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WHEEL ASSEMBLY:

TYRES:
The choice of tyre is one of the fundamental
choices that should be made at the very first
stage of design planning. Every facet of the car
performance is reacted through the four contact
patches.
Fundamentally, brakes dont stop the car, the
engine doesnt accelerate the car and the
steering doesnt turn the car. All these tasks are
achieved as a result a reaction between the tyre
contact patch and the ground.

camber change when the vehicle dives or squats


when braking or accelerating, to the detriment
of performance.
The radial tyre will accept more static camber,
as the sidewall flex will allow the tread surface
to remain flat at camber angles that would have
the softer tread area in a bias ply tyre 'peeling'
off the surface. This makes the choice of
suspension geometry easier for the designer.
This sounds like radials are 'better' than bias
tyres, but it is not so clear cut. The softer radial
sidewalls give the tyres their own
characteristics.

Thus it becomes clear that the tyre that offers


maximum adhesion is a better choice. Softer
compound, Slick tyre will serve the purpose
here.

Radials are more sensitive to pressures.


Because the soft sidewalls contribute less to the
tyre 'spring rate', care should be taken to ensure
consistent pressures.

The next choice that is made when choosing


tyres is what size to use and this dictates the
wheel size both diameter and width. There are
some advantages in choosing a 10 diameter,
such as lower rotational inertia. 13 wheels
usually offer a better choice of tyres, so one
advantage may be cancelled by another. 10
wheels have less internal space to house brake
and suspension components, and the
suspension geometry desired may have some
compromises at the chassis end.

Low pressures and radial tyres take something


away from steering feel and precision. This is
because the wheel is able to turn 'inside' the tyre
when steering is first input.

So, increased space to house the unsprung


assembly and good availability of tyre choice,
both for slicks and wets concluded the selection
of 13 wheels.
The next is the choice is based on the ply, i.e.
Bias ply and Radial ply.
Bias ply tyres have stiffer sidewalls and softer
tread base than radials. This means they are
more sensitive to camber changes. The stiff belt
in a radial allows the tyre to camber more whilst
still keeping the tread flat to the track surface.
Essentially, this means that less camber
recovery is needed in suspension design.
Camber recovery is a conundrum! Sufficient
camber recovery in roll means excessive

The soft sidewall/stiff tread base of radials


makes them 'breakaway' more suddenly than
bias tyres, although this breakaway may happen
at slightly higher lateral loads. This means that
an expert driver may be faster on radials, but a
less skilled driver may well be able to lap faster
on bias tyres because their performance is more
benign at the limits of adhesion.
Since the car is designed assuming the driver is
an amateur racer, bias ply makes a better
choice.
The final tyre specifications decided are softer
compound slick, 13in and bias ply tyre.
Hoosier R25B 20.5 x 7- 13 served the purpose
respecting the budget.

UPRIGHT:
The uprights are the connecting point between
the suspension a-arms, hubs, and brakes. They
are a highly stressed part in the suspension
system and must move through a wide range of
motion without interference. The uprights are
typically made of boxed steel or milled

aluminium and usually consist of a few


different parts.
Team decided to go for aluminium (7075)
machined upright for better control of the
design parameters. We believe that a stiff
suspension system out performs a light
suspension system. Thus, this can be reflected
in the design. Low machining cost, low material
wastage along with high stiffness were the
design governing factors.
Upright also features shim type camber
adjustment.

Upright stress concentration in braking is


satisfactory.

Upright was tested for maximum cornering and


braking condition taking 1.5g acceleration in
the respective direction according to the
situation.
Imperceptible deformation is caused under
braking. (Max = 8.9 106 mm)

HUB:

Upright stress concentration in cornering. The


result are satisfactory.

Total deformation of the front upright under


cornering. The deformation caused is not
sufficient to cause much camber gain i.e.
compliance is minimised.
Under braking not only the longitudinal force
generated by the tyre (in the direction opposite
to motion) but increased vertical force due to
longitudinal weight transfer is taken into
account

The design of the hub was bounded by various


conditions such as track width, wheel bearing
size, calliper dimensions, and the bolt pattern
on the wheel.
Hub design too followed the same
methodology, i.e. maximum stiffness. The
hubs main duty is to prevent excessive
deflections, particularly in bending. In torsion,
which is mainly experienced during braking,
excessive deflections can cause excessive
fatigue in the hub as well as other components.
Deflection during bending can affect overall
camber angle during bump and cornering, and
can affect toe during braking and cornering.
Small toe changes can negatively affect the
cars handling, as this will effectively steer the
car if the displacement is high enough.

Under Cornering the hub was tested


considering a lateral acceleration of 1.5g and
increased vertical load due to lateral weight
transfer.

Minor stress concentration is observed and the


rotor can withstand the forces during cornering.

Another design influential force is reaction


torque from the brake rotor. From the brake
calculations a torque of 982 N.m was obtained.
Hub showed a maximum deflection of
5 106 mm, which is inconsequential.

