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You are on page 1of 13

Content

Page

Abstract

Objective

Theory

Discussion

Conclusions

10

10

Reference

11

SUMMARY

Belt drives are transmission devices that are used for transmitting power from one shaft to

another. The goal of this experiment was to find the coefficient of the belt. This can be done

by using the following equation:

T1

=e sin

T2

In this experiment, the manipulated variable were T and . The tensions was increased

gradually and the was changed from 30 until 150 with an interval of 30. The is fixed at

20. The belt is tightened gradually to measure five values of tensions of T1 and T2. The

tensions value are then used to find out the coefficient of the belt.

From the results, two graphs are plotted which are graph of T1 against T2 and graph of

ln(T1/T2) against the angle . From the graphs we can see both tensions increases linearly as

the belt is tightened. It is also can be concluded that as the angle increase the ratio of T1/T2

also increases. The coefficient of friction is found to be 0.018.

OBJECTIVES

To determine the coefficient of friction for V belt.

THEORY

To transfer power from one shaft to another belts or pelts are commonly used through pulleys

which are rotating at the same speed or at different speed. In this experiment the type of the

belt that will be used is V-belt. The V-belts have a trapezoidal shape. They are suitable for

short drives, such as when the shafts are at a short distance from each other. The angle for the

V-belt is usually 20-40.

Ratio of Tensions for Belt Drive

T2 = Tension of belt at the loose side

= Angle of contact in radians

A small part of the belt which is PQ, which cover the angle at the centre of the pulley as in

Figure 1. The belt is in equilibrium state with these following forces :

Tension T at P

Tension (T+ ) at Q

Normal reaction RN

Friction force, F which is equal to * RN, where is the coefficient of friction

RN =( T +T ) sin

+T sin

2

2

Due to the small value of , sin /2 is almost equal to /2. This will yield :

RN =( T +T )

T T T

+T =

+

+

=T

2

2

2

2

2

(T*)/2 is considered negligible since the value of both of them are very small.

By resolving verticals forces, the following equation is obtained :

R N =( T + T ) cos

T cos

2

2

R N =T + T T =

RN =

Since RN = T*,

T

=

T

Then both sides of equation will be integrated between the limits T 1 and T2, and from 0 to

respectively.

T1

T

T =

T

0

2

T 1

=e

T2

However, this equation only suits flat-belt. For V-belt, a little modification is added.

T1

sin

=e

T2

LIST OF APPRATUS

Pulley

V Belt

-Spring Balance

Cable

Weight Hanger

Weights

ARRANGEMENT OF APPARATUS

PROCEDURES

1.

2.

3.

4.

Set the two spring balance on both side readings at zero before experiment is started.

Set up the equipments as in Figure 2.

Attach the slack side T2 to the 30 peg.

Fi the weight to the weight holder. The belt tension at the tight side T1 is then

tightened by adjusting the tightening nut until there is enough tension to hold the

5. Observe and record the both tensions from the slack and tight side.

6. Tighten the nuts to increase the tension of T1 until five readings are recorded.

7. Repeat steps 4 until 6 with 60 ,90 ,120 and 150 peg.

=30

T1

T2

Experimental

T1

T2

5.0

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

4.75

5.25

5.75

6.00

6.25

1.053

1.143

1.130

1.167

1.200

=60

T1

T2

Experimental

T1

T2

4.0

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

3.00

4.00

5.00

5.50

6.00

1.333

1.250

1.100

1.091

1.083

=90

T1

T2

Experimental

T1

T2

3.5

4.0

5.5

6.0

7.0

2.75

3.25

4.25

5.25

6.00

1.273

1.231

1.294

1.143

1.167

=120

T1

T2

Experimental

T1

T2

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

3.00

4.25

5.00

6.00

7.00

1.333

1.176

1.200

1.167

1.143

=150

T1

T2

Experimental

T1

T2

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

2.50

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

1.600

1.250

1.200

1.167

1.143

Graph of T1 versus T2

30

Linear (30)

f(x)+=1.58

1.02x + 0.84

f(x) = 0.9x

f(x) = 1.05x + 0.66

f(x) = 0.79x + 1.67

60

Linear (60)

90

Linear (90)

150

Linear (150)

120

Linear (120)

Angle (degree )

Angle (radian)

Gradient (T1/T2)

In (T1/T2)

30

60

90

120

150

0.5236

1.0472

1.5708

2.0944

2.6180

1.5862

0.7931

1.0548

1.0209

0.9016

0.1297

0.1583

0.2000

0.1855

0.2405

By using formula

ln

T1

=

T2

sin

2

Therefore;

ln

=

T1

sin

T2

2

( 0.24050.1297) sin

=

(2.61800.5236)

=0.018

DISCUSSION

The coefficient friction of V-belt in this experiment for all kind of 5 angles brings to almost

same value, which is 0.018

The graph of ln(T1/T2) against angle shows increase in linearity, but theres some decrease

from 1.57rad to 2.09rad may be due to some errors in conducting the experiment. Thus, it can

be relate that the higher the angle, the higher the ln(T1/T2).

In this experiment, there are some errors can occur while conducting it, like parallax error

while reading the spring balance. Other than that, the belt is having mass, the difficulty to

determine the pulley is moving with constant acceleration just by observation and without

having any technique to properly measure it. Moreover, the wire will also produce frictional

force with the contact surface of the pulley and also itself.

As to obtain a more accurate of the sliding coefficient of V-belt, the experiment should be

repeated to obtain an average reading. Then, avoid too much friction forces between the

pulley and the wire.

The advantages of V-belt are higher torque can be transmit by using with lesser width tension.

Furthermore, it can be used in areas with very less arc of contact of the belt.

10

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the tension T1 increases proportionally with T2. Both tensions

increased as the belt is tightened. It is also can be seen that as the angle increases, the ratio

of T1/T2 also increases. This is expected as it can be seen from the equation. The coefficient

of friction of the belt is 0.018.

11

REFERENCES

COE, Uniten.

R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. August 2005. Theory of Machines. 14th Edition. S Chand &

Co Ltd.

12

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