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A STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF EMULSIFIED

FUEL BLEND WITH VARIOUS SURFACTANTS

MUHAMMAD HAFIZUDDIN BIN RADZUAN

BACHELOR (HONS.) OF MECHANICAL


ENGINEERING (AUTOMOTIVE)
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG

A STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF EMULSIFIED FUEL BLEND WITH VARIOUS


SURFACTANTS

MUHAMMAD HAFIZUDDIN BIN RADZUAN

Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements


for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering (Hons.) Mechanical Engineering (Automotive)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG

JUNE 2015

THESIS VALIDATION FORM


UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG
DECLARATION OF THESIS AND COPYRIGHT
Authors Full Name

MUHAMMAD HAFIZUDDIN BIN


RADZUAN

Date of Birth

27 JANUARY 1992

Title

A STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF


EMULSIFIED FUEL BLEND WITH
VARIOUS SURFACTANTS

Academic Session

2014/2015

I declare that this thesis is classified as:


CONFIDENTIAL
RESTRICTED

OPEN ACCESS

(Contains confidential information under the Official


Secret Act 1972)*
(Contains restricted information as specified by the
organization where research was done)*
I agree that my thesis to be published as online open
access (Full text)

I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Pahang reserve the right as follows:


1. The Thesis is the Property of University Malaysia Pahang.
2. The Library of University Malaysia Pahang has the right to make copies for the purpose
of research only.
3. The Library has the right to make copies of the thesis for academic exchange.

Certified by:

_____________________________

_____________________________

920127-14-6771

Dr Abdul Adam Bin Abdullah

Date: 19/6/2015

Date: 19/6/2015

NOTES : * if the thesis is CONFIDENTIAL or RESTRICTED, please attach with the letter from the
organisation with period and reasons for confidential or restriction.

ii

SUPERVISORS DECLARATION

We hereby declare that we have checked this project and in our opinion, this project is
adequate in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of
Engineering (Hons.) Mechanical Engineering (Automotive).

Signature

Name of Supervisor

: Dr. Abdul Adam Bin Abdullah

Position

: Senior Lecturer Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

Date

: 19/6/2015

Signature

Name of Co-Supervisor : Amir Bin Aziz


Position

: Lecturer Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Date

: 19/6/2015

iii

STUDENTS DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work in this report in my own, except for quotations and
summaries which have been duty acknowledged. The project has not been accepted for
any degree and is not submitted for award of other degree.

Signature

Name

: Muhammad Hafizuddin Bin Radzuan

ID Number : MH11077
Date

: 19/6/2015

iv

Dedicated to Mr. Radzuan Bin Majid, Mrs. Ariani Binti Embong and Miss Fatiah
Najihah Binti Muhdhor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I want to wish grateful to the Almighty Allah S.W.T for all
His blessing. I would wish to express my gratitude to Universiti Malaysia Pahang
(UMP) for giving me the opportunity to undergo my Final Year Project (FYP) in this
university.
I would like to take this opportunity to thanks to the Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering (FKM) for managing my Final Year Project (FYP). I am grateful and like
to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Abdul Adam Bin Abdullah for his
assistance, ideas, encouragement and guidance throughout the duration of this Final
Year Project (FYP). He always guides me with his impressive ideas and moral support
that I probably need the most not only for this project but also for my future career.
Honestly say that I am very appreciate of his consistent tolerance of my nave mistakes,
lateness and somehow bothering him while he is away and busy. Special thanks I would
like to dedicate for my co-supervisor for his cooperation and suggestions during
completing this project.
Here, I also would like to thanks to my lab-mates and staffs of the Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering (FKM) for their helps in various ways in provide ideas and
cooperation upon this project to get it done. Also, heartfelt thanks to my team members
for their supports, inspirations and excellent cooperation in this project.
I acknowledge my sincere indebtedness and gratitude to my parents for their
support, love, dream and sacrifice throughout my life. Last but not least, a thousand of
thanks to all who have contributed directly and indirectly with their full support in
completing this Final Year Project (FYP) successfully.

vi

ABSTRACT

This research deals with emulsified fuels with addition of various surfactants and
different water content were developed to obtain better emulsified fuels and more stable
in separation time. Emulsified fuels were mixed with surfactants as they functioned to
reduce surface tension of oil and enable to mix it with water. Surfactants used in this
study were Tween20, Span20, Tween60, Span60, Tween80 and Span80 and they were
mixed by different ratio in order to obtain desired HLB number which was HLB 8, HLB
10 and HLB 12. 2% of surfactants and 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of water by volume
were added into the diesel fuel and mixed at given time to develop the emulsified fuels.
These emulsified fuels were blended by mechanical stirrer at the speed of 700 rpm
within 10 minutes. Then, several stabilized emulsified fuels blended by mechanical
stirrer were selected after the results obtained were being compared by various
surfactants, different water content and HLB number for further experiment by using
another method which was high shear laboratory mixer. This machine was used to mix
the selected stabilized emulsified fuels at 2000 rpm within 10 minutes. After that,
results recorded were being compared by emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer
and they were run in the single cylinder engine to obtain the performance data at
constant speed of 1860 rpm and load variation of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%.
Results obtained were collected by using DEWECA and DEWESOFT software. Results
shows that stabilized emulsified fuel can be achieved by using Tween20 Span20 and
Tween80 Span80 together with HLB 8 and HLB 10. Emulsified fuel with lower water
content also shows better result and more stable than the one which has high water
content. In comparison of different methods, separation time of fuel and water were
delayed show a better emulsified fuels can be obtained when using high shear
laboratory mixer rather than mechanical stirrer.

vii

ABSTRAK

Kajian ini berkaitan dengan campuran bahan api dengan penambahan pelbagai
surfactants dan kandungan air yang berbeza telah dibangunkan untuk mendapatkan
lebih baik campuran bahan api dan lebih stabil dalam masa pemisahan. Campuran
bahan api adalah bercampur-campur dengan surfactants kerana ia berfungsi
mengurangkan ketegangan permukaan minyak dan membolehkan mencampurkannya
dengan air. Surfactants yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah Tween20, Span20,
Tween60, Span60, Tween80 dan Span80 dan mereka adalah bercampur-campur dengan
nisbah yang berbeza untuk mendapatkan nombor HLB yang dikehendaki iaitu HLB 8,
HLB 10 dan HLB 12. 2% daripada surfactants dan 5%, 10%, 15% dan 20% air
mengikut bilangan telah ditambah ke dalam bahan api diesel dan bercampur-campur di
diberi masa untuk membangunkan bahan-api campuran. Campuran bahan api
sedemikian telah diadun oleh stirrer mekanikal pada kelajuan 700 rpm dalam masa 10
minit. Kemudian, beberapa stabil campuran bahan api diadun oleh stirrer mekanikal
telah dipilih selepas keputusan yang diperolehi yang dibandingkan oleh pelbagai
surfactants, kandungan air yang berbeza dan HLB nombor bagi satu eksperimen dengan
menggunakan kaedah lain yang pengadun makmal Ricih yang tinggi. Mesin ini telah
digunakan untuk campuran stabil bahan api campuran yang terpilih pada 2000 rpm
dalam masa 10 minit. Selepas itu, keputusan yang dicatatkan yang dibandingkan oleh
campuran bahan api yang diadun oleh stirrer mekanikal dan mereka dijalankan dalam
enjin satu silinder untuk mendapatkan data prestasi pada kelajuan malar pengubahan
1860 rpm dan beban bagi 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% dan 100%. Keputusan yang diperolehi
telah dikumpul dengan menggunakan perisian DEWECA dan DEWESOFT.
Menunjukkan keputusan yang stabil campuran bahan api boleh dicapai dengan
menggunakan Tween20 Span20 dan Tween80 Span80 bersama-sama dengan HLB 8
dan HLB 10. Campuran bahan api dengan lebih rendah air kandungan juga
menunjukkan hasil yang lebih baik dan lebih stabil daripada satu yang mempunyai
kandungan air tinggi. Dalam perbandingan kaedah yang berbeza, masa pengasingan
bahan api dan air telah menunjukkan kelewatan yang baik campuran bahan api boleh
didapati apabila menggunakan pengadun makmal Ricih yang tinggi dan bukannya
stirrer mekanikal.

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
SUPERVISORS DECLARATION

ii

STUDENTSS DECLARATION

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

vi

ABSTRAK

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

viii

LIST OF TABLES

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

xii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xiii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

xv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of Project

1.2

Problem Statement

1.3

Objectives

1.4

Scope of Project

1.5

Hypothesis

1.6

Flow Chart

1.7

Work Schedule

1.8

Thesis Overview

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Introduction of Diesel Engine

2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4

8
9
9
9

Process 1-2: Isentropic Compression


Process 2-3: Constant Pressure Heat Addition
Process 3-4: Isentropic Expansion
Process 4-1: Constant Volume Heat Rejection

ix

2.2

Diesel Engine Performance

11

2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
2.2.8

11
12
13
13
14
15
15
16

Power and Mechanical Efficiency


Fuel-Air Ratio
Thermal Efficiency and Heat Balance
Mean Effective Pressure and Torque
Specific Output
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
Volumetric Efficiency
Exhaust Smoke and Other Emissions

2.3

Exhaust Emissions and Particulate Matter

16

2.4

Ways of Emissions Reduction

17

2.5

Emulsified Fuel

19

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

3.1

Introduction

21

3.2

Materials

21

3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3

22
23
24

3.3

3.4

Pure Diesel Fuel


Distilled Water
Various Types of Surfactants

Equipment and Research Infrastructures

25

3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3

25
26
27

Engine Test Rig


Mechanical Stirrer
High Shear Laboratory Mixer

Procedure of The Experiment

28

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Effect of Various Surfactants, Water Content and HLB

32

Number Toward Emulsified Fuel By Using Mechanical Stirrer


4.2

Effect of Various Surfactants, Water Content and HLB

39

Number Toward Emulsified Fuel By Using High Shear


Laboratory Mixer
4.3

Comparison of Selected Stabilized Emulsified Fuels By


Different Methods

41

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1

Conclusion

43

5.2

Recommendations

44

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

Work Schedule

41

Full Tabulation of Data

42

xi

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

Title

Page

2.1

Comparison of water addition methods

18

3.1

Diesel fuel properties according to EURO 2M Standard

22

3.2

Distilled water properties

23

3.3

Properties of different surfactants

24

3.4

Specifications of engine

25

3.5

Various blends of emulsified fuels with different water


volume and constant percentage of surfactants addition

28

4.1

Selected emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer

35

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

Title

Page

1.1

Final year project flow chart

2.1

P-V and T-S diagram of Diesel cycle

2.2

P-V and T-S diagram of Dual cycle

10

3.1

Mechanical stirrer

26

3.2

High shear laboratory mixer

27

3.3

Mixing of emulsified fuel

29

4.1

Graph of emulsified fuels with surfactant of Tween20 Span20


blended by mechanical stirrer

32

4.2

Graph of emulsified fuels with surfactant of Tween60 Span60


blended by mechanical stirrer

33

4.3

Graph of emulsified fuels with surfactant of Tween80 Span80


blended by mechanical stirrer

34

4.4

Comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20 Span20


(HLB 8) 5% water and Tween80 Span80 (HLB 8) 5% water

35

4.5

Comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20 Span20


(HLB 10) 5% water and Tween80 Span80 (HLB 10) 5%
water

36

4.6

Comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20 Span20


(HLB 10) 5% water and Tween20 Span20 (HLB 10) 10%
water

37

4.7

Comparison of emulsified fuels of Tween80 Span80 (HLB


10) with different water content

38

4.8

Comparison of selected emulsified fuels blended by high


shear laboratory mixer

40

4.9

Selected emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer

41

4.10

Selected emulsified fuels blended by high shear mechanical


laboratory

42

xiii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Percentage

Qin

Heat addition

Qout

Heat rejection

Mass

cp

Specific heat at constant pressure

cv

Specific heat at constant volume

P1

Pressure one

P2

Pressure two

P3

Pressure three

P4

Pressure four

T1

Temperature one

T2

Temperature two

T3

Temperature three

T4

Temperature four

V1

Volume one

V2

Volume two

V3

Volume three

V4

Volume four

Wnet

Work done

bp

Brake power

Pi

Rotational speed in minutes

Torque

xiv

Mean pressure

Area

Number of cylinder

Mechanical efficiency

cv

Calorific value

Length

Rotational speed

xv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

NOx

Nitrogen oxide

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

SOx

Sulphur oxide

PM

Particulate matter

HLB

Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance

P-V

Pressure versus volume

T-S

Temperature versus entropy

BDC

Bottom Dead Centre

TDC

Top Dead Centre

kJ

KiloJoule

kg

Kilogramme

mm

Millimetre

Kelvin

SO

Specific output

BSFC

Brake specific fuel consumption

FC

Fuel consumption

HP

Horsepower

RPM

Revolution per minute

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

fmep

Friction mean effective pressure

fp

Friction power

ip

Indicated power

xvi

T20S20

Tween20 Span20

T60S60

Tween60 Span60

T80S80

Tween80 Span80

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND OF PROJECT

The diesel engine is a selected power sources that is used as power plant and
unfortunately also as an internal combustion engine all over the globe due to its
drivability and good efficiency. It is also causes rise of demand and usage of fossil fuel
due to its universally usage (H M. Herzwan et al., 2012). Diesel engine is the most
combustion-efficient engine because it gives better fuel to power conversion yield. In
order to produce the desired mechanical work at the lowest possible fuel consumption
and pollutant emissions, complex systems such as modern diesel engines are used to
burn a carefully controlled mixture of fresh air, burnt gases and fuel (Angela Chiosa et
al., 2013).

Alternative fuels for diesel engines are getting to be logically imperative because
of lessening petroleum holds and the consequences of environmental of exhaust gