You are on page 1of 13

No

Content

Page

Abstract

Objective

Theory

Apparatus and Procedures

Data and Observation

Results and Analysis

Discussion

Conclusions

10

10

Reference

11

SUMMARY
Belt drives are transmission devices that are used for transmitting power from one shaft to
another. The goal of this experiment was to find the coefficient of the belt. This can be done
by using the following equation:

T1
=e sin
T2

In this experiment, the manipulated variable were T and . The tensions was increased
gradually and the was changed from 30 until 150 with an interval of 30. The is fixed at
20. The belt is tightened gradually to measure five values of tensions of T1 and T2. The
tensions value are then used to find out the coefficient of the belt.
From the results, two graphs are plotted which are graph of T1 against T2 and graph of
ln(T1/T2) against the angle . From the graphs we can see both tensions increases linearly as
the belt is tightened. It is also can be concluded that as the angle increase the ratio of T1/T2
also increases. The coefficient of friction is found to be 0.018.

OBJECTIVES
To determine the coefficient of friction for V belt.

THEORY
To transfer power from one shaft to another belts or pelts are commonly used through pulleys
which are rotating at the same speed or at different speed. In this experiment the type of the
belt that will be used is V-belt. The V-belts have a trapezoidal shape. They are suitable for
short drives, such as when the shafts are at a short distance from each other. The angle for the
V-belt is usually 20-40.
Ratio of Tensions for Belt Drive

Figure 1 : Free body diagram of bel

T1 = Tension of belt at the tight side


T2 = Tension of belt at the loose side
= Angle of contact in radians
A small part of the belt which is PQ, which cover the angle at the centre of the pulley as in
Figure 1. The belt is in equilibrium state with these following forces :
Tension T at P
Tension (T+ ) at Q
Normal reaction RN
Friction force, F which is equal to * RN, where is the coefficient of friction

By resolving the horizontal forces the following equation is obtained :


RN =( T +T ) sin

+T sin
2
2

Due to the small value of , sin /2 is almost equal to /2. This will yield :
RN =( T +T )

T T T
+T =
+
+
=T
2
2
2
2
2

(T*)/2 is considered negligible since the value of both of them are very small.
By resolving verticals forces, the following equation is obtained :
R N =( T + T ) cos

T cos
2
2

Since is close to 0, it will be considered as 0 thus cos 0 will yield 1.


R N =T + T T =
RN =

Since RN = T*,
T
=
T
Then both sides of equation will be integrated between the limits T 1 and T2, and from 0 to
respectively.
T1

T
T =
T
0
2

This gives the final equation :


T 1
=e
T2
However, this equation only suits flat-belt. For V-belt, a little modification is added.


T1
sin
=e
T2

is 20 for this particular experiment.

LIST OF APPRATUS

Pulley
V Belt
-Spring Balance
Cable
Weight Hanger
Weights

ARRANGEMENT OF APPARATUS

Figure 2 : Arragenment of Apparatus

PROCEDURES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Set the two spring balance on both side readings at zero before experiment is started.
Set up the equipments as in Figure 2.
Attach the slack side T2 to the 30 peg.
Fi the weight to the weight holder. The belt tension at the tight side T1 is then
tightened by adjusting the tightening nut until there is enough tension to hold the

weights on its own.


5. Observe and record the both tensions from the slack and tight side.
6. Tighten the nuts to increase the tension of T1 until five readings are recorded.
7. Repeat steps 4 until 6 with 60 ,90 ,120 and 150 peg.

DATA AND OBSERVATIONS


=30
T1

T2

Experimental
T1
T2

5.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5

4.75
5.25
5.75
6.00
6.25

1.053
1.143
1.130
1.167
1.200

=60
T1

T2

Experimental
T1
T2

4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5

3.00
4.00
5.00
5.50
6.00

1.333
1.250
1.100
1.091
1.083

=90
T1

T2

Experimental
T1
T2

3.5
4.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

2.75
3.25
4.25
5.25
6.00

1.273
1.231
1.294
1.143
1.167

=120
T1

T2

Experimental
T1
T2

4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0

3.00
4.25
5.00
6.00
7.00

1.333
1.176
1.200
1.167
1.143

=150
T1

T2

Experimental
T1
T2

4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0

2.50
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

1.600
1.250
1.200
1.167
1.143

Graph of T1 versus T2
30
Linear (30)
f(x)+=1.58
1.02x + 0.84
f(x) = 0.9x
f(x) = 1.05x + 0.66
f(x) = 0.79x + 1.67

60

Linear (60)

f(x) = 1.59x - 2.48

90

Linear (90)

150

Linear (150)

120

Linear (120)

Figure 3: Graph of T1 versus T2

Angle (degree )

Angle (radian)

Gradient (T1/T2)

In (T1/T2)

30
60
90
120
150

0.5236
1.0472
1.5708
2.0944
2.6180

1.5862
0.7931
1.0548
1.0209
0.9016

0.1297
0.1583
0.2000
0.1855
0.2405

Graph of In(T1/T2) versus angle

Figure 4: Graph of In(T1/T2) versus angle

Calculation of finding coefficient of friction


By using formula
ln

T1

=
T2

sin
2

Therefore;
ln
=

T1

sin
T2
2

( 0.24050.1297) sin
=

(2.61800.5236)

=0.018

DISCUSSION
The coefficient friction of V-belt in this experiment for all kind of 5 angles brings to almost
same value, which is 0.018
The graph of ln(T1/T2) against angle shows increase in linearity, but theres some decrease
from 1.57rad to 2.09rad may be due to some errors in conducting the experiment. Thus, it can
be relate that the higher the angle, the higher the ln(T1/T2).
In this experiment, there are some errors can occur while conducting it, like parallax error
while reading the spring balance. Other than that, the belt is having mass, the difficulty to
determine the pulley is moving with constant acceleration just by observation and without
having any technique to properly measure it. Moreover, the wire will also produce frictional
force with the contact surface of the pulley and also itself.
As to obtain a more accurate of the sliding coefficient of V-belt, the experiment should be
repeated to obtain an average reading. Then, avoid too much friction forces between the
pulley and the wire.
The advantages of V-belt are higher torque can be transmit by using with lesser width tension.
Furthermore, it can be used in areas with very less arc of contact of the belt.

10

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the tension T1 increases proportionally with T2. Both tensions
increased as the belt is tightened. It is also can be seen that as the angle increases, the ratio
of T1/T2 also increases. This is expected as it can be seen from the equation. The coefficient
of friction of the belt is 0.018.

11

REFERENCES

Semester 1 2016/2017. MEMB331Machine Design and CAD Laboratory Manual.


COE, Uniten.

R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. August 2005. Theory of Machines. 14th Edition. S Chand &
Co Ltd.

12