx.

1
6-8 : n > 1, <
2

1/2

1
dx
<
2

2.
1 xn

d
6-9
dx

x2

sin u
du.
u

6-10 g , c , :
Z
d c+t
g(x) dx = g(c + t) + g(c t).
dt ct
6-11 :
1
(a) lim
h0 h

p+h

x2 + 1 dx =?

cos x
dx =?
t0
x2
t
Z x
6-12 f : R R
f (t) dt = x2 + 3x 4.
(b)

lim+ t

(a) a f ;
(b) f ? ?
2

6-13 f f (x) =

f (t)

sin t
dt.
2 + cos t

6-14 f (0, +) , a b
f (ab) = f (a) + f (b). :
(a) x > 0, f (x) =

f (1)
;
x

(b) k x > 0, f (x) = k

dt
;
t

(c) f (1) = 1, f = ln .

Z x
exp(t2 ), t 6= 1,
F : R R : F (x) =
f (t) dt.
6-15 f : R R : f (t) =
0,
t = 1.
0
F .

252
Z

6-16 :
6-17 F (x) =

max{1, x2 } dx.

/2

(x t) sin t dt. F (x) =?

6-18 x > 0, f (x) =

x
1

 1  (ln x)2
ln t
=
dt. : f (x) + f
.
1+t
x
2

[ ] u = 1/t.
6-19 f : [0, 2] R

2
0

f (x) dx = 2, : c [0, 2] f (c) = c.

6-20 :

Z +
Z +
x
dx

dx;
(a)
;
(d)
2x x3/2
1 + x3
0
0+
Z +
Z + 2
dx
(x x)dx

(b)
;
(e)
;
1 + x2
x5 + 1
0
3
Z +
Z
xdx
dx

(c)
.
;
(f)
5
x 1
1+
0 1 + 3 cos x
Z +
6-21 :
exp(x2 )dx .

[ ] ,

6-22 :

x3 exp(x2 ) dx ? , .

6-23 :

sin x
dx ?
x

6-24 p

0+

sin x
dx ?
xp

[ ] 1/xp1 1, ( x 0+ ),
6.24.

Chapter 7

, . , ,
, , .
: , .
,
, .

7.1

7.1
f, g : [a, b] R , R f g ( 72 73 ),
R = {(x, y) | a x b, f (x) y g(x) or g(x) y f (x)}.

R (area) A(R) =

b
a

|f (x) g(x)| dx.

:
1 f : I = [a, b] R+ , R f X , ( 71 ),
L(f, P ) A(R) U(f, P ), P, (I )
Z
Z

f A(R)
f

A(R) =

253

f, ( f ).

7.1

254

71
2 0 f (x) g(x), x [a, b], f g R ( 72 ) g

X f X ,
Z b
Z b
Z b
A(R) =
g(x) dx
f (x) dx =
(g(x) f (x)) dx.
a

g..................................................................
.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..............
.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................
.
.
.
.
.
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................................... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .
........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..... . . . . . . . . . . . .
....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.................................... . . .
....................

72

-X

f g, , f , C 0 f + C g + C,

f + C, g + C f, g ,
Z b
Z b
Z b
A(R) =
(g(x) + C) dx
(f (x) + C) dx =
(g(x) f (x)) dx.
a

3 , f, g f g g f , R
max{f, g}, min{f, g} , ( 73 ), ,

max{f (x), g(x)} min{f (x), g(x)} = |g(x) f (x)|, x [a, b],

7.1

255

2 ,
A(R) =


max{f (x), g(x)} min{f (x), g(x)} dx

|g(x) f (x)| dx.

73
: , f, g , max{f, g} ?
1
max{f, g} = (f + g + |f g|),
2

Riemann .
: . :
Z

|f (x)| dx , f X [a, +) R
Z +
A(R) =
|f (x)| dx.
a

:
A(R) = lim

n+

n
X
j=1

|f (t ) g(t )| x =
| j {z j } |{z}j

{z

{z

}
}

Z
|

b
a

|f (x) g(x)| dx .
{z
} |{z}
|

{z

{z
}

7.1

256

1. sin cos x = 0 x = /2 .
Y

sin
.....cos
................
.........
.............. .
. . . ............
. . . . ..
.......... . . . . . . .
. . . . . ......... ......... . . . . .
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .............. . . . . . .
. . . . . ..
........ . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .......
...... . . . .
. . . . ...
. . . . .......
....... . . . . . . .
. . . ....
...... . . .
. . . ...
....... . . . .
. . .....
. . ....
...... .
. ....
...... .
. ....
.
.......
.
.
.
..
....

/4

-X

/2

74

1 .
sin x = cos x tan x = 1 x =
2
Z /2
A(R) =
| sin x cos x| dx
0
Z /4
Z
=
| sin x cos x| dx +
0

/2

/4

/4

(cos x sin x) dx +

.
4

| sin x cos x| dx

/2

/4

(sin x cos x) dx

h
i/4 h
i/2
= sin x + cos x
+ cos x sin x
0
/4

= 2 2 2.

2. f (x) =
.

x3
1
g(x) =
Y
4
4x x + 1
4x x4 + 1

...
....
...
. .....
. .
...
. . ......
. . .
...
.
. . . ......
. . . .
..
. . . . ......
..
. . . . .
. . . . . ........
..
g
. . . . . . ......
.
.
. . . . . . . .......
.
. . . . . . . . ..
..
. . . . . . . . . .................
. . . . . . . . . . . ....
...
. . . . . . . . . . . . ...............................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
f
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ......
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . ..........
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .............
. . . . . . . ........
..............................................

75

-X

7.1

257

1 ,

x3
1
=
x3 = 1 x = 1,
4
4
4x x + 1
4x x + 1

(1, 1/2) ( 75 ).
2 x [0, 1] , f (x) g(x),
Z


x3
1

dx

A=
|g(x) f (x)| dx =
4x x4 + 1
4x x4 + 1
0
0
Z 1
1 1
1
1 x3

dx = 2(4x x4 + 1)1/2 = .
=
4
4
2
0
4x x + 1
0


x2 y 2
+ 2 = 1 , a, b .
a2
b
b 2
f : [a, a] R : f (x) =
a x2 ,
a
Z a
Z a
b 2
Y
a x2 dx
A=4
f (x) dx = 4
6
0
0 a
Z /2 p
......b...............................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
4b
......
.....
a2 (a sin u)2 a cos u du, ( x = a sin u ) ..........
=
...
... ...
a 0
.
X
...
...a
Z /2
Z /2
....
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
cos 2u + 1
........
.................................................
= 4ab
cos2 u du = 4ab
du
2
0
0
hu 1
i/2
= 4ab + sin 2u
= ab.

76
0
2 4

3.

: a = b = r , r .

(
x(t) = f (t),
y(t) = g(t),

t [a, b],

, f , g , (f, g) ,
X R
A(R) =

|g(t) f (t)| dt =

b
a

|y(t)x (t)|dt.

7.1

258
Z

A(R) =
|x (t)| dt .

b
a

|y(t) dx(t)|, . |dx(t)|


y
6
...........................
.......
......
.....
.....
.....
....
....
....
....
....
...
.
.....
..............
.....
.
.
.
......
.
...............................

g(tk )

(f, g)
.......................................
........
...........
.......
.....
.....
.......
..

t0 t1 tk tn
tk1

-x


f (tk1 ) f (tk )

77
: Pn = {t0 , t1 , , tn } [a, b] , [tk1 , tk ]

tk , |g(tk ) (f (tk ) f (tk1 )|, ,


n
X

A(R) = lim

n+

k=1

n
X

= lim

n+

=
=

k=1

|g(tk )(f (tk ) f (tk1 ))|


|g(tk )f (tk )tk |,

|g(t)f (t)| dt,

( , tk (tk1 , tk ) )

( Bliss )

b
a

|y(t) x(t)| dt.

4. (cycloid) :
(
x(t) = t sin t,
0 t 2,
y(t) = 1 cos t,

2
0

X ?

.............................................................
............
.......
......
.......
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
....
...
...
.. ...
...
...
...
..

-X

78

A=

|y(t) dx(t)| =

|(1 cos t)(1 cos t)| dt

(1 2 cos t + cos2 t) dt
2
1

= t 2 sin t + (2t + sin 2t) = 3.
4
0

7.2

7.2

259

(solid) S, .
, ,
. , , .
, , .

7.2 [ (slicing method) ]


f : [a, b] R, S f X , f 2 [a, b] ,

(volume)

V (S) =

f 2 (x) dx.
a

7.1 , , . ,
7.2 X , Y
y = 2 x = 1 . 7.2 ,

, Riemann ,
.

79
:
V (S) = lim

n+

n
X
j=1

f (tj ) xj =
| {z } |{z}


{z
}

{z
}

f 2 (x) dx .
| {z } |{z}


{z
}

|
{z
}

7.2

260

1. r .

. f (x)
......
................ ...................... ..................
..............
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...... .....
......
....
....
...
...
....
...
...
..
..
.
. ....
X
...
...
.
...
0
x
... r
.
...
.
.
.
...
....
...
.....
....
.
.
.
.
......
.
.....
.........
....................................

f : [r, r] R : f (x) = r2 x2 ,
Z r
V (S) =
f 2 (x) dx
Zrr
=
(r 2 x2 ) dx
r

h
x3 ir
2
= r x
3 r
4 3
= r .
3

710

2. S Y , y = 1, y = 8 y = x3

Y . S .
7.2 , x y .
1

x y :
y = x3 x = y 1/3 ,

g : [1, 8] R : g(y) = y 1/3 .


2
Z 8
V (S) =
(y 1/3 )2 dy
=

.
..
...

................................................................ ...
...............
........ .
........
.....
.............
....
.. ....................................................................................................................
..
. . . . . . ..
. . . . . . ..
..
. . . . . .
. . . . . . ...
..
. . . . . .
. . . . . . ...
..
. . . . . .
..
. . . . . . ...
. . . . . .
..
. . . . . . ..
. . . . . .
...
. . . . . . ..
. . . . .
..
. . . . . . ...
..
. . . . .
. . . . . . ...
...
. . . . . .
.
. . . . .
...
. . . . . .
. . . . . ...
..
. . . . .
. . . . . ..
..
. . . . ..
. . . . . ..
..
. . . . .
..
. . . . . ..
. . . .
..
. . . . . ...
..
. . . .
. . . . . ...
..
. . . .
...
. . . . ...
. . . .
...
. . . . ...
. . . .
..
. . . . ..
. . . .
..
. . . . ..
...
. . . .
. . . . ..
..
. . .
. . . . ...
..
..............................................................
.....
.................
. .........................................

... 1
...
....
........................

h 3 y 5/3 i8

93
= .
5

711

7.3 ( )
S ,
A : [a, b] R : A(x) = X x S .

[a, b] S x , A , S
Z b
V (S) =
A(x) dx.
a

( 7-12)

-X

7.2

261

712
, Riemann ,
, Riemann ,
Riemann , ,

3. S :
y = x2 y = 3 2x2 .

Y X . S .
Z
6
..
.......
..... . ..
..... ......
...................
.
.
.
.
.
.
..................
.....................
2
...... . . . . . . .
....................................
.
.
.
.
......... .......................................
.
.................................................................................................................................................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.............
...........................................
........ .......................
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
...............................
.
.
............ .....
2
..... .
..............
...............................
..... ...
. ...........
.
.
.
.
......
.
.
.
.
..........................................
....
...
....
.
.
.
.
......
.
.
.
................................
.
.
...
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
. . . . .. ................
......
............
.................
...............................................
......
............ ...
......
...................................................................
..............................................................................
....
............
............ .
.........

y=x

y = 3 2x
3

713
:
x2 = 3 2x2 x2 = 1 x {1, 1},

(1, 1), (1, 1).


Z 1
Z 3h 
3 y 1/2 i2
2
dy
V (S) =
(2 y) dy +
2
2
0
1
h y 2 i1 h
y 2 i3
+ 2(3y ) = 6.
= 4
2 0
2 1

7.2

262

4. r , .

Y , Z , S.
S , S1 (). X x S1

r 2 x2 .

A : [0, r] R : A(x) = X x S1

2
r 2 x2 = r 2 x2 .
=
V (S) = 8 V (S1 ) = 8

(r 2 x2 ) dx =

16r 3
.
3

714

7.4 [ (shell method) ]


f : [a, b] R , 0 a < b a < b 0. S f X

Y ,

V (S) = 2

|x f (x)| dx.

, , Archimedes
, .

7.2

263

715
, 0 a < b, f > 0, ( 715 ). [a, b]
P = {x0 , x1 , , xn },

n () , ( n ), tk [xk1 , xk ] k

, f (tk ) , S
V (S) = lim

n+

n
X
k=1

2 t f (t ) x =
| k{z k} |{z}k


{z
}

{z
}

( : . )

2 x f (x) dx .
| {z } |{z}


{z
}

{z
}
|

5. r , r/2 , .

f : [r/2, r] R : f (x) = r2 x2 , S
f Y ,

V (S) = 2

= 2

2x r 2 x2 dx

r/2
Z r

r/2

.........................................
.........
.......
.......
............
........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
........
..... .....
.........
.
.
..... . ...
... ...........
.
..... .. ....
... . . . .
..... .. ....
.. ........
.
..... .......
.....
...............
..... .... ...
.. . . . .
..... ........
...............
..... ........
..............
..... ........
..............
r
..... .... ..
... ..........
..... ... ...
... .........
2
... ........
..... .. ...
... . . . .
..... . ...
... .......
..... .....
... . . .
..... ....
........
.... . .
.........
..... ..
........
......
.......
.
.....
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..................................

(r 2 x2 )1/2 (2x dx)

ir
h 2
2
2 3/2
= 2 (r x )
r/2
3

3 3
=
r .
2

-X

716

6. y = x2 y = x + 2 x = 3 .

7.2

264

1 ,
x2 = x + 2 x2 x 2 = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0,

(2, 4), (1, 1).


2
Z 2
V = 2
(3 x)(x + 2 x2 ) dx
1
Z 2
= 2
(x3 4x2 + x + 6) dx

717

45
=
.
2

,
(
x(t) = f (t),
t [a, b],
y(t) = g(t),
, , , : f
, g . .

7. (cycloid)

x(t) = t sin t,

y(t) = 1 cos t,

t [0, 2], X Y

. ( 718.)
:
V = 2

|x(t)y(t) dx(t)|

= 2

|(t sin t)(1 cos t)(1 cos t)| dt

= 2

(t sin t)(1 cos t)(1 cos t) dt

= 2

(t sin t)(1 2 cos t + cos2 t) dt

(t 2t cos t + t cos2 t sin t 2 sin t cos t sin t cos2 t) dt


0
#
"
 sin t cos t t  3 cos t2 cos3 t 2
t2

cos t 2 t sin t + t
+
+
= 2
4
2
2
4
3
= 2

= 6 .

7.3

265

718

7.3

, , ,
, , ,
, , f : [a, b] R ,
P = {x0 , x1 , , xn } [a, b] , f n + 1 P0 (x0 , y0 ), P1 (x1 , y1 ),

, Pn (xn , yn ) yj = f (xj ), j = 0, 1, , n, Pj ,

719 : , ,

(), n + , ,

Pk1Pk =

(xk )2 + (yk )2 ,

n
X
p
=
(xk )2 + (yk )2 ,
k=1

f (f ) ,
L(s) = lim

n+

= lim

n+

= lim

n+

= lim

n+

n
X
p

(xk )2 + (yk )2

k=1

n
X
k=1

n
X
k=1

1+

 y 2

1+

 f (x ) f (x ) 2
k
k1
xk
xk xk1

n
X
p

xk

xk

1 + (f (tk ))2 xk , ( )

k=1

Z bp
p
=
1 + (f (x))2 dx, (
1 + (f (x))2 .)
a

7.3

266
Y

....................
.....
.....
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
....
....
.....
........ ............
.....

x0 x1 xk xn
xk1

P
P..0.............1...............
...

.....
....
...
...
...
...
... k1
...
...
...
...
... k
...
...
...
...
n
...
...
....
...
....
....
.....
......... ............
....

-X

x0 x1 xk xn
xk1

-X

719

7.5
f : [a, b] R (f )2 , f (a, f (a)) (b, f (b)) s

(arc length)

L(s) =

Z bp

1 + (f (x))2 dx.

p
dx2 + dy 2 ,
Z br
Z .
Z .p
 dy 2
2
2
dx + dy =
1+
L(s) =
ds =
dx.
dx
a
.
.

, ds =

1. (hypocycloid) y 2/3 + x2/3 = a2/3 .


Y

...............................................
..........
........
..
........
......
......
.......
... ..
.....
......
.
.
.
.. ....
.....
.
....
.
....
.
.
...
..
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
..
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
....
......
.
.
..
.
.
...
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.......... ......
... ...........
...............
....................
....... ..
........
...
........ ......
.......
...
...
.
......
.................
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
......
.
.....
...
..
.......
...
.
..
...
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.. ..
...
....
. ..
...
........
...
...
......
...
... ..... .......
.....
....
..
.....
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.......................
... ..
.....
...
......
.. ..
......
.......
.........
.......
.............. ..... ......................
..................

a X

720
, dx x, dy y, ds , ,
, dx , ,
Z b
dy
Leibniz

y dx ,
dx
a
!

7.3

267


2 1/3 2 1/3
y
y + x
= 0, ( x )
3
3
 y 1/3
y =
, x 6= 0
x
r
 y 2/3
p
1 + (y )2 = 1 +
, x 6= 0.

y 2/3 + x2/3 = a2/3

L(s) = 4
=4

0+
Z a

0+

1+

(y )2

dx = 4

y 2/3
1 + 2/3 dx = 4
x

: s :

0+
Z a
0+

x = f (t),

1+

 y 2/3
x

dx

a 1/3
dx = 6a.
x

t [a, b].

y = g(t),

t dt,
p

ds =

r 
dx 2

dx2 + dy 2 =

L(s) =

dt

Z b r 2
dx
a

dt

 dy 2
dt

 dy 2
dt

dt,

dt

,

x = a cos3 ,
[0, 2],
y = a sin3 ,
() ,
/2

L(s) = 4

/2

=4

/2

=4

= 12a

r
r

dx 2  dy 2
+
dt
dt
dt
3a cos2 sin

2

(3a)2 sin2 cos2 dt

/2

sin cos dt

/2

= 6a sin2 = 6a.
0


2
+ 3a sin2 cos dt

()

7.4

2.

268


x = cos t + t sin t,
y = sin t t cos t,

t [0, 2], .
Y

dx

= sin t + sin t + t cos t = t cos t,


dt

dy = cos t cos t + t sin t = t sin t,


dt

...................................
............
......
.......
....
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
...
2
....
.
...
.
.
.
.
...
...
..
.
....
.
.
.....
0
..
5...... 3
0 1
...
...
2
...
...
...
...
...
....
4
.....
.....
......
.......
..........
..................
6
..............

Z 2 r 2  2
dy
dx
L=
+
dt
dt
dt
0
Z 2
t2 2
=
t dt = = 2 2 .
2 0
0

7.4

-X

721

: ,
(frustum of a cone) ( 722A),
n , , .
, ( 722B).
,
1 r , ,

2 r2
r =
.
2
2

2 r2 , r1 (< r2 ) , 722A,

r1 + r2
r22 r12

=
(r2 r1 ) ,
2
2
| 2{z } | {z }

, , ,
, :
3 = ()().

7.4

269

722A

722B

.
7.6
f : [a, b] R (f )2 , f X S
(area of surface)

A(S) =

p
2|f (x)| 1 + (f (x))2 dx.

723

7.4

270

: P = {x0 , x1 , , xn } ( 723 ),
k 2|f (tk )|, tk = (xk + xk1 )/2,
p
(xk )2 + (yk )2 , k
p
2|f (tk )| (xk )2 + (yk )2 .


n
X
k=1

p
2|f (tk )| (xk )2 + (yk )2 .

,
A(S) = lim

n+

= lim

n+

n
X
k=1

n
X

p
2|f (tk )| (xk )2 + (yk )2 ,
r

2|f (tk )| 1 +

k=1

n
X

 y 2
k

xk

xk

 f (x ) f (x ) 2
k
k1
2|f (tk )| 1 +
xk
= lim
n+
xk xk1
k=1
n
q
X
= lim
2|f (tk )| 1 + (f (tk ))2 xk , []
n+

[]

k=1

p
2|f (x)| 1 + (f (x))2 dx, ( Bliss . )

, tk (xk1 , xk ), : tk tk .

1. (1) : r 4r2 ;
(2) , 1/4.

(1)
f : [0, r] R : f (x) =

r 2 x2 ,

f X , r

Z r
p
2f (x) 1 + (f (x))2 dx
A(S) = 2
0
r
Z r
x2
= 4
dx
r 2 x2 1 + 2
r x2
0
Z r
= 4
r dx = 4r 2 .
0

.................. f
.......
......
.....
....
...
...
..
..
.

724

.....
... ...
... ..
.... .
...
... .....
... ...
......
..

-X

7.5

271

(2) g(y) =

Y ).

p
r 2 y 2 , r y r, Y (

0 < c < r, c r
Z r
p
A(c) =
2g(y) 1 + (g (y))2 dy
c

= 2

= 2

p
r2 y 2

1+

y2
dy
r2 y 2

r dy = 2r(r c).

2r(r c) = A(c) =

()
= r 2 .
4

.....
.................. ....................
..

r
c = .
2
sin =

..............................
............
........
.......
......
......
......
.....
.
....
.
.
....
...
.
.
...
..
.
...
.
..
...
.
.
....... .....
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
...
....
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
..
....
.
.
.
.
...
.
...
.
..
.
..
.......
....... ....
.....
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
....
...
...
..
.
.
...
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
.
.
...
...
....
...
.....
.....
......
......
.......
.......
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...............................

1
c
= ,
r
2

= 30 , 30
.

7.5

-X

725

, .
, , .
.

, P1 (x1 , y1), P2 (x2 , y2), , Pn (xn , yn ),

m1 , m2 , , mn , X
Mx = m1 y1 + m2 y2 + + mn yn =

n
X

My = m1 x1 + m2 x2 + + mn xn =

n
X

mk yk ;

k=1

k=1

mk xk ;

7.5

272

, P1 , P2 , , Pn n P (
x, y),
Pn
m = k=1 mk , P (
x, y) , ,

m x = My = m1 x1 + m2 x2 + + mn xn ,
m y = Mx = m1 y1 + m2 y2 + + mn yn ,

x =

My
Mx
, y =
.
m
m

, P1 , P2 , , Pn P
.

, ( d ) R,
(
x, y) , m
x = d A(R) x m
y = d A(R) y

d A(R) (
x, y) Y X .

, , (
x, y)
(), A(R) x A(R) y Y X ,

f, g : [a, b] R f g, R f g [a, b]

[a, b] ( 726 ).

P = {x0 , x1 , , xn } [a, b] ;
T = {t1 , , tn }, tk [xk1 , xk ] ;
T = {t1 , , tn }, tk [xk1 , xk ] .
Y

.........................................................................
..................
...........
........... ..........
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
.......
.......
.
...
.......
.....
.....
.....
............................. ..........
..................

........
.....
.....
.....
......
...........
f
......................
....................................................

x0

xk
tk
xk1
.......
.
...
....

xn

-X

726
, g(tk ) f (tk ), xk ,
tk (g(tk ) f (tk ))xk

7.5

273

Y ,
1
1
(g(tk ) + f (tk ))(g(tk ) f (tk ))xk = (g 2 (tk ) f 2 (tk ))xk
2
2

X . (k = 1, , n) Y X
n
X
k=1

tk (g(tk )

f (tk ))xk

n
X
1
k=1

(g 2(tk ) f 2 (tk ))xk .

f g , 6.7 Bliss , ( n +),

, :
7.7

f, g : [a, b] R , R f g [a, b]

My =

x|g(x) f (x)|dx ,

1
Mx =
2

|g(x) f (x)|(g(x) + f (x))dx

R Y X (moment of R with respect to Y -axis


and X-axis, respectively). (
x, y) R (centroid), ( x =
My /A(R), y = Mx /A(R)).

1. x = 1, X f (x) = 4 x2
R = {(x, y) | 1 x 2, 0 y 4 x2 }

(
x, y).
R 727 . 7.7
Z 2
Z 2
2
My =
x(4 x )dx =
(4x x3 )dx
1

h
x4 i2
9
= 2x2
= ,
4 1 4
Z
1 2
Mx =
(4 x2 )2 dx
2 1
Z
1 2
(16 8x2 + x4 ) dx
=
2 1
153
8x3 x5 i2
1h
=
+
.
= 16x
2
3
5 1
10

........................
....
.....
....
....
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
...
... y = 4
3...
..
R ......
...
...
...
...
(
x, y)
...
...
...
...
...
...
..

x2

727

-X

7.5

274
Z

My
1
Mx
17
A(R) =
(4 x2 )dx = 9. x =
= ; y =
= .
A(R)
4
A(R)
10
1
 1 17 
R .
,
4 10

r, b a S ( 728 ).
a + b

C
, 0, 0
2

S ( AB ),

r 2 (b a)

(a + b)
b2 a2
= r 2
2
2

S Y Z ( Myz ), S XZ XY ( Mxz Mxy )


0.

728

729

S g X [a, b] X (
729 ), ,
P = {x0 , x1 , , xn } : [a, b] ;
T = {t1 , t2 , tn }, tk [xk1 , xk ] ;
T = {t1 , tn }, tk [xk1 , xk ] .

g(tk ) , xk Y Z g 2 (tk ) tk xk , XZ
n
X
XY 0, (k = 1, n) Y Z
tk g 2(tk )xk .
k=1
Z b
Bliss , g ,
xg 2 (x) dx g X
a

[a, b] , X S Y Z Myz , (
x, 0, 0), (

x = Myz /V (S)), S .

7.5

275

: f g , S f g
[a, b] X , Y Z
lim

kP k0

n
X
k=1

tk |g 2(tk ) f 2 (tk )|xk .

:
7.8
f, g : [a, b] R+ ,
Z b
Myz =
x|g 2 (x) f 2 (x)| dx
a

g f [a, b] , X S Y Z
, (
x, 0, 0), ( x = Myz /V (S)), S .

2. y =

S .

r 2 x2 , ( x [0, r] ), X Y X

7.8
Myz =
=

Z0 r
0

 r4

x( r 2 x2 )2 dx
x(r 2 x2 ) dx

r4 
4

2
1 4
= r .
4
V (S) 2r3 /3,
1 4
r
3r
4
= ,
x =
2 3
8
r
3

 3r
, 0, 0 .
S
8

730

7.7 7.8 ,
, 7.9 7.10 ,
, , .

7.5

276

7.9
f : [a, b] R (f )2 ,
Z b p
Z b
p

2
My =
x 1 + (f (x)) dx, Mx =
f (x) 1 + (f (x))2 dx
a

(a, f (x)) (b, f (b)) s Y X , (


x, y), ( x =

My /L(s), y = Mx /L(s)), s (centroid of arc s).

3. r s .
, ,
f : [r, r] R : f (x) =

7.9
Z r r
My =
x 1+

x2
dx =
r 2 x2

r +

Mx =

r +

r 2 x2

1+

r +

r 2 x2 ,

rx
dx = 0,
r 2 x2

x2
dx = 2r 2 ,
r 2 x2

L(s) = r,
x =

.................................. ..............
............
........
......
......... .........
.....
...........
...
....
.
.
...
...
.
...
...
...
...
....
..
...
...
.

(
x, y)

-X

731

Mx
2r
My
= 0, y =
= .
L(s)
L(s)

(0, 2r/) s .
4. x2/3 + y 2/3 = a2/3 s .
s 732 . 7.9
Z a p
My =
x 1 + (y )2 dx
0+

r
y
=
x 1 + ( )2/3 dx
x
0+
Z a
a
=
x( )1/3 dx
x
0+
Z a
= a1/3
x2/3 dx
Z

0+

3
= a2 ;
5

(
x, y)

..
...
...................
...
............ .. ...................
...... .....
........
...
.........
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.......
....
... ....
...
...
...
.... ............ .......
...
..
...
.
.
.....
...
...
......
...
....... .......
.....
.......... ...
..
........
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
..
.
.
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
....
....
.
.
.....
.
....
......
.......
......
.........
.......
..........................................

732

a X

7.5

277
Z

a
(a2/3 x2/3 )3/2 ( )1/3 dx
x
0+
Z
3 a 1/3 2/3
a (a x2/3 )3/2 d(a2/3 x2/3 )
=
2 0+

Mx =

3
= a2 .
5
3a
1 , L(s) = .
2
x =

My
2a
Mx
2a
= , y =
= .
L(s)
5
L(s)
5

 2a 2a 
.
,
5 5

7.10
f : [a, b] R , (f )2 . S f X

, S yz
Z b
p
Myz = 2
x|f (x)| 1 + (f (x))2 dx.
a

(
x, 0, 0), ( x = Myz /A(S), A(S) S ), S .

5. r .

S y = f (x) =

Myz = 2

A(S) = 2

x r 2 x2

x =

Myz
r
= ,
A(S)
2

r

r2

x2

r 2 x2 , ( x [0, r] ), X ,

x2
dx = 2
1+ 2
r x2

x2
dx = 2
1+ 2
r x2

rx dx = r 3 ,

r dx = 2r 2 .

, 0, 0 .

6. r , h S .
y =
7.10

rx
, ( x [0, h] ), X .
h

7.5

278

Myz

r
r
r 2
= 2
x x 1+
dx
h
h
0
r
Z
r
r 2 h 2
x dx
= 2
1+
h
h
0
r
r
r 2 h3
= 2
,
1+
h
h
3
Z

y=

.......
........ ...
....... .. ....
...
....... ....
.......
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
..
.
...
.......
...
..
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
..
.....
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
..
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
..
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
.........
...
.......
..
.......
..
.
...
.......
..
.
......
.......
.
.
...
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
........
...
..
.......
...
...
....... ....
...
...
.........
...
...
........
..
...
.... ..............
.
....... ...
..
...
....... ..
......... .....
...
.......

x =

-X

(
x, 0, 0)

r
r 2
r
dx
x 1+
A(S) = 2
h
0 h
r
Z
r
r 2 h
1+
= 2
x dx
h
h
0
r
r 2 h2
r
,
1+
= 2
h
h
2
Z

rx
h

733

 2h

2h
Myz
=
,
, 0, 0 .
A(S)
3
3

: , . , .
7.7, 7.8, 7.9 7.10 ,
(density) , , (center of mass). ,

( ) , , (
) , .
7. 2 S. p p ,
S .
: [0, r] R : (x) = kx, k .
Z r
Z r
2
2
2

Myz =
x( r x ) kx dx = k
x2 (r 2 x2 ) dx
0

= k
V (S) =

h r 2 x3

= k

3
Z r
r
2
2
2
( r x ) kx dx = k
(r 2 x2 )x dx
0

h r 2 x2
2

x =

 8r

15

2
x5 ir
= kr 5
5 0 15


, 0, 0 .

4 ir

x
4

1
= kr 4 .
4

yz
M
=
V (S)

2
kr 5
15
1
kr 4
4

8
r.
15


7.5

279

, , ,

X Y .

7.11 ( Pappus I )

( i ) L XY ;
(ii) R , A(R), (
x, y) ;
(iii) R L ( L R ) .

R L S
V (S) = A(R) 2d,

d (
x, y) L .

734

: L X , . ,
f, g : [a, b] R 0 f g, ( 735 ),
R = {(x, y) | a x b, f (x) y g(x)}.

,
V (S) =

, 7.7,

y =

1
2

(g 2(x) f 2 (x))dx.

|g(x) f (x)|(g(x) + f (x))dx

1
=

2A(R)
=

A(R)
Z

(g 2 (x) f 2 (x))dx

1
V (S), (
1 )
2A(R)

V (S) = A(R) 2
y , y .

7.5

280

735

8. R = {(x, y) | x [0, 1], x3 y x} y = x .

1 R :
Z

2
,
15
0
Z
2
1 1 2
(x x6 ) dx = .
Mx =
2 0
21
Z 1
1
A(R) =
(x x3 )dx = .
4
0
My =

x(x x3 )dx =

My
8
x =
= ;
A(R)
15

Mx
8
y =
= .
A(R)
21

y =... x3

.
...
....
..
..
.............. y = x
...
......
.....
......
.
.
.
.
.... .. .
x, y)
... . ...... (
... .............
....
..
... ............
.
.
.. ....... ..
.
.
.
.
.
...... ..... .
....................... ....
....
...
....
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
....
....
......
....
...........................

-X

736
y = x , ()

2
8 2
d = (
x y)
=
.
2
105

[] , , (x0 , y0) ax + by + c = 0
|ax0 + by0 + c|
d= 2
. , a = 1, b = 1, c = 0,
a + b2
8
8

8 2
|
x y|
15
21

.
=
d= p
=
105
2
12 + (1)2

3 Pappus I ,

1
8 2
4 2
V (S) = A(R) 2d = 2
=
.
4
105
105

7.6

281

7.12 ( Pappus II )

( i ) L XY ;
(ii) s , L(s), (
x, y) ;
(iii) s L .

s L S
A(S) = L(s) 2d,

d (
x, y) L .

Pappus I, .

9. (x 1)2 + y 2 = r2 , (0 < r < 1) , Y ,


, ( (torus) ). .

,
Y

r2 , 2r,

.............................................
........
....
..............
....................

Pappus II,

.....................
.........
......
.....
....
....
...
...
.
...
.
.
...
.
.
..
...
..
....
...
...
..
...
.
.
...
.
.
....
......
....
.......... ...............
.........

2 2

V = 2 r = 2 r ,
A = 2 2r = 4 2 r.

r
0

....................
.........
......
.....
...
....
...
...
..
.
.
...
.
.
..
.
....
..
...
..
..
...
..
...
.
.
...
..
.
.
....
......
....
.......... ..............
..........

-X

( : Pappus ,

. )

737

7.6

, ,
.
(arithmetic mean), n a1 , a2 , , an

n ,

a1 + a2 + + an
.
n
, ? , f Df [a, b] ,

{f (x) | x [a, b]} . ,

7.6

282

7.13
f : [a, b] R , f (mean value)
Z b
1
M=
f (x) dx.
ba a
:
1 {a1 , , an }( R) () (arithmetic mean)
n

1X
A=
aj .
n j=1
2 {a1 , a2 , , an , },
n

1X
A = lim
aj , ( ).
n+ n
j=1
3 f : [a, b] R,
Pn = {x0 , x1 , , xn },

[xk1 , xk ] tk = (xk + xk1 )/2, k = 1, , n,

A(n) = {f (t1 ), , f (tn )}


n

1 X
1X
f (tk ) =
f (tk )xk .
=
n j=1
b a j=1

2 , :

f = lim A(n)
n+

1 X
f (tk )xk
n+ b a
j=1
Z b
1
=
f (x) dx.
ba a

= lim

: : f 0, f

f (x) dx
M(b a) =
a
{z }
|
| {z }
f

( 738).

...........
...... ..........
...
...
...
...
.
. . . . . . ...... . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . ...
. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ...
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . ...... . . . ......
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
. . . . . . . . . .......... . ........ .
. . . . . . . . . . ......... . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

738

-X

7.7

283

1. a b , f : [a, a] R : f (x) =

b 2
a x2 .
a

Y
Z

1
f (x) dx
a (a) a
Z a
b
a2 x2 dx
= 2
2a a
b a2 []
= 2
,
2a
2
b
= .
4

M=

[]

2.

.....b..............................f
............
.
. . ......... . . . . . . . . .......... . .
. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . .... .
. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

739

2. S r ,
A : [r, r] R : A(x) = X x S .

[0, r] , A(x) .

A(x) = ( r2 x2 )2 = (r2 x2 ),
Z
Z
1 r
1 r
M=
A(x) dx =
(r 2 x2 ) dx
r 0
r 0
x3 ir 2 2
h 2
r x
=
= r .
r
3 0 3

7.7

, Riemann .
: , f
Z
f (x) dx = F (x) + C,

b
a

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).

: , : 4,
Z /2
sink x
dx, k .
sink x + cosk x
0

-X

7.7

284

: , 1,

n+1

[x] dx.

: ,

exp(x2 ) dx, ( 2 ).

, :
Z 2
Z 1
Z 1
Z 1
sin x
2
4
dx,
1 + x dx,
sin x dx,
exp(x2 ) dx.
x
1
0
0
0
, , ,
, . ,
, ;
, , .
7.14 [ (trapezoidal rule) ]
f : [a, b] R , Pn = {x0 , x1 , , xn } [a, b] ,

f (x) dx
a

T =

x =

x
(y0 + 2y1 + 2y2 + + 2yn1 + yn ),
2

ba
, yk = f (xk ), k = 0, 1, , n.
n
f

....................
......
.....
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
....
.....
......... ............
...

x0 x1 xk xn
xk1

-X

.................
......
.....
......
.....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
..
...
....
....
....
....
......... ............
......

x0 x1 xk xn
xk1

-X

740
, f > 0 ( ), P = {x0 , x1 ,

, xn } , yk = f (xk ), k = 0, , n, f X n
(y0 + y1 ) x
, (x0 , 0), (x1 , 0), (x1 , y1), (x0 , y0 )

2
Z x1
f (x) dx , , n
x0

x
(f (x0 ) + 2f (x1 ) + + 2f (xn1 ) + f (xn )).
2

7.7

285

f [a, b] , c (a, b)
Z b
b a
f (x) dx = T
f (c)(x)2 .
12
a
T ,

b a
f (c)(x)2 .
12

7.15 [ Simpson ]
f : [a, b] R , Pn = {x0 , x1 , , xn } [a, b] , n
Z b
,
f (x) dx Simpson
a

S=

x =

x
(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 + 2y4 + + 4yn1 + yn ),
3

ba
, yj = f (xj ), j = 0, 1, , n.
n

:
1 :

(x0 , y0), (0, y1) (x2 , y2 ) , x0 = x2 . h = x0 = x2 ,

, Y ,
y = ax2 + bx + c,

(1)

ih
b 2
(ax + bx + c) dx = x + x + cx
h
3
2
h
2a 3
= h + 2ch = ().
3
(h, y0 ), (0, y1 ), (h, y2 ) (1) ,

y0 = ah bh + c,
y1 = c,

y2 = ah2 + bh + c.

y0 y1 = ah bh,
y2 y1 = ah2 + bh,

y0 2y1 + y2 = 2ah2 .

1
() = h(y0 2y1 + y2 ) + 2hy1
3
h
= (y0 + 4y1 + y2 ).
3

ha

..........
............ ..................
.......
......
.

y0
h

y1
0

741

y2
h

-X

7.7

286

2 :

: x0 < x1 < < xn , ( n ),


ba
h = x =
,
n
h
(x0 , y0), (x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ) [x0 , x2 ] (y0 + 4y1 + y2 );
3
h
(x2 , y2), (x3 , y3 ) (x4 , y4 ) [x2 , x4 ] (y2 + 4y3 + y4 );
3
h
(x4 , y4), (x5 , y5 ) (x6 , y6 ) [x4 , x6 ] (y4 + 4y5 + y6 );
3
..
.
(xn2 , yn2 ), (xn1 , yn1) (xn , yn ) [xn2 , xn ]
h
(yn2 + 4yn1 + yn );
3
,
1
S = h(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 + 2y4 + + 4yn1 + yn ),
3

f (x) dx Simpson .

f [a, b] , c (a, b)
Z b
b a (4)
f (x) dx = S
f (c)(x)4 ,
180
a
S ,
1.

b a (4)
f (c)(x)4 .
180

exp(x2 )dx , 105 ,


0

[0, 1] n , n ?
(1) ;

(2) Simpson .

f (x) = exp(x2 ),
f (x) = 2x exp(x2 ),
f (x) = 2 exp(x2 ) + 4x2 exp(x2 ) = 2(2x2 1) exp(x2 ),
f (x) = (12x 8x3 ) exp(x2 ),
f (4) (x) = (12 48x2 + 16x4 ) exp(x2 ).
(1) :

7.7

287

0 < x < 1 0 < x2 < 1


1 < 2x2 1 < 1
|2x2 1| < 1

|f (x)| < 2.
b a






5

2
<
10

f
(c)(x)



< 105
12
1
1
2 2 < 105

12
n
n 130.

, T = 0.7468205.

742 ( : )
(2) Simpson : g(x) = 12 48x2 + 16x4 , g (x) = 16x(4x2 6) < 0,
x (0, 1), g (0, 1) ,

0 < x < 1 g(0) > g(x) > g(1)


12 > g(x) > 20
|g(x)| < 20
|f (4) (x)| < 20.

b a







f (4) (c)(x)4 < 105
< 105
180
1
1
20 4 < 105

180
n
n 10.27
n 12.

, S = 0.7468245.

288

: .

7-1 x =

y3 y2 y
+
8x = y 3 .
4
8
4

7-2 y = | sin x| y = x2 2x .
7-3 y = x, y = x + 2 y = (x 1)2 (1, 0) .
( , ).

7-4 f (x) = sin x g(x) = cos x [0, 2] .


7-5

x(t) = cos t,
y(t) = sin 2t,

0 t 2.

(a) ;
(b) .
7-6 f : R R : f (x) = 1 cos x, A B (b, 1 cos b)
(b, 1 cos b), (0 < b < /2), S(b) y = 1 cos b f ;
T (b)
T (b) ABO , O . lim+
=?
b0 S(b)
Y

...................
.................
......
........
......A
.....
.
...................................................................................................................................................B
.
.
.
............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................
................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................
.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................
................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................
...... ............ . . . . . . . . . ........... .....
........ ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. ........
....... ........... . . . . . . . . . ........... ......
....... .............. . . . ............. ......
................................................

f (x) = 1 cos x

-X

7-7 :

x+

y = 1 x + y = 1 X

289

7-8 y = x2 2x + 4 x + y = 2 (a) x = 2; (b) X ;

.

x = t sin t,
t [0, 2], X X .
7-9
y = 1 cos t,

x2 y 2
+
= 1 ; X Y
a2 b2
. S .

7-10 S

7-11 R , ,

, ?
7-12 f : [0, +) R X [0, a] , X

a2 + a, a 0, f (x) =?

[ ] .

7-13 f (x) =
7-14 y =

 14 
 2
1
x3
3,
s .
+
1,
6
2x
3
3

 4x2
9

+1

3/2

 125 
s .
(0, 1) 2,
27

7-15 5y 3 = x2 x2 + y 2 = 6 s .
7-16 y =

7-17 y =

x x2 + sin1

x .

1
x3
+
x = 1 x = 2 X
3
4x

7-18 3x2 + 4y 2 = 3 X .
x2 y 2
l
x2 y 2
+
=
1

+ 2 = 2 l, m.
=?
2
2
2
a
b
a
b 
m
x = a cos t,
t [0, 2].
[ ]
y = b sin t,

7-19

: ,
, perimeter of an ellipse, .
7-20 50 , ,

100 , .
[ ] .

290

7-21 2 , 0.5 , h ,

? ?
7-22 1 , 2 : 1,

.
7-23 y = 7 x2 , X X ,

(4, 0) . , .

?
7-24 r, L , ( ),

, k . : h , ( 0 < h < 2r ),
?
7-25 y = x2 y = x + 2 R . R y = x + 2

sin x
dx , , 103 ,
x
1
n ?

7-26

7-27 f . :
Z b
ba
(f (a) + 4f (c) + f (b)),
f (x) dx =
6
a

c = (a + b)/2.

Chapter 8

, ,
(Homer) Achilles (Paradox), ,

Achilles , , , Zeno
(Zenos paradox).
Achilles X , X B ( L),
X , Achilles u v, Achilles B
vt1
,
t1 , B1 ( L + vt1 ), Achilles B1 t2 =
u
B2 ( L + vt1 + vt2 ), , Achilles ,

T = t1 + t2 + = t1 + t1

v
u

+ t1

 v 2
u

+ =

t1
1

v
u

L
u v.

()

L
. ()
uv
, , .

Achilles

, , , ,
, . ,
, .
, ,
, , 1822 Fourier
Fourier , , Fourier
.
(), .
291

8.1

8.1

292

, () :
1, 2, 3, , n,

1 1 1
1
, , , ,
,
3 4 5
n+2

1, 1, 1, , (1)n ,
sin 1, sin 2, sin 3, , sin n,
e0 , ln 1, e2 , ln 3, , e2k2 , ln(2k 1),

, , , . ,
, : , : n n
. .

8.1
(sequence) f : N S : n 7 f (n) = an , S ,

{an }nN {an }n {an }n1 {a1 , , an , }. S = R, {an }n

, .

8.2 ( )
(1) {an }n (convergent), lim an ,
n+

l R, > 0, n0 N, ( n N)(n > n0 |an l| < ).


( 81 ).
(2) {an }n (divergent), {an }n .
(3) {an }n (null sequence), lim an = 0.
n+

, ,
, > 0, .

8.1

293

..

. ... . . .

..

..

..

..

..

..

. ..

. .. f
. . ..
. ..

. . .. . .

. . . . . . . ..

.. .. .. .. ... .... ...... .......... ................

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

-X

81

8.3 ( )
(1) lim g(x) = l g|N (n) = an , n N, lim an = l.
x+

n+

(2) , .
(3) , .
(4) f (n) = an , n N, N A B
lim f |A (n) 6= lim f |B (n),

n+

n+

{an }n .
(5) ()

an bn cn , n N lim an = lim cn = l, lim bn = l.


n+

n+

n+

(2) (3), .
(2) = 1,
h
i
{an }n l R, n0 N, (n N)(n > n0 |an l| < = 1)
(n > n0 l 1 < an < l + 1)

n N, min{a1 , , an0 , l 1} an max{a1 , , an0 , l + 1}


{an }n .

8.1

294

(3) {an }n (), A = {an | n N},

sup A , a = sup A,

a = sup A ( > 0, n0 N, an0 > a )


h
i
> 0, n0 N, ( n N)(n > n0 a < an a)

lim an = a.

n+

{an }n .

1. { n n}n1 ? , .

g : [1, +) R : g(x) = x1/x , lHospital ,


lim x1/x = exp

x+


ln x 
1/x 
= exp lim
= e0 = 1,
x+ x
x+ 1
lim


lim n1/n = lim g N (n) = 1.
n+

n+

2. p > 0, { n p}n1 ? , .


1
1/n
ln p = e0 = 1.
lim p = exp lim
n+
n+ n
n

1 n o
?
n
nN

1 x
, lHospital
g : [1, +) R : g(x) = 1 +
 x 1 n
: lim g(x) = e, lim 1 +
= lim g|N (n) = e.

x+
n+
n+
n

3.

4. an =

1+

1 3 (2n 1)
, n N. {an }n .
2 4 (2n)

, (a), , (b).
(a) ,
{an }n , 0 < an < 1, n N ;
{an }n ,
an+1 =

1 3 (2n 1)(2n + 1)
2n + 1
= an
< an .
2 4 (2n)(2n + 2)
2n + 2

{an }n .

8.1

295

(b) n N,
1 3 5
2n 1

2 4 6
2n
1 3 5
2n 1 
2

an = an
2 4 6
2n
2 4 6
2n  1 2 3
2n 1
2n
< an
=

3 5 7
2n + 1
2 3 4
2n
2n + 1
1
=
2n + 1
1
.
0 < an <
2n + 1

an =

, lim an = 0.

n+

5. n N, an =

 1 n n
n

, {an }n ?

A = {2k 1 | k N}, B = {2k | k N},


1 x
,
g : [1, +) R : g(x) = 1
x


lim g(x) = e1 .
x+

1 n A,
lim

n+,nA

an =

2 n B,
lim

n+,nB

 n 1 n

= lim g|A (n) = e1 ;


n+
n+,nA
n
lim

an =

lim

n+,nB

 n 1 n
n

= lim g|B (n) = e1 ;


n+

{an }n . ( 82 ).
Y

e1
.
0 .
0

5
.

10
.

15
.

20

82

.
f

25

30

-X

8.2

296

8.2
8.4

{an }n ,
n N, sn = a1 + + an ,

{sn }n () ((infinite) series)


n (partial sum).

+
X

an . sn

n=1

8.5
(1) {sn }n ( lim sn = s),
n+

(sum).
(2) {sn }n ,

+
X

+
X

an , s

n=1

an .

n=1

8.6 ( )

+
X

an a,

n=1

+
X

+
X
n=1

bn b; , R,

(an + bn ) a + b.

n=1

+
X

(an + bn ) n sn ,

n=1

sn =

n
X

(aj + bj ) =

j=1

lim sn = lim
n+

1:

+
X

n+

n
X

an ,

n=1

+
X

n+

, .

n
X

bj ,

j=1

bj = a + b.

j=1

bn ,

n=1

cn = an + bn , n N,

n
X

aj +

j=1

aj + lim

j=1

n
X

+
X

(an + bn ) . :

n=1

+
X
n=1

cn ,

+
X
n=1

bn =

+
X
n=1

(cn an )

8.2

297

2 : ,

+
X

(an + bn ) .

n=1

.
8.7 ( )

+
X

an , lim an = 0.
n+

n=1

sn

+
X

an n ,

n=1

+
X
n=1

lim sn , s

an

n+

n+

lim an = lim (sn sn1 ) = s s = 0.


n+

1 : 0, lim an = 0,
n+

+
X

an ,

n=1

: . : ,
+
X
1
, ().
, :
n
n=1
2 : : , .
(general term test).
3 : ,
lim an = 0

n+

, lim |an | =
6 0,
n+

1.

+
X

(1)n

n=1

an = (1)n

lim |an | = 0.

n+
+
X

an , .

n=1

n
?
1+n

n
,
1+n
n
= 1 6= 0,
n+ 1 + n

lim |an | = lim

n+

, .

8.2

298

2. (geometric series)
+
X
n=1

ar n1 = a + ar + ar 2 + + ar n1 +

, , a > 0.

1 |r| < 1 , sn n ,

 

n1
2
n1
n
sn rsn = a + ar + + ar
ar + ar + + ar
+ ar
= a ar n = a(1 r n ),

sn =

a(1 r n )
,
1r
a(1 r n )
a
a
=
lim (1 r n ) =
.
n+
1r
1 r n+
1r

lim sn = lim

n+

a
.
1r

2 |r| 1 ,
(
a,
|r| = 1,
lim a|r n1| =
n+
+, |r| > 1,

, .

8.8 ( )

k () , bn = an+k , n N,
+
X

+
X

an

n=1

bn .

n=1

sn tn

+
X

an

n=1

+
X

bn n ,

n=1

sn+k = a1 + + ak + ak+1 + ak+2 + + ak+n


= a1 + + ak + b1 + b2 + + bn
= sk + tn ,

8.2

299

tn = sn+k sk .
lim tn = l sk .

n+

sn = tnk + sk ,

+
X

an l, lim sn+k = l, ( 8-4),


n+

n=1
+
X
n=1

bn l sk . ,

+
X

bn m,

n=1

lim sn = lim tnk + sk = m + sk ,

n+

+
X

n+

an m + sk .

n=1

1 : .
2 : n 1, ,
n0 N n n0 , .

3.
1

1
1
1
1
+ 2 + 3 ++ n +
2 2
2
2

?
, 1/2, .

8.9 ( Cauchy )

+
X

an

n=1

k
X




> 0, n0 N, ( k, m) k > m > n0
an <

( Cauchy .)

+
X

n=m+1

an l,

n=1



> 0, n0 N, ( n N) n > n0 |sn l| <
,
2
+
X
an n ,
sn
n=1




|sm l| <
k > m > n0 |sk l| <
2
2
|sk sm | <
k
X




an < .
n=m+1

, Cauchy , , .

8.3

300

: Cauchy .

8.3

, (positive term series).


8.10 ( )

+
X
n=1

an , {sn }n1 , 0 sn M,

n N,

+
X

an .

n=1

{sn }n , , {sn }n . 

1.

+ 
X
n=1

n
2
, .
5 + (1)n

1 ,
sn =

n 
X
j=1

j
2
5 + (1)j

n

1
1
1
2
1
+ 2 + 3 + 4 ++
2 3
2
3
5 + (1)n
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+ 2 + 3 + + n < + 2 + 3 + = 1.
2 2
2
2
2 2
2

2 n , n = 2k,
1
1
1
1
1
1
sn = s2k = + 2 + 3 + 4 + + 2k1 + 2k
2 3
2
3
2
3
1
1
1  1
1
1 
+ 3 + + 2k1 + 2 + 4 + + 2k
=
2 2
2
3
3
3
1 k
1 k
1 1 (9)
1 1 (4)
+ 2
=
1
2
3
1 4
1 19
 1 k  1 
 1 k 
2 
= 1
+ 1
3
4
8
9
.

1 ,
+ 
X
n=1

n
2
19
= lim sn = lim s2k =
n
n+
k+
5 + (1)
24 .

8.3

301

8.11 [ (comparison test) ]

+
X

an ,

+
X

bn .

n=1

n=1

+
X

(1) an bn , n N,
(2) lim

an
= c.
bn

c (0, +),
c = 0,

+
X
n=1

n=1

c = +,

+
X
n=1

+
X

+
X

an

an .

n=1

n=1


bn .


bn .

n=1

an

n=1

n=1

+
X

+
X

(1) sn tn
+
X

an

+
X

an

n=1

bn

+
X

+
X
n=1


bn .

bn n ,

n=1

bn {tn }n
{tn }n
{sn }n , ( sn tn )

+
X

an .

n=1

(2) 0 < c < + ,


a
c

an
c
n

lim
= c > 0, n0 N, n > n0 c <
n bn
2
bn
2

c
an
3c 
c
<
<
> 0, n0 N, n > n0
2
2
bn
2


c
c
3c
> 0, n0 N, n > n0 bn < an <
bn ,
2
2
2

(1)

+
X
n=1

bn

+
X

an .

n=1

, , ,
, , ,
.

8.3

302

8.12 [ (integral test) ]


g : [1, +) R+ , g(n) = an , n N,
!
Z +
+
X
an
g(x) dx .
1

n=1

n N, g , g ,
Z n+1
bn =
g(x) dx ( 0 ),
n

lim

k+

k
X

bn =

g(x) dx, ( 83 )

n=1

bn =

n+1

n+1

bn =

n+1

g(x) dx

n+1

g(x) dx

g(n) dx = g(n) = an ,

(1)

g(n + 1) dx = g(n + 1) = an+1 ,

(2)

...
...
...
...
...
....
....
.....
......
......
.......
.............
. ......
....... ..............
......
.....
...
an ......................
.....
.....
...
.......
...

n
n+1

...
...
...
...
...
...
....
.....
.....
......
.......
........
.......
....... .............
.....
......
.....

.....
.....
...
.......
.....
.....
...
.......
...

-X

g
an+1

n
n+1

-X

83 : an , an+1 .

+
X

an , (1)

bn ,

n=1

n=1

+
X

g(x) dx ,

+
X

g(x) dx

bn , (2) ,

n=1

, .

+
X

an

n=1

8.3

303

+
X
1
2. p (p-serirs)
.
p
n
n=1

+
X
1
1
1 p 0 , lim
6= 0,
.
p
n+ n
np
n=1
1
2 p > 0 , g : [1, +) R : g(x) = p , g ,
x
1
g(n) = p , n N ;
n
Z +
+
X
1
(i) p > 1 ,
g(x) dx ,
;
np
1
n=1
Z +
+
X
1
(ii) 0 < p 1 ,
g(x) dx ,
.

np
1
n=1

+
+
X
X
1
1
:
= +,
, ,
2
n
n
n=1
n=1
2
.
6

8.13 [ (ratio test) ]


an+1
= r.
n+ an

an > 0, n N lim
(1) r < 1,

+
X

an ;

n=1

(2) r > 1,

+
X

an ;

n=1

(3) r = 1, ( ) .

(1) r < 1, =

1r
> 0, b = r + ,
2

0 < b < 1;
1r
an+1
lim
= r, =
> 0, n0 N,
n+ an
2
a

n+1

n n0
r < ,
an

8.3

304

(n n0

an+1
< r + = b) (n n0
an

an0 +1

an0 +2

an0 +3

...

an+1 < an b)
< an0 b
< an0 +1 b < an0 b2
< an0 +2 b < an0 b3

j N, an0 +j < bj an0

+
X

an0 +j , ( )

j=1

+
X

an .

n=1

r1
> 0, b = r , b > 1,
2
a

h
i
an+1
n+1

lim
= r n0 N n n0
r <
n+ an
an
h
an+1 i
n n0 b = r <
an
h
i
n n0 an < an b < an+1 , ( b > 1 )

(2) r > 1, =

an0 < an0 +1 < an0 +2 <



.

+
+
X
X
1
1
(3) p ,
,
, r 1.
n
n2
n=1
n=1

3.
an =

+
X
n!
.
n
n
n=1

n!
,
nn
an+1
(n + 1)! nn
lim
= lim

n+ an
n+ (n + 1)n+1
n!
 n n
1
1
< 1.
= lim
=
= lim
1
n+ (1 + )n
n+ n + 1
e
n

+
X
n!
.
,
nn
n=1

8.3

305

8.14 [ (root test) ]


an 0, n N lim a1/n
= .
n
n+

(1) < 1,

+
X

an ;

n=1

(2) > 1,

+
X

an ;

n=1

(3) = 1, .

(1) < 1, =
n0 N,

1
> 0, b = + , 0 < b < 1; lim a1/n
= ,
n
n+
2


< ,
n > n0 a1/n

(n > n0 a1/n
< + = b) (n > n0 an < bn )
n

+
X

an , ( )

n=n0 +1
+
X

an .

n=1

1
> 0, b = , b > 1,
2


h
i
1/n

1/n
lim an = n0 N n n0 an <
n+
i
h
1/n
n n0 1 < b = < an
h
i
n n0 1 < an

(2) > 1, =

.
+
+
X
X
1
1
(3) p ,
,
, 1.
n
n2
n=1
n=1

4.

+ n
X
e
n=1

, R, .

+
X
1
.
= 0, =
n
n=1

8.4

306

2 6= 0, ,
 en 1/n
e
= lim
= lim 1/n = e .
n+
n+ n
n
< 0, > 1, .

> 0, < 1, .

, , , .
+
X
n
.
5.
2
n +1
n=1
+
X
1
p
,
3/2
n
n=1

n
2
n2
= 1,
lim n + 1 = lim 2
1
n+ n + 1
n+
n3/2
, .

8.4

, (alternating series),
+
X
n=1

(1)n+1 an = a1 a2 + a3 a4 + + (1)n+1 an +
+
X
n=1

(1)n an = a1 + a2 a3 + + (1)n an +

an > 0, n N.

8.15 [ Leibniz (Leibniz rule) ]

+
X

(1)n+1 an :

n=1

1 n N, an > 0 ;
2 n N, an+1 an ;
3

lim an = 0 ;

n+

8.4

307

sn n ,
a1
.......................................................................................
.................
.............
...............................................
.............
...........
.....................
.............
..........
...........
.............
..........
.........
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
........
.....
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
........
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
........
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
..
.......
.....
.
.
.
.
............
.
........ ..
.
... .................
.
.
.
.............................4
.........
...
.
...........
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.............
..
.....................
.............
.............................................................
....
....
...
...
..
..
2
.....
.....
...
...
..
..
....
.....
......
.....
.
.

-X

. .

s2

. .

s4 s6

s5 s3

s1

-X

84
s2n = s2n2 + a2n1 a2n s2n2 , ( a2n1 a2n ),

{s2n }n . n N,
s2n = a1 (a2 a3 ) (a4 a5 ) (a2n2 a2n1 ) a2n a1 ,

{s2n }n , {s2n }n , l.
{s2n1 }n a1 a2

, {s2n1 }n , m.

l m = lim s2n lim s2n1


n+

n+

= lim (s2n s2n1 ) = lim (a2n ) = 0.


n+

n+

l = m, lim sn .

n+

1.

+
X
n=1

an =

(1)n

ln n
?
n

ln n
, ,
n

1 n N \ {1}, an > 0;
2 n 3, an+1 < an , D
3

lHospital ,

 ln x 
x

1 ln x
< 0, x > e.
x2

1/x
ln x
= lim
= 0,
x+ 1
x+ x
lim

lim an = 0.
n+

Leibniz .

8.4

308

+
X
:
(1)n+1 an , an+1 an , n N, lim an 6= 0,
n+

n=1

, .

2.

+
X

(1)n+1

n=1

 n n
?
n+1

, , . , an =

 n n
,
n+1

1
= e1 > 0.
n+ (1 + 1 )n
n

lim an = lim

n+

3. :
+
X
(1)n+1
n=1

=1

1 1
(1)n+1
+ +
+
2 3
n

ln 2.

Leibniz . ,
f : [0, 1] R : f (x) = ln(1 + x).

Df (x) = (1 + x)1 ,
D 2 f (x) = (1 + x)2 ,
D 3 f (x) = 2!(1 + x)3 ,
D 4 f (x) = 3!(1 + x)4 ,
..
.
D n f (x) = (1)(n+1) (n 1)!(1 + x)n ;

Taylor , c (0, 1)
f (1) = ln(1 + 0) +

(1 + 0)1 (1 + 0)2 2!(1 + 0)3


+
+
+
1!
2!
3!
(n 2)!(1 + 0)n+1
+ Rn (1),
+ (1)n
(n 1)!

Rn (1) = (1)n+1

(n 1)!(1 + c)n
(1)n+1
=
.
n!
n(1 + c)n

ln 2 = 1

1
1 1
+ + (1)n
+ Rn (1),
2 3
n1

()

8.4

309

sn n ,
() sn1 = ln 2 Rn (1), n 2

lim sn1 = ln 2 0, 0 |Rn (1)| =
n+

ln 2 =

4. :

+
X
(1)n+1

n=1

1
1
<
n(1 + c)n
n

sin x
dx .
x

1
0

....................
........
......
......
......
sin x
......
...... f (x) = x
......
......
..................................................
........
.......................
.................................. .............................................
................
..............
..............
..........................................

-X

85

, ( ). .
Z n
| sin x|
an =
dx, n N, ( : a1 ),
x
(n1)
1 an > 0, n N;
2 n N;
an+1 =

=
3

Z
Z
Z

(n+1)
n
n
(n1)
n
(n1)

| sin x|
dx
x

| sin(t + )|
dt, ( t = x )
t+
| sin t|
dt <
t+

n
(n1)

| sin t|
dt = an ;
t

lim an = 0;

n+

Leibniz ,

+
X

(1)n an , ,

n=1

F : [1, +) R : F (t) =

sin x
dx,
x

8.5

310

, t > 1,
F (t) =

[t]
X

(1) an +

lim F (t) = lim

t+

t+

+
X

[t]
X

t[t]

[t]

n=1

sin x
dx
x

(1) an + lim

t+

n=1

t[t]

[t]

sin x
dx
x

(1)n an , ( ).

n=1

8.5

, ,
.

8.16

+
X
n=1

|an | ,

+
X

an .

n=1


bn = an + |an | =

0 bn 2|an |;
an = bn |an |,

2an , an 0,
0,

+
X
n=1

+
X

an < 0,

bn ; , n N,

an .

n=1

. ,

+
X
(1)n+1
n=1

, Leibniz

+
+
X
(1)n+1 X 1
. .
,
=

n
n
n=1
n=1

8.5

311

8.17

+
X
n=1

+
X
n=1

|an | ,

|an | ,

convergent).

1. p

+
X

an (absolutely convergent);

n=1

an ,

n=1

+
X
(1)n+1
n=1

+
X

np

+
X

an (conditionally

n=1

(1)n+1
.
an =
np
1 p 0 , lim |an | =
6 0,
n+

2 p > 0 ,

+
X

an , .

n=1

+
X

+
X
1
(i) p > 1 ,
|an | =
, 2 ,
p
n
n=1
n=1
.
+
+
X
X
1
, 2 ,
(ii) 0 < p 1 ,
|an | =
np
n=1
n=1
+
X
Leibniz
an , .

n=1

a1 + a2 + + an + , a2 + a1 + a3 + a4 + + an + ,

, , .
, ,
, .

8.18

T : N N ,
bn = aT (n) , n N,

+
X

n=1
+
X

an

+
X

bn , :

n=1
+
X

bn

n=1

n=1

an (rearrangement).

8.5

312

2. T : N N : T (n) =
+
X
n=1

+
X

n + 1, n ,
n 1, n ,

T ,

aT (n) = a2 + a1 + a4 + a3 + a6 + a5 +

an .

n=1

8.19

+
X

an s,

n=1

an ,

n=1

s.

+
X

, . r,
, r, ,
, Rudin: Principles of Mathematical Analysis, 2nd ed. .

3. 3
ln 2 = 1

1 1
(1)n+1
+ +
+ .
2 3
n

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
+ + + +
+
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
1
1
1
1
1
ln 2 = 0 + + 0 + 0 + + 0 + 0 +
+
2
2
4
6
8
10
ln 2 = 1

+)

3
1 1
1
1 1
1
ln 2 = 1 + 0 + + + 0 + + + 0 +
2
3 2
5
7 4
9
,

8.5

313

8.20 ( )
a
n+1
an =
6 0, n N lim
= r.
n+
an
(1) r < 1,

+
X

an ;

n=1

(2) r > 1,

+
X

an ;

n=1

(3) r = 1, .

(1) r < 1 , ,

+
X

an , .

n=1

(2) r > 1 , ,

+
X
n=1

lim |an | =
6 0

n+

+
X

|an | ,

lim an 6= 0,

n+

an , .

n=1

(3) 1 p , r 1. r = 1 ,

, .

8.21 ( )
lim |an |1/n = ,
n+

(1) < 1,
(2) > 1,

+
X

n=1
+
X

an ;
an ;

n=1

(3) = 1, .

8.20 , .

4.

+
X
n=1

(1 n1/n )n ? ? ?

8.6

314

an = (1 n1/n )n , 1 lim n1/n = 1,


n+

lim |an |1/n = lim ((n1/n 1)n )1/n

n+

n+

= lim (n1/n 1) = 0 < 1,


n+

8.6

. ,
. {f0 , f1 , . . . , fn , . . .}, fn D .
+
+
X
X
x D,
fn (x), D x
fn (x) ,
n=0

+
X

n=0

fn (x) . ,

n=0

, .
,

+
X

fn (x), , ,

n=0

. , .

8.22
p, c0 , c1 , , cn , R,
+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n = c0 + c1 (x p) + c2 (x p)2 +

x p (power series), cn n (the n-th coefficient).


, : x , ?
:
c (x p)n+1
n+1

1 : lim
< 1 x ,
n+
cn (x p)n
, .
2 : lim |cn (x p)n |1/n < 1 x ,
n+

, .

8.6

315

1. x ,

+ n
X
x
n=0

n!


n+1

x


(n + 1)!
= lim |x| 1 = 0 < 1, x R,

lim
n
n+ n + 1
n+

x
n!

x R, .

2. x ,

+ n
X
x
n=1

n+1

x


n+1
n
= |x|,
lim n = lim |x|
n+
x n+ n + 1
n

|x| < 1 , , |x| > 1 , . ,


+
X
1
x = 1 , =
.
n
n=1
+
X
(1)n
Leibniz .
x = 1 , =
n
n=1
, x [1, 1) ,

+ n
X
x
n=1

8.23

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n , :

(1) x = p ;
(2) R ;
(3) r, (p r, p + r) ,
(, p r) (p + r, +) .

8.6

316

8.24
8.23 (3) r

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n (radius of con-

vergence). 8.23 (1) 0, (2)

+.

+
X
n=0

(interval of convergence).

cn (x p)n

, ,
, ,
.
8.25 ( )

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n cn ,

c
n+1
(1) lim
= 0, + ;
n+
cn
c
1
n+1
(2) lim
= l (0, +), ;
n+
cn
l
c
n+1
(3) lim
= +, 0.
n+
cn

c
n+1
(1) lim
= 0, x R \ {p},
n+
cn
c
c (x p)n+1
n+1

n+1
lim
= 0 < 1.
= |x p| lim
n
n+
n+
cn (x p)
cn

R .
c
n+1
(2) lim
= l (0, +),
n+
cn
c
c (x p)n+1
n+1

n+1
=
|x

p|
lim
lim

= |x p| l,

n
n+
n+
cn (x p)
cn

|x p| < 1/l, , |x p| > 1/l, .


c
n+1
(3) lim
= +, x 6= p,
n+
cn
c
c (x p)n+1

n+1
n+1
=
|x

p|
lim
lim
= + > 1.


n+
n+
cn (x p)n
cn
x = p .

8.6

317

8.26 ( )

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n .

(1) lim |cn |1/n = 0, + ;


n+

(2) lim |cn |1/n = l (0, +),


n+

1
;
l

(3) lim |cn |1/n = +, 0 .


n+

8.25 , .

3.

+
X
n=1

n+1
xn .
(n + 2)(n + 3)

1 ,
n+2
(n + 2)2
(n + 3)(n + 4)
= 1,
= lim
lim
n+ (n + 1)(n + 4)
n+
(n + 1)
(n + 2)(n + 3)

1.
2

+
X
1
x = 1,
,
n
n=1

n+1
n(n + 1)
(n + 2)(n + 3)
lim
= 1,
= lim
1
n+
n+ (n + 2)(n + 3)
n

+
X
n=1

n+1
.
(n + 2)(n + 3)

x = 1, Leibniz ,
g : [1, +) R : g(x) =

x+1
(x + 2)(x + 3) ,

x2 + 2x 1
< 0, x 1. g [1, +) ,
(x + 2)2 (x + 3)2
+
X
(n + 1)(1)n
.
lim g(x) = 0,
x+
(n + 2)(n + 3)
n=1

g (x) =

4 [1, 1).

8.6

4.

+
X
n=1

318
1
.
+5

x2n

, 8.25 8.26 ,
() .
1 |x| > 1, an =

1
,
+5

x2n

1
a
2n
2n+2
n+1
x
+ 5 = lim x + 5
lim
= lim
1
n+
n+
n+ x2n+2 + 5
an
x2n + 5
5
1 + 2n
1
x
= 2 < 1.
= lim
5
n+ 2
x
x + 2n
x

(, 1) (1, +) .

2 |x| = 1,

1
1
1
=
lim
=
6= 0,
n+ x2n + 5
n+ 6
6
lim

, .
3 |x| < 1,
lim

1
1
= 6= 0,
+5
5

n+ x2n

, .
(, 1) (1, +) .

5. x R

+  n
X
x
n=0

n!

n2 
?
xn

+ n
X
x
n=0

+ n
X
x
n=0

n!

+ 2
X
n
n=0

xn

n!

+ 2
X
n
n=0

xn

, 1 R.
, x = 0 , , x 6= 0 ,


(n + 1)2


 n + 1 2 1
n+1
1

=

lim x 2 = lim
n+
n+
n
n
|x|
|x| ,


xn

8.7

319

|x| > 1 ,
,

+ 2
X
n

n=0

8.7

n=0

+ 2
X
n

1n

xn

; 0 < |x| < 1 ,

. x = 1 ,

+ 2
X
n
n=0

+
X
n=0

xn

. x = 1

n2
.
(1)n

, |x| > 1 , .

8.27
f p N (p) ,
+ (n)
X
f (p)
n=0

n!

(xp)n = f (p)+f (p)(xp)+

f (p)
f (n) (p)
(xp)2 + +
(xp)n +
2!
n!

f p Taylor ; p = 0 , Maclaurin . > 0,


+ (n)
X
f (p)
(x p)n , f p (analytic).
x N (p), f (x) =
n!
n=0
8.28
f p : > 0, x N (p), lim Rn (x) = 0.
n+

Rn (x) f p n Taylor .

Pn1 (x) =

n1 (j)
X
f (p)
j=0

j!

(x p)j , f p Taylor n ,

Taylor ,

f (x) = Pn1 (x) + Rn (x), x N (p).

lim Rn (x) = 0 f (x) = lim Pn1 (x)

n+

n+

f (x) =

1. f (x) =
.

+ (n)
X
f (p)
n=0

n!

(x p)n.

1
Maclaurin , , f 0
1x

8.7

320


f (x) = (1 x)1 ,

f (0) = 1,

f (x) = 2!(1 x)3 ,

f (0) = 2!,

f (x) = (1 x)2 ,

f (0) = 1,

f (x) = 3!(1 x)4 ,


..
.

f (0) = 3!,

f (n) (x) = n!(1 x)n1 ,

f (n) (0) = n!.

f Maclaurin
+
X
0

xn = 1 + x + x2 + + xn + ,

1
= f (x),
1x
, (1, 1); , x (1, 1), f (x) Maclaurin

x , x (1, 1),
, f 0 .

, Taylor ,
. f N(p) , f p Taylor N(p) ,
Taylor N(p) , f (x), f , :

2.
f : R R : f (x) =

exp(1/x2 ), x 6= 0,
0,

x = 0,

0 .
Y

.................................
......
................
.............................
..........
...............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.....
f ..............
.....
....
.....
....
...
.
.
...
.
.
...
...
...
..
...
.. .
.
...
.
...
...
...
....
.
...
...
...
...
....
.
....
..............................

86

-X

8.8

321

x 6= 0, f (x) = D(exp(1/x2 )) = 2x3 exp(1/x2 ).


f (x) f (0)
exp(1/x2 )
1/x
= lim
= lim
x0
x0
x0 exp(1/x2 )
x0
x

f (0) = lim

x
1/x2
= lim
= 0.
2
3
x0 2 exp(1/x2 )
x0 [exp(1/x )](2/x )

= lim

f (x) =

2x3 exp(1/x2 ), x 6= 0,

x = 0.

0,

, f (x), f (x), , f

(n)

, f 0 Maclaurin
+ (n)
X
f (0)
n=0

n!

xn =

+
X
n=0

(x), , , f

0 xn = 0 + 0 + + 0 + = 0, x R.

Maclaurin x R , f (x), x = 0,

f 0 . ( 86 ).

8.8

8.27 8.28 p , ,
, . , r > 0,
r +.
8.29

+
X
n=0

an (x p)n

x (p r, p + r),
+
X
n=0

+
X
n=0

an (x p) +

bn (x p)n r1 (> 0), r2 (> 0),

+
X
n=0

bn (x p) =

+
X
n=0

(an + bn )(x p)n ,

r = min{r1 , r2 }.

1 ,

8.8

322

8.30

+
X
n=0

an (x p)

x (p r, p + r),
+
X
n=0

n=0

bn (x p)n r1 (> 0), r2 (> 0),

+
+
 X
 X
n
cn (x p)n ,
an (x p)
bn (x p) =
n

n=0

n=0

r = min{r1 , r2 }, cn =

+
X

n
X

ak bnk .

k=0

, .

, , ,
. , ,
.

8.31

+
X
n=0

r.

cn (x p) r,

+
X
n=1

ncn (x p)n1

8.32

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n r +,
f : (p r, p + r) R : f (x) =

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n .

f ,

x (p r, p + r), f (x) =

+
X
n=1

ncn (x p).n1


8.8

323

: n ,
D

n
X

fk (x) =

k=1

n
X

Dfk (x).

k=1

, ?
:
D

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)

= f (x) =

+
X
n=1

ncn (x p)

n1

+
X
n=0

, D

Dcn (x p)n ,

8.33

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n r +,
f : (p r, p + r) R : f (x) =

+
X
n=0

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n .

cn (x p)n f p Taylor . ( f p ).

8.34

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n r +,
f : (p r, p + r) R : f (x) =

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n .

x (p r, p + r), f [p, x] ,
Z x
+
X
cn
f (t) dt =
(x p)n+1
n
+
1
p
n=0

8.8

324

: , n ,

Z bX
n
a

fk (x) dx =

k=1

k=1

:
=

f (t) dt =

+
X
n=0

x
p

n Z
X

+
X
n=0

fk (x) dx.
a


cn (t p)n dt,
+

X
cn
(x p)n+1 =
n+1
n=0
Z

cn (t p)n dt.
P

1. .

+ n
X
x
n=0

n!

, 1 , R .

f : R R : f (x) =

+ n
X
x
n=0

n!

=1+

x
x2
xn
+
++
+ ,
1! 2!
n!

8.32 , x R,

f (x) = D

+ n 
X
x
n=0

n!

+
X

xn X xn1
=
D
=
= f (x),
n!
(n 1)!
n=0
n=1

f (0) = 1, , f = exp.

2. .

+
2n
X
x2n+1
n x
,
(1)
(1)
(2n + 1)! n=0
(2n)! ,
n=0

+
X




x2n+3
n+1

(1)

1
(2n + 3)!

= lim |x2 |
= 0,
lim
2n+1

n+
(2n + 2)(2n + 3)
n+
(1)n x

(2n + 1)!



x2n+2
(1)n+1



1
(2n
+
2)!
= lim |x2 |
lim
= 0,
2n

n+
(2n + 1)(2n + 2)
(1)n x
n+


(2n)!

8.8

325

R .
+
X

x2n+1
x3 x5
f : R R : f (x) =
(1)
=x
+
,
(2n + 1)!
3!
5!
n=0
+
X

x2 x4
x2n
=
1

+
,
g : R R : g(x) =
(1)
(2n)!
2!
4!
n=0
n

8.32 , x R,
x2 x4 x6
+

+ = g(x),
f (x) = 1
2!
4!
6!
x3 x5 x7
g (x) = x +

+
= f (x),
3!
5!
7!

f (0) = 0, g(0) = 1, , f = sin, g = cos.

3. Maclaurin .
1 , x R,
x

e =

+ n
X
x
n=0

=1+

x
x2
xn
+
++
+ ,
1! 2!
n!

=1

x
x2
xn
+
+ (1)n + ,
1! 2!
n!

n!

, x R,
x

+
X
(x)n
n=0

n!

x R,
+
+
1 x
1  X xn X (x)n 
x
sinh x = (e e ) =

2
2 n=0 n! n=0 n!
+

x
x3 x5
1 X 2x2n+1
= +
+
+ ,
=
2 n=0 (2n + 1)!
1! 3!
5!

+
+
1 x
1  X xn X (x)n 
x
cosh x = (e + e ) =
+
2
2 n=0 n! n=0 n!
+

1 X 2x2n
x2 x4 x6
=
=1+
+
+
+ .
2 n=0 (2n)!
2!
4!
6!

4.
(1) f (x) = ln(1 + x) Maclaurin ;
(2) g(x) = ln(1 x) Maclaurin ;

8.8

326

(3) h(x) = ln x .

(1)

+
X
n=0

(x)n , x 1 , ,

x (1, 1),
+

X
1
= 1 x + x2 + (1)n xn + =
(x)n .
1+x
n=0

8.34 , x (1, 1),


f (x) = ln(1 + x) =
=

+
X

(1)n

n=0

x
0

X
dt
=
1 + t n=0

tn+1 x
=
n+1 0

+
X

(1)n

n=0

(t)n dt
0

xn+1
n+1

x2 x3 x4
xn
= x
+

+ + (1)n1 + .
2
3
4
n
(2) (1) , x (1, 1),
g(x) = ln(1 x) = f (x) = x

xn
x2 x3 x4

.
2
3
4
n

(3) (1) , x (0, 2),


h(x) = ln x = f (x 1)
= (x 1)

(x 1)2 (x 1)3 (x 1)4


+

+
2
3
4
(x 1)n
+ .
+ (1)n1
n

: 3 :
ln 2 = 1

(1)n+1
1 1
+ +
+ .
2 3
n

(1)
x (1, 1], ln(1 + x) = x

5.

xn
x2 x3 x4
+

+ + (1)n1 + .
2
3
4
n

1
1
ln
Maclaurin .
1x 1x

, x (1, 1),
f (x) =

1
= 1 + x + x2 + + xn + .
1x

8.8

327

4 ,
g(x) = ln

1
x2 x3
= ln(1 x) = x +
+
+ ,
1x
2
3

X X xn 
1
1
ln
= f (x)g(x) =
xn
1x 1x
n
n=0
n=1



1 2
1 1 3
x + 1+ +
x + .
= x+ 1+
2
2 3

6. f (x) = (1 + x) , R.

(1) f Maclaurin ;

(2) Maclaurin ;
(3) g(x). :
(1 + x)g (x) = g(x) (1 + x) = g(x).

(1)
f (x) = (1 + x)1 ,
f (x) = ( 1)(1 + x)2 ,
..
.
f (n) (x) = ( 1) ( n + 1)(1 + x)n ,

f (0) = , f (0) = ( 1), , f (n) (0) = ( 1) ( n + 1), f


Maclaurin
1+

+
X
( 1) ( n + 1)
n=1

n!

+  
X
n
x .
x =
n
n=0
n

, , : R, n Z+ .

  ( 1) ( n + 1)
, n N,

n!
=

n
1,
n = 0,

(2) N, f Maclaurin , +, 6 N,

1.








n+1
n

= 1,


  = lim
lim
n+
n+ n + 1

8.8

328

+  
X
n
x ,
(3) g : (1, 1) R : g(x) =
n
n=0

 
 
   
n
2

x +
x ++
x+
+
g(x) =
n
2
1
0
 
 
 
n1

x
+
x++n
+2
g (x) =
n
2
1
 
 
 
n
2

x +
x ++n
x+2
xg (x) =
n
2
1

 

+ 
X

xn
+n
(1 + x)g (x) =
(n + 1)
n
n
+
1
n=0
+  
X
n
x , ( )

=
n
n=0
= g(x),

h : (1, 1) R : h(x) =

g(x)
,
(1 + x)

g (x)(1 + x) g(x)(1 + x)1


(1 + x)2
(1 + x)1 ((1 + x)g (x) g(x))
=
= 0, x (1, 1)
(1 + x)2

h (x) =

h(x) = C, x (1, 1)
h(x) = 1, x (1, 1), ( x = 0 h )
g(x) = (1 + x) , x (1, 1).

, R,

(1 + x) =

+  
X

n=0

xn , x (1, 1),

(binomial series).

: .

tan x, cot x, sec x, csc x Maclaurin ,


, Taylor, A.E.: Advanced Calculus, (1955), 19.3.

, , Mathematica, Maple, MathCAD .

8.9

8.9

329

, ,
, Simpson ,
, , .
1.

exp(t2 ) dt 0.005.

1 , x R,
exp x =

+ n
X
x
n=0

t2 x, t R,

exp(t2 ) =

n! ,

+ 2n
X
t
n=0

Z 1
+ Z
X
2
exp(t ) dt =
0

n=0

1 2n

n! ,
+

X
t
1
dt =
n!
n!(2n + 1) ,
n=0

m ( : 0 m 1 ) ,

, E(m),
E(m) =

+
X

1
n!(2n + 1)
n=m

1
1
1
+
+
+
m!(2m + 1) (m + 1)!(2m + 3) (m + 2)!(2m + 5)
1
1
1
+
+
+

m!(2m + 1) m!(m + 1)(2m + 1) m!(m + 1)2 (2m + 1)




1
1
1
1+
+
+

=
m!(2m + 1)
(m + 1) (m + 1)2
1
1
m+1
=

=
1
m!(2m + 1)
m m!(2m + 1) ,
1
m+1

|E(m)| < 0.005

m+1
< 0.005
m m!(2m + 1)

m 5.

exp(t2 ) dt ,

0
4
X
n=0

1
1
1
1
1
=1+ +
+
+
1.46177.
n!(2n + 1)
3 10 42 216

330

()

..
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()

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Leibniz

...
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Taylor

+, , , D,

331

8-1 ? .
 n
n n h n io
e
;
(d)

;
(a)
nn n1
3
3 n1
 n


e
;
(e) n(p1/n 1) n1 , p > 0.
(b)
n! n1


cos(n/2)
;
(c)
n
n1
8-2 an =

n
X
k=1

n
, : {an }n , .
(n + k)(2n + k)

[ ] an Riemann .
8-3 an+2 =

an + an+1
, n N, : {an }n ,
2
lim an =

n+

a1 + 2a2
3
.

8-4 {an }n , lim an = l R, 8.2 : lim an+1 = l.


n+

8-5 {an }n {bn }n :


(i) a1 > b1 > 0;
(ii) n N, an+1 =

p
an + bn
, bn+1 = an bn ;
2

: {an }n {bn }n .

[ ] .

8-6 ? , .

n+


(a)

332

+
X

1
;
n(n + 1)

n=1

(b)

+
X
n=0

(c)

+
X
n=1

(d)

+
X
n=1

(e)

+
X
n=2

(1)n t2n+1 , |t| < 1;

(f)

n(n 1)0.5n ;

+
X
n=1

2n + 3n
;
6n

(g)

+
X
n=1

1
;
2
4n 1

(h)

+
X

n
;
(n + 1)!
1
;
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
tan1

n=1

1
.
1 + n + n2

8-7 ?
(a)

+
X

3 n

ne

(d)

n=1

(b)

1
(1+ n
)

(e)

n=1

(c)

n=1

1/2
n3 + n
;
+
X
k=1

8-9

+
X
tan1 n
n=1

8-8
+
X

n2 1

n=2

+
X

+
X

+
X

pk

(f)

+
X
n=1

n2 + 1

1/2

nn+1
.
(9 + n)!

1
, 0 < p < q, .
qk

an , :

n=1

+
X
n=1

a2n
.
1 + a2n

8-10 ?
(a)

+
X

(1)n+1

n
;
n+1

(1)n

1
;
2n 1

n=1

(b)

+
X
n=1

(c)

+
X

ln n
(1)n ;
n
n=1

1
,
n ,
n
n
(d)
(1) an , an =
1

n=1
, n .

(n 1)n
+
X

8-11 : an 0, n N
[ ] .

+
X
n=1

an ,

+
X
an
n=1

333

8-12 .
+
X
(n!)2 2n
x ;
(a)
(2n)!
n=1

(b)

+
X

2n xn ;

n=1

(c)

+
X

(1)n

n=1

x2n1
.
2n

+
X
x2n+1
8-13
?
2n
+
1
n=0

[ ] ; 8.27 .
Z

dt
, tan1 x Maclaurin .
2
1
+
t
0
1 1 1

(b) : = 1 + + .
4
3 5 7
1

8-14 (a) tan

x=

8-15 x

+
X
n=1

| ln x|n .

x8 x9 x10 x11
8-16 : x R ,

+ > 0.
8!
9!
10! 11!

8-17 sin1 x Maclaurin .


[ ] , .
8-18
f : R R : f (x) =

Maclaurin .

0,

x < 0,

x4 , x 0,

Chapter 9
n
, f : A B, A , B ,

AR

BR

B Rm

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

A Rn

(1) A B , f ;
(2) A , B , f , ;
(3) A , B , f , ;
(4) A, B , f .

, ,
, , .
, n , 2D, 3D,
, , , ,
.

9.1

, , ,
.
. R +, , ,
.

(R, +, , ) ,

. R2 = R R = {(x, y) | x, y R}, :
def

334

9.1 n

335

: (x1 , y1) + (x2 , y2 ) = (x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 ),


: (x, y) = (x, y), R.
R2 .
y

..
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1
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.....
......

.2(x, y)

...........
(x2 ,......y.......2.......).......................................... (x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 )

.(x , y )
1

(x, y)

91
. R3 = R R R = {(x, y, z) | x, y, z R}, :
def

(addition) : (x1 , y1 , z1 ) + (x2 , y2 , z2 ) = (x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 , z1 + z2 ) ,


(scalar multiplication) : (x, y, z) = (x, y, z),
R.

R3 .

. Rn = {(x1 , , xn ) | x1 , , xn R}, :
def

: (x1 , , xn ) + (y1 , , yn ) = (x1 + y1 , , xn + yn ) ;


: (x1 , , xn ) = (x1 , , xn ), R .
qP
n
2
: |(x1 , , xn )| =
j=1 xj ;
qP
n
2
: d((x1 , , xn ), (y1 , , yn )) =
j=1 (xj yj ) ;
(Rn , +, , d) n (Euclidean space);

, x = (x1 , , xn ) Rn (vector), , ~x.


n > 1 Rn .



: N (p) = x Rn |p x| < , p Rn , > 0 ;
def

N (p)

= N (p) \ {p} ;

def

: A Rn , p Rn , p A (accumulation point),

> 0, N (p) A 6= ; A A , A
(derived set).

k(x1 , , xn )k.

9.1 n

336

: A Rn , p Rn , p A (interior point),

> 0 N (p) A. A A , A

(interior).

A Rn , A (open set), A = A. A (closed

set), A A. A (bounded), A . ,

A , A (compact set).

x2 y 2
n
o

1. p = (2, 1) R2 , A = (x, y) +
1 .
9
4
(1) p A ?

(2) p A ?
(3) A ?
(4) A ?
(5) A ?

(1) p = (2, 1)
25
22 12
+
=
< 1,
9
4
36

p A , p A , p A
.
Y

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............................................

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...
... .. . ... .....
..

-X

-X

92

(2) p A , , = 0.01,
N (p) A, p A .
x2 y 2
o
n


+
< 1 (
(3) , A , A = (x, y)
9
4
92 ), A .

9.1 n

337

x2 y 2
n
o

(4) , A = (x, y)
+
1 = A, A .
9
4
(5) A N4 (0, 0), , (4) , .

.
R , , R2
. R3 , ,
1 , R3 x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) .
,
i = (1, 0, 0), j = (0, 1, 0), k = (0, 0, 1),

(coordinate vectors), x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) R3 ,


x = x1 i + x2 j + x3 k.

A(x1 , x2 , x3 ) B(y1 , y2 , y3) A B

AB, , B A BA,

(free vector), , AB,

C(z1 , z2 , z3 ), O C OC AB
, , z1 = y1 x1 , z2 = y2 x2 , z3 = y3 x3 . R2

, Rn . n,
n , n = 1, 2, 3 , ,
,

V 2 = {OA | OA }.

(x, y) R2

R2

V2

R2 V 2 , , :

u u
, i, j, k i, j, k.

9.2

338

(1) : R2 V 2 : (a, b) = OA, A = (a, b), ,(,

()).
Y

...........................................
..........
.......
.......
.....
....
.....
...

A
-X

......
....
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
....
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.
.
.
.
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.
.
.
.
..
.....
.....

-X

93

(2) ((a, b) + (c, d)) = (a, b) + (c, d) ,


Y

(a + c, b + d)

.
...........
........ ...
........ ......
.........
...
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
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...
....
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...
...
....
....
....
.
.
.
.
.
..
......
...
.........
....
.........
....
.........
....................
.
.
..
.........

(c, d)

(a + c, b + d)

...................................
.............
........
........
......
.....
......
...
..

.
........
......
.....
......
.....
.
.
.
.
.
...
......
.....
.....
....
.....
...
......
.... ..........
.
.
.
...
.
.... .......
...........
.... ...... ...........
........... ..........
.............................
.
.
.. ..
.........

(c, d)

.(a, b)

(a, b)

-X

-X

94
(3) ( (a, b)) = (a, b).

, , .
. , R3 V 3 , . n > 3 , Rn V n .

9.2

xy x , .

9.2

339

9.1
(1) x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ), y = (y1 , y2 , y3) R3 , x y
(cross product)

x y = (x2 y3 x3 y2 )i + (x3 y1 x1 y3 )j + (x1 y2 x2 y1 )k




i j k
















x1 x2
x1 x3
x2 x3
k = x1 x2 x3 .
j+
i
=









y1 y2
y1 y3
y2 y3
y1 y2 y3

(2) x = (x1 , , xn ), y = (y1 , , yn ) Rn , x y


(inner product or scalar product)
xy =

n
X

xj yj .

j=1

, () () , n
. (scalar multiplication) (scalar product) ,
() , , n (dot product)
.

x Rn , x x = |x|2 . ()
x y () , [0, ],
"

x y = |x| |y| cos .


1

, = cos

xy
.
|x| |y|

yx

x, y, y x , 95 .

O
2

..........
.... .......
...
...
....
...
.
....
...
....
...
...
.
.
....
.
.
....
..
.
.
..
...
.......
.
..
........
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.
.
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
...
.......
...
.......
.......
...
......
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.. .... ......
... ........
... .......
.. ......
......

|y x| = |x| + |y| 2|x||y| cos .

95

2|x||y| cos = |x|2 + |y|2 |y x|2


= x21 + x22 + x23 + y12 + y22 + y32 (y1 x1 )2 (y2 x2 )2 (y3 x3 )2
= 2(x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 ) = 2(x y).

x y = |x| |y| cos .

9.2

340

: 0.
x, y, z Rn , , R,
(i) x y = y x ;
(ii) x y = (x y) ;
(iii) x (y + z) = x y + x z ;
(iv) |x y| |x||y|. ( Cauchy ).

(i) (iii) ;
(iv) x, y , , x, y Rn , n

, 10.24 .

x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) 6= (0, 0, 0)

i, j, k , , , x

(direction angles),
cos =

xi
x1
=
,
|x||i|
|x|

cos =

xj
x2
=
,
|x||j|
|x|

cos =

x3
xk
=
,
|x||k|
|x|

x (direction cosines).
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 =

x21 + x22 + x23


= 1.
|x|2

x ( x1 , x2 , x3
) l, m, n, x
(direction numbers).

96

9.2

341

: , p = (p1 , p2 , p3 )
v = (v1 , v2 , v3 ) L
x(t) = p + tv, t R,
( L ). v

(direction vector). ,

x = p1 + tv1 ,

1
x2 = p2 + tv2 ,

x3 = p3 + tv3 ,

Z
.
......
....
...
..
...........
...
.............
...
..............
.............
...
.............
... ............................
...
..............
.............. ...
...
..............
....
...
..............
...
...
...
...
...
....
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
... .....................
.
.
.
.
.....
...
.
.
.
.... .......................
.
....
.
. ..
.
.
...
.
..... .......................
.....
...
.....
.............
..............
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
...........
. ........
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............
........
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........
....
......

.p .p + tv

X
t R,

97

: v1 , v2 , v3 0, L
x2 p2
x3 p3
x1 p1
=
=
,
v1
v2
v3

: l, m, n v , L
x1 p1
x2 p2
x3 p3
=
=
.
l
m
n

: , x1 , x2 , x3 x, y, z.

, p = (p1 , p2 , p3 ) N = (A, B, C)
Q
(x p) N = 0,

A(x1 p1 ) + B(x2 p2 ) + C(x3 p3 ) = 0,

N l, m, n Q
l (x1 p1 ) + m(x2 p2 ) + n(x3 p3 ) = 0,

, N (normal vector).

1. : R3 , P (x0 , y0 , z0 ) E : ax + by + cz + k = 0
d=

|ax0 + by0 + cz0 + k|

.
a2 + b2 + c2

9.2

342

P E , .
P E . Q(x, y, z)
, P ()
M,
P QM ,
P M P E d,

98

MP N(a, b, c) ,

P M = | QP | | cos |, ( = QP N )

|N QP |

= | QP |

|N| | QP |

|N QP |
=
|N|
=

|a(x x0 ) + b(y y0 ) + c(z z0 )|

a2 + b2 + c2

|ax + by + cz (ax0 + by0 + cz0 )|

a2 + b2 + c2

|ax0 + by0 + cz0 + k|

.
a2 + b2 + c2

, , .
x y = (y x) .
x x = 0 .
(x) (y) = (x y) .
x (y + z) = x y + x z .
(x y) x = 0 = (x y) y .
|x y|2 = |x|2 |y|2 (x y)2 .
x, y , |x y| = |x||y| sin , [0, ] .
x, y , x y = 0 0 .

9.2

343

:
, x y x, y

|x y| = |x||y| sin

.
.......
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .....
...
.........
.
...
.......
......
.......
...
.
......
.
......
.
.
.
.
...
.
....
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
..
... .............
......
.. ..... ..
..
.........................................................................................................................

x, y ,

xy

x y (), x, y ,

, i, j, k ,

x, y, x y x y , (

i j = k), 99 .

99
2.
L1 :

y5
z7
x3
=
=
,
2
3
4

L2 : x =

y
z5
=
.
2
2

(1) , ;
(2) L1 L2 .

(1)

x = 2t + 3,

x3
y5
z7
=
=

y = 3t + 5,

2
3
4

z = 4t + 7,

x = s,

y
z5
x= =

y = 2s,

2
2

z = 2s + 5,

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

t, s R, (1) (6) s, t, x, y, z, , (1) (4)

(2) (5)

2t + 3 s = 0

(7)

3t + 5 2s = 0

(8)

(7), (8) t = 1, s = 1, (1), (2), (3) (4), (5), (6)

x = 1, y = 2, z = 3, , (1, 2, 3).

9.2

344

(2) ,

,

i j k


(2, 3, 4) (1, 2, 2) = 2 3 4

1 2 2





= 14 i + 8 j + k,


14(x 1) + 8(y 2) + (z 3) = 0.

3. L v = (l, m, n) Q(a, b, c),


L : (x, y, z) = t(l, m, n) + (a, b, c), t R.

: P (x0 , y0 , z0 ) L


i
j
k


det x0 a y0 b z0 c


l
m
n
| QP v|

d(P, L) =
=
|v|
l2 + m2 + n2

()

P L M, P
L , () , ,
P QM ,

P M P L ,

QP v ,

( MQP MQP ),

910

| QP v| = | QP | |v|| sin |

| QP v|
P M = | QP | | sin | =
|v|


i
j
k

det x0 a y0 b z0 c



l
m
n

=
l2 + m2 + n2

9.3

9.3

345

, ,
n , .
9.2
I R,
f : I Rn : t 7 f(t) = (f1 (t), , fn (t)),

n :

f1 : I R : f1 (t) = f(t) ,

..
.

fn : I R : fn (t) = f(t) n ,

f1 , , fn f (component functions),
f = (f1 , , fn ). I fj , f () ((space)

curve), ( n = 3 n = 2 ).

1.

x = cos t,
y = sin t,

t [0, 2],
f : [0, 2] R2 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t)

, f1 (t) = cos t, f2 (t) = sin t, t , f(t)


,
t

f(t)

0
/6

(1, 0)

/4

( 3/2, 1/2)

( 2/2, 2/2)

/2

(0, 1)

(1, 0)

3/2

(0, 1)

(1, 0)

9.3

346

f , , .
Y

f
................................
..............
........
.......
.....
.....
......
...
..

.
0 t

.........................................
.......
......
......
.... f(t)
.
.
.
....
...
.
...
.
...
...
...
..
.
..
....
...
...
.
.
...
0
..1
...
..
...
...
.
.
....
......
....
.....
.......
.........................................

911

-X

9.3
f : I( R) Rn ,
1 t0 I , f t0 , t0

lim f(t) =

tt0

def


lim f1 (t), , lim fn (t) ,

tt0

tt0

2 f t0 ( t0 I lim f(t) = f(t0 ) )


def

tt0

( f1 , , fn t0 ).

I , f : I R3 I , ,

( 4 ).

9.4
f : I Rn , t0 I I , f t0
f(t) f(t0 )
f (t0 ) = lim
def tt0
t t0
 f (t) f (t )
fn (t) fn (t0 ) 
1
1 0
, ,
= lim
tt0
t t0
t t0

= (f1 (t0 ), , fn (t0 )), ( fj (t0 ) ).

: n = 3 ,
f(t) = (f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t)) = f1 (t) i + f2 (t) j + f3 (t) k;
f (t) = (f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t)) = f1 (t) i + f2 (t) j + f3 (t) k.

9.3

347

: 6= I R,
n = 1, 2, 3 , f(t) t ( f
(position vector function)), f (t0 ) t0 (velocity vector),

|f (t0 )| (speed).
n = 2, 3 , f , f (t0 ) f(t0 ) (tangent vector),
f(t0 )
g : I Rn : g(t) = f(t0 ) + t f (t0 ).

2. ( 1 ) f : [0, 2] R2 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t) .


f (t) = ( sin t, cos t), |f (t)| = 1.
Y

.....
......
....
....
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......................
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
............
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........
.
.
................
....
.
.
.
...
. ......
.
.
...
....
...
....
...
....
....
....
..
....
..
....
..
.
.

f (t) = ( sin t, cos t)


f
................................................
......
.........
.....
......
...
......

.
0 t

. f(t)

...
..
...
...
0
...
... 1
.
...
....
...
...
.....
.
.
.
.
......
.........
......
.................................

912

-X

3. :
x2 + y 2 = 1, x2 + z 2 = 1,

 2 2
2
.
,
,

2
2
2

y 2 z 2 = 0, y = z, x = cos t, y = sin t, z = sin t,

f : [0, 2] R3 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t, sin t),


g : [0, 2] R3 : g(t) = (cos t, sin t, sin t).

9.3

348

913

 2 2

2
=g
g ( 2 ) ,
,
,
,
2
2
2
4
g (t) = ( sin t, cos t, cos t),

h(t) = g( ) + t g ( ),
4
4

 2 2
 2 2
2 
2
=
+t
,
,
,
,
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(1 t, 1 + t, 1 t), t R.
=
2

x=
(t 1),

2
t R.
(t + 1),
y=

z = 2 (t + 1),
2

2
2
2 
 
, 1, 1, 1,
=
,
,
g
4
2
2
2



2
2
2
=z+
x
= (1) y
.
2
2
2

9.3

349

4.

Z..

f : [0, 4] R3 :
f(t) =

......
...
.

cos t, sin t,

t
t
= cos t i + sin t j + k
2
2

. ( (helix) ).
914.

f (t) = ( sin t, cos t, 1/2),

|f (t)| =

5/2.

..
.........
................ ....................................
......
.......
...
.................
......
...
.....
...
....
...
...
...
...
..
...
.
...
...
...
...
.
.
...
.
..
...
.
....
......................................................... ...........
..
.
.......
.
..
.. ........ ........
...........
......
.............................................
....
....
...
...
...
...
...
.
...
...
....
..
..
.
.
...
...
..
............
....
..... .............................
.
.
.
.
...
....
........ .....................................
.....
.....
1..................................................
..
.....
.....
.....

914

5. (position vector function) r : [0, +) R3 ,

a(t) = (3, 0, 4e2t ), 0 v(0) = (1, 6, 0)


r(0) = (1, 2, 3). r(t) =?

v(t) = r (t), a(t) = v (t),


a(t) = (3, 0, 4e2t ) = 3 i + 0 j 4e2t k
Z
Z
v(t) = a(t) dt = (3 i 4e2t k) dt
= (3t + c1 ) i + c2 j + (2e2t + c3 ) k, ( c1 , c2 , c3 )
(1, 6, 0) = v(0) = c1 i + c2 j + (2e0 + c3 ) k = (c1 , c2 , 2 + c3 )
c1 = 1, c2 = 6, c3 = 2
v(t) = (3t + 1) i + 6 j + (2e2t + 2) k
r(t) = (

3t2
+ t + m1 ) i + (6t + m2 ) j + (e2t + 2t + m3 ) k,
2
( m1 , m2 , m3 )

(1, 2, 3) = m1 i + m2 j + (1 + m3 ) k = (m1 , m2 , 1 + m3 )
m1 = 1, m2 = 2, m3 = 4
r(t) =

 3t2
2


+ t + 1 i + (6t + 2) j + (e2t + 2t + 4) k.

9.3

350

, ,
Z t1 r 2  2
dx
dy
L=
+
dt,
dt
dt
t0
, n .

9.5
f = (f1 , , fn ) : [a, b] Rn , fj ( f

(smooth curve)), f
Z b
Z bp

(f1 (t))2 + + (fn (t))2 dt =


|f (t)| dt.
L(s) =
def

( ).

6. 4

Z..

f : [0, 4] R3 : f(t) =

t
cos t, sin t,
2

f
f1 : [0, 4] R : f1 (t) = cos t,
f2 : [0, 4] R : f2 (t) = sin t,
t
f3 : [0, 4] R : f3 (t) = ,
2

......
..
..

..
...........
............... ...................................
.......
......
...
......
.................
....
.....
..
....
...
...
...
....
..
..
...
..
...
..
.
...
.
.
...
..
...
.
....
......................................................... ...........
.......
..
.
..
..............
.........
.................................................. ...........
....
....
...
...
..
...
..
...
...
.
...
...
...
.
.
...
.
.
....
......
..... ....................... ......
................
.....
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.............
........
1.........................................................
......
......

914

1
f1 (t) = sin t, f2 (t) = cos t, f3 (t) = ,
2

L(s) =

4
0
4
0

p
(f1 (t))2 + (f2 (t))2 + (f3 (t))2 dt

5
dt = 2 5.
2

9.3

351

9.6
f = (f1 , f2 , f3 ) : [a, b] R3 ,
(1) f (t) ,
f (t)
|f (t)|
t (unit tangent vector).
T = T(t) =

(2) T (t) ,
T (t)
N = N(t) =
|T (t)|
t (principal unit normal vector).
B = B(t) = T(t) N(t)

t (unit binormal vector).


T(t) T(t) =

f (t) f (t)
= 1, t ,
|f (t)|2
2T (t) T(t) = 0.

N(t) T(t) , B(t) = T(t) N(t)

B(t) T(t), N(t) , T(t), N(t), B(t) ( 915 ).

7. 4 f : [0, 4] R3 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t, t/2) t = /6 T, N B.


f(t) = (cos t, sin t, t/2),
f (t) = ( sin t, cos t, 1/2),

f (t)
2
T(t) =
= ( sin t, cos t, 1/2),
|f (t)|
5
2
T (t) = ( cos t, sin t, 0),
5
T (t)
N(t) =
= ( cos t, sin t, 0),
|T (t)|




i
j
k




1
2
2

B(t) = T(t) N(t) = sin t cos t
5
5
5



cos t
sin t
0
sin t
cos t
2
= i j+ k
5
5
5
 sin t
cos t 2 
= , ,
5
5
5 .

9.3

352

2  1 3 1
T
= ,
, ,
6
2 2 2
5
   3 1 
=
, ,0 ,
N
6
2
2

  1
3
2 
= , , .
B
6
2 5
2 5
5
 

,
, , N
.

915
9.5,
f : [a, b] R3 : f(t) = (f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t)),

a t
s(t) =

Z tp

(f1 ( ))2 + (f2 ( ))2 + (f3 ( ))2 d.

, ,
s (t) =

p
(f1 (t))2 + (f2 (t))2 + (f3 (t))2 = |f (t)|.

. ( ).

9.7
f : [a, b] Rn , (n = 2 3), , f (t0 ) 6= 0,

T (t ) |T (t )|

0
0
k(t0 ) =
=
s (t0 )
|f (t0 )|

f f(t0 ) (curvature). k(t0 ) 6= 0 , ,


(t0 ) =

1
k(t0 )

f(t0 ) (radius of curvature).

(CV1)

9.3

353

..
..
..
..
...
....
...
...
....
....
... ......
.. .....
... ...
.. ....
........
.
.
..
......
.....
...
....
.....
.
.
.
.
........
.............
......... .... ..
..................... ...... ..
.
.
.
.
.
....
...
...
....
...
.
.
..
....
....

.P

-X

...
..
..
..
..
.
.
...
...
...
.
..
.
....
... .....
... ....
.. .....
.
.
... .....
........
......
.........
.
.......
.....
....
....
.
.
.
.
.
.....
....... ..
........... ...
................................. ..
...
.
.
....
...
....
...
....
.
.
.
....
....

.P

-X

916

T (t)
: k(t) = , :
s (t)

1 s, 916 X ,

;
2 ( t0 ) , ( :

).
3 T(t) ,
T = T(t) = (cos ) i + (sin ) j, ( t )

d
d
dT
= sin
i + cos
j, ( s t )
ds
ds
ds

p

dT d

= sin2 + cos2 = d ,
ds ds
ds

, ,

T(t) T(t0 )


T (t0 )
dT
T(t) T(t0 )
t t0
=
=
lim
.
=
lim
tt0 s(t) s(t0 )
ds t=t0 tt0 s(t) s(t0 )
s (t0 )
t t0

, k(t0 ).

, ,
() .
8. ( 7 ) f : [0, 4] R3 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t, t/2)
, .

9.3

354

7 ,

1
5

,
f (t) = ( sin t, cos t, 1/2), |f (t)| = 1 + =
4
2

2
2

T (t) = ( cos t, sin t, 0), |T (t)| = ,


5
5

t [0, 4],

(t) =


T (t) |T (t)|
2
4
2
k(t) = =
= = .
s (t)
|f (t)|
5
5
5

5
1
= .
k(t)
4

9.8
I , y = y(x), x I, , y
(x0 , y(x0 ))



|y |

k(x0 ) =

2
3/2
(1 + (y ) ) x=x0

(CV2)

y :

f : I R2 : f(t) = (t, y(t))

()

, x , t ,
t = x. , y y(t), (CV1),
p
() f (t) = (1, y ), |f (t)| = 1 + (y )2


f (t)
= (1 + (y )2 )1/2 , (1 + (y )2 )1/2 y
T(t) =
|f (t)|
 1
T (t) = (1 + (y )2 )3/2 2y y
2

1
(1 + (y )2 )3/2 2(y )2 y + (1 + (y )2 )1/2 y
2

2 3/2

2
2
= (1 + (y ) )
y y , (y ) + (1 + (y ) )
= (1 + (y )2 )3/2 y (y , 1)
p
|y |
1 + (y )2
|T(t)| =
(1 + (y )2 )3/2
|T (t)|
|y |
k(t) =
=
|f (t)|
(1 + (y )2 )3/2


|y |

k(x0 ) =
(1 + (y )2 )3/2 x=x0 .

9.3

355

9. y = x2 (1,1) .
, , , (CV1)
(CV2), , .
1 .

: (CV2),




|y |
2
2
5


k(1) =
=
=
.

(1 + (y )2 )3/2 x=1 (1 + 4x2 )3/2 x=1
25

: (CV1); :

f : R R2 : f(t) = (t, t2 ),

t0 = 1, f(t0 ) = (1, 1). (CV1),

f(t) = (t, t2 ) f (t) = (1, 2t), |f (t)| = 1 + 4t2 ,




1
f (t)
2t
=
T(t) =
,
|f (t)|
1 + 4t2
1 + 4t2

T (t) = 4t(1 + 4t2 )3/2 , 2(1 + 4t2 )1/2 8t2 (1 + 4t2 )3/2

4
2
8  
2 
4
T (1) = 3/2 , 1/2 3/2 = ,
5
5
5
5 5 5 5
2
|T (1)| =
5

|T (1)|
2 1
2 5
k(1) =
= =
.
|f (1)|
5
25
5

1
25
= 5.590.
k(1)
2 5
. C(x0 , y0 ) ,

2 , (1) =
3

:
P ( (1,1)), ,
,

C P P C N(t0 ) ,

T (1)
2 1 

N(1) =
=
, ,
|T (1)|
5 5

(x0 , y0) = (t0 )N(t0 ) + f(t0 ) = (1)N(1) + (1, 1)


2 1 
25 
= , + (1, 1)
2 5
5 5
= (4, 3.5).

917.

9.3

356
Y

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
...
0 0
.
..
. ..
...
. ..
.
.......
...
.......
. ..
.......
. .
...
........
. .
.......
. .
...
.......
. ...
.......
. ..
.......
.
.
.
.......
...
..
........
..
.......
. ..
....... ...
....... .
..
........
.
.
.
.
..............
.
..
...
... .................
..
.......
...
...
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
...
..
.......
.......
....
...
.......
.......
...
.....
........
.
.
.
.
....... ..
...
..
...
.....
...
.....
.
....
.
.
...
.....
.......
......
...............................
..
..
..
.
..
..
..
..
.
..
..
..
..
...
.
.
...
....

C(x , y )

y = x2

3
2

P(1,1)

-X

917

357

9-1 x, y, z R3 , , R, :
(a) y x = (x y) ;
(b) x x = 0 ;
(c) (x) (y) = (x y) ;
(d) x (y + z) = x y + x z ;
(e) (x y) x = 0 = (x y) y ;
(f) |x y|2 = |x|2 |y|2 (x y)2 ;
(g) x, y , |x y| = |x||y| sin [0, ] ;
(h) x, y , x y = 0 0 .
9-2 p = (1, 2, 3) p .
9-3 2x 3y + 5z + 1 = 0, 4x + 6y + 10z 2 = 0 , 0
9-4
L1 : 2x + 3c = y =

2z + 6c + 5
, L2 : 3x + c = 3y + 7c = z c + 2.
3

(a) c , ;
(b) , L1 L2 .
9-5 : R2 , P (x0 , y0 ) L : ax + by + c = 0
d(P, L) =

|ax0 + by0 + c|

.
a2 + b2

9-6 x, y, z R3 ,

|z (x y)|.

.
.......
...
..
.........................................................................................................................
...
......
.
...... ..
...... ...
...
...... ..
...... ..
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
...... .....
..
......
......
...
..
......
......
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.....
...
..
...
......
......
...
...
......................................................................................................................
.....
...
.
...
..
..
...
..
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
...
...
..
..
...
...
...
...
...
..
..
...
...
..
...
...
.
.
...
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
...
........ ....... ....... ....... ....... .......... ....... ....... ...........
...
........
...
.
...
...
..
......
...
...
.......
......
...
.
.
.
.
.
... .....
.
.
.
.
.
..
...
..
... ...
......
...
..
......
... .... .. ....
... ........
....... .......
... ........
..............................................................................................................................

xy
z

.
2

358

()
9-7
f : [0, 2] R2 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t),
g : [0, 2] R2 : g(t) = (cos 2t, sin 2t),
h : [0, 2] R2 : h(t) = (cos t, sin(t)).
(a) ;
(b) ? ,

? ?
9-8 f : [0, 3] R2 : f(t) = (t sin t, 1 cos t),

(a) t = k/6, (k = 0, 1, 2, , 18) , f(t) , f ;

(b) .

9-9 f : [0, 2] R3 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t, 1 cos t),

(a) , ;
(b) , ( ) .
9-10 :
(
x() = cos ,
y() = sin ,

0 2,

(a) : ; ;
(b) , ( , ) .
9-11 (Law of motion) F(t) = 3t i t2 j + t3 k, t = 2
(a) ;
(b) .
9-12 f : [0, 4] R3 : f(t) = (cos t, sin t, t/2) t = /6 .
( : , ).

9-13

x2 + y 2 = 1,
x2 xy + y 2 z 2 = 1,

R3 , .

9-14 cosh (0, 1) .


(
f(t) = (t, t, 2t), t R,
9-15
g(s) = (1 s, 2 + s, 1 + 2s), s R,


9-16

359
(

f(t) = (t2 , t 1, 2t + 1), t R,

g(s) = (5 s2 , 2 s, s + 1), s R.

(a) ;
(b) .
9-17 r : [a, b] Rn , ( n = 2 3), ,
s : [a, b] Rn : s(t) = r(a + b t)
def

r (opposite curve). : (1,0)


(1, 0) X . .

Chapter 10

, ,
, . ,
. , , ,
. , ,
.

10.1

10.1
Df Rn , n > 1,
f : Df R : (x1 , , xn ) 7 f (x1 , , xn ) = ,

() (a read-valued function of several variables).


, , .

1. f : R2 R : f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 , 101.
2. f (x, y) =

p
4 x2 y 2 , f .

f Df = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 22 }, (0, 0) 2
, 102.

, ,
, , .

360

10.1

361

102

101
10.2

f : Df ( Rn ) R, p Df , f p l, lim f (x) = l,
xp

> 0, > 0, ( x Df )(x N (p) |f (x) l| < ).

, , ,
, , , ,
, (), (). 10.2 : l
, p N (p), f (l , l + )

Df

.............................................
.....
..............
....
...........
.........
...
.......
.
.
.
.
...
.
....
.
.
.
..
.
.
...
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
. .
..
... ...
....
.
......
...
...
...
.
.
....

..
....
...
....

.....
...
......
...
......
.
..
.......
...
........
....
.........
..............
......
..................................

............................................
........
............
......
........
....
......
...
.....
....

.
N (p)

-X

103

, , ,
, , , .

10.1

362

10.3
f g , p Df Dg . lim f (x) = a lim g(x) = b,
xp

xp

(1) lim (f + g)(x) = a + b ;


xp

(2) lim (f g)(x) = a b ;


xp

(3) lim (f g)(x) = ab ;


xp

(4) lim (f /g)(x) = a/b, ( b 6= 0).


xp

(1) .
> 0,
|f (x) + g(x) (a + b)| < |f (x) a| + |g(x) b| <
|f (x) a| < /2 |g(x) b| < /2
0 < |x p| < 1 0 < |x p| < 2 ,
( lim f (x) = a, lim g(x) = b )
xp

xp

0 < |x p| < , ( = min{1 , 2 } ),

lim (f + g)(x) = a + b.
xp

10.4 ()

(i) Dg Df Dh ,
(ii) f (x) g(x) h(x), x N (p) Dg ,
(iii) lim f (x) = lim h(x) = l.
xp

xp

lim g(x) = l .
xp

10.1

363

10.5
A Rn , B, C R .
(i) f : A B lim f (x) = b,
xp

(ii) g : B C b,

lim g(f (x)) = g(b) = g( lim f (x)).


xp

xp

A......................................................
...
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
..
........
.
.
.
.
.
...
.....
.
p
.
....
.
.
.......
...
........
........
...
.
...........
.
.
...............
...
.............................

f
...............................................
......
.........
.....
......
....
......

.b B

........
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
........
.......
........
.....

h=gf

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
.....
.

C -

g(b)

104

1.21 .

10.6
lim f (x) = l, A Df , p A , lim f |A (x) = l .
xp

xp

1.16 .

: : . f , Df A B
p A B ,

lim f |A (x) 6= lim f |B (x),

xp

xp

lim f (x) .
xp

3. f : Rn R : f (x) = c, lim f (x) = c .


xp

4. j {1, 2, , n}, Pj : Rn R : Pj (x1 , , xn ) = xj j


(the j-th projection), : lim Pj (x) = pj = Pj (p) .
xp

10.1

364

: > 0, > 0, ( x Rn )(0 < |x p| < |Pj (x) Pj (p)| < ) .


> 0,

|Pj (x) Pj (p)| < |xj pj | <


v
u n
uX
t (xk pk )2 <
k=1

0 < |x p| <

0 < |x p| < , ( = ).

5. f : R3 R : f (x, y, z) = xyz + sin(x + y z),

lim

(x,y,z)(a,b,c)


f (x, y, z) =?

10.3, 10.5 4,
lim

(x,y,z)(a,b,c)

f (x, y, z) =

lim

(x,y,z)(a,b,c)

= abc + sin

xyz +

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

sin(x + y z)

(x + y z)

lim

(x,y,z)(a,b,c)

= abc + sin(a + b c).

6.

lim

(x,y,z)(a,b,c)

2
2
2x y , (x, y) 6= (0, 0),
x2 + y 2
f : R2 R : f (x, y) =

0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).
f (x, y) =?

Lm = {(x, y) | y = mx, x 6= 0}, m R, ( : Lm m ,


),

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

m ,

7.

2 m2
2x2 m2 x2
=
,
(x, y) = lim 2
Lm
x0 x + m2 x2
1 + m2

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

f (x, y) .

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

xy 2
, (x, y) 6= (0, 0),
f : R2 R : f (x, y) = x2 + y 4

0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).

f (x, y) =?

10.1

365

L = {(x, y) | 0 6= y = x},

...
...
....
....
...
.
.
..
.
.
....
...............
....
..............
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
..
....
............
.... ........
.... ......
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.............
............
..............
.
.
.
... .....
.........
....
.
.
..
.... ....
...
....
....

S = {(x, y) R2 | 0 6= x = y 2 },

x3
= 0,
x0 x2 + x4
(x,y)(0,0)

1
y4
= ,
lim f S (x, y) = lim 4
4
y0 y + y
(x,y)(0,0)
2

f L (x, y) = lim

lim

, f .

-X

2
3
..... 1
......
........
.........
..........
...........
.............
..............
...............
..............

105

;
, 10.3 10.5. , ,

.....
r............................. (x, y)

....
......
.......
.........
...... ...
.
.
.
.
.
.

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

(0, 0)

f (x, y) = l.

(x, y) R2 \ {(0, 0)}, r =

-X

x2 + y 2 , (x, y)

106

X , (X , ,

, 106), x = r cos , y = r sin .

8. f (x, y) =

2x3 y 3
, :
x2 + y 2

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

f (x, y) =?

x = r cos , y = r sin ,
|f (x, y)| = |f (r cos , r sin )|

3
2r cos3 r 3 sin3


=

r2
= r|2 cos3 sin3 |

p
r(|2 cos3 | + | sin3 |) 3r = 3 x2 + y 2 ,

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

r
p
3 x2 + y 2 = 3

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

2x3 y 3
= 0.
(x,y)(0,0) x2 + y 2
lim

(x2 + y 2) = 0,


10.1

366

10.7
f : Df R, p Df ,
p Df lim f (x) = f (p),
xp

f p . f A( Df ) p . f A
, f Df , f .

9. Pj : Rn R : Pj (x1 , , xn ) = xj , Pj .
4 .

10. f : R3 R : f (x, y, z) = xyz + sin(x + y z), f .


5 , f (a, b, c) , f .

(x y) sin 1 , x 6= 0,
2
x
11. f : R R : f (x, y) =

k,
x = 0.

k f .

A = {(x, y) | x = 0}, B = R2 \ A.
1 x 6= 0 ,

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

0 |f (x, y)| |x y| |x| + |y|,

|x| + |y| = 0,

2 k = 0,
3 k 6= 0,

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

f |B (x, y) = 0;

lim

f |A (x, y) = k = 0;

lim

f |A (x, y) = k 6= 0;

(x,y)(0,0)

(x,y)(0,0)

: 1 2 , k = 0 ,
lim

(x,y)(0,0)

f (x, y) = 0 = f (0, 0),

f . 1 3 , k 6= 0 ,
.

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

f (x, y) , f


10.2

10.2

367

, , .
, , , f
(x, y, f (x, y)) (), . ,

, .
, . ,
, .
,
(), , ,
. , ,
, , , .

10.8

Df R2 , f : Df R, p = (p1 , p2 ) Df , v = (v1 , v2 ) R2 (

v12 + v22 = 1 ).

(1) Dv f (p) = lim

def h0

f (p + hv) f (p)
, ( ),
h

f p v (directional derivative).
(2) v = (1, 0), f p x (partial derivative
f
(p),
of f at p with respect to x), D1 f (p)
x
f (p1 + h, p2 ) f (p1 , p2 )
,
h0
h

D1 f (p) = lim

( ).

(3) v = (0, 1), f p y , D2 f (p)


f

(p),
y
f (p1 , p2 + h) f (p1 , p2 )
,
h0
h

D2 f (p) = lim
( 107.)

( ).

10.2

368

107
f (p + hv) f (p)
f p v
h
, h 0, ().

107 ,

f , f () (partially differentiable). f
, f () (continuously partially differentiable).

D1 f (x, y) , f (x, y) y , x ,
D1 f (x, y).

D2 f (x, y) , f (x, y) x , y ,
D2 f (x, y).

Dv f (x, y) ,

: , ( , ).

: 10.13 : D1 f D2 f ,
Dv f (x, y) = v1 D1 f (x, y) + v2 D2 f (x, y).

10.2

369

: n , : p = (p1 , , pn ) Df ,
v Rn ( v12 + + vn2 = 1).

(1) f p v Dv f (p) = lim

h0

f (p + hv) f (p)
.
h

(2) f p xj Dj f (p) = Dv f (p), j = 1, . . . , n,



1, k = j,
v = (v1 , , vn ), vk =

0, k 6= j,
f (p1 , , pj1, pj + h, pj+1 , , pn ) f (p1 , , pn )
.
h0
h

Dj f (p) = lim
( ).

1. f : R2 R : f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 p = (1, 2)
 2
3 

v=
.
,
13 13
: ,
(1 + hv1 )2 + (2 + hv2 )2 (12 + 22 )
Dv f (1, 2) = lim
h0
h
2hv1 + h2 v12 + 4hv2 + h2 v22
= lim
h0
h
= lim (2v1 + hv12 + 4v2 + hv22 )
h0

16
= 2v1 + 4v2 = .
13

: ( ).
D1 f (x, y) = 2x, D2 f (x, y) = 2y, D1 f (1, 2) = 2, D2 f (1, 2) = 4. ,
D1 f D2 f , f p ,
2
3
16
Dv f (p) = v1 D1 f (p) + v2 D2 f (p) = 2 1 + 2 2 = .
13
13
13

(partial derivative of higher orders)

D1 f (x, y) , x y , D2 f (x, y) .

D1 D1 f (x, y) = D11 f (x, y)

D1 f (x, y)

D2 D1 f (x, y) = D12 f (x, y)


f (x, y)
(

D1 D2 f (x, y) = D21 f (x, y)

D
f
(x,
y)

D2 D2 f (x, y) = D22 f (x, y).

10.2

370

, :
dy
f (p) = Df (p) =
,
dx x=p

f (p) = D 2 f (p) =

d2 y
.
dx2 x=p

D1 f (x, y) =

f (x, y)
= f1 (x, y) = fx (x, y),
x

D2 f (x, y) =

f (x, y)
= f2 (x, y) = fy (x, y),
y

2 f (x, y)
D11 f (x, y) =
= f11 (x, y) = fxx (x, y),
x2
2 f (x, y)
= f12 (x, y) = fxy (x, y),
D12 f (x, y) =
yx
..
.

, , .
2. f (x, y) = yex + sin(xy) .
:
D1 f (x, y) = yex + y cos(xy),
D2 f (x, y) = ex + x cos(xy),
D11 f (x, y) = yex y 2 sin(xy),
D12 f (x, y) = ex + cos(xy) xy sin(xy),
D21 f (x, y) = ex + cos(xy) xy sin(xy),
D22 f (x, y) = x2 sin(xy).

, D12 f (x, y) = D21 f (x, y),


, .
3.

2
2
xy(x y ) , (x, y) 6= (0, 0),
x2 + y 2
f (x, y) =

0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).

: D12 f (0, 0) = 1, D21 f (0, 0) = 1.

10.2

371

2
(x + y 2 )[y(x2 y 2) + 2x2 y] 2x2 y(x2 y 2 )

, (x, y) 6= (0, 0),

(x2 + y 2 )2
D1 f (x, y) =

lim f (x, 0) f (0, 0) ,


(x, y) = (0, 0).
x0
x

2
2
2
3
4
2 3

(x + y )(3x y y ) 2x y + 2x y , (x, y) 6= (0, 0),


(x2 + y 2)2
=

0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).

2
(x + y 2 )[x(x2 y 2 ) 2xy 2 ] 2xy 2 (x2 y 2 )

, (x, y) 6= (0, 0),

(x2 + y 2 )2
D2 f (x, y) =

f (0, y) f (0, 0)

,
(x, y) = (0, 0).
lim
y0
y

2
2
3
2
3 2
4

(x + y )(x 3xy ) 2x y + 2xy , (x, y) 6= (0, 0),


(x2 + y 2)2
=

0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).

(y 5 /y 4) 0
D1 f (0, y) D1 f (0, 0)
= lim
= 1;
y0
y0
y
y

D12 f (0, 0) = lim

D2 f (x, 0) D2 f (0, 0)
(x5 /x4 ) 0
= lim
= 1.
x0
x0
x
x

D21 f (0, 0) = lim

: D12 f (p) D21 f (p) , , ,


D12 f (p) D21 f (p)? Young .

10.9 ( Young )
D12 f D21 f N (p) , D12 f (p) = D21 f (p).
h k

(p1 + h, p2 + k), (p1 + h, p2 ), (p1 , p2 + k) N (p).


A(h, k) = f (p1 + h, p2 + k) f (p1 + h, p2 ) f (p1 , p2 + k) + f (p1 , p2 ).

A(h, k) :

10.2

372


1 g(x) = f (x, p2 + k) f (x, p2 ),
A(h, k) = g(p1 + h) g(p1 )
= hg (p1 + h), ( , (0, 1) )
= h [D1 f (p1 + h, p2 + k) D1 f (p1 + h, p2 )]
= hk D12 f (p1 + h, p2 + k),
( , (), (0, 1) )

2 (y) = f (p1 + h, y) f (p1 , y), , ,
(0, 1)

A(h, k) = hk D21 f (p1 + h, p2 + k).


1
2
D12 f (p1 + h, p2 + k) = D21 f (p1 + h, p2 + k).

D12 f D21 f N (p),


D12 f (p1 , p2 ) =
=

lim

D12 f (p1 + h, p2 + k)

lim

D21 f (p1 + h, p2 + k)

(h,k)(0,0)

(h,k)(0,0)

= D21 f (p1 , p2 ).

Df (g(x)) = f (g(x)) g (x), .

4. z = g(x, y) = x sin y + y 2 cos xy, x = u + v, y = u v,


z
z
z = g((u + v), (u v)).
=?
=?
u
v

: ,
z = g(u + v, u v) = (u + v) sin(u v) + (u v)2 cos(u2 v 2 ),

z
= sin(u v) + (u + v) cos(u v)
u
+ 2(u v) cos(u2 v 2 ) 2u(u v)2 sin(u2 v 2 ),
z
= sin(u v) (u + v) cos(u v)
v

2(u v) cos(u2 v 2 ) + 2v(u v)2 sin(u2 v 2 ).

10.2

373

: , ( ).
z
z x z y
=

u
x u y u
= (sin y y 2 sin(xy) y) 1 + (x cos y + 2y cos xy xy 2 sin xy) 1
= sin y y 3 sin xy + x cos y + 2y cos xy xy 2 sin xy.

z x z y
z
=

v
x v y v

= (sin y y 3 sin xy) 1 + (x cos y + 2y cos xy xy 2 sin xy) (1)


= sin y y 3 sin xy x cos y 2y cos xy + xy 2 sin xy.

, x = u + v, y = u v,

10.10 ( )
A, B R2 ,
(i) f : A B f1 f2 N (p) ;
(ii) g : B R N (q), ( q = f(p) ), .

F = g f : A R : F (u, v) = g(f1 (u, v), f2(u, v))

p ,

F
g
f1

u (p) = x (q) u (p) +

g
f1
F

(p) =
(q)
(p) +
v
x
v

g
(q)
y
g
(q)
y

f2
(p),
u
f2
(p).
v

A
f

..........................
...............
.....
.............
...
..........
..
.......
.
...
.
.
.
.
....
.
..
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
...
.
....
..
.
.
...
.
..
...
...
.....
.
.
.....
.
...
.
.
....
..
.....
......
...

......
..
.......
...
.
.
........
.
...
.........
................ ...................
............

..........................
.......
....
......
...
......
...........................................
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
...
...
...... ....
......
.. ...
...
... ...
...
.
...
.. ..
....
...
...
..
..
...
..

..
...
...
....
...
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
....
..
.....
....
..
.....
.
.
.
....
.
.....
...
......
.....
....................
.....
.
.....
.....
....
.....
.
.....
.....
.....
.....
...
.....
...
.....
...
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
...
.....
.....
...
.....
....
.....
.....
...
.....
...
.....
.....
...
.....
..
.....
.......
.......
...
.

N (q)

N (p)

-u

F =gf

108

-x

-R

10.3

374

1 : :
f

f1
1
(p)
(p)
 F
  g
F
g  u

v
(p),
(p) =
(q),
(q)

u
v
x
y
f2
f2
(p)
(p)
u
v

:
F (p) = g (f (p)) f (p), F = g f.

.
2 : 10.10 , z = g(x, y), x = f1 (u, v), y = f2 (u, v),
F (u, v) = g(f1(u, v), f2(u, v)) = g(x, y) = z.

z x z
z

u = x u + y

z x z
z

+
v
x v y

10.3

y
,
u
y

.
v

n , , n = 2,
n 2 3.
, .

1 f p ;

f (t) f (p)
;
tp
tp


2 lim

f (x) f (p) m(x p)


= 0.
xp
xp


3 m R lim

,
2 , ,

, , , ( p )
,
3 , :
3 0

f (x) y = f (p) + m(x p) 0 |x p| .

,
3 : f (x, y) ()

z = f (p) + D1 f (p)(x p1 ) + D2 f (p)(y p2 )

10.3

375

0 |x p| . :
3 , ,

10.11
f n , p Df , Dj f (p) ,


f (x) f (p) + D1 f (p)(x1 p1 ) + + Dn f (p)(xn pn )
lim
= 0,
xp
|x p|

()

f p (differentiable).
f (x, y) , p,
, , , ,
. , n , .

10.12
f n , p Df , D1 f (p), . . . , Dn f (p) ,
f (p) = (D1 f (p), . . . , Dn f (p)) f p (gradient vector).
f () del f grad f , , f p

, , f p
, . .

10.13

f n , p Df , I II III,
I.

j = 1, , n, Dj f p N(p) ;

II. f p ;
III. f p v
Dv f (p) = v1 D1 f (p) + + vn Dn f (p) = v f (p).

.
: , .

10.3

376

10.14
f () , f p N(p) ,
(1) v f (p) 0 , f p v , (

).

(2) v f (p) , f p v , (

).

(3) v f (p) /2 , f p v 0.

v , 10.13 ,
Dv f (p) = v f (p) = |f (p)| cos .

v f (p) .
(1) = 0 , Dv f (p) |f (p)|.

(2) = , Dv f (p) |f (p)|.

(3) = /2 , Dv f (p) = 0.

1. (hyperbolic paraboloid) f (x, y) = y 2 x2 ,

(1, 2, 3), v = (v1 , v2 ) , (


), ().

D1 f (x, y) = 2x, D2 f (x, y) = 2y, f (1, 2)


v = (v1 , v2 )

Dv f (1, 2) = (v1 , v2 ) f (1, 2) = 2v1 + 4v2 .




v f (1, 2) ,

v1
v2
=
> 0 , ,
2
4
v1 = p
v2 = p

2
1
= ,
2
2
5
(2) + 4
2
4
= ,
5
(2)2 + 42

109

(1, 2, 3)

Dv f (1, 2) = |f (1, 2)| =

 1 2 
,
,
5
5

(2)2 + 42 = 2 5.

10.3

377

10.15 ( )
f E Df , a b [a, b] E, c (a, b)
f (b) f (a) = f (c) (b a).

n = 2 , L = |b a|,


t
g : [0, L] R : g(t) = f a + (b a) ,
L

( [a, b] f , 1010 ), g ,

, p (0, L)
g(L) g(0) = g (p)(L 0),

(1)

1010
ba
p
,
g (p) f a + (b a) v =
L
L
p
c = a + (b a) (a, b),
L


p

g (p) = Dv f a + (b a)
L


p
= f a + (b a) v
L
 ba

p
= f a + (b a)
L
L
ba
= f (c)
;
L

, g(L) = f (b), g(0) = f (a), (1) .

10.3

378

10.16 ( )
f : Df R , r : I ( R) Df ,

f r

d
f (r(t)) = f (r(t)) r (t).
dt

,
f (r(t + h)) f (r(t))
d
f (r(t)) = lim
h0
dt
h
f (c(h)) (r(t + h) r(t))
,
= lim
h0
h
r(t + h) r(t)
= lim f (c(h)) lim
h0
h0
h

[]

...
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
.......
..

f r

= f (r(t)) r (t).
[]

r
.........................................

Df R n
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.......
.

[r(t), r(t + h)] , 10.15

c(h) (r(t), r(t + h))


f (r(t + h)) f (r(t)) = f (c(h)) (r(t + h) r(t))

(1) f Df (x, y)
f (x, y) , (x, y)

: k,

f (x, y) = k

()

, x = r1 (t), y = r2 (t),
f (r(t)) = k t ,

1011

d
0 = f (r(t)) = f (r(t)) r (t).
dt

r (t) (x(t), y(t)) , , ,


(x(t), y(t)) . , ,
, , , ? , ?
10.14 , v f (p) ( 0),

, Dv f (p) v .

10.3

379

(2) F (x, y) = 0 () (x0 , y0 )


F (x0 , y0 ) (x x0 , y y0 ) = 0,

( 1)

, F (x, y) = 0 (x, y) = r(t), (x0 , y0 ) = r(t0 ),


F (r(t)) = 0 F (r(t0 )) r (t0 ) = 0, ( 10.16)
F (r(t0 )) r (t0 )
F (x0 , y0 ) (x0 , y0)
F (x0 , y0) (x x0 , y y0 ) = 0.
(3) F (x, y, z) = 0 () (x0 , y0, z0 )
F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) (x x0 , y y0 , z z0 ) = 0,

( 2)

: r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k r(t0 ) = (x0 , y0 , z0 )


, r (t0 ) (x0 , y0, z0 ) , (2) F (x0 , y0 , z0 )

r (t0 ) , F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) (x0 , y0 , z0 ) .

z = f (x, y),
F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z = 0,

F (x, y, z) = (D1 f (x, y), D2 f (x, y), 1), (x0 , y0 , z0 )

D1 f (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + D2 f (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ) + (1)(z z0 ) = 0

x x0 = k D1 f (x0 , y0 ),

y y0 = k D2 f (x0 , y0 ),

z z0 = k (1);

( 3)

( 4)

D1 f (x0 , y0), D2 f (x0 , y0 ) ,

x x0
y y0
z z0
=
=
.
D1 f (x0 , y0 )
D2 f (x0 , y0 )
1

2.

x+

y+

z=

k (a, b, c) .

( 5)

10.3

380

1012
F (x, y, z) =

x+

k,
 1
1
1 
F (a, b, c) = , ,
2 a 2 b 2 c

y+

(a, b, c)
F (a, b, c) (x a, y b, z c) = 0,

xa yb zc
+ + = 0.
a
c
b

3. (hyperboloid of one sheet) x2 + y 2 z 2 = 18 (3, 5, 4)


.

F (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 z 2 18,
F (x, y, z) = (2x, 2y, 2z),

(3, 5, 4)
(6, 10, 8) (x 3, y 5, z + 4) = 0,

3x + 5y + 4z = 18.

(3, 5, 4),
(3, 5, 4)
x3
y5
z+4
=
=
.
3
5
4

1013

10.4 Taylor

381

y
4. f (x, y) = tan1 , p = (1, 1), (p1 , p2 , f (p)) .
x

, f (p) = tan1 1 = .
4

xy2
y

,
D
f
(x,
y)
=

1
2 =

2
y

x + y2
1 + x2

D2 f (x, y) =

1
x

1+

y2
x2

x2

x
,
+ y2

(p1 , p2 , f (p))
(D1 f (1, 1), D2 f (1, 1), 1) =


1 1
, , 1 .
2 2


1
1

(x 1) + (y 1) z
= 0,
2
2
4

x y + 2z =

10.4

.
2

z 4
y1
x1
=
=
.
1
1
2

Taylor

, Taylor : f N (p) n , x N (p), c p

f (p)
(x p)2 +
2!
f (n) (c)
f (n1) (p)
(x p)n1 +
(x p)n .
+
(n 1)!
n!

f (x) = f (p) + f (p)(x p) +

cp
cp
=
, c = p + h, ,
xp
h
Taylor : p + h N (p), (0, 1)

h = x p 6= 0, x = p + h, =

f (p) 2
f (n1) (p) n1 f (n) (p + h) n
f (p + h) = f (p) + f (p)h +
h ++
h
+
h .
2!
(n 1)!
n!

Taylor Taylor , ,
.

10.4 Taylor

382

10.17 ( Taylor )
f N (p) n , x N (p), (0, 1)



+ k y
f (p)
+ k y
f (p)
h x
h x
+
+
f (x) = f (p) +
1!
2!

n1

+ k y
f (p)
h x
+ Rn (x),
+
(n 1)!

n

+ k y
f (p + h)
h x
, h = x p = (h, k),
Rn (x) =
n!
m  

X
m
m j mj m f (p)
hk
+k
f (p) =
.
h
j y mj
x
y
x
j
j=0

:
. . , ,
n, . .
. . ,
.
. , .

1. f (x, y) = x2 y + 3y 2 (x 1) (y + 2) .
p = (1, 2), f p Taylor , f ,
0, R4 (p) = 0,

D1 f (x, y) = 2xy, D2 f (x, y) = x2 + 3, D11 f (x, y) = 2y,


D12 f (x, y) = 2x,

D22 f (x, y) = 0,

D111 f (x, y) = 0,

D112 f (x, y) = 2,

D122 f (x, y) = 0,

D222 f (x, y) = 0,

0,
D1 f (1, 2) = 4, D2 f (1, 2) = 4,

D12 f (1, 2) = 2,

D112 f (1, 2) = 2,

D22 f (1, 2) = 0,

D122 f (1, 2) = 0,

D11 f (1, 2) = 4,

D111 f (1, 2) = 0,

D222 f (1, 2) = 0,

10.4 Taylor

383

Taylor ,
h
i
f (x, y) = f (1, 2) + D1 f (1, 2)(x 1) + D2 f (1, 2)(y + 2)
1h
+ D11 f (1, 2)(x 1)2 + 2D12 f (1, 2)(x 1)(y + 2)
2

+ D22 f (1, 2)(y + 2)


h
1
D111 f (1, 2)(x 1)3 + 3D112 f (1, 2)(x 1)2 (y + 2)
+
3!
i
+ 3D122 f (1, 2)(x 1)(y + 2)2 + D222 f (1, 2)(y + 2)3
+ R4 (1, 2)

= 10 4(x 1) + 4(y + 2) 2(x 1)2 + 2(x 1)(y + 2)


+ (x 1)2 (y + 2).

: Taylor , :
f (x, y) = x2 y + 3y 2
= ((x 1) + 1)2 ((y + 2) 2) + 3((y + 2) 2) 2
= (u2 + 2u + 1)(v 2) + 3v 8, ( u = x 1, v = y + 2)
= u2v 2u2 + 2uv 4u + 4v 10
= (x 1)2 (y + 2) 2(x 1)2 + 2(x 1)(y + 2) 4(x 1) + 4(y + 2)10.

, , Taylor .
, Taylor
f (x) = f (p) + f (p)(x p) + +

f (n1) (p)
(x p)n1 + Rn (x)
(n 1)!

f (p)(x p) f p x p (differential),
df (p, x p) = f (p)(x p).

f (x) f (p) . ,

10.18
n f p , h = (h1 , , hn ) Rn ,
df (p, h) = D1 f (p)h1 + D2 f (p)h2 + + Dn f (p)hn = f (p) h

f p h (total differential).

10.4 Taylor

384

f p (), |h| , df (p, h) f (p + h) f (p)

:
:

f
dx +
x
f
dx +
df =
x

df =

f
dy,
y
f
f
dy +
dz.
y
z

dx h1 , dy h2 , dz h3 .
1014, , f , P p ,
L p + h . P S = f (p), LQ = f (p + h) . SRMV S
XY . Cy P Y f , Cx P

X f . ST Cy S , SU Cx S ,

D1 f (p)h1 = RT, D2 f (p)h2 = V U. W ST SV LQ ,

W N = V U, RT = MW .
df (p, h) = D1 f (p)h1 + D2 f (p)h2 = RT + V U = MW + W N = MN .

f (p + h) f (p) df (p, h) = LQ P S MN = LQ LM MN = NQ.

f p , 10.14,

1014

10.4 Taylor
lim

|h|0

385

f (p + h) f (p) df (p, h)
NQ
= lim
|h|0
|h|
PL


f (p + h) f (p) + D1 f (p)h1 + D2 f (p)h2
= lim
= 0.
|h|0
|h|

, |h| , f (p + h) f (p) df (p, h) |h| ,


df (p, h) f (p + h) f (p) .

2. 63 78 ,
60 , 0.1
, 0.1 ,
.
a, b, c, a = 63, b = 78.

c=

f (a, b, ) =

1015

a2 + b2 2ab cos ,

.....
... ..
... ....
...
..
...
..
....
...
..
...
.
...
..
.
.
...
.
.
b....
... c
...
...
...
.
.
...
..
.
...
...
...
......
. .....
...
.
.
...
.
.

.
.
...................................................................................

a2 + b2 2ab cos ,

f
2a 2b cos
,
=
a
2 a2 + b2 2ab cos
2b 2a cos
f
=
,
b
2 a2 + b2 2ab cos
f
2ab sin
=
,
2

2 a + b2 2ab cos

f 

63, 78,
= 0.3348,
a
3

f 
63, 78,
= 0.6487,
b
3

f 
63, 78,
= 59.3645.

c
f
f
f

db +
d
|df | = da +
a
b

f f f




da + db + d
a
b

= 0.3348 0.1 + 0.6487 0.1 + 59.3645


0.1
180
= 0.20195 ().

q
c = 632 + 782 2 63 78

1
2

= 71.69 ().

0.20195
|df |

= 0.28%.
c
71.69

10.5

10.5

386

()
, . . , ,
. . :
.
, Hessian Lagrange Cauchy
, :

10.19
f ,

(i) p D f ,
(ii) D1 f (p), D2 f (p) ,
(iii) f p .

D1 f (p) = D2 f (p) = 0.
f p = (p1 , p2 ) () , f (x, p2 ) (p1 , p2 )
() , 2.10 , f p x D1 f (p) 0, ,
D2 f (p) = 0.

10.20

f p , p Zdf (Df \ Df ) Sf .
Zdf = {(x, y) Df | D1 f (x, y) = D2 f (x, y) = 0},

Df \ Df , (),


Sf = (x, y) | D1 f (x, y) D2 f (x, y) .

p 6 Zdf (Df \ Df ) Sf , f p D1 f (p) 6= 0 D2 f (p) 6= 0.


10.19 f p .

Zdf (Df \ Df ) Sf f ;

f (saddle point).

10.5

387

1. (elliptic paraboloid)
f (x, y) =

x2 y 2
+ 2
a2
b

1 ,

2x

D1 f (x, y) =
= 0,

a2

D2 f (x, y) = 2y = 0,
b2

1016

Zdf = {(0, 0)}, , Df \ Df = ,

Sf = . (0, 0).
2 :
f (0, 0) = 0

x2 y 2
+ 2 = f (x, y), (x, y) R2 ,
a2
b

f (0, 0) .

2. (hyperbolic paraboloid) f (x, y) =

y 2 x2
2 .
b2
a

1 ,

2x

D
f
(x,
y)
=

,
1

a2

D2 f (x, y) = 2y ,
b2

D1 f (x, y) = 0,
D2 f (x, y) = 0.

Zdf = {(0, 0)}, , Df \ Df = , Sf = .

1017

(0, 0).
2 :

X , f (x, 0) =

x2
0 = f (0, 0), f ,
a2

y2
Y , f (0, y) = 2 0 = f (0, 0), f ,
b

f (0, 0) , ( (0,0) f ).

10.5

388

10.21 [ (Extreme Value Theorem) ]


A Rn (), f : A R , f

Apostol, T.M., Mathematical Analysis, A Modern Approach to Advanced


Calculus, 2nd ed. p.82. Theorem 4.25.

1.28 , ,
. .
3. f : R2 R : f (x, y) = (y x2 )(y 2x2 ) .
(1) : f ;
(2) : f (0,0) X Y ;
(3) : f (0,0) v ;
(4) f ?

(1) ,

D1 f (x, y) = 2x(y 2x2 ) 4x(y x2 ) = 8x3 6xy,


D2 f (x, y) = 2y 3x2 .

D1 f (x, y) = 0,
D2 f (x, y) = 0,

8x3 6xy = 0
2y 3x2 = 0

3 2
x
1 x = 0, y = 0. , Df \ D f = ,
2
Sf = . (0,0) f .


2 y =

(2) X , f (x, 0) = 2x4 0 = f (0, 0);

Y , f (0, y) = y 2 0 = f (0, 0);

f (0,0) X Y .
(3)
A = {(x, y) | 2x2 > y > x2 },
B = {(x, y) | y > 2x2 y < x2 },
( B1 B2 = B ),

(x, y) A, f (x, y) = (y x2 )(y 2x2 ) < 0;

(x, y) B, f (x, y) = (y x2 )(y 2x2 ) > 0;

10.5

389

... ..
.
.
... ...
2 .... ....
y
=
2x
... ...
. ...
.
.
.
... ..
.
.. ...
.. ... y
... ...
... ...
.
.
... ...
. ..
......
.. .. B
......
... .....
1
.
...... ... ..
.
...... .. ..
...... .. .
... ..
...... . ..
......... .
..A...
........ ..
.........
..................
.
..
...................
..................... ...................
. ..........................
-

B2

......
......
......
......
......
......
....

= x2

1019 f

1018 f

v L, (), f B L , f

L .

(4) (0, 0) A , B , f (0, 0)

,
, , .

10.22

( i ) f N (p) ;
(ii) D1 f (p) = D2 f (p) = 0 ;


D11 f (p) D12 f (p)
(iii) (p) =
D21 f (p) D22 f (p)




6= 0; ( Hessian.)

(1) (p) > 0 D11 f (p) > 0, f p ;

(2) (p) > 0 D11 f (p) < 0, f p ;


(3) (p) < 0, f p .

: (p) = 0 , .

10.5

390

4. f : R2 R : f (x, y) = x3 + y 3 12xy .

1 f .
D1 f (x, y) = 3x2 12y,
D2 f (x, y) = 3y 2 12x,
D11 f (x, y) = 6x,
D12 f (x, y) = 12,
D21 f (x, y) = 12,
D22 f (x, y) = 6y,

D1 f (x, y) = 0,

1020

D2 f (x, y) = 0.

3x 12y = 0

(1)

3y 2 12x = 0

(2)

(1) , y = x2 /4, (2) , x = 0 4, (0, 0) (4, 4).


2 :


D11 f (0, 0) D12 f (0, 0)
(0, 0) =
D21 f (0, 0) D22 f (0, 0)
= 144 < 0,

f (0, 0) .



(4, 4) =




=



D11 f (4, 4) D12 f (4, 4)


D21 f (4, 4) D22 f (4, 4)


24 12


12 24

> 0,

D11 f (4, 4) = 24, f (4, 4) , f (4, 4) = 64.

10.5

391

10.23 [ Lagrange (Lagranges multiplier) ]


f g , f g(x, y) = 0 p = (p1 , p2 )
, 0 R
F (x, y, ) = f (x, y) + g(x, y)
def

x, y, (p1 , p2 , 0 ) ,
F (p1 , p2 , 0 )
= 0,
x
F (p1 , p2 , 0 )
= 0,
y

(1)
(2)

F (p1 , p2 , 0 )
= 0,

(3)

: (1), (2), (3)


(
f (p) + 0 g(p) = 0,

(i)

g(p) = 0,

(ii)

, . (i), (ii) f g(x) = 0 p


.
5. , 1, (x, y)
T (x, y) = x2 2y 2 x.

? ?
A = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1}, T A
; Lagrange . .
1 T A ,
D1 T (x, y) = 2x 1,

D2 T (x, y) = 4y,

D21 T (x, y) = 0,

D22 T (x, y) = 4.

D11 T (x, y) = 2,

D1 T (x, y) = 0,

(x, y) =

D12 T (x, y) = 0,

1


, 0 . ,

2
D2 T (x, y) = 0,


1  D11 T ( 21 , 0) D12 T ( 12 , 0)
,0 =
2
D21 T ( 21 , 0) D22 T ( 12 , 0)

T A .



2 0
=

0 4




= 8 < 0.

10.5

392

2 Lagrange ,
F (x, y, ) = x2 2y 2 x + (x2 + y 2 1),

F
(x, y, ) = 2x 1 + 2x,
x
F
(x, y, ) = 4y + 2y,
y
F
(x, y, ) = x2 + y 2 1.

(x, y, ) = 0,

F
(x, y, ) = 0,

F (x, y, ) = 0.

(2) y = 0 = 2.

p
y = 0 , x = 1 y 2 = 1.

(1)
(2)
(3)

35
1
.
= 2 , (1) x = , (3) y =
6
6
T , A , , T

, (1, 0), (1, 0), (1/6, 35/6), (1/6, 35/6) :

1021 T

10.5

393
T (1, 0) = 1 2 0 1 = 0,

T (1, 0) = 1 2 0 + 1 = 2,
 1 35 
1
35 1
25
T ,
=
2
= ,
6
6
36
36 6
12

1
35 
. ( 1021).
,
(1, 0) ,
6
6

: , x = cos , y = sin , [0, 2],


T (x, y) = x2 2y 2 x = cos2 2 sin2 cos = 1 3 sin2 cos .

, , Lagrange .
6. 60 , x, y, z
2xy + 2yz + 3zx
(: ), P (x, y, z) =
(: ),
10
, .
, .
1 Lagrange ,
F (x, y, z, ) =

2xy + 2yz + 3zx


+ (x + y + z 60).
10

F 0,
F
x
F
y
F
z
F

= 0.2y + 0.3z + = 0,

(1)

= 0.2x + 0.2z + = 0,

(2)

== 0.3x + 0.2y + = 0,

(3)

= x + y + z 60 = 0,

(4)

10 ((1) + (3)) 15 (2) 4y + 5 = 0,


y=

5
4

(5)

(2)
x + z = 5

(6)

(5), (6) (4) , = 9.6, (5) , y = 12; (1), (3)

x = z = 24.

10.5

394

2 :
E = {(x, y, z) | x 0, y 0, z 0, x + y + z = 60}.
E , P , P

, (24, 12, 24)


, E , E = A B C,

60

C = {(x, y, z) E | z = 0}.

A = {(x, y, z) E | x = 0},
B = {(x, y, z) E | y = 0},

.
.......
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...........
.
.. ... .....
.
.. ... .....
.
...
... ....
....
... ...
...
....
... ...
...
.
..
.
.
...
..
..
...
.
.
............
...
.
..
.
.
.
.
............
..
.. .........
.
.
.
.
.
.
................
.... .
.. ........
.
.................................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............
.........................................
.
............ .
.
........
...
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.....
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.....

60

60

1022


1 A , P = 0.2yz = 0.2y(60 y), , y = z = 30 , P

180, yz = 0 0,


2 B , P = 0.3xz = 0.3x(60 x),
1 x = z = 30 , P

270, xz = 0 0,


3 C , P = 0.2xy = 0.2x(60 x),
1 x = y = 30 , P

180, xy = 0 0,
2 24 12 + 2 12 24 + 3 24 24

= 288,
4 P (24, 12, 24) =
10
: 24, 12, 24 , ,
0 , .

7. G(x, y, z) = x + y + z 8 = 0 F (x, y, z) = 2x2 y 2 + (z 2)2


(x, y, z).

G(x, y, z) = x + y + z 8 = 0 , z 2 = 6 x y,
F (x, y, z) = 2x2 y 2 + (z 2)2

, f : R2 R : f (x, y) = F (x, y, 6 x y) = 2x2 y 2 + (6 x y)2 .

f .

D1 f (x, y) = 4x 2(6 x y) = 6x + 2y 12,


D2 f (x, y) = 2y 2(6 x y) = 2x 12,
D11 f (x, y) = 6,
D12 f (x, y) = 2,
D22 f (x, y) = 0,

10.5

395

D1 f (x, y) = 0,
D2 f (x, y) = 0,

6x + 2y 12 = 0

(1)

2x 12 = 0

(2)

(x, y) = (6, 12), (6, 12) = 4 < 0, f ,

[ ]
lim f (0, y) = lim y 2 + (6 y)2 = lim 36 12y = ,

y+

y+

y+

f , .

10.24 [ Cauchy (Cauchy inequality) ]


x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) Rn ,
v
n
u
X
 n  n 
u X 2 X 2

(1) |x y| |x| |y|, xj yj t
xj
yj .
j=1

j=1

j=1

(2) x, y , x y = |x| |y| k > 0


y = k x;

(3) x, y , x y = |x| |y| k < 0


y = k x.

Pn

j=1 ,

(1) t :
0

P
(xj t + yj )2 ,

P
P
P
P
(xj t + yj )2 = ( x2j ) t2 + 2( xj yj ) t + yj2, t R
A t2 + B t + C 0, t R
P 2
P
P
( A =
xj , B = 2 xj yj , C = yj2 )

B 2 4AC 0, ( )
P
P
P
(2 xj yj )2 4( x2j )( yj2 ) 0
P
P
P
( xj yj )2 ( x2j )( yj2 )
|x y| |x| |y|.

10.5

396

(2) k > 0 y = kx, x y = |x| |y|. ,


x y = |x| |y| B 2 4AC = 0
A t2 + B t + C = 0
! t0 6= 0 A t20 + B t0 + C = 0,
P
! t0 6= 0
(xj t0 + yj )2 = 0

[]

! t0 6= 0 j = 1, , n, xj t0 + yj = 0
! t0 6= 0 t0 x + y = 0
! k 6= 0 k x = y, ( k = t0 )
! k > 0 k x = y,
( k < 0, |x| |y| = x y = k
[]

t0 = 0,

yj2 = C = 0, y .

x2j < 0, )

(3) (2), .

: n = 2 3,
x y = |x| |y| cos .

.
8. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 (x, y, z) f (x, y, z) = 2x 2y + z
.

Cauchy :
p
p
(a2 + b2 + c2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) ax + by + cz (a2 + b2 + c2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ).
a, b, c 2, 2, 1
p
p
9(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2x 2y + z 9(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ).

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1,

3 2x 2y + z 3.

, (x, y, z) = k(2, 2, 1), k > 0 , ( (x, y, z) (2, 2, 1)

), f (x, y, z) = 2x 2y + z 3. (x, y, z) ,
(2k)2 + (2k)2 + k 2 = 1 k 2 = 1/9 k = 1/3.

(x, y, z) = (2/3, 2/3, 1/3). , (x, y, z) (2, 2, 1) ,

f (x, y, z) = 2x 2y + z 3. (x, y, z) = (2/3, 2/3, 1/3).

10.6

397

, , :

9. , ().
( 314 ), a, b,
c > 0,

a+b+c
3

,
abc
3

a+b+c

3 abc =
a = b = c,
3

Z..

(1)

x, y, z,
V (x, y, z) = xyz,

......
....
..
...
...
...
...
.
....................
.
.
.
.
............
.... ...
.
.
............
.
.
............
... ...
.
.
.
.
............
.
.....
....
....
.....
.
.
.
.
..... ...
.
.
.
...
.
..... ..
.
.
.
.
.
..... ...
............
.............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
............
............ ....
.......... ........
............
..
..... ...................... ............................. ....
.............
.....
...........
.
.
.
.
... .................
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..............
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
..........................
.....
.....
............
.....
............
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............ ....
....
.........

xy + 2yz + 2zx = k (), xy, 2yz, 2xz

(1) a, b, c,

1023

p
xy + 2yz + 2zx
3

,
4x2 y 2z 2
3
p

3 4x2 y 2z 2 = xy + 2yz + 2zx xy = 2yz = 2zx,


3

k3

V (x, y, z) = xyz
, (x, y, z) A,

108
r

k3

V (x, y, z) = xyz =
xy = 2yz = 2zx,
108

A = {(x, y, z) | x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, xy + 2yz + 2zx = k}, ,


xy = 2yz = 2zx,

2 : 2 : 1.

10.6

(2)

k3
, (2) , x = 2z, y = 2z,
108


, F (x, y) = 0 ,
F (x, y, z) = 0 , :
F (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 1 = 0,

10.6

398

(x0 , y0) x20 + y02 < 1 z > 0 , ,


z=

p
1 x2 y 2, (x, y) N(x0 , y0 ).

F (x, y, z) = 0 z = f (x, y),


(x0 , y0) , ,
, Apostol [4], 13.7 .
F (x, y, z) = 0, (x0 , y0 , z0 ) , :
(1) x , ( y , z x );
(2) ,

z
= ;
x

(3) (x0 , y0 , z0 ) (x, y, z) ;


(4)

z
.
y

1. F (x, y, z) = 2xy + 2yz + z 2 = 0,

z
z

.
x
y

1 x , ( y , z x ),
2y + 2y

z
z
+ 2z
= 0,
x
x

z
y
=
.
x
y+z
y , ( x , z y ),

2x + 2z + 2y

z
z
+ 2z
= 0,
y
y

z
x+z
=
.
y
y+z

: F (x, y, z) = 0 , :
F
z
= x ,
F
x
z

F
z
y
=
.
F
y
z

, .

399

()
n

()()

Taylor

Hessian

Lagrange
Cauchy

()

400

10-1 - :
(a)
(b)

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

10-2

4 x2 y 2

x+y .

2
2
x y , (x, y) 6= (0, 0),
f : R2 R : f (x, y) = x2 + y 2

0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).

(a) lim (lim f (x, y));


x0 y0

(b) lim (lim f (x, y));


y0 x0

(c)

lim

f (x, y).

(x,y)(0,0)

10-3
2

f : R R : f (x, y) =

f .
10-4

3xy
, (x, y) 6= (0, 0),
+ 5y 2
0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).

2x2

5x + y , x 6= y,
2
xy
f : R R : f (x, y) =

0,
x = y.

f .
2

10-5 f : R R : f (x, y) =

1
(x y) sin , x 6= 0,
x
k,
x = 0.

(a) k f .
(b) k = 1, f (0,0) ?

401

10-6 f (x, y) = (x 1)y 2 exy p = (1, 1) a = (1, 3) .


10-7 :
(a) f (x, y, z) = z sin(x y);
(b) f (x, y, z) = ln(x2 + yz z 2 ).
10-8 10 , T (x, y) = 3x2 + 2xy (

, ).
(a) (3, 6) ( );
(b) (3, 6) ?
10-9 (i) fx (x, y) = x2 + y 2 , (ii) fy (x, y) = 2xy, (iii) f (0, 0) = 1. f (x, y).
10-10 F (x, y, z) = xeyz + 2z P = P (2, 0, 4) .
(a) F P ?
(b) S F (x, y, z) + 6 = 0, P, S .

(c) XY , 0 .
2
10-11 x + 4y + 6z = 0 x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 21 .
10-12 x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 14, x + y + z = 6 (1, 2, 3) .

10-13 f (x, y) = (x y)(xy 1). f ?


10-14 f (x, y) = x4 + y 4 2(x y)2. f ?
10-15 f (x, y) =

1
8
+ xy . f ?
x
y

10-16 (2, 2, 0) x2 + y 2 2z = 0 .
10-17 f (x, y) = xy + (x + y)(10 x y) ? ?
10-18 (a) f (x, y, z) = (xyz)1/3 , x, y, z x + y + z = k (k

0 ), Lagrange f .
(b) (a) : .

402

10-19 d , ,

b , h , bh2 . d : h : b =?
10-20 x2 xy + y 2 = 4 , T (x, y) = x2 + y 2 .
10-21 250 cm2 . ?
10-22 ,

.
10-23 A, B, C , :

()

10

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 800.
.
10-24 (a, b, c) ,

.
[ ]

y
z
x
+ + = 1.
A B C

Chapter 11

,
(1) , f : A( R) Rn ;
(2) , f : A( Rn ) R .

, ,
(multiple integral); (line integral). ,

, , .
, , ,
. , , .

11.1

f : [a, b] R Riemann [a, b] n ,

, Riemann .

, , ,
, f : R = [a, b] [c, d] R, [a, b] m ,

[c, d] n , R m n , m n

, , .
, f : R = [a, b] [c, d] R ,
P = {(xi , yj ) | 0 i m, 0 j n}

, Sij = [xi1 , xi ] [yj1 , yj ] i, j (sub-rectangle) ( 111

), A(Sij ) , , i {1, . . . , m}, j {1, . . . , n},


Mij = sup f (Sij ), mij = inf f (Sij ),

403

11.1

404

U(f, P ) =
L(f, P ) =

m X
n
X

i=1 j=1
n
m X
X

Mij A(Sij ),
mij A(Sij ),

i=1 j=1

f P (upper and lower sum).


Y

yn
yn1
..
.
yj
yj1
y1
y0

............................
....................
............
..........
........
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
............................
. . .....
.......................

Sij

. xm
x0 x1 x xi . . x
i1
m1

-X

111

11.1
f , P ,
Z
n
o

f = inf U(f, P ) P R ,
R

o
n

f = sup L(f, P ) P R ,

f R .

(Riemann) ,

ZZ

f (x, y) dA

f=

ZZ

f=

f =

f , f R
R

f , f R Riemann ,
R

f (x, y) dx dy.

Riemann , .

11.1

405

: , f ,
f 0, f ,
ZZ
f (x, y) dA
R

z = f (x, y) XY ,
R . 112 .

112
1. R = [a, b] [c, d], f : R R : f (x, y) = k, k .
ZZ
f (x, y) dA.
R

R P = {(xi , yj ) | 0 i m, 0 j n} Mij = mij = k,


U(f, P ) = L(f, P ) =

n
m X
X
i=1 j=1

f=

ZZ

k A(Sij ) = k A(R) = k(b a)(d c).

f = k(b a)(d c).

f (x, y) dA = k(b a)(d c).

2. R = [0, 1] [0, 1],


f : R R : f (x, y) =

1, x, y Q,
0, .

f R Riemann ?
R P = {(xi , yj ) | 0 i m, 0 j n} Mij = 1, mij = 0,
U(f, P ) =

n
m X
X

1 A(Sij ) = A(R) = 1,

m X
n
X

0 A(Sij ) = 0,

i=1 j=1

L(f, P ) =

i=1 j=1

11.1

406
Z

ZR

f = inf{U(f, P ) | P R } = 1,
f = sup{L(f, P ) | P R } = 0,

, f R Riemann .

,
.

11.2
f : A R, A , A R
(
f (x, y), (x, y) A,
fA : R R : fA (x, y) =
def
0,
(x, y) 6 A,
Z
Z
R , f A ,
f=
fA .
A

: R,
,
Z
fA .

R,

R
...............................
............
.
......
...
....
..
......
.
.
........ A ..
........... ........
........

c
a

-X

113
11.3
f, g A R2 , R,
Z
Z
(1) f
f = f ;
A
A
Z
Z
Z
(2) f + g (f + g) =
f+
g;
A
A
A
Z
Z
(3) f g,
f
g.
A

11.2

407

11.4
f A R2 , f A .

, .

11.5 ( )
R2 A1 A2 ( 114 ), f A1 , A2
, f A = A1 A2 ,
Z
Z
Z
f+
f=
A

A1

f.

A2


........
......................... .........................................
.............
....
.
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
......
............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
..
...
.....
....
.
.
....
A2 .....
...
......
..
.
.
........
A
.
.
1
.
.
.........
..
..
........
...
.........
...
.
.
......................
.
....
. ..........
..................... .......................
...........

114

11.2

, , , ,
, , ,
.

{(x, y) | f (x, y) } (measure


) . , 0, 100 , 0,
{(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 = 1} 0.

11.2

408

11.6
f : R = [a, b] [c, d] R ,
(1) y [c, d], fy : [a, b] R : fy (x) = f (x, y) ,
def

Z b

fy (x) dx ;
a
Z b
fy (x) dx .
(2) F : [c, d] R : F (y) =
def

F (y) dy =

fy (x) dx dy =

f (x, y) dx dy
a

x y (iterated integral).
Z bZ d
Z bZ d
fx (y) dy dx =
f (x, y) dy dx
a

y x .
, 115 : f (x, y) > 0,
(x, y) R,
F (y0) =

f (x, y0 ) dx
a

y = y0 z = f (x, y) () , , y,
F (y) .
Z

F (y) dy =

hZ

b
a

i
f (x, y) dx dy

z = f (x, y) R .

115

116

11.2

, G(x0 ) =

409
Z

f (x0 , y) dy x = x0 z = f (x, y) ,
c

G(x) .
Z

G(x) dx =

Z bhZ
a

i
f (x, y) dy dx

z = f (x, y) R , 116 :

11.7
f : R = [a, b] [c, d] R ,
(1) y [c, d], fy : [a, b] R : fy (x) = f (x, y) ,
F : [c, d] R : F (y) =

f=
R

F (y) dy =

fy (x) dx
a

Z


f (x, y) dx dy.

(2) x [a, b], gx : [c, d] R : gx (y) = f (x, y) ,


G : [a, b] R : G(x) =

f=

G(x) dx =
a

Z bZ
a

gx (y) dy
c


f (x, y) dy dx.

(1) (2) , (2), .

11.8
g1 , g2 : [a, b] R , g1 g2 ,
A = {(x, y) | a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x)},
f : A R ,
Z

f=

Z bZ
a

g2 (x)

g1 (x)

f (x, y) dy dx.

11.2

410

6
.
...
..
....
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
... h1
...
...

...............................................
........
..... g2
........
...
........
......

......
.......
g
...........
.......
................................1.................

...
...
.
h2......
...
..
...
....
...
..
.
.
...
....
.....

-X

-X

118

117

c inf g1 [a, b] d sup g2 [a, b] ( 117 ), A


R = [a, b] [c, d]. , 11.2,
(
fA : R R : fA (x, y) =

f (x, y), (x, y) A,


0,

def

(x, y) 6 A,

fA R , A ,
Z
Z
f=
fA ,
( 11.2 )
A
R
Z bZ d
=
fA (x, y) dy dx, ( 11.7 )
a
c
Z b h Z g1 (x)
Z g2 (x)
Z
=
fA (x, y) dy +
fA (x, y) dy +
a

Z bh
Z
=
0+
a

Z bZ
a

g1 (x)

g2 (x)

g2 (x)

i
fA (x, y) dy dx

f (x, y) dy + 0 dx
g1 (x)

g2 (x)

f (x, y) dy dx.

g1 (x)

11.9
h1 , h2 : [c, d] R , h1 h2 ,
A = {(x, y) | c y d, h1 (y) x h2 (y)},
f : A R ,
Z

f=

h2 (y)

f (x, y) dx dy.
h1 (y)

, x = h1 (y), x = h2 (y) y , 118.

11.2

411

1. S y = x2 x = y 4

, f (x, y) = x y 2 S

S = {(x, y) R2 | 0 x 1, x2 y x1/4 },

y4

119

ZZ

y = x2

...
...
...
..
..
.
.
...
...................
...
x=
1
..............
...
......... ....
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
..
..
.....
...
.
.
.
.
.
....
..
....
... S ......
.....
..
...... .... ...........
..........................
-

( x y ) dA =

x1/4

x2

(x1/2 y 2 ) dy dx

Z 1h
1 iy=x1/4
dx
=
x1/2 y y 3
3 y=x2
0
Z 1
1
1 6
2 3/4
5/2
=
x x + x dx = .
3
3
7
0

: . 119 S

S = {(x, y) R2 | 0 y 1, y 4 x y 1/2 },
ZZ

2.

( x y 2) dA =

y 1/2

(x1/2 y 2) dx dy

y4

Z 1 h 3/2
ix=y1/2
x
2
dy
y x
=
3/2
x=y 4
0
Z 1
2 3/4
1
1 
=
y y 5/2 + y 6 dx = .
3
3
7
0

exp(x3 ) dx dy =?

,
A = {(x, y) | 0 y 1,

y x 1}

= {(x, y) | 0 x 1, 0 y x2 }.

..
..
....
....
....
.
.
..
...
.... A
.
.
.
.
....
......
..............

-X

1110

=
=

ZZ

exp(x3 ) dx dy

Z ZA

exp(x3 ) dy dx, ( )

x2

1
e dy dx =
3
x3

1 x3 1 1
(3x )e dx = e = (e 1).
0
3
3
2

x3

11.3

412

3. z = x2 + 4y 2, XY , x = y 2 , y = x2 , .
.
1111 . f (x, y) = x2 + 4y 2,
A = {(x, y) | 0 x 1, x2 y

x};

Z 1h
Z
Z 1 Z x
4y 3 iy= x
2
2
2
(x + 4y ) dy dx =
x y+
dx
f=
3 y=x2
x2
0
A
0
Z 1
4x3/2
4x6 
=
x5/2 +
dx
x4
3
3
0
h2
8x5/2 x5 4x7 i1
= x7/2 +

7
15
5
21 0
8
1
4
3
2

= .
= +
7 15 5 21
7

1111

11.3

(Cartesian rectangular coordinates), R2


, , , :

11.3
(1)

413

(polar coordinates)
P

.......
.......
.......
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.......
.......
.......
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
...... ......
....... ...
...
.......
.......
..
......

.......
.......
.......
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
......
...............................
......
........
.......
....
.......
......
... .............
...
........
...
.
.
.
....... ...
...
....... ....
...
.......
..
.......
.....
..
......
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
..
...
.......
... ...........
..... .....
.......
.......
......

-x

-x

1112B

1112A

O (origin) (pole), O , (polar axis),


() i, . P ,
OP , , , .
r O P , P P (r, ) (Z1112A),

, i OP (Z1112B), r = OP ; ,
0 2, , R2

. , (r, ) = (0, 0).


, P = (1, 1), :
5


3
( 2, ), ( 2, ), ( 2, ).
4
4
4

(2)

r , r = r(), ,

( 1113),




C = (r cos , r sin ) , r = r() .
........................
......
...
...
...
..
.
.
.
..
.
....
.
.... ...
.
...
.
.
.
.
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.
.
.
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.
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....
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.
. . . ... .
... ..... ......... ...
... ... ...... .. ..
................. ... ..
.................. .... .... ....
.
.
.
. . .
.

r = r()

1113
:

11.3

414

1 (cardioid)() :
r = 1 sin , 0 2,

:
: n , , , ,
, , r() , :

r()

1.000

13/12 1.259

/12

0.7412

14/12 1.5

2/12

0.5000

15/12 1.707

3/12

0.2929

16/12 1.866

4/12

0.134

17/12 1.966

5/12

0.03407

18/12 2

6/12

19/12 1.966

7/12

0.03407

20/12 1.866

8/12

0.134

21/12 1.707

9/12

0.2929

22/12 1.5

10/12 0.5
11/12 0.7412

r()

23/12 1.259
2

1114

: ;
: , ,
.
, ,
, ,
MathCAD, Maple, Mathematica .
2 () : r = 1 cos , 0 2, 1115.

1115

1116

11.3

415

3 (lemniscate)( ) : r 2 = a2 cos 2,

, (a > 0),
4
4

1116.
4 (three-leaved rose) : r = a sin 3, 0 , (a > 0), 1117.

1117
5 (four-leaved rose)() : r = cos 2, 0 2, 1118.
6 (four-leaved rose)() : r = sin 2, 0 2, 1119.
6

1118

...............................................
.......
........ ..........
.....
....... .. .........
.
.
.
... ..
.......
.......
... ..
...
.......
.
.
... ..
.
.
.
.
.
..
... ..
..
.......
... .
... ..
... ......................
... .
.
.....
..................... .....
....
...
..
...
...a
.
.
...
.
..
...
....
...
.
.
.
.....
....
......
......
.........
...............................