Total deformation observed maximum being


0.0055mm which is again inconsequential.

Stress concentration is tolerable under material


properties.

Rear rotor will experience the torque generated


by the engine. Calculations, including all the
gear ratio from crankshaft to half shaft (driving
shaft) resulted into a torque of 3500N.m.
The total deformation was
maximum being 2 105 mm.

insignificant

Stress concentration was observed tolerable.

SUSPENSION:
The double wishbone unequal a-arm
suspension was chosen by the suspension team
as the design concept to be pursued.
The selected type provides the maximum
control over wheel movement parameter.
Designing a suspension system have its own
compromises. The cars suspension is biased
towards roll optimization. The reason for that
being the car is an autocross vehicle and
achieving better performance in corners is the
key to better lap times. Every wheel movement
parameter like Camber, Castor, Toe are set to
achieve maximum contact patch area and
minimum external force reactions during roll.
Since the car cant be perfectly simulated, we
have designed the system keeping maximum
adjustability in mind. Tuning the car after
testing data and driver feedback will give us a
better performing car. Camber adjustment
through shims, ride height adjustment through
threaded rod-ends, spring preload adjustment
and pickup point vertical adjustment through
conical spacers are the tuning features.
Kinematics of the suspension has been done to
provide proper movement to the suspension
links in order to achieve 1in travel. The roll
centre height have been kept minimum
(7.6mm) to reduce jacking forces.
Variation of toe with bump have been kept
minimum. During high speed cornering the
lateral load transfer will cause the outer wheels
to go in bump condition and hence the toe
variation will make steering unpredictable.

There is zero toe variation with bump in rear.


Motion ratio also changes with bump, thus
giving rise to variable stiffness of the setup.
Variation of motion ration have been minimised
with bump.

Bump vs Motion ratio (Front)


1.05
1.04
1.03
1.02
1.01
1
0.99
-40

-20

-40

-20

0.5
0
-0.5 0
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5

Bump vs Half track change (Front)


1
-40

-20

-1
-2

1.04

-3

1.02
1
0.98
20

40

Track width change with wheel travel will


generate unnecessary lateral forces on tyre,
losing the maximum available longitudinal
forces the tyre can generate during acceleration.
Track width change with bump has been
minimised. However there is more rate of
change in rebound condition but that is
insignificant.

1.06

20

Bump vs Toe (Front)

-20

40

Bump vs Motion ratio (Rear)

The graph shows variation of toe with bump.

-40

20

40

20

40

Bump vs Half track width


change (rear)

Roll vs Camber (Front)


1

0.5

0
-40

-20

-1 0

20

40

0
-3

-2

-1

-2

-0.5

-3

-1

Camber change during bump will help in


setting static camber to determine maximum
contact patch for longitudinal acceleration. The
camber change is optimised for roll. This graph
can help for the Acceleration event.

Roll vs Camber (Rear)


2
1
0
-3

Bump vs Camber (Front)

-2

-1

2
0
-20

-2

20

40

-4

1.05

1.045

-1

Roll vs Motion ratio (front)

1.04

0
-20

Change in motion ratio with roll will change the


dynamic forces acting by varying the stiffness.
Thus, it has to be maintained at a constant value.
The graphs shows variation of motion ration in
roll.

Bump vs Camber (Rear)

-40

-2

-40

-1

20

1.035

40

-2

1.03
-3

-2

-1

Roll vs motion ratio (rear)


Camber change with is a significant aspect that
will determine cars performance in roll. The
thought process was that the tyre remain
parallel to ground when subjected to body roll.
Effort have been made to minimise camber
change with roll.

1.1
1.095
1.09
1.085
1.08
-3

-2

-1

Caster angle will induce Camber when given a


steering input. This will also give a significant
camber change. Thus a compromise between
steering feel and camber change have to be
made.

Steering angle vs Camber


4
2
0
-40

-20

-2

20

40

-4

CAMBER:
Camber is the angle of the wheel plane from the
vertical and is considered to be a negative angle
when the top of the wheel is tilted towards the
centreline of the vehicle. Camber is adjusted by
tilting the steering axis from the vertical which
is usually done by adding or removing shims
from the upright. Because the amount of tire on
the ground is affected by camber angle, camber
should be easily adjustable so that the
suspension can be tuned for maximum
cornering.
Sum of camber change due to roll, compliance
and camber induced due to caster will give the
value for static camber. But it will give a close
value, final value will be decided from testing
data (tire wear and tire temperature) and driver
feedback.

CASTER:
Caster is the angle of the steering axis relative
to vertical. This causes a restorative force felt
by the driver which returns the steering wheel
to centre. Positive camber is accomplished
when the top steering pivot point is located
Rearward of the lower steering pivot point. The
greater this angle, the greater the straight line
stability of the car, and the greater force
required to turn the steering wheel.

Thus a positive angle of 6.4 is decided as a


compromise between steering feel and caster
induced camber.

STEERING: