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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Province of Iloilo
District of San Joaquin South
Igcadlum Primary School
Igcadlum San Joaquin, Iloilo
HAND OUTS
First Grading Period, SY 2016-2017
SCIENCE and HEALTH 3

I.PLANTS
Plants are one of five big groups (kingdoms) of living things. They
are autotrophic eukaryotes, which means they have complex cells, and
make their own food. Usually they cannot move (not counting growth).
A living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs,
grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing in a permanent site,
absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots, and
synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green
pigment chlorophyll.
II. PARTS OF A PLANT

1. Roots
The plant root system constitutes the major part of the plant body, both in
terms of function and bulk. In terrestrial plants, the root system is the
subterranean or underground part of the plant body while the shoot is the
aboveground part. Roots are branching organs which grow downward into
the soil, a manifestation of geotropism. Branching occurs irregularly and not
from nodes as in stems.

In general,
the plant root system either
consists of a taproot
system (with primary root) or
fibrous roots (adventitious roots) with attached branch roots and finer
rootlets having root hairs close to the tip.
2. Stem
The plant stem is a component of the shoot system, the portion of the plant
body of the angiosperms having phototropic response. Besides the stem, the
plant shoot also consists of the leaves and the reproductive organs.

The stem has been described as a central axis to which all other parts are
attached. In most plants the stems are conspicuous aboveground, but in
some species they are hidden below the ground. Based on various criteria,
there are other more classifications of the stem.
3. Leaves
The plant leaves are lateral outgrowth of the stem which develop from the
meristematic tissues of buds. They are the part of the plant shoot which
serves as the chief food-producing organ in most vascular plants. To perform
this function more efficiently, they are arranged on the stem and oriented as
to allow maximum absorption of sunlight.

Plant leaves have many variations and one may differ from another even
within the same plant. The carbohydrate that is produced in the leaves in the
process of photosynthesis sustains animal life, both directly and indirectly.
Likewise, the oxygen that plant leaves give off is essential to the continuing
existence of animals and other aerobic organisms. An important feature of
leaves is the presence of stomata or stomatas (sing. stoma).
4. Seed
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The
formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants,
the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.
Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and
some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the
zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule.

Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success


of gymnosperms and angiosperms plants, relative to more primitive plants
such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use other
means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches
on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates.

References
(2016) Plant. Retrieved from
https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant
(2016) Plant. Retrieved from
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/plant
Bareja (2010) Plant Root System. Retrieved from
http://www.cropsreview.com/plant-root-system.html
Bareja (2010) The Plant Stem, Functions, Parts and Classifications. Retrieved
from
http://www.cropsreview.com/plant-stem.html
Bareja (2011) The Shoot System of the Angiosperms: Plant Leaves and
Functions. Retrieved from
http://www.cropsreview.com/plant-leaves.html
Bareja (2015) What is a Flower, Common Usage, and Misconceptions.
Retrieved from
http://www.cropsreview.com/flower.html
(2016) Seed. Retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed
Pictures
(n.d) Retrieved from
https://www.kullabs.com/class-8/science-8/biology-2/livingbeings/modification-of-different-parts-of-plant
(2016). Plant stem. Retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_stem
Pandey (2010-2015) Plant Leaves. Retrieved from
http://www.ephotosworld.com/plant-leaves.html
Miller (2011) Planting of vegetable seeds in prepared soil. Retrieved from
http://people-equation.com/planting-seeds-growing-your-network/planting-ofvegetable-seeds-in-prepared-soil/

Prepared by:
Riza Joy Polistico