1119

7 : r = a cos , 0 , 1120.
8 r = 1 + 2 sin(3), 0 2, 1121.
9 (plum flower) :

0 , 1122.


5


r = 3 + 2 cos

,
2
2

1120

-X

11.3

416

1122

1121
10 (Folium of Descartes) :
r=

3 sin cos
3
,

<

<
,
3
4
4
sin + cos3

1123.

1123
(3)

E R2 ,
E1 : , c r d,

, 1124 . r c, d ,
r1 (), r2 () ,
E2 : , r1 () r r2 (),

1125.

11.3

1124

417

1125

,



E2 = (r cos , r sin ) , r1 () r r2 () ,

( : = ), ,

, : r = 1 cos , 0 2 , C

C : 0 r 1 cos , 0 2,

, f : E1 R+ , ( 0 c < d ), ,

E1 m n , E1 , :
1 r [c, d] m ,
c = r0 < r1 < < rm = d, r =

dc
;
m

2 [, ] n ,
= 0 < 1 < < n = , =

.
n

1126 : Sij , ( ),

ri1 + ri 
A(Sij ) = ri r, ri =
2

( . : ri , ri , j ),
z = f (x, y) , XY E1 S

11.3

418

1126
V (S) = m+
lim
n+

= m+
lim
n+

Z bZ
a

m X
n
X

f (ri cos j , ri cos j )A(Sij ),

i=1 j=1

m X
n
X

( ri [ri1 , ri ], j [j1 , j ] )
f (ri cos j , ri cos j )ri r

i=1 j=1

f (r cos , r sin ) r dr d, ( 6.7 )

: r , r dr d |r| dr d.
:
E2 : , r1 () r r2 (),
f : E2 R () .

:
11.10 ( )
E R2 ,
E : , r1 () r r2 (),

f : E R ,
Z

f=
E

r2 ()

r1 ()

f (r cos , r sin ) |r| dr d.

: .

11.3

1.

a2 x2

419
p

x2 + y 2 dy dx, a > 0 .

n
o


A = (x, y) 0 x a, 0 y a2 x2




= (r cos , r sin ) 0 /2, 0 r a ,

, a ,
. ,
Z /2 Z a
ZZ p
x2 + y 2 dA =
r 2 dr d
=
0
0
A
Z /2 3
3
a
a
d =
.
=
3
6
0

.....................
.........
.......
......
......
.....
....
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
..
..
.

-X

1127

2.

exp(x2 ) dx =?

I=

exp(x2 ) dx , ( , ).

exp(x2 ) dx,
0

Z

Z +

2
I =
exp(x )dx
exp(y )dy
0
0
Z + Z +

=
exp((x2 + y 2 ))dx dy
0
Z Z0
exp((x2 + y 2)) dx dy, []
= lim
2

t+

[]

Et

[0, +) [0, +)

{Et }t>0 ,

Et = {(x, y) | x 0, y 0, x2 + y 2 t2 },
( 11-28 ), I 2 Et

.
2 x = r cos , y = r sin ,

1128

11.3

ZZ

420

exp((x + y )) dx dy =
Et

/2
0

exp(r 2 ) r dr d

/2
0

1 r2 ir=t
e
d
2
r=0

1 t2
(e 1).
=
2 2

3 2 1 ,
ZZ
t2

2
exp((x2 + y 2 )) dx dy = lim
I = lim
(e 1) = .
t+ 4
t+
4
Et

I =
.
2

, (normal distribution) ,

 1
1
f : R R+ : f (x) = exp 2 (x )2
2
2
(probability density function), ( R, > 0 ), f
, 2 ,
Z +

Z +

 1
1
f (x) dx =
exp 2 (x )2 dx
2
2
Z +

1
x
=
exp(t2 ) dt,
t=

2
Z +
2
=
exp(t2 ) dt = 1.
0
Y

.....
... ....
... ....
...
...
..
...
...
...
....
...
..
... = 2, = 0.5
.
0.6
...
.
...
...
...
..
.
..
...
....
...
...
...
...
.
.......
0.4
..... ............. .............. ....
.......
.........
.....
....
.......
.. ...
.........
.
.
... ....
.
. ..
.
.
. ..
.. .... = 2, =
.
.
. ..
... ....
.
.
0.2
... .....
... ...
.
.
....
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
......
.....
..
.
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............
...............
............

0.8

1129

-X

11.4

421

, ,
2
erf : R R : erf(x) =

et dt,

(error function), x > 0 , erf(x) . 2


, lim erf(x) = 1, x 6= 0 , erf(x) .
x+

1130

11.4

, , u = g(t),
Z b
Z g(b)

f (g(t))g (t) dt =
f (u) du.
a

()

g(a)

g ( g 0, 11-31 ) ,
Z
=
f (g(t))g (t) dt,
[a,b]

f (u) du;

g[a,b]

g ( g 0, 11-31 ) ,
Z
Z

=
f (g(t))g (t) dt =
[a,b]

[a,b]

g(b)

g(a)

f (g(t))|g (t)| dt,

f (u) du =

g(a)
g(b)

f (u) du =

f (u) du;
g[a,b]

11.4

422

1131

g , ()
Z
Z

f (g(t))|g (t)| dt =

f (u) du.

g[a,b]

[a,b]

, t [a, b] u = g(t) g[a, b] .

n ,
Z
Z
f (g(t))|Jg (t)| dt =
F

f (x) dx.

g(F )

, :

11.11 ( )
F Rn ,
(1) g : F Rn ;
(2) j = 1, , n, g gj F ;
(3) t F , (Z g Jacobian )

D g (t) D g (t)
n 1
1 1

.
..
.
..
..
Jg (t) =
.

D1 gn (t) Dn gn (t)
(4) f : g(F ) R .

g(F )

f (x) dx =





6= 0 ;


f (g(t))|Jg (t)| dt.

11.4

423

, [10] Marsden & Hoffman p.523.

11.11
n = 2 , x (x, y), t (u, v),
ZZ
ZZ
f (x, y) dx dy =
f (g(u, v))|Jg (u, v)| du dv.
F

g(F )

ZZ

f (x, y) dx dy =

ZZ

f (g(u, v))|Jg(u, v)| du dv.

g1 (E)

1132

1.

ZZ

(x + y)2 dx dy, E x + y = 0, x + y = 1, 2x y = 0,

2x y = 3 .

1 E , 1133.
2 :

,
g1 : R2 R2 : g1 (x, y) = (u, v), u = x + y, v = 2x y,

,
F = g1 (E) = {(u, v) | 0 u 1, 0 v 3},

11.4

424
v
6

2x y = 0

...
...
.
.
...
2x
...
.
.
.
.
.
1 .............
.
.
.
......
..
.....................
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.. . . . .... 1
......... .. ... . .. . .. ............... ....
......... . . . . . . . . ....... ..
.
..... . . . . . . . . . . .....
0 ..................... ........
..... . . . . ..
.....
....... . ....
.....
.
E .................... ... x
.....
.
...
..
x+y
.
.
..

y =3
-x

g
.............................................
...
.......
.....
..
.....
1
.....
......... g
......................................

..................................
... . . . . . . . . . ....
... . . . . . . . . . .....
... . . . . . . . . . ...
... . . . . . . . . . ....
... . . . . . . . . . ....F
... . . . . . . . . . ....
... . . . . . . . . . ....
.. . . . . . . . . . ...
... . . . . . . . . . ....
... . . . . . . . . . ....
... . . . . . . . . . ...
... . . . . . . . . . ....
... . . . . . . . . . ....
... . . . . . . . . . ....
..........................

-u

+y =1
=0

1133
3 g Jacobian,


u+v

,
x =
u = x + y,
3

v = 2x y,
y = 2u v ,
3

 u + v 2u v 
,
g : R2 R2 : g(u, v) =
,
3
3




1/3 1/3
= 1.

Jacobian Jg (u, v) =

3
2/3 1/3

4 :
ZZ
=

g1 (E)

u |Jg (u, v)| du dv =

1
1

u2 du dv = .
3
3

11.11
11.10
Z
Z Z
f=
E

r2 ()

r1 ()

f (r cos , r sin ) |r| dr d.

, g1 (r, ) = r cos , g2 (r, ) = r sin , ( 1134 ),


E = {(r cos , r sin ) | , r1 () r r2 ()},
F = g1 (E) = {(r, ) | , r1 () r r2 ()},




cos r sin
= r.
Jg (r, ) =

sin r cos

11.4

425

1134

2. a .

E = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 a2 }, ( a )
p
f : E R : f (x, y) = a2 x2 y 2,

, ,
ZZ
V =2
f (x, y) dA
E
Z 2 Z a
=2
f (r cos , r sin ) r dr d
0
0
Z 2 Z a
a2 r 2 r dr d
=2
0
0
Z 2 h 2
1 (a r 2 )3/2 ir=a
d
= 2
r=0
2
3/2
0
Z
2 2 3
4
=
a d = a3 .

3 0
3

1135

3. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 r = a sin .
E R2 r = a sin ,
z=

p
a2 x2 y 2

, XY E ( 1136 ) ,

11.4

V =2
=2

426

ZZ p
Z

a2 x2 y 2 dx dy

E
Z a sin

a2 r 2 r dr d,

( )
ir=a sin
d
(a2 r 2 )3/2

2
r=0
3 0
Z
2 3
=
a (| cos |3 1) d
3 0
 2 8 
a3 .

=
3
9

1136

11.11
, , ,
, (cylindrical coordinates),
(spherical coordinates). P (x, y, z) XY ,

, z , ,

x = r cos ,

y = r sin ,
g(r, , ) = (x, y, z),

z = ,

r P (x, y, z) XY ,

X OP XY ,
:
ZZZ
f (x, y, z)dV
E
ZZZ
=

g1 (E)

f (r cos , r sin , ) |r| dr d d.

1137
, .

, P (x, y, z), r P (x, y, z) , Z

OP , X OP XY , ( 1138 ),
f : E R , E ,

11.4

427

x = r cos sin ,

g(r, , ) = (x, y, z),


y = r sin sin ,

z = r cos ,
, :

1138
ZZZ

f (x, y, z)dV =

ZZZ

g1 (E)

f (r cos sin , r sin sin , r cos ) r 2| sin | dr d d.

: g Jacobian

cos sin r sin sin r cos cos


Jg (r, , ) = sin sin r cos sin r sin cos

cos
0
r sin
4.

ZZZ

x2 +y 2 +z 2





= r 2 sin .


dx dy dz, E = {(x, y, z) R3 | x2 + y 2 + z 2 4}.

E 2 , ,
x = r cos sin , y = r sin sin , z = r cos ,

2
0

er r 2 | sin | dr d d

h
ir=2
=
sin d d
er (r 2 2r 2)
r=0
0
0
Z Z 2
2
= (2 10e )
sin d d
0

= (2 10e ) 4 = 8(1 5e2 ).

11.5

11.5

428

, f : E R+ E R2 ,
RR
f E , E f (x, y) dA f , E

, 2. f : E R : f (x, y) = 1, f XY

E , ( ),
ZZ
ZZ
A(E) =
f (x, y) dx dy =
dx dy.
E

1. , y = cos x y = sin x

[0, /2] .
1

sin cos ,
sin x = cos x tan x = 1 x =

(/4,

;
4

sin......
.....cos
................
..................
. . . ...........
. . . . ...
.......... . . . . . . .
. . . . . ......... ........ . . . . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
. . . . . . ............. . . . . . .
....... . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . ..
. . . . . .......
...... . . . .
. . . . ..
....... . . . . . . .
. . . . .......
. . . ....
...... . . .
. . . .....
...... . .
. . ....
.
....... . . .
. . ...
. ....
...... .
. ....
.......
..
.
.
.
...
...
0

2/2).

, :
A=

/4

cos x

sin x

/4

dy dx +

/4

/2

1139
Z

/2

/4

(cos x sin x) dx +

sin x

dy dx
cos x
/2

/4

(sin x cos x) dx

i/2
h
i/4 h
+ cos x sin x
= sin x + cos x
/4
0

= 2 1 + (1) ( 2) = 2 2 2.

p
2. (cardioid) x2 + y 2 = 3( x2 + y 2 + x) .

(x, y), (r, ), x = r cos ,


y = r sin , r 0, [0, 2],
p
x2 + y 2 = 3( x2 + y 2 + x) r 2 = 3(r + r cos )
r = 3 + 3 cos .

, .
p



E = (x, y) x2 + y 2 3 x2 + y 2 + x

= {(r cos , r sin ) | 0 r 3 + 3 cos , 0 2},

-X

11.5

A(E) =

=
=
=
=

2 h

429
Y

3+3 cos

r dr d

0
2 ir=3+3 cos

r
2

r=0

6......................................
......
......
.....
.
.
.
....
..
....
....
...
...
...
..
...
...
E
.....
... ....
.
.
X
.
... O
....6
..
...
.
...
..
..
...
...
....
.
.
.
.
.
......
......
.........
.............................

Z
9 2
(1 + cos )2 d
2 0
Z
9 2
(1 + 2 cos + cos2 ) d
2 0
Z
1 + cos 2 
9 2 
d
1 + 2 cos +
2 0
2
i2 27
9h
1
+ 2 sin + + sin 2
=
.
2
2 4
2
0

1140

, E R3 , f = 1 : E R+ ,

RRR

f (x, y, z) dx dy dz E .

3. a .
: .
E = {(x, y, z) R3 | x2 + y 2 + z 2 a2 }

= {(x, y, z) | a x a, a2 x2 y a2 x2 ,
p
p
a2 x2 y 2 z a2 x2 y 2 }.

=
=
=
=

ZZZ

dz dy dx

E
Z

a2 x2

Z a2 x2 y2

dz dy dx

a2 x2 a2 x2 y 2
Z a Z a2 x2 p
2
a2 x2 y 2 dy dx

2
2
a a x
Z 2 Z a p
a2 r 2 cos2 r 2 sin2
2
a

=2

r dr d, ( )

a2 r 2 r dr d

1 (a2 r 2 )3/2 ir=a


d
2
3/2
r=0
0
Z
4
2 2 3
a d = a3 .
=
3 0
3

=2

: , 4 .

11.6

11.6

430

: ;
, , , .
, , ,
, (work) .

.
, , .

1 : ,
r = (r1 , , rn ) : [a, b] Rn

L(s) =

def

Z bp
a

(r1 (t))2

++

(rn (t))2

dt =

r rj .

b
a

|r (t)| dt.

(1)


2 : r = (r1 , r2 ) : [a, b] R2 ,
(x, y) g(x, y) ( (x, y) g(x, y)),

M =

def

Z b
p

2
2
g(r(t)) (r1 (t)) + (r2 (t)) dt =
g(r(t))|r(t)| dt.

(2)

P = {t0 , t1 , , tn } [a, b] n . n ,


[tk1 , tk ] g(r(sk )) r(tk ) r(tk1 ) , ( sk [tk1 , tk ],

1141 ), , n +,

1141

11.6

431

M = lim

n+

= lim

n+

= lim

n+

= lim

n+

[]

k=1
n
X





g(r(sk )) r(tk ) r(tk1 )

g(r(sk ))

k=1

n
X

g(r(sk ))

k=1

n
X

g(r(sk ))

k=1

g(r(t))

n
X

(r1 (tk ) r1 (tk1 ))2 + (r2 (tk ) r2 (tk1 ))2


(r1 (sk,1 ))2 (tk tk1 )2 + (r2 (sk,2))2 (tk tk1 )2 ,

[]

(r1 (sk,1 ))2 + (r2 (sk,2))2 tk

p
(r1 (t))2 + (r2 (t))2 dt, ( Riemann )



g(r(t)) r (t) dt.

, rj : [a, b] R ,
sk,j (tk1 , tk ) rj (tk ) rj (tk1 ) = rj (sk,j )(tk tk1 ).

1. (2) .

3 : g(x, y) (
g(x, y, z)), (2) , 2.

1. x2 + y 2 = 1 g(x, y) = x2 + y + 2, .
(
r1 (t) = x(t) = cos t,
t [0, 2], (2)

r2 (t) = y(t) = sin t,
M=



g(cos t, sin t) (cos t, sin t) dt

(cos2 t + sin t + 2) dt

"

sin 2t
5t
=
cos t +
4
2

#2

= 5.

2. y = x2 , x [1, 2] , g(x, y) = |x|,


.

r1 (t) = x(t) = t,
r2 (t) = y(t) = t2 ,

t [1, 2], (2)

11.6

432

Z 2




M=
|t| 1 + 4t2 dt
g(t, t ) (1, 2t) dt =
1
1
Z 2
Z 0
t 1 + 4t2 dt
=
t 1 + 4t2 dt +
Z

"

1
(1 + 4t2 )3/2
=
12

#0

"

1
+
(1 + 4t2 )3/2
12

#2
0

1
= (173/2 + 53/2 2).
12

.
, (vector
field) F v ,
W = F v. F ,

? , F F(x, y, z),
C r : [a, b] R3 , t
[a, b],

r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k = (x(t), y(t), z(t)).

P = {t0 , t1 , , tn } [a, b] n

. n , [tk1 , tk ]

1142

F(r(sk )) r(tk ) r(tk1 ) ,

sk [tk1 , tk ],
F(r(sk )) (r(tk ) r(tk1)),

( 1141), , n +,
n
X
F(r(sk )) (r(tk ) r(tk1 ))
W = lim
n+

= lim

n+

k=1
n X
3 h
X
k=1 j=1

Fj (r(sk ))(rj (tk ) rj (tk1 ))

n X
3 h
i
X
= lim
Fj (r(sk ))rj (sk,j )(tk tk1 ) ,
n+

3
X
j=1

k=1 j=1

n h
i
X

Fj (r(sk ))rj (sk,j )(tk tk1 )
lim

n+

3 Z b
X
j=1

[]

k=1

Fj (r(t)) rj (t) dt, ( Riemann )

11.6

433

Z bX
3
a

=
[]

Fj (r(t)) rj (t) dt

j=1

F(r(t)) r (t) dt.

, rj : [a, b] R ,
sk,j (tk1 , tk ) rj (tk ) rj (tk1 ) = rj (sk,j )(tk tk1 ).

1. F(x, y, z) = (xy, 2, 4z) r : [0, 2] R3 : r(t) = (cos t, sin t, t/2)


(1, 0, 0) (1, 0, ) .


Z 2
W =
F(r(t)) r (t) dt
Z0 2
=
F(cos t, sin t, t/2) ( sin t, cos t, 1/2) dt
0
Z 2
=
(cos t sin t, 2, 2t) ( sin t, cos t, 1/2) dt
0
Z 2
=
( cos t sin2 t + 2 cos t + t) dt
0

sin3 t
t2 i2
=
= 2 2 .
+ 2 sin t +
3
2 0
h

Z..

......
....
...
..
....
..
...
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.............
.........
.......
...
.......
...
.................
.....
...
..
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
..
.
...
...
..
....
.........................
..................
.....
...........
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............
.
...
..............
.....
............
.
..... ..............
.............
.
.
.
.
..
......

(1, 0, )

(1,0,0)

1143

, ,
n , . , ,
() , ,
.

11.12
E Rn , r : [a, b] E, F : E Rn , r r1 , . . . , rn

( r ), F r (line integral)
W =

F(r(t)) r (t) dt.

,
Z
F(r) dr
r

F(r) dr.

11.6

434

C r . n = 2 , F = (P, Q),
Z
Z
Z b
dx
dy 
dt.
F(r) dr = P dx + Q dy =
P (x, y) + Q(x, y)
dt
dt
r
r
a
: x(t) y(t) r ,
Z
Z b
F(r) dr =
F(r(t)) r (t) dt
r
a
Z b
  dx dy 
=
P (x(t), y(t)), Q(x(t), y(t))
dt
,
dt dt
a
Z b
dy 
dx
dt
=
P (x, y) + Q(x, y)
dt
dt
Za
= P dx + Q dy.
r

2. :

[(x2 y) dx + (y 2 + x) dy]. r (0, 1) (1, 2) .

1 : (0, 1) (1, 2) ,

x = t,
t [0, 1].
y = t + 1,
2 P (x, y) = x2 y, Q(x, y) = y 2 + x,
Z 1h
dy i
dx
dt
=
P (t, t + 1) + Q(t, t + 1)
dt
dt
0
Z 1
 2

=
(t (t + 1)) + ((t + 1)2 + t) dt
Z0 1
i1 5
h2
=
(2t2 + 2t) dt = t3 + t2 = .
3
3
0
0

, r , ,
, , :

11.13
r : [a, b] Rn n , [a, b] {a0 , a1 , . . . , am } k

{1, . . . , m}, rk = r|[ak1 ,

ak ]

, r (smooth chain).

F rk ,
Z
Z
Z
F(r1 ) dr1 + +
F(r) dr =
r

r1

rm

F(rm ) drm .

11.6

435

3. r R2 y = x2 (1, 1)

X (2, 1), Y (2, 3).


F(x, y) = (x2 y, 2x).
1 r , ?

2 F r .

1 ,

2
t [0, 1],

(t, t ),
r : [0, 4] R2 : r(t) = (t, 1),
t [1, 2],

(2, t 1), t [2, 4],

....
....
...
...
....
....
...
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
..
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.......
......3

-X

1144

t [0, 1] , r ;
t [1, 2] , r ;
t [2, 4] , r ;

r , 1144 .
2 F r
Z
W = F(r) dr
Z
Z
Zr
F(r3 ) dr3
F(r2 ) dr2 +
F(r1 ) dr1 +
=
r3
r2
r1
Z 1
Z 2
Z 4
4
2
=
(t , 2t) (1, 2t) dt +
(t , 2t) (1, 0) dt +
(4t 4, 4) (0, 1) dt
0
1
2
Z 1
Z 2
Z 4
4
2
2
=
(t + 4t ) dt +
t dt +
4 dt
0

178
.
=
15

11.14
r : [a, b] R2 r(a) = r(b), r (closed curve).

r E , t a b , r(t) E,
r (positively oriented curve). r(t) E,
r (negatively oriented curve). ( 1145 ).

: , 917.

11.6

436

1145 (), ()
r , F ,
I
Z
F(r) dr = F(r) dr.
r

C r .

F(r) dr =

F(r) dr,

11.15 ( Green )
r E , F = (P, Q) : E R2

P Q E E ,
ZZ 
I
I
Q P 
dx dy = F(r) dr = P dx + Q dy.

y
E x
r
r

, [13] Rudin, p.282

4.

(x dy y dx) , r

x2 y 2
+
= 1, a > 0, b > 0.
a2 b2

: . r = (r1 , r2 )
r : [0, 2] R : r(t) = (x, y),

x = a cos t, y = b sin t,
I
Z 2 
dy
dx 
(x dy y dx) =
x
dt
y
dt
dt
r
0
Z 2 

=
ab cos2 t + ab sin2 t dt
0
Z 2
=
ab dt = 2ab.
0

11.6

437
Y

: Green .

P (x, y) = y,

Q(x, y) = x,

P
= 1,
y

F = (P, Q),

.........
................... ............................
.........
.......
.......
......
......
.....
.....
....
.
.
.
...
..
.
.
...
..
.
...
.
...
....
.
....
...
...
...
..
.
.
...
.
.
...
...
.....
....
......
......
.......
.......
.........
........
.
.
..............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.............................

Q
= 1,
x

-X

1146
(x dy y dx) =

Ir

F dr

P dx + Q dy
ZZ 
Q P 
dx dy, ( E )

=
x
y
E
ZZ
=
2 dx dy
=

= 2 A(E), ( A(E) )

= 2ab.

, Green , .

11.16 ( )

(i) E Rn ,
(ii) r : [a, b] E ,
(iii) f : E R .

f (r) dr = f (r(b)) f (r(a)).

( 1147 ).
Z
Z b
f (r) dr =
(f (r(t)) r (t) dt
r
a
Z b
d
f (r(t)) dt, ( )
=
a dt
= f (r(b)) f (r(a)).

11.6

438

1147

, F(x) .
1 n = 2 , f : Df ( R2 ) R
f (x, y) = F(x, y) = (P (x, y), Q(x, y)).

()

(x, y),
()

D1 f (x, y) = P (x, y) D2 f (x, y) = Q(x, y)


D12 f (x, y) =

P (x, y)
Q(x, y) i
D21 f (x, y) =
y
x

Q(x, y)
P (x, y)
=
, ( Young )
y
x

P (x, y)
Q(x, y)
=
, F(x, y) = (P (x, y), Q(x, y))
y
x

.
2 n = 3 , f : Df ( R3 ) R
f (x, y, z) = F(x, y, z) = (P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z)).

()

11.6

439

(x, y, z),

D f (x, y, z) = P (x, y, z),

1
()
D2 f (x, y, z) = Q(x, y, z),

D f (x, y, z) = R(x, y, z),


3
P (x, y, z)
P (x, y, z)

D12 f (x, y, z) =
, D13 f (x, y, z) =
,

y
z

Q(x, y, z)
Q(x, y, z)

, D23 f (x, y, z) =
,
D21 f (x, y, z) =

x
z

R(x, y, z)
R(x, y, z)

D31 f (x, y, z) =
, D32 f (x, y, z) =
,
x
y

Q(x, y, z)
P (x, y, z)

=
,

y
x

R(x, y, z)
P (x, y, z)

=
,

z
x

Q(x, y, z)
R(x, y, z)

=
,
z
y

: (P, Q, R) ,

F(x, y, z) = (P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z))

5.


6xy dx + (3x2 + 2yz) dy + y 2 dz ,

r : [0, 1] R3 : r(t) = (1 + t cos 2t) i + (1 + t sin 2t) j + (1 + t2 ) k.

, . ,
1 F(x, y, z) = (6xy, 3x2 + 2yz, y 2 ),
P (x, y, z) = 6xy, Q(x, y, z) = 3x2 + 2yz, R(x, y, z) = y 2 .

Q(x, y, z)
P (x, y, z)

= 6x =
,

y
x

R(x, y, z)
P (x, y, z)
=0=
,

z
x

R(x, y, z)
Q(x, y, z)

= 2y =
,
z
y

f : R3 R

f (x, y, z) = F (x, y, z) = (6xy, 3x2 + 2yz, y 2).

11.6

440

2 f ,

D1 f (x, y, z) = 6xy,

D2 f (x, y, z) = 3x2 + 2yz,

D3 f (x, y, z) = y 2,

(1)
(2)
(3)

(1) f (x, y, z) = 3x2 y + g(y, z)


D2 f (x, y, z) = 3x2 +

(4)

g(y, z)
y

g(y, z)
= 2yz, ( (2) )
y

g(y, z) = y 2 z + h(z)

(5)

f (x, y, z) = 3x2 y + y 2z + h(z)

(6)

D3 f (x, y, z) = y 2 + h (z)
h (z) = 0, ( (3) )
h(z) = C, ( (6) )
f (x, y, z) = 3x2 y + y 2z + C.

(11.1)

C .
3 ,

f (r(t)) r (t) dt

= f (r(1)) f (r(0)) = f (2, 1, 2) f (1, 1, 1)


= 3 22 1 + 12 2 + C (3 + 1 + C) = 10.

: 4 :
h

(x dy y dx) , ,

P (x, y) = y, Q(x, y) = x

h P (x, y)

i
Q(x, y)
=1
y
x
P (x, y)
Q(x, y)

6=
.
y
x

= 1,

441

11-1 E = [0, 1] [1, 1], f : E R : f (x, y) =

0, x + y Q,
1, .

(a) U(f, P ) L(f, P ), P ;


(b) f E ?
11-2 E = [0, 1] [0, 2], f : E R : f (x, y) = x + 2y, P = P1 P2 .
(a) P1 = {0, 1/2, 1}, P2 = {0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2}, U(f, P ) L(f, P ) .

(b) P1 , P2 [0, 1] [0, 2] n () , n


U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < 0.001 .
11-3 A = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + 4y 2 1},
5
5
x + y , (x, y) 6= (0, 0),
f : A R : f (x, y) = x4 + y 4

0,
(x, y) = (0, 0).

f A ? ?

[ ] f .
11-4 :
Z 2Z 3
(a)
|x 2| cos y dx dy ;
0

[ ] , .
Z 2Z 1 p
(b)
xy x2 y 2 dy dx ;
1

(c)

/2

/4

/4

sin(3x + 6y 12z) dz dy dx ;

[ ] .
Z 2Z 1p
|y x2 | dx dy ;
(d)
0


(e)

442
2

|x y| cos y dx dy .

11-5 :
(a) f (x, y) = y 2 exp(x + y), S = [2, 2] [0, 1] ;
y
(b) f (x, y) = x +
, S = {(x, y) | 0 x 1, tan1 2x y 2x} ;
1 + 4x2
(c) f (x, y) = x2 + y 2, S = {(x, y) | 1 x 1, 0 y 1 + x2 } ;
(d) f (x, y, z) = 1, S = {(x, y, z) | x2 + z 2 4, 0 y 2} ;



(e) f (x, y) = xy, S = (x, y) |x| + |y| 1 ;

(f) f (x, y) = sin(ax + by), (a, b R), S = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1} .

11-6 f : R2 R .
Z 2Z y
f (x, y) dx dy.
0

y/2

[ ] .
11-7 :
(a) S = {(x, y, z) | x2 + y 2 + z 2 1, z 0} ;

(b) S = {(x, y, z) | x2 + y 2 z 2 , 0 z 2} .
11-8 r .
11-9 f (x) = eax , g(y) = eby , a > 0, b > 0,
ZZ


E = {(x, y) x > 0, y > 0},
f (x)g(y) dA =?
E

11-10 z = x3 y , (0, 0), (2, 0), (0, 1)

.
11-11 S x 2y + 2 = 0, x + 3y 3 = 0 y = 0 , f (x, y) =
xy x2 + 1 S .

11-12 z = x2 y 2 , XY , x = 1, x = 3, .

.
Z 1 hZ 2
i
2
11-13
ey dy dx .
0

2x

1Z

sin y
dy dx .
y
0
x
[ ] .

11-14

443

11-15 , ,

. . ( , ).

11-16 r = 1 + cos .
11-17 (lemniscate)
r 2 = a2 cos 2 ,

, .
Z Z 2Z 2 2
1x

11-18

1x y

1x2

,
4
4

z 2 dz dy dx .

1x2 y 2

[ ] , .

n i ] 2
n [ X
X
i + j2
11-19 lim
=? [ ] .
n+
n4
i=1
j=1

1
11-20 : ( ) = , (x) Gamma .
2
Z +
exp(x2 ) dx .

[ ]

11-21
f : [0, 1] [0, 2] R : f (x, y) =

1, (x Q y < 1) (x R \ Q y 1),
0, ,

(a) f y x ;
(b) f Riemann .

11-22 F(x, y, z) = (yz, xz, xy) r(t) = (t, 2t, 3t) (0, 0, 0) (1, 2, 3)

(work).
11-23 m r : [0, +) R3 : r(t) = (cos t, sin t, t) , t

(a) ?
(b) [1,2] ?
(c) [1,2] ?

444

11-24 Green

y = x2 , y = x.

x2 y dx + 3xy dy, C :

1
,
11-25 P (x, y) = xe
Q(x, y) = x ye + 2
x + y2



r (x, y) R2 |x| a, |y| a .
y 2

y 2

P dx + Q dy,
r

11-26 g(x, y) = xy r : [0, 1] R : r(t) = (t4 , 3t) .

445


[1] : , , 70 .
[2] : , , 84 .
[3] : , 80 .
[4] Apostol, T.M., Mathematical Analysis, A Modern Approach to Advanced Calculus,
2nd ed., 1975.
[5] Bell, S.; Blum, J.R., Lewis, J.V.; Russenblatt, J.: Modern University Calculus,
1966.
[6] De la Vallee-Poussin, C-J: Cours dAnalyse Infinitesimale.
[7] Edwards, C.H.; Penney D.E.: Calculus and Analytic geometry, 4th ed., 1994
[8] Finney, R.L.; Thomas, G.B.: Calculus, 2nd ed., 1994.
[9] Goldstein, L.A.; Lay, D.C.; Schneider D.I.: Calculus and its Applications, 6th ed.,
1990.
[10] Marsden, J.E.; Hoffman M.J.: Elementary Classical Analysis, 2nd ed., 1993.
[11] Pinter, C.C.: Set Theory, 1971.
[12] Royden, H.L.; Real Analysis, 3rd ed., 1989.
[13] Rudin, W.: Principles of Mathematical Analysis, 3rd ed., 1976.
[14] Salas, S.L.; Hille E.: Calculus: One and serveral variables with analytic geometry,
7th ed. 1995.
[15] Taylor, A.E.: Advanced Calculus, 1955.
[16] Varberg, D.; Purcell, E.J.: Calculus, 2nd ed., 1997.

446



0-2 (a) sup A = 1, inf A = 0 .
(b) sup B = 1, inf B = 0 .
(c) sup C = 2, inf C = 3 .

(d) sup D = 2, inf D = 0 .

0-3 , .

b + b2 4ac
b b2 4ac
0-4 sup B =
, inf B =
.
2a
2a
0-5 sup A + sup B sup C, sup A + sup B sup C.
0-6 sup E .
0-7 : inf B A .
0-8 [ ] .
0-10 f : [0, 20] R : f (t) =

2t,
10,

0 t 5,
5 < t 8,

10 + 3(t 8), 8 < t 20.


0-11 g(x) = 0, g(x) = x g(x) = 1.

2
1
2
1
, inf A =
.
0-12 sup A = +
2
2
2
2


1-1 .
1-2 , 0 < < 1/2 1/2 .
1-3 (a) 0, 0. (b) .
1-4 (a) 1/4 . (b) 1/2 . (c) 1 . (d) 0 . (e) 1 . (f)
(g) 0 . (h) . (i) . (j) 1 .
1-5 f (3 ) = 0, f (3+ ) = 2,
lim f (x) .

x3

1-6 (a) f .
(b) g .
(c) h .
1-7 (a) .

lim f (x) ,

x3

3n 1, n > 0,
3n,

n < 0.

f (3 ) = 2, f (3+ ) = 0,

447

sin c b
.
c
c = 0 b = 0, a .

1-8 1 c 6= 0 a =
2

1-9 lim f (x) = lim f (p + h).


xp

h0

1-10 .
1-11 .
1-12 1, 0, 1 .

1-13 (a) f g h 0 . (b) h f g .


1-14 x, .
1-15 .
1-16 f g .

1-17 (b) 15000k , k N .


1-18 [ ] = ( + )/2.

1-19 1.27.


2-1 (a) f : R R : f (x) = 31 x2/3 .
(
0,
x<0,

3
(b) f (x) =
(2x)1/4 , x > 0 .
2
(c) f : (, 1) (1, +) R : f (x) =
(d) f : R \ Z R : f (x) = sgn(x) [x] .

 x + 1 1/2
x1

1
.
(x 1)2

2-2 (a) f (0) = 0, (b) f p 6= 0 .

2-4 (a) f 1 . (b) f (1/2) = 2/2 .


4x
4x
+ 2
.
2-5 (h g f ) (x) = 2
3
(x + 1)
(x + 1)2
2-6 f (n) (x) = (1)n 2 n!(1 + x)(n+1) .

h
1
1 i
1

p
2-7 f : (0, +) R : f (x) = q
.
1
+
1
+

2 x
2
x
+
x
2 x+ x+ x
2-8 1080 .
2-9 3/8 .
2-10 (a) a = 1/2, b = 1 .
3
1
2-11 y + = x .
4
2
3
m/sec.
2-12
2
1
2-13 (a) x 6= a, f (x) = (x a)2/3 .
3

27
3
4
x
(b) x = a y =
a .
2
27
8
2-14 y = 2x 1, y = 8x 16.

448

2-15 (x0 , f (x0 )) f , g (2x0 , g(2x0 )) .


2-16 20/3 .

2-17 8 2 .
8
2-18 V = r 3 .
3
2-19 (a) [0, 50] .
(b) 4 5 .
(c) 4 22 , .
2-23 : |x y| .

2-24 f 0 , 0.4 .
x4 1
2-25 (a) x 6= 0, F (x) = f (x4 ) 4x3 = 4x3 = 4x(x4 1) .
x4
(b) F (0) = 0 .
2-26 (a) .
(b) x = 0 .
2-27 xf (x) f (x) > 0, x (0, 1).


3-1 (a)

2 . (b) 0 . (c) 1 . (d) 0 . (e) e . (f) 0 .

3-2 (a) f : R \ Z R : f (x) = cos x .


1
.
(b) f : (0, +) R : f (x) =
2(x + 1) x
 
x2 + 8x 4
1 x
(c) f : R \ [0, 1] R : f (x) = 2
.

tan
(x x)(x2 + 4)
2

x 1
x1  ln x

, x > 1,
+
x

(d) f : [1, +) R : f (x) =


x
2 x1

0,
x=1.
3-3 .
3-4 f 0 , g 0 , h .
3-5 lim f (x) .
x0

 y + py 2 + 4ab 
,
3-6 f : R R : f (y) = ln
2a
1
(f 1 ) : R R : (f 1 ) (y) = p
y 2 + 4ab .
3-7 2x + 2y 17, 8.

3-8 (e) f (x) = x.


1

3-9 : sin x/x (0, /2] .


3-10 exp(x + y) = exp(x) exp(y) .
3-11 f (x) = f (x).


3-12 2.
3-14

449

1X
xj = 1 .
n j=1

csc2 x + y 3xy ln 3
.
1 x 3xy ln 3
p
2
cosh
y
+
y/x
p
.
(b) y =
2x sinh y + x/y

3-15 (a) y =

(c) y =

ax (ln a)2 2 2
ax ln a

,
y
=

a b .
by ln b
b2y ln b

3-16 x + y = 4 .
dy
1 3t2
d2 y
6t2 6t + 2
3-17
=
, t 6= 1/2.
=
.
dx
1 2t
dx2
(1 2t)3
dy
3-18 (a) t [0, /2],
= 16 sin t cos 2t .
dx t


3 

3 
(b) y = 8 2 sin x sin
, y = 8 2 sin
.
x sin
8
8
8
8

3-19 (a) A B (cos t, sin t), (0, sin t + 24 + sin2 t) .


 2
1 
(b) +
.
2 2 24.5
sin 4t
.
(c) 2 cos 2t +
24 + sin2 2t
3-20 70.5288 .
3-21 15.694 .
3-22 0.07020 = 7.02% .
3-23 n(t) = 105 10t/5 = 105+t/5 .
3-24 .
3-25 ().


4-1 (a) f (x) = 1 + x ln a +

(x ln a)2 (x ln a)3 (x ln a)4 (x ln a)5 ac


+
+
+
, c 0 x
2!
3!
4!
5!

(x ln a)2 (x ln a)3 (x ln a)4 (x ln a)5


+
+
+
.
2!
3!
4!
5!
1
ec
1
(b) g(x) = 1 + x x3 x4 (cos c sin c)x5 , c 0 x ,
3
6
30
1 3 1 4
1
P5 (x) = 1 + x x x x5 .
3
6
30
4-2 cosh Maclaurin .
 
n1  
X
a an
a
k
c (x 1)n , c 1 x .
(x 1) +
4-3 (a) f (x) =
n
k
k=0
n  
X
a
(x 1)k .
Pn (x) =
k
k=0
P5 (x) = 1 + x ln a +

450

(b) g(x) = e + 2e(x 1) +

c 1 x .

3e
ne
(n + c)ec
(x 1)2 + +
(x 1)n1 +
(x 1)n ,
2!
(n 1)!
n!

3e
(n + 1)e
(x 1)2 + +
(x 1)n .
2!
n!
4-4 ln(1 + x) Maclaurin .
ec + ec + 2 cos c 4
x , c 0 x .
4-5 (a) f (x) = 4 +
4!
4-6 (a) 0,1 , 1/4 .
Pn (x) = e + 2e(x 1) +

(b) 0 , /2 .
4-7 3x x3 .

4-8 a = 1, b = 0. f 2 .

4-9 QRP r .
4-13 f (x) = x exp(x2 ) .

(a) y = x. 1/ 2 .
(b) f .

4-15 p > 1 f .
4-16 .
(1)n1 n
x ,
4-17 Rn (x) =
n(1 + c)n
4-18 m 1, n 20000 .

4-19 3 1.73206.

lim Rn (1) = 0 .

n+

4-20 0.567143.
4-21 (b) 0.0161.
4-22 (a) 3. (b) 1. (c) 2. (d) (3/2)30 . (e) 1. (f) 1. (g) e . (h) 1/12 (i) 1/3.
4-23 4.7 .

4-24 x, , .
4-25 f (x) .
4-26 1 .

5-1 (a) ln | sin x| + C.


(b) ln | cot x + csc x| + C.
  2(nk)+1
n
X
x
nk n sin
(1)
(c)
+ C.
k 2(n k) + 1
k=0
Z
cotn1 x
cotn2 x dx.
(d)
n1
n1
X n 1 cot2n2k1 x
(e)
+ C.
k
2n 2k 1
k=0


(f) x sin1 x +
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
5-2 (a)
(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
5-3 (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

451

1 x2 + C.

x cos1 x 1 x2 + C.
1
x cot1 x + ln(x2 + 1) + C.
2
Z
1
2n 1
2n1
csc2n1 x dx.
csc
x cot x +
2n
2n
ax
e
(a cos bx + b sin bx) + C.
2
a + b2
3
1
1
1
+

+
+C .

2
3
x + 1 2(x + 1)
(x + 1)
4(x + 1)4
ln(1 + ex ) + x + C .

ln |x| ln |xn + 1| + C, n 6= 0,
n
1

ln |x| + C,
n=0.
2

a2 sin2 x + b2 cos2 x
+C .
a2 b2
1
1
sec5 x sec3 x + C .
5
3
b
a
x
+
ln |a cos x + b sin x| + C .
a2 + b2
a2 + b2
(ln(cos x))2

+C .
2
x2 1
1
tan1
+C .
2
2x
3x 2x
1


ln x
+C .
x
2(ln 3 ln 2)
3 +2

x2 + 2x + ln x + 1 + x2 + 2x + C .
1
1
1

+
+C .
99
98
99(1 x)
49(1 x)
97(1 x)97
x3
1


ln 3
+C .
2
3
3a
a +x

x
2 2 cos + C .
2
1 2
1
1
sin 2x cos 2x +
cos 6x + C .
8
8
24
(1 x2 )5/2

+C .
5x5

1
1
+C .
ln2 1 +
2
x
x
1 1
sin x +
1 x2 + C.
2
2
2x + 1
+ C.
sinh1
3

1 + 1 x2
1
sin x +
+C .
x

452

1
3
tan3 x

+
3
tan
x
+
+C .
3 tan3 x tan x
3
x3 x2 sin 2x x cos 2x sin 2x
(a)
+
+

+C .
6
4
4
8
1
(b)
x(cos(ln x) + sin(ln x)) + C .
2

x2 + 1
tan1 x 2 x + C .
(c)
x
x
(d) ex tan + C .
2
(

x sec1 x ln |x + x2 1| + C, x > 1,
(e)

x sec1 x + ln |x + x2 1| + C, x < 1,

(f) 2( x 1)e x + C.
Z
Z
sinn1 x cos x n 1
n
sin x dx =
sinn2 x dx.
+
n
n
2ax 
1  x + a
ln
+C .
+
(a)


4a3
xa
a2 x2
2x 1 1
1
1
ln |x + 1| + ln(x2 x + 1) + C .
(b) tan1
3
6
3
3
4
x
1
1
ln
tan1 x + C .
(c)
2
2
4 (1 + x) (1 + x ) 2

x2 + 2x + 1 2

1
2


1

+
(d) ln
tan ( 2x + 1) +
tan1 ( 2x 1) + C.

4
4
4 2
x2 2x + 1

1
(a) x x2 4 2 ln |x + x2 4| + C .
2

x
(b)
sin1 x + ln 1 x2 + C .
1 x2
x
(c) x tan + C .
2
xex


(d) ln
+C .
x
1 + xe

(a) f (x) = x2 + 9 + 3 .

(b) f (x) = x2 + 9 + 5 2 13 .
(j)

5-4

5-5
5-6

5-7

5-8

5-9 .


6-1 .
6-2 (b) U(f, P ) = 3, L(f, P ) = 0 . (c) 2.
Z 4
6-3 ,
f (x)dx = 8.
0

6-4 f I , f : [0, 1] R : f (x) =

6-5 (a) ln |1 + 2|. (b) 2/ . (c) 1.

1,

x [0, 1] Q,

1, .

453

6-6 (a) .

6-7
6-8
6-9
6-11

(b) = 0, g , .

(a) 55/12. (b) 4(2 2 1)/9 .

1 < 1/ 1 xn < 1/ 1 x .

2 sin x2 sin x

.
xp
2x
(a) p2 + 1 . (b) 1 .

6-12 (a) a = 4 1. f (x) = 2x + 3 . (b) .


1
1
3
1
.
6-13 f : R R : f (x) = ln(2 + cos x) + ln 3 = ln
2
2
2 2 + cos x
6-14 f (ax) = f (a) + f (x) .
6-15 F : R R : F (x) = exp(x2 ).
(
x,
|x| 1,
6-16 F + C, F (x) = x3 2
+ sgn(x), |x| > 1 .
3
3
6-17 cos x.
6-18 (ln x)2 /2.
Z 2
6-19
[f (x) x] dx, .
0

6-20 (a) . (b) . (c) . (d) . (e) .

(f) .

6-21 (, 1], [1, 1], [1, +) .


6-22 .
6-23 .
6-24 1/xp1 1, ( x 0+ ), 6.24.


7-1 37/96.
4
7-2 4 + 3 .
3
i1
i(1+5)/2
h x3 x2
h x3 3x2
.
+
x
+
+x
+
7-3

3
2
3
2
1
(3 5)/2

7-4 4 2 .
7-5 8/3.
7-6 3/4 .
7-7 4/15 .
7-8 (a) 45/2. (b) 153/5 .
7-9 5 2 .

454

7-10 4 3ab2 /3 .

2 6
7-11 2
( 66 ) , .
r3
r
1 + 2x
1 + 2x
7-12 f : [0, +) R : f (x) =
or
.

7-13 14/3.
7-14 118/27.
7-15 134/27.
7-16 2.
7-17 515/64 .

3
(3 3 + 2).
7-18
6

7-19 l : m = 1 : 2 .

1
7-20 20000 1 cos
.
2
1
7-21
.
2h(4 h)
7-22 0.22607 .

203 5 1
29 + 2 7
+4 7 .
+ ln
7-23
2
4
5+ 2
k
k
dh
p

=
=
.
7-24
2
2
dt
2L 2hr h2
2L r (h r)
7-25 n 58 .


8-1 (a) 0 . (b) 0 . (c) 0 . (d) . (e) ln p.
8-2 2 ln 2 ln 3 .
8-3 bn = an+1 an , .
8-4 .
8-5 {an }n , {bn }n .
8-6 (a) 1. (b) t/(1 + t2 ) . (c) 3/2 . (d) 1/2 . (e) 4 . (f) 1. (g) 1/4. (h) /4.
8-7 (a) . (b) . (c) . (d) . (e) . (f) .
8-8 0 < q < 1 .
8-9 [ ] n , |an | < 1 .
8-10 (a) . (b) . (c) . (d) .

8-13
8-14
8-15

P
an
,
bn .
n

(a) (2, 2) . (b) R . (c) ( 2, 2) .
1 1 + x
.
ln
2
1x
x3 x5 x7
x2n+1
(a) x (1, 1), x
+

+ + (1)n
+ .
3
5
7
2n + 1
.

8-11 bn
8-12

455
p

an bn =

8-16 ex Maclaurin Maclaurin .


1 x3
1 3 x5
1 3 (2n 1) x2n+1
8-17 x +
+

+ .
2 3
2! 22 5
2n n!
2n + 1
8-18 Maclaurin .


9-1 .
9-2 1 (x 1) + 2 (y 2) + 3 (z 3) = 0.
9-3 cos1 (6/19) .

9-4 (a) c = 1, (5, 7, 11). (b)


9-5 1.

1
1
(x 5) + 0(y 7) (z 11) = 0 .
2
6

9-6 .
9-7 (a) Df = Dg = Dh = [0, 2], Rf = Rg = Rh = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 = 1},
2, 4, 2.
(b) f h , , .
9-8 = 12 .
2

9-9 (a) : x + y = 1, : x + z = 1. (b)


Z 2
1 + 2 d .
9-10 (a) r = . (b)

2
0

p
1 + sin2 t dt.

9-11 (a) v(2) = 3 i 4 j + 12 k, 13.


y+4
z8
x6
=
=
.
(b) :
3
4
12
: 3(x 6) + (4)(y + 4) + 12(z 8) = 0 .
 3 1 
.
, ,
9-12
8
8 12
9-13 (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0).

9-14 = 1, (0, 2).

9-15 3/ 5.

9-16 (1, 0, 3), 3(x 1) 10y + 2(z (


3) = 0.
(cos t, sin t), t [0, ],
9-17 r : [0, 3/2] R2 : r(t) =
(cos t, 0),
t [, 3/2].

456


10-1 (a) =1/2. (b) =0.
10-2 (a) 1. (b) 1. (c) .
10-3 f (0, 0) .
10-4 {(x, y) | x = y} .
10-5 (a) k=0. (b) .

10-6 ( 5e)1 .
10-7 (a) f11 (x, y, z) = z sin(x y), , f33 (x, y, z) = 0.

2(x2 yz + z 2 )
2x2 + y 2 + 2z 2 2yz
(b) f11 (x, y, z) = 2
, , f33 (x, y, z) =
.
(x + yz z 2 )2
(x2 + yz z 2 )2

2 2
.
,
10-8 (a) 6 2 . (b)
2 2
x3
10-9 f (x, y) =
+ xy 2 + 1 .
3
 2 
 1
8
2 
. (b) x 8y + 2z = 6 . (c) cos1
1.33 .
10-10 (a) , ,
69
69
69
69

10-11 (x 1) + 4(y 2) + 6(z 2) = 0, (x + 1) + 4(y + 2) + 6(z + 2) = 0.


x1
y2
z3
10-12
=
=
, 1(x 1) 2(y 2) + 1(z 3) = 0.
1
2
1
10-13 f .


10-14 (0, 0) , ( 2, 2) ( 2, 2) .
10-15 (1/2, 4) , .

10-16 3.
10-17 100/3, .
10-18 (a) k/3 .

10-19 3 : 2 : 1
10-20 8, 8/3.
10-21 300, 150 22/3 .

10-22 21/3 , 21/3 , 21/3 /2.

10-23 x = 12, y = 16, z = 20.


10-24 A = 3a, B = 3b, C = 3c.


11-1 (a) U(f, P ) = 2, L(f, P ) = 0 . (b) .
11-2 (a) U(f, P ) = 13/2, L(f, P ) = 13/4 . (b) n > 10000 .

457

11-3 .

31 9 3
5
3
11-4 (a) sin 2 . (b)
. (c) 0 . (d) + . (e) 1 + cos 2 + 2 sin 1 sin 2 .
15
4 6
2
17 7
1
11-5 (a) e3 2e2 e1 + 2e2 . (b)
tan1 2 (tan1 2)3 .
12 8
12
(c) 304/105 . (d) 8 . (e) 0 . (f) 0 .
Z 0Z 2
Z 2Z 2
11-6
f (x, y) dy dx +
f (x, y) dy dx .
1

2x

11-7 (a) 2/3 . (b) 8/3 .


11-8 r 2 .
11-9 1/(ab) .

11-10 2/15 .
11-11 5/24 .
11-12 80/3 .
1
11-13 (e4 1) .
4
11-14 1 cos 1 .
Z 2 Z 3+22 x2 p
4
3
11-15 10 2
100 x2 y 2 dy dx 3951.1 .

3
2 3 22 x2
3
.
11-16 1 +
8
11-17 a2 .
11-18 2/15 .
11-19 /8 .
11-21 (a) 1. (b) .
11-22 6 .
11-23 (a) (0, 0, mg) . (b) mg . (c)
11-24 51/140 .
11-25 0 .
11-26 49/24.

2.

458

f : A B , :
I. f ;
II. B A g g f = IA , f g = IB .

I II : f A B , y B, x A
f (x) = y; g :

g : B A : g(y) = x, ( x f (x) = y x. )

x A, (g f )(x) = g(f (x)) = g(y) = x,

y B, (f g)(y) = f (g(y)) = f (x) = y,

g f = IA f g = IB . g , h B A

h f = IA f h = IB ,

y B, g(y) = (h f )(g(y)) = (h (f g))(y) = h(y).


II I : g : B A f g = IB g f = IA .
f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) g(f (x1 )) = g(f (x2))
(g f )(x1 ) = (g f )(x2 )
x1 = x2 ,

, f . , y B, f g = IB , f (g(y)) = y. x = g(y) A,

f (x) = f (g(y)) = y. f .

459

f : [a, b] R ,
(1) f .
(2) f g : f ([a, b]) [a, b] f , .

(1) f , t (a, b], f (t) 6= f (a). :

(a) f (t) > f (a). x1 , x2 [a, b], x1 < x2 , f (x1 ) 6= f (x2 ).

f (x1 ) > f (x2 ) . , f (a) < f (x2 ) < f (x1 )

, c (a, x1 ) f (c) = f (x2 ). f .

x1 < x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 ),

f [a, b] .
(b) f (t) < f (a), (a) f [a, b] .
(2) (a) f g . f (a) = c, f (b) = d, Dg = [c, d].
y1 , y2 [c, d], y1 < y2 , g(y1) g(y2) . , f

, f (g(y1)) f (g(y2)), y1 y2 , y1 < y2 ,


y1 < y2 , g(y1) < g(y2 ). g . .

(b) g , y0 [c, d], lim g(y) = g(y0). y0 (c, d).


yy0

g , y0 lim g(y), lim+ g(y) .


yy0

yy0

f ,
f ( lim g(y)) = lim (f g)(y) = lim y = y0 ,
yy0

yy0

()

yy0

lim g(y) = g(y0). lim+ g(y) = g(y0). y = c d,


yy0

yy0

g(y0), () .

460


, , .
,
cosh2 x sinh2 x = 1,
1 tanh2 x = sech2 x,
coth2 x 1 = csch2 x,
D sinh x = cosh x,
D cosh x = sinh x.

() , ?
, ()
x2 + y 2 = 1, x2 y 2 = 1.
()

( ) :
O , x2 + y 2 = 1, P X
T , . T OP = u, , OT = cos u, T P = sin u.
Y

............................................
........
..........
......
........
......
......
.....
......
.
.
.
.
....
...
.
....
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
...
...
.
..
.
.
................
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
.
..
.... ....
.
.
.
.
.
.
....
.
... ...
.
.
.
.
...
.
.......
.... ....
...
.......
.
.
.
.. ...
.
.
...
.
.......
.
.
...
.... ...
.
.
.
...... ..
. ..
....
...
...
...
...
..
..
...
..
.
.
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
.
...
....
....
...
....
....
.....
.....
......
.....
.......
.
.
.
.
.
..
........
........
............
.......................................

-X

T Q

tan u, cot u, sec u csc u, , OP Q


u/2, OT = cos u, T P = sin u.
()

:
H x2 y 2 = 1 , P H , X

T , .

R OP , OQ H , , :
R u/2, OT = cosh u, T P = sinh u. , OT = a, T P = b,

Q 1,

461
Y

..
....
....
........
.
.
.
... ...
... ..
.... ...
... ...
.........
.
.
.... ..
... ..
.... ..
... ...
... ....
.
.
.
. .
.... ..
... ....
... ........
.... .........
..................
.
.
.... .........
... ...... ..
................
...............
............. ........
.
.
..... . . . .
............ . ...
.................. ...
.................. ..
..............................
.
.
.
.
.... . . . . . .
......................
.... . . . . . . . . ..

R
.
Q......

-X

...
...
....
....
....
....
....
....
.....
....
.

Z a
u
= A(R) = A(OP T )
x2 1 dx
2
1
ia
ab h x 2
1

=
x 1 cosh1 x , ( )
1
2
2
2
ab a 2
1
1
=
a 1 + cosh1 a cosh1 1

2
2
2
2

1
= cosh1 a, ( b = a2 1, cosh1 1 = 0 )
2

a = cosh u, b = a2 1 = sinh u.

462

Cauchy

x = f (t),
y = g(t),

t [a, b], f, g (a, b) ,

Cauchy , p (a, b)


f (b) f (a) f (p)


g(b) g(a) g (p)
f (b) f (a) f (p) 0, (1)




= 0.

g(b) g(a)
g (p)
= ,
f (b) f (a)
f (p)

(1)

(2)

(f (a), g(a)) ( A ) (f (b), g(b)) ( B ) ,

dy

dy
g (p)
dt t=p
=
=


dx
f (p)
dx t=p

dt t=p

C , , , .

463

I , p I, f I n , lim f (n) (c) = f (n) (p). c


xp

) . ( : c p x , x . )
4.4 (

f I n , , n ,
:
x I \ {p}, 4.4 , c (x, p) (Z (p, x) )
f (x) = f (p) + f (p)(x p) + +
=

n1 (k)
X
f (p)(x p)k

k!

k=0

f (n1) (p)
f (n) (c)
(x p)n1 +
(x p)n
(n 1)!
n!

f (n) (c)
(x p)n .
n!

n 1 lHospital ,

lim f (n) (c) = lim

xp

xp

= lim

xp

= lim

xp

f (x)

n1 (k)
X
f (p)(x p)k
k=0

k!

(x p)n
n!
n1 (k)
X
f (p)(x p)k1
f (x)
(k 1)!
k=1

f (x)

(x p)n1
(n 1)!
n1 (k)
X
f (p)(x p)k2
k=2

(k 2)!

(x p)n2
(n 2)!

f (n1) (x) f (n1) (p)


= f (n) (p).
xp
xp

= lim

464


[ (fixed point theorem) ]
g : [a, b] [a, b] , k [0, 1) |g (x)| k,
(1) r [a, b] g(x) = x.( A );
(2) x1 [a, b], xn+1 = g(xn ), n N, ( B ),
|xn r| k n1 (b a).

()

(1) : [a, b] R : (x) = g(x) x,

(b) 0 (a), Bolzano ,

r [a, b] (r) = 0;

...
....

g...........................................

(x) = g (x) 1 < 0, x (a, b),

.. .
...... ......
...... ..........
.
.
.
.
.
..... .......
..... .........
.
.
.
.
...
....
.... .........
.

. r
(x) = 0 .
(2) :
1

n = 1 , () .

....
...
....
...
....
.
.
...
....
...
....
...
.
.
.
.
....
...
...
....
....

a
0

-X

2 n = m , () , :

n = m + 1 , () .

xm = r, xm+1 = g(xm ) = r, ()
. xm 6= r,

cm (r, xm ) (xm , r)

b
x2

g(xm ) g(r) = (xm r)g (cm ),


a

|xm+1 r| = |g(xm ) g(r)| k|xm r|


k m (b a).

...
....

..
.................
.....................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
... ..
...... ......
g .............. ..............
.
....
....
.... .......
.... .........
.

....
...
....
...
....
.
.
...
....
...
....
...
.
.
.
.
....
...
...
....
....

x1 b
x2

-X

465

(i) r g(x) = x ;
(ii) > 0 k [0, 1) x (r , r + ), |g (x)| k ;
(iii) x1 (r , r + ), xn+1 = g(xn ), n N.

|xn r| 2k n1 .
I = [r , r + ], , : g(I) I.
x I \ {r} c (x, r) ( (r, x) ), g(x) g(r) = (x r)g (c),
()
|g(x) r| = |g(x) g(r)| k|x r| < |x r| .
g(x) [r , r + ].
Y

r+
r
r

...
...
....
....
...
.
.
..
....
.... ............
..............
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........
...........
.................
.
.
.
.
..............
....
...
.
.
.
...
...
....
....
...
.
.
.
.
...
....
...
....
...
.
.
....
...
....
....
...
.
.
....

r+

-X

C
( )

(i) r f (x) = 0 ,
(ii) f (r) 6= 0,
(iii) f r ,

(0, 1), > 0, n N, |xn r| 2n1 .


x1 (r , r + ), xn+1 = xn

f (xn )
.
f (xn )

466

g(x) = x

f (x)
,
f (x)

(i) r g(x) = x , g(r) = r


(ii) g (x) =

f (r)
= r.
f (r)

f (x)f (x)
,
(f (x))2

f r f (r) 6= 0
g r


, > 0, |x r| < |g (x) g (r)| <

, > 0, x (r , r + ) |g (x)| , ( g (r) = 0 )

(iii) x1 (r , r + ), xn+1 = g(xn ), n N.

, |xn r| 2n1 .

467

lHospital II

(i) > 0, f, g (p, p + ) ;


(ii)

lim |f (x)| = lim+ |g(x)| = + ;

xp+

xp

(iii) lim+
xp

lim+
xp

f (x)
= l, ( l R ) .
g (x)

f (x)
=l.
g(x)

, (ii) lim+ f (x) = lim+ g(x) = + , (iii) l R, (i)


xp

xp

, .
1 (iii) ,


f (x)
<l+ .
> 0, > 0, ( x) p < x < p + l <
g (x)

2 x0 = p + /2, p < x < x0 , Cauchy c (x, x0 )


f (x) f (x0 )
f (c)
= .
g(x) g(x0 )
g (c)

g(x0 )
g(x)
.
F (x) =
f (x0 )
1
f (x)
1

x0 , lim+ F (x) = 1, , 0 < < /2


xp

x (p, p + ) F (x) > 0.

g(x0 )
g(x0 )
1

f (x) f (x0 )
f (x)
f (c)
f (c)
g(x)
g(x)
=

F (x).
=
=
f (x0 )
f (x0 )
g(x)
g(x) g(x0 )
g (c)
g (c)
1
1
f (x)
f (x)

468
3
h
i
f (x)
x (p, p + ) l <
< l + F (x) > 0 , (
1,
2 )
g (x)
i
h
f (c)
< l + F (x) > 0
l<
g (c)
( p < x < c < x0 < p + )

l<

lim+
xp

f (x)
1

< l + , (
3 )
g(x) F (x)

1
f (x)

= l,
g(x) F (x)
lim+

xp

1
f (x)
f (x)
= lim+

F (x) = l.
g(x) xp g(x) F (x)

469

Riemann

f : [a, b] R , P P [a, b] , P P ( P P

),

L(f, P ) L(f, P ) U(f, P ) U(f, P ).


( , , . )

P P , .
P = {x0 , , xk1 , xk , , xn }, P = {x0 , , xk1 , xk , xk , , xn },

Ik = [xk1 , xk ] xk Ik = [xk1 , xk ] Ik = [xk , xk ] .


M(Ik ) M(Ik ); m(Ik ) m(Ik );
M(Ik ) M(Ik ); m(Ik ) m(Ik ).

M(Ik )(xk xk1 ) + M(Ik )(xk xk ) M(Ik )xk ;


m(Ik )(xk xk1 ) + m(Ik )(xk xk ) m(Ik )xk .

U(f, P ) U(f, P ) , L(f, P ) L(f, P )


,
L(f, P ) L(f, P ) U(f, P ) U(f, P ).

470

f : I = [a, b] R , f I .

1 : P P I , L(f, P ) U(f, P ).
P = P P , P P P , ,

L(f, P ) L(f, P ) U(f, P ) U(f, P ).


2 {U(f, P ) | P I }, 1 L(f, P )

, , f I
Z

f . .
I

471

Darboux Riemann

f I = [a, b] Rieamnn

l R lim S(f, P, T ) = l.
kP k0

f = l.

() f I . > 0, P1 , P2
Z
Z
f L(f, P1 ) < U(f, P2 ) f < .
I

P = P1 P2 .
Z
Z
f L(f, P ) < , U(f, P ) f < .
I

P P ,
Z
Z
Z
< L(f, P ) f L(f, P ) f S(f, P, T ) f
I
ZI
Z I
U(f, P ) f U(f, P ) f < .
I

lim S(f, P, T ) =
kP k0

f.
I

() lim S(f, P, T ) = l, > 0, P


kP k0

P P, T = {t1 , , tn }, tk Ik |S(f, P, T ) l| < .


2

T = {t1 , , tn } T = {t1 , , tn },
M(Ik ) f (tk ) <

,
2(b a)

f (tk ) m(Ik ) <

2(b a) .

n
X

U(f, P ) S(f, P, T ) =
(M(Ik ) f (tk ))xk <
2,
k=1

472

S(f, P, T ) L(f, P ) =

f=

k=1

(f (tk ) m(Ik ))xk <

2,

f l U(f, P ) l = U(f, P ) S(f, P, T ) + S(f, P, T ) l < ,

n
X

f l L(f, P ) = l S(f, P, T ) + S(f, P, T ) L(f, P ) < .

f ,

lim S(f, P, T ) = l =

kP k0

f.

(1) f : I = [a, b] R ,
Z b

f = lim U(f, Pn ),

n+

f = lim L(f, Pn ).
n+

(2) f I = [a, b] Riemann ,

f = lim S(f, Pn , Tn ). Pn
n+

[a, b] , Tn .

(1)

Z b

f = lim U(f, Pn ). .
n+

, > 0, P = {y0 , y1, , yr },

0 U(f, P )

Z b

f<

M = sup{|f (x)| | x [a, b]} n0 >


Z b
0 U(f, Pn )
f < .

2.

4Mr(b a)
, n > n0 ,

A = {k | 1 k n (xk1 , xk ) yj },
B = {k | 1 k n (xk1 , xk ) yj }.
( i ) k A, U(f, Pn ) U(f, P ) [xk1 , xk ]
2Mxk ;

473
(ii) k B, U(f, Pn ) U(f, P ) [xk1 , xk ] 0.
U(f, Pn ) U(f, P )

2Mxk

kA

< 2rMxk , ( A r1 )
=

2rM(b a)

<
n
2.


1
2
0 U(f, Pn )
(2) , f [a, b] ,

Z b
a

f=

Z b

f < .

f,

lim U(f, Pn ) = lim L(f, Pn ) =

n+

n+

f.

, , n N,
L(f, Pn ) S(f, Pn , Tn ) U(f, Pn ),

,
lim S(f, Pn , Tn ) =

n+

f.
a

f I = [a, b] , Rf [m, M] ,
h = f .

[m, M] , .


> 0, (0, ) (x, y [m, M]) |x y| < |(x) (y)| < .
f I , P U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < 2 ,
M(Ik ) = sup{f (x) | x Ik },
m(Ik ) = inf{f (x) | x Ik },
M (Ik ) = sup{h(x) | x Ik },
m (Ik ) = inf{h(x) | x Ik };

474




K = sup |(t)| m t M ,

A = {k | 1 k n, M(Ik ) m(Ik ) < },

B = {k | 1 k n, M(Ik ) m(Ik ) }.

,
U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < 2
X
X
[M(Ik ) m(Ik )]xk U(f, P ) L(f, P ) < 2
xk

kB

kB

xk <

kB

U(h, P ) L(h, P )
X
X
<
[M (Ik ) m (Ik )]xk +
[M (Ik ) m (Ik )]xk
kA

kB

(b a) + 2K < [(b a) + 2K].


h [a, b] .

( Bliss )
f I = [a, b] , g I , P = {x0 , x1 , , xn } I

T = {t1 , , tn }, T = {t1 , , tn }

, tk , tk [xk1 , xk ], k = 1, . . . , n,
lim

n+

n
X

f (tk )g(tk )xk

k=1

f (x)g(x) dx.
a

1
Sn =

n
X

f (tk )g(tk )xk ,

k=1

Sn

= S(f g, Pn, Tn ) =

n
X

f (tk )g(tk )xk .

k=1

: lim (Sn Sn ) = 0. , g [a, b] , ,


n+

M > 0 x [a, b], |g(x)| < M. , f [a, b] ,


> 0, > 0 (x, y [a, b]) |xy| < |f (x)f (y)| <

,
M(b a)

475

n0 >

ba
ba
, n n0 , |tk tk | xk =
< ,

n
|Sn Sn |
<

n
X
k=1

n
X
k=1

|f (tk ) f (tk )| |g(tk )| xk

M xk = .
M(b a)

2 ,
lim

n+

n
X
k=1

f (tk )g(tk )xk = lim Sn


n+

= lim (Sn Sn + Sn )
n+

= lim Sn = lim S(f g, Pn, Tn )


n+
n+
Z b
=
f (x)g(x) dx, ( f, g ).
a

476

+
X

an s,

n=1

bn

n=1

an ,

n=1

s.

+
X

+
X

+
X

an .

n=1

+
X

an ,

n=1

+
X

bn .

n=1

(1) {tk }k

+
X
n=1

bn , bn 0 {tk }k

(2) k, hk , bi (i k)

aj (j hk ). k N ,

tk a1 + a2 + + ahk s.

{tk }k .
(3) {tk }k , m = lim tk s.
(4)

+
X

n+
+
X

an

n=1

n=1

an 0 ,
2

+
X

+
X

bn , s m.

bn , s.

n=1

an .

n=1

(1)

+
X
n=1

+
X
n=1

|an | ,

|bn | .

+
X

|bn |

n=1
+
X
n=1

+
X
n=1

|an | , 1

bn .

|an | an
|an | + an
, vn =
, 0 < un |an |, 0 < vn |an | ,
2
2
+
+
X
X
un
vn .

(2) un =

n=1

n=1

477

+
X

un

n=1

+
X

vn u v,

n=1

|an | + an |an | an

,
2
2

an =

+
X

an =

n=1

(3)

+
X
n=1

un

+
X
|bn | + bn
n=1

+
X
n=1

vn = u v, u v = s.
+
X
|bn | bn

n=1

n=1

=u

un

n=1

un 0, vn 0, 1

+
X
|bn | + bn

+
X

+
X
|bn | bn

n=1

+
X
n=1

= v.

bn =

|bn | + bn |bn | bn

,
2
2

+
X
n=1

+
X
n=1

bn =

+
X
|bn | + bn
n=1

bn s.

+
X
|bn | bn
n=1

= u v = s.

vn ,

478

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n , :

(1) x = p ;
(2) R ;
(3) r, (p r, p + r) ,
(, p r) (p + r, +) .

I. : x1 6= p ,
Ic = (p |x1 p|, p + |x1 p|)

.
+
X

cn (x1 p)n , n0 N n > n0 , |cn (x1 p)n | < 1.


n=0

n > n0 ,

(x p)n


|cn (x p) | = |cn (x1 p) |
, ( x1 6= p)
n
(x1 p)
(x p)n  |x p| n



.
=
n
(x1 p)
|x1 p|
n

+

X
|x p|
x p n
< 1,
x Ic ,
,

|x1 p|
x1 p
n=0
+
+
X
X
n

|cn (x p) | ,
cn (x p)n .
n=0

n=0

II. ,
() (1), (2), (3) .

(1) (2) , (3) , x1 6= p


, x2 R

+
X
n=0

cn (x2 p)n .

+

n
o
X

A = |x p|
cn (x p)n .
n=0

+
X
n=0

cn (x1 p)n

479

|x1 p| A,

+
X
n=0

cn (x1 p) , |x2 p| 6 A,

+
X
n=0

cn (x2 p)n

. |x2 p| A , |x0 p| A |x2 p| < |x0 p|,


+
X

1
cn (x2 p)n , . A ,
n=0

A , r = sup A, r (3) r.
1 A |x1 p|, r = sup A .

2 x (p r, p + r), |x p| < r = sup A. |y p| A


+
X
cn (y p)n . 1 ,
|x p| < |y p|. |y p| A,
n=0

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n .

x (, p r) (p + r, +), |x p| > r. |x p| A, r
A , r , . |x p| 6 A,

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n .

() . [ (1) (2) ; (2) (3)

; (3) (1) ].

480

+
X
n=0

r.

cn (x p) r,

+
X
n=1

ncn (x p)n1

r (0, +) , r = 0 r = + , . r
+
X

ncn (x p)n1 .
n=1

1 r r .

x (p r, p + r) , 0 |x p| < r, x1

+
X
n=0

|x p| < |x1 p| < r,


cn (x1 p)n

lim cn (x1 p)n = 0

n+

n0 N n > n0 |cn (x1 p)n | < 1




(x p)n1

n
|ncn (x p)n1 | = ncn

(x

p)
, ( |x1 p| > 0 )
1
(x1 p)n
|cn (x1 p)n | x p n1
=n


|x1 p|
x1 p
1  x p n1 
n


|x1 p|
x1 p
+
X

ncn (x p)n1 , ( )
n=1

r r, [ x (p r, p + r)]

+

X
x p n1
, , n

n

x1 p
n=1
an ,
a
(n + 1)|x p|n |x1 p|n1
n+1

lim
= lim
n+
n+
an
|x1 p|n
n|x p|n1
xp
n+1
|x p|


=
=
< 1.
lim
x1 p n+ n
|x1 p|

481
2 r r , :
r < r t r < |t p| < r

+
X
n=0

cn (t p)n

(1)

, n > |t p| ,
n

|cn (t p) | = |ncn (t p)

+
X
n=0

n1

t p


|
|ncn (t p)n1 |,
n

cn (t p)n , (1) .

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n r +,
f : (p r, p + r) R : f (x) =

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n

f ,
x (p r, p + r), f (x) =

+
X
n=1

ncn (x p)n1

x b (p r, p + r) , Taylor
(x p)n = (b p)n + n(b p)n1 (x b) +

n(n 1)
(n p)n2 (x b)2 ,
2!

n b x , n , f ,
f (x) f (b) =
=

+
X
n=0

+
X
n=1

+
X
n=1

x 6= b,

+
X

cn (x p)
cn (x p)n

+
X
n=0

+
X
n=1

cn (b p)n
cn (b p)n

cn [(x p)n (b p)n ], ( )

i
h
n(n 1)
(n p)n2 (x b)2
cn n(b p)n1 (x b) +
2!
n=1

482

i
f (x) f (b)
n(n 1)
1 X h
n1
n2
2
cn n(b p) (x b) +
=
(n p) (x b)
xb
x b n=1
2!
=

+
X
n=1

ncn (b p)

n1

xbX
n(n 1)cn (n p)n2 ,
+
2! n=2

b (p r, p + r) , ,

+
X
n=1

()

ncn (b p)n1 . b x

(p r, p + r) , k |b p| < k < r |x p| < k < r.


+
X

n(n 1)cn k n2 .
n=2

|n(n 1)cn (n p)n2 | < |n(n 1)cn k n2 |, ( n b x ),


+
X

n(n 1)cn (n p)n2 ,


n=2

+
+
X
X

n2
n(n 1)|cn ||n p|n2.
n(n 1)cn (n p)

n=2

()

n=2

+
f (x) f (b) X


ncn (b p)n1

xb
n=1
+

x b X

n2
n(n 1)cn (n p)
=
2 n=2
+

|x b| X

n(n 1)|cn ||n p|n2


2 n=2
+

|x b| X
n(n 1)|cn |k n2 , ( 0 < k < r )

2 n=2

+
X
n=2

|x b|
= 0.
xb
2

n(n 1)cn k n2 , lim


+

f (x) f (b) X
lim
=
ncn (b p)n1 ,
xb
xb
n=1

f (b) =

+
X
n=1

ncn (b p)n1 . b (p r, p + r) , f

(p r, p + r) ,

f (x) =

+
X
n=1

ncn (x p)n1 .

483

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n r +,
f : (p r, p + r) R : f (x) =

+
X
n=0

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n

cn (x p)n f p Taylor . ( f p ).

, x (p r, p + r),
f (x) = c1 + 2c2 (x p) + 3c3 (x p)2 + 4c4 (x p)3 + + ncn (x p)n1 + ,

r. ,
f (x) = 2c2 + 2 3c3 (x p) + 3 4c4 (x p)2 + + (n 1)ncn (x p)n2 + ,

,
f (x) = 2 3 c3 + 2 3 4 c4 (x p) + + (n 2)(n 1)ncn (x p)n3 + ,
f (4) (x) = 2 3 4 c4 + + (n 3)(n 2)(n 1)ncn (x p)n4 + ,
..
.

x = p,
f (p) = c0 , f (p) = c1 , f (p) = 2!c2 , f (p) = 3!c3 , , f (n) (p) = n!cn , ,

, cn =

f (n) (p)
, x (p r, p + r),
n!
f (x) =

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n =

+ (n)
X
f (p)
n=0

n!

(x p)n

f p .

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n r +,
f : (p r, p + r) R : f (x) =

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n

x (p r, p + r), f [p, x] ,
Z x
+
X
cn
(x p)n+1
f (t) dt =
n+1
p
n=0

484


g : (p r , p + r ) R : g(x) =

+
X
n=0

+
X
n=0

+
X
cn
(x p)n+1 ,
n
+
1
n=0

1
cn (x p)n+1 , ,
n+1

cn (x p)n r r . g
+
X
cn
g : (p r, p + r) R : g(x) =
(x p)n+1 ,
n+1
n=0

, x (p r, p + r),
g (x) =

+
X
n=0

cn (x p)n = f (x).

g , g .
Z

f (t) dt =

+
x
X

g (t) dt = g(t) = g(x) =

n=0

1
cn (x p)n+1 .
n+1

485

A, B R2 ,
(i) f : A B f1 f2 N (p) ;
(ii) g : B R N (q), ( q = f(p) ), .

F = g f : A R : F (u, v) = g(f1 (u, v), f2(u, v))

p ,

F
g
f1

u (p) = x (q) u (p) +

g
f1
F

(p) =
(q)
(p) +
v
x
v

g
(q)
y
g
(q)
y

f2
(p),
u
f2
(p).
v

F
(p) , .
u
p = (p1 , p2 ), q = (q1 , q2 ), q1 = f1 (p1 , p2 ), q2 = f2 (p1 , p2 ),

x = f1 (p1 + h, p2 ) f1 (p1 , p2 ), y = f2 (p1 + h, p2 ) f2 (p1 , p2 ),

F
F (p1 + h, p2 ) F (p1 , p2 )
(p) = lim
h0
u
h
g(f1 (p1 + h, p2 ), f2 (p1 + h, p2 )) g(f1 (p1 , p2 ), f2 (p1 , p2 ))
= lim
h0
h
g(q1 + x, q2 + y) g(q1 , q2 )
= lim
h0
h
g(q1 + x, q2 + y) g(q1 , q2 + y)
= lim
h0
h
g(q1 , q2 + y) g(q1 , q2 )
= ()
(1)
+ lim
h0
h

g(q1 + x, q2 + y) g(q1 , q2 + y) g (q), x 6= 0,


x
x
(h) =

0,
x = 0,

g(q1 , q2 + y) g(q1 , q2 ) g (q), y 6= 0,


y
y
(h) =

0,
y = 0,

486

x y 0,
g(q1 + x, q2 + y) g(q1 , q2 + y) =
g(q1 , q2 + y) g(q1 , q2 ) =

g
(q)x + (h)x;
x

g
(q)y + (h)y;
y

(1)
h g

h g
h
h
x i
y i
x i
y i
+ lim
+ lim (h)
+ lim (h)
(q)
h0 x
h0 y
h0
h0
h
h
h
h
f1
g
f2
g
(q)
(p) +
(q)
(p), [ () ]
=
x
u
y
u

() = lim

(q)

() D1 g N (q) , lim (h) = 0, lim (h) = 0, ,


h0

h0

x
f1 (p1 + h, p2 ) f1 (p1 , p2 )
f1
= lim
=
(p),
h0 h
h0
h
u
lim

f2
f2 (p1 + h, p2 ) f2 (p1 , p2 )
y
= lim
=
(p).
h0
h0 h
h
u
lim

487

f n , p Df , I II III,
I. j = 1, , n, Dj f p N(p) ;
II. f p ;
III. f p v
Dv f (p) = v1 D1 f (p) + + vn Dn f (p) = v f (p).

n = 2 .
I II h1 , h2 p + h = (p1 + h1 , p2 + h2 ) N(p),
f (p + h) f (p) = f (p1 + h1 , p2 + h2 ) f (p1 , p2 )
= [f (p1 + h1 , p2 + h2 ) f (p1 + h1 , p2 )] + [f (p1 + h1 , p2 ) f (p1 , p2 )]
= h1 D1 f (x, p2 ) + h2 D2 f (p1 + h1 , y), [ () ]
= h1 [D1 f (p1 , p2 ) + o(1)] + h2 [D2 f (p1 , p2 ) + o(1)],
( Dj f p N(p) )

o(1) 0 , ( ),


f (p + h) f (p) + h1 D1 f (p) + h2 D2 f (p)
h1 o(1) + h2 o(1)
lim
= lim
= 0.
h0
h0
|h|
|h|

f p .

() , x p1 p1 + h1 , y p2
p2 + h2 .
II III f p v
f (p + hv) f (p)
h0
h
 f (p + hv) [f (p) + hv D f (p) + hv D f (p)]
1 1
2 2
= lim
h0
h
hv1 D1 f (p) + hv2 D2 f (p) 
+
h
= 0 + lim (v1 D1 f (p) + v2 D2 f (p))

Dv f (p) = lim

h0

= v1 D1 f (p) + v2 D2 f (p).

488

Taylor
( Taylor )
f N (p) n , x N (p), (0, 1)



+ k y
f (p)
+ k y
f (p)
h x
h x
+
+
f (x) = f (p) +
1!
2!


n1
h x
+ k y
f (p)
+
+ Rn (x),
(n 1)!

n

+ k y
f (p + h)
h x
, h = x p = (h, k),
Rn (x) =
n!
m  

X
m
m j mj m f (p)
hk
+k
f (p) =
.
h
j
x
y
xj y mj
j=0
F : [0, 1] R : F (t) = f (p + th) = f (p1 + th, p2 + tk),
F [0,1] n . Taylor , (0, 1)
F (1) = F (0) + F (0) + +

F (n1) (0) F (n) ()


+
,
(n 1)!
n!


m
F (m) (0) = h
+k
f (p), m {0, 1, , n 1},
x
y

n
+k
f (p + h).
F (n) () = h
x
y

F (t) = h

f (p + th)
f (p + th)
+k
,
x
y

F (0) = h

f (p)
f (p) 

f (p).
+k
= h
+k
x
y
x
y

489
 2 f (p + th)
2 f (p + th) 
F (t) = h h
+k
x2
xy
 2 f (p + th)
2 f (p + th) 
+k
+k h
xy
y 2
2
2 f (p + th)
2 f (p + th)
2 f (p + th)
= h2
+
2hk
+
k
x2
xy
y 2


2
+k
f (p + th).
= h
x
y


2
F (0) = h
+k
f (p).
x
y

, .

( )

(i) f N (p) ;
(ii) D1 f (p) = D2 f (p) = 0 ;


D11 f (p) D12 f (p)
(iii) (p) =
D21 f (p) D22 f (p)




6= 0; ( Hessian.)

(1) (p) > 0 D11 f (p) > 0, f p ;

(2) (p) > 0 D11 f (p) < 0, f p ;


(3) (p) < 0, f p .

x = (x1 , x2 ) N (p), Taylor , c = (c1 , c2 ) p x


,

1h
(x1 p1 )2 D11 f (c1 , c2 )
2
i
+ 2(x1 p1 )(x2 p2 )D12 f (c1 , c2 ) + (x2 p2 )2 D22 f (c1 , c2 ) .

f (x1 , x2 )f (p1 , p2 ) =

a = D11 f (c1 , c2 ), b = D12 f (c1 , c2 ), c = D22 f (c1 , c2 ) h = x1 p1 , k = x2 p2 .


a 6= 0,


1 2
ah + 2bhk + ck 2
2

1
(ah + bk)2 + (ac b2 )k 2
=
2a

f (x1 , x2 ) f (p1 , p2 ) =

()

490

A = D11 f (p), B = D12 f (p), C = D22 f (p), (p) = AC B 2 . f

, D11 f, D12 f, D22 f ,


lim (ac b2 ) = AC B 2 ,

xp

lim a = A,

xp

p N (p) ac b2 AC B 2 , a A .
(1) (p) > 0 A > 0, x N (p) N (p) , ()
f (x) f (p) =

f p ;


1
(ah + bk)2 + (ac b2 )k 2 0.
2a

(2) (p) > 0 A < 0, (1) f p ;


(3) (p) < 0. f p .
1 q(x, y) = Ax2 + 2Bxy + Cy 2, A, B, C
= AC B 2 < 0, ( : (p) )

1 A 6= 0,


1 
1 
(Ax + By)2 + (AC B 2 )y 2 =
(Ax + By)2 ||y 2
2A
2A


p
p
1 
(Ax + By) || y (Ax + By) + || y ,
=
2A

q(x, y) =

R2 q(x, y) = 0 , q(x, y) > 0,

, q (0,0) .

2 A = 0, C 6= 0, A, C , q (0,0) .


3 A = C = 0, q(x, y) = 2Bxy I III II IV

, q (0,0) .
|x p| ,

f (x1 , x2 ) f (p1 , p2 ) =


1 2
ah + 2bhk + ck 2
2

q(h, k) = Ah2 +2Bhk+Ck 2 , 1 , (p) = ACB 2 < 0


, q(h, k) , f p .

491

Lagrange

f g , f g(x, y) = 0 p = (p1 , p2 )
, 0 R
F (x, y, ) = f (x, y) + g(x, y)
def

x, y, (p1 , p2 , 0 ) ,

F (p1 , p2 , 0 )

= 0,

F (p1 , p2 , 0 )
= 0,

F (p1 , p2 , 0 )

= 0.

S = {(x, y) R2 | g(x, y) = 0}, S , I

, r : I S , 0 I r(0) = p, r (0) 6= 0, ( r S p

).

1
f |S p f r : I R 0

d
(f r)(0) = 0
dt
f (r(0)) r (0) = 0, ( )

f (p) r (0) = 0
f (p) r (0) .
2 ,
g(x, y) = 0, (x, y) S g(r(t)) = 0, t I

d
(g r)(t) = 0, t I
dt
g(r(t)) r (t) = 0, ( )

g(p) r (0) = 0
g(p) r (0) .

492
3 , f (p) g(p) , 0 R
f (p) + 0 g(p) = 0,

F (p1 , p2 , 0 )

= 0,

F (p1 , p2 , 0 )

= 0,
y

g(p) = 0,

F (p1 , p2 , 0 )
= 0.

493

Riemann

f, g A R2 , R,
Z
Z
(1) f
f = f ;
A
A
Z
Z
Z
(2) f + g (f + g) =
f+
g;
A
A
A
Z
Z
(3) f g,
f
g.
A

(1) .
(2) P = {(xi , yj ) | 0 i m, 0 j n} R , R A

Mij = sup fA (Sij );

mij = inf fA (Sij );

Mij = sup gA (Sij );

mij = inf gA (Sij );

Mij = sup(fA + gA )(Sij ); mij = inf(fA + gA )(Sij ).

fA , gA 11.2. (x, y) Sij ,


mij + mij fA (x, y) + gA (x, y),

mij + mij inf{fA (x, y) + gA (x, y) | (x, y) Sij } = mij .

P
L(fA , P ) + L(gA , P ) =

XX
i

XX
i

mij A(Sij ) +

XX
i

mij A(Sij )

mij A(Sij ) = L(fA + gA , P ).

, P
U(fA + gA , P ) U(fA , P ) + U(gA , P ).

L(fA , P ) + L(gA , P ) L(fA + gA , P ) U(fA + gA , P )


U(fA , P ) + U(gA , P ).

494

fA + gA R ,
Z
Z
Z
(fA + gA ) =
fA +
gA .
R

f + g A ,
Z

(f + g) =

f+
A

g.
A

(3) mij mij , Mij Mij ,


L(fA , P ) L(gA , P ) U(fA , P ) (gA , P ),

fA

gA ,

fA

gA

g.
A

fA

gA .

495

f : R = [a, b] [c, d] R , x [a, b], gx : [c, d] R : gx (y) = f (x, y)

G : [a, b] R : G(x) =

f=
R

G(x) dx =

Z bhZ
a

gx (y) dy
c

i
f (x, y) dy dx.

I = [a, b] PI = {x0 , x1 , , xm } I , J = [c, d]


PJ = {y0 , y1 , , yn } J . Ii = [xi1 , xi ], xi = xi xi1 ;

Jj = [yj1, yj ], yj = yj yj1 . , P = PI PJ R , R

P ij Sij Ii Jj , Sij A(Sij ) = xi yj .

L(f, P ) =

XX
i

x Ii ,
X

mij A(Sij ) =

mij yj =

X
j

XX

X
j

mij xi yj =

XX
(
mij yj )xi .
i

inf{f (x, y) | (x, y) Sij }yj


inf{f (x, y) | y Jj }yj = L(gx , PJ ) G(x).

,
L(f, P )

inf{G(x) | x Ii }xi = L(G, PI ).

(1)

U(G, PI ) U(f, P ).

(2)

L(f, P ) L(G, PI ) U(G, PI ) U(f, P ).

(3)

(1) (2)

(3) ,

Z
I

f.

496

f R , G I ,
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
G = G.
f = G=
f=
f=
R

f=

G=

G(x)dx =

Z bhZ
a

i
f (x, y)dy dx.

497

p (p-series)303

(inner product)339
(scalar product)339
(interior point)29,336

(double integral)403
(binomial series)328

(formula)
(Taylor)151
(Maclaurin)151

(trigonometric substitution)196

(integration by parts)200

(trigonometric functions)99

(partition)214,403

(sandwich principle)39
(three-leaved rose)415
(lower bound)15
(greatest)15
(upper bound)14
(least)15
(cross product)339
(sub-rectangle)403

(regular)220
(tangent)
(vector)347
(plane)379
(line)64
(slicing method)259
(inverse trigonometric functions)101

(subset)9

(point of inflection)163

(proper)9

(inverse function)13,95

(small-tail property)297

(anti-derivative)187
(inverse hyperbolic function)

127

(indefinite integral)189

(Eulers number)111

(non-decreasing)18

(Pappus theorem)279

(inequality)

(cardioid)414

(Cauchy)395
(arithmetic-geometric)145

(direction)
(angles )340

(non-increasing)18

(numbers)340

(intermediate-value theorem)50

(cosine)340

(element)9
(maximum)14
(minimum)14
(interior)29,336

(directional derivative)367
(Newtons iteration)173

498

(concave downward)161

(absolute)311

(concave upward)160

(improper integral)239,243

(concave function)161

(curvature)352

(convex function)160

(center)355

(invertible)13

(radius)352

(differentiable)63,375

(curve)345

(continuously)67

(smooth)350

(right)63

(positively oriented)435

(integrable)215,404

(negatively oriented)435

(right-continuous)45

(closed)435

(four-leaved rose)415
(Bliss theorem)226

(bounded)15
(function)35

(mean value)282

(rational number system)16

(smooth curve)350

(natural logarithmic func-

(smooth chain)434

tion)118

(natural number system)15

(vector)335
(tangent)347
(direction)341
(free)337
(coordinate)337
(function)17,334
(normal)341
(gradient)375
(velocity)347
(unit tangent)351
(principal unit normal)351
(unit binormal)351
(composite function)19
(function of several variables)
17,360

(convergence)239,243,292
(radius)316
(sequence)292
(conditional)311

(interest rate)124
(mean value theorem)78,377
(coordinates)
(spherical)426
(cylindrical)426
(polar)413
(completeness)14
(locally bounded function)35
(mantissa)58
(sequence)292
(null)292
(ordered pair)10
(centroid)273
(projection)363
(Simpsons rule)285

(Jacobian)453

499

(function)11

(function)

(mantissa)58

(bracket)17

(trigonometric)99

(equality)12

(non-decreasing)18

(difference)19

(non-increasing)18

(difference quotient)63

(component)345

(square-root)18

(inverse)13,95

(even)23

(inverse trigonometric)101

(quotient)19

(arctangent)104

(constant)17

(arcsine)101

(continuous)45,346,366

(arccosine)103

(greatest integer)17

(inverse hyperbolic)127

(monotonic)18

(ceiling)17

(absolute value)17

a (exponential with base a)

(differential)87

116

(real-valued)17

(concave)161

(real variable)17

(convex)160

(logarithmic)119

(tangent)99

(error)421

(sine)97

(cotangent)99

(signum)46

(cosine)97

(secant)99

(cosecant)99

(vector)17,333

(product)19

(composite)17

(good approximation)149

(floor)17

(implicit)133

(polynomial)17

(hyperbolic)127

(of several variables)17,333


(bounded)35
(order)21

(sum)296
(partial)296
(sum)

(natural logarithmic)113

(lower)213,403

(gamma)246

(upper)213,403

(locally bounded)35

(Riemann)217

(restriction)41

(isolated point)28

(sum)19

(Pappus)279

(odd)23

(extreme value)52,388

(exponential)109

(intermediate-value)50

500

(theorem)
(Bliss)226
(mean value)78,377
(squeezing)39
(fixed-point)464
(Bolzano)49
(order-preserving)38
(sign-preserving)37
(Rolles)78
(Greens)436
(Taylors)150
(mean value)78,377
(fundamental)231,233
(Youngs)371
(zero derivative)79
(intermediate-value)85
(mean value for integrals)230
(vanishing)35
(domain)11
(fixed-point theorem)464
(arc length)266,350
(Lagranges multiplier)391
(Bolzano theorem)49
(normal line)379
(space curve)345
(approximate value)89

(equal)9
(area)253
(surface)269
(Greens theorem)436

(value)11
(range)11
(primitive)187
(expansion)
(Taylors)151
(Maclaurin)151
(Taylors)
(formula)151
(polynomial)151
(theorem)150
(expansion)151
(true value)89
(moment)273
(series)296
p-(p-)303

(binomial)328
(positive term)300
(alternating)306
p(alternating p)311
(rearrangement)311
(Taylors)319
(conditionally convergent)311
(Maclaurins)319

(exponential growth)122
(laws of exponent)118
(image)11
(Cauchy inequality)395

(geometric)298
(absolutely convergent)311
(power)314
(Gauss symbol)17

(Cauchys mean value)


85

(Cauchys criterion)299

(partial order)14

(Rolles theorem)78

(partial derivative)367

501

(interval)50
(degenerate)121

(negative)16
(divergence)239,243,292

(convergence)316

(sequence)315

(compact)51

(improper integral)239,243

(parameter)136

(Hessian)389

(equations)136

(distance)335

(curve)136

(period)165

(normal distribution)420
(constant)17

(set)
(intersection)10

(growth)122

(union)9

(decay)122

(difference)10

(trapezoidal rule)284

(partially ordered)14

(gradient)375

(zero)19

(folium of Descartes)416

(power)10

(iterated integral)408

(derived)28,335

(integrand)189

(inductive)15

(continuous)44,346,366

(set)9

(continuously differentiable)67

(bounded)336

(velocity vector)347

(empty)9

(speed)347

(closed)336

(partial sum)296

(open)336

(Maclaurins)151

(compact)336

(formula)151
(expansion)151

(infimum)15
(maximum element)14
(absolute maximum)51
(supremum)15
(minimum element)14
(absolute minimum)51
(injective)12
(shell method)262
(infinity)16
(positive)16

(Cartesian product)10

(differential)87
(total)383
(differentiation)64
(logarithmic)126
(chain rule)69,373,378
(fundamental theorem)
231,233

(pole)413
(maximum)76
(local)76,389
(relative)76,389

502

(absolute)51
(minimum)76

(ratio)303
(comparison)301

(local)76,389

(root)305

(relative)76,389

(Leibniz rule)306

(absolute)51

(integral)302

(polar coordinates)413

(Euclidean space)335

(limit)29,346,361

(norm)217

(right-hand)42

(line integral)433

(left-hand)42

(compound interest)124

(extremum)51
(relative)76,389
(absolute)51

(neighborhood)27,335
(deleted)27,335
(saddle point)386

(polar axis)413

(remainder)151

(improper integral)239,243

(Riemann integrable)215,404

(analytic)319

(Riemann condition)218

(Darboux integral)215

(Riemann integral)215

(inverse image)11

(derived set)28,335

(real number system)13

(derivative)63

(extended)16

(anti)187

(bijective)13

(high order)66

(function)119

(intermediate-value )85

(co-domain)11
(asymptote)165

(derivative)63
(directional)367

(non-vertical)166

(right)63

(vertical)165

(partial)367

(carbon dating)123

(integer system)15

(accumulation point)28,335

(elliptic paraboloid)387

(surjective)12

(integral)

(error)89

(lower)214,404

(decreasing)18

(upper)214,404

(increasing)18

(indefinite)189
(additive law)226

(test)

(mean value theorem)230


(iterated)408

503

(integral)

(helix)349

(improper)239,243

(implicit function)133

(line)433

(cycloid)141

(Riemann)215
(integration)
(constant)189
(integration)191

(hypo-)142
(discontinuous point)45
(hyperbolic function)127
(hyperbolic paraboloid)376

(trigonometric substitution)196

(lemniscate)415

(by parts)200

(lHospitals rule)176

(substitution)193

(related rate)73

(by half-angle substitution)205

(rate of change)73

(tablular by parts)201

(average)73

(by partial fractions)204

(instantaneous)73

(hyperbolic substitution)198

(good approximation function) 149

(instantaneous velocity)76
(critical points)77,386

(variable)11
(change of)235
(change of variable)235
(field)13
(ordered)14
(volume)259

504

A
absolute maximum()51
absolute minimum()51
accumulation point()28,335
analytic()319
anti-derivative()187
approximate value()89
arc length()266,350
area()253
surface()269
asymptote()165
non-vertical()166
vertical()165
B

co-domain()11
completeness()14
composite function()19
compound interest()124
concave downward()161
concave function()161
concave upward()160
constant()17
decay()122
growth()122
continuous()44,346,366
continuously differentiable()67
convergence()239,243,292
absolute()311
conditional()311

bijective()13

improper integral()239,243

binomial series()328

radius()316

Bliss theorem()226

sequence()292

Bolzano theorem()49

convex function()160

bounded()15

coordinates()

function()35
C

cylindrical()426
polar()413
spherical()426

carbon dating()123

critical points()77,386

cardioid()414

cross product()339

Cauchy inequality()395

curvature()352

Cauchys criterion()299

center()355

Cauchys mean value throrem(

radius()352

)85

curve()345

centroid()273

closed()435

chain rule()69,373,378

negatively oriented()435

change of variable()235

505

curve()345
positively oriented()435
smooth()350
cycloid()141
hypo-()142
D
Darboux integral()215
decreasing()18
derivative()63
derivative()63
anti()187
directional()367
high order()66
partial()367
right()63
derived set()28,335

E
element()9
maximum()14
minimum()14
elliptic paraboloid()387
equal()9
error()89
Euclidean space()335
Eulers number()111
expansion()
Maclaurin()151
Taylors()151
exponential growth()122
extremum()51
absolute()51
relative()76,389

differentiable()63,375
continuously()67
right()63
differential()87
total()383
differentiation()64
logarithmic()126
direction()
angles()340
cosines()340
numbers()333
directional derivative()367
discontinuous point()45
distance()335
divergence()239,243,292
improper integral()239,243
sequence()292
domain()11
double integral()403

F
field()13
ordered()14
fixed-point theorem()464
folium of Descartes()416
formula()
Maclaurin()151
Taylors()151
four-leaved rose()415
function()11
absolute value()17
arccosine()103
arcsine()101
arctangent()104
bounded()35
bracket()17
ceiling()17
component()345

506

function()

function()

composite()19

odd()23

concave()161

order()21

constant()17

polynomial()17

continuous()45,346,366

product()19

convex()160

quotient()19

cosecant()99

real variable()17

cosine()97

real-valued()17

cotangent()99

restriction()41

difference()19

secant()99

difference quotient()63

signum()46

differential()87

sine()97

equality()12

square-root()18

error()421

sum()19

even()23

tangent()99

exponential()109

trigonometric()99

exponential with base a( a )

vector()17,334

116
floor()17
gamma()246

several variables()17,334
fundamental theorem()
248,250

Gauss symbol()17
good approximation()149
greatest integer()17
hyperbolic()127
implicit()133
inverse()13,95
inverse hyperbolic()127
inverse trigonometric()101
locally bounded()35
logarithmic()119
mantissa()58
monotonic()18
natural logarithmic()113
non-decreasing()18
non-increasing()18

G
good approximation function(

)149
gradient()375
Greens theorem()436
H
helix()349
Hessian()389
hyperbolic function()127
hyperbolic paraboloid()376
hyperboloid()380
I
image()11

507

implicit function()133

integration by parts()200

improper integral()239,243

interest rate()124

increasing()18

interior()29,336

indefinite integral()189

interior point()29,336

inequality()

intermediate-value theorem()50

arithmetic-geometric()145
Cauchy()395 infimum()15
infinity()16
negative()16
positive()16
injective()12
inner product()339

interval()50
compact()51
convergence()316
degenerate()121
inverse function()13,95
inverse hyperbolic function()
127

instantaneous velocity()73

inverse image()11

integer system()15

inverse trigonometric functions(

integrable()215,404
integral()

)101
invertible()13

additive law()226

isolated point()28

improper()239,243

iterated integral()408

indefinite()189
iterated()408
line()433
lower()214,404

J
Jacobian()422
L

Riemann()215

Lagranges multiplier()391

upper()214,404

laws of exponent()118

integrand()189

lemniscate()415

integration(())189

lHospitals rule()176

by half-angle substitution()205

limit()29,346,361

by partial fractions()204

left-hand()42

by parts()200

right-hand()42

constant()189

line integral()433

hyperbolic substitution()198

locally bounded function()36

mean value theorem()230

logarithmic function()119

substitution()193

lower bound()15

tablular by parts()201
trigonometric substitution()196

greatest()15

508
M

Pappus theorem()279

Maclaurins()151

parameter()136

expansion()151

curve()136

formula()151

equations()136

mantissa()58

partial derivative()367

maximum()76

partial order()14

absolute()51

partial sum()296

local()76,389

partition()214,403

relative()76,389

regular()220

maximum element()14

period()165

mean value()282

point of inflection()163

mean value theorem()78,377

polar axis()413

minimum()76

polar coordinates()413

absolute()51

pole()413

local()76,389

primitive()187

relative()76,389

projection()363

minimum element()14

moment()273
range()11
N
natural logarithmic function(

)113

rate of change()73
average()73
instantaneous()73

natural number system()15

rational number system()16

neighborhood()27,335

real number system()13

deleted()27,335

extended()16

Newtons iteration()173

related rate()73

non-decreasing()18

remainder()151

non-increasing()18

Riemann condition()218

norm()217

Riemann integrable()215,404

normal distribution()420

Riemann integral()215

normal line()379

right-continuous()45

O
ordered pair()10
P
p-series(p )303

Rolles theorem()78
S
saddle point()386
sandwich principle()39

509

scalar product()339

small-tail property()297

sequence()292

smooth chain()434

null()296
series()303

smooth curve()350
space curve()345

p-(p-)303

speed()347

absolutely convergent()311

sub-rectangle()403

alternating()306

subset()9

alternating p( p)311

proper()9

binomial()328

sum()306

conditionally convergent()311

sum()

geometric()298

lower()214,403

Maclaurins()319

partial()296

positive term()300

Riemann()217

power()314

upper()214,403

rearrangement()311

supremum()15

Taylors()319

surjective()12

set()9
set()
bounded()336
Cartesian product()10
closed()336
compact()336
derived()28,335
difference()10
empty()9
inductive()15
intersection()10
open()336
partially ordered()14
power()10
union()9
zero()19
shell method()262
Simpsons rule()285
slicing method()259

T
tangent()
line()64
plane()379
vector()347
Taylors()
expansion()151
formula()151
polynomial()151
theorem()150
test()
comparison()301
integral()302
Leibniz rule()306
ratio()303
root()305
theorem()
Bliss()226

510

theorem()
Bolzano()49

true value()89
U

extreme value()52,389
fixed-point()464
fundamental()231,233
Greens()436

upper bound()14
least()15
V

intermediate-value()50
intermediate-value
for derivtive()85
mean value()78,377
mean value for integrals()230

value()11
variable()11
change of()235
vector()335

order-preserving()38

coordinate()337

Pappus()279

direction()341

Rolles()78

free()337

sign-preserving()37

function()17,334

squeezing()41

gradient()375

Taylors()150

normal()341

vanishing()35

principal unit normal()351

Youngs()371

tangent()347

zero derivative()79

unit binormal()351

three-leaved rose()415

unit tangent()351

trapezoidal rule()284

velocity()347

trigonometric functions()99

velocity vector()347

trigonometric substitution()196

volume()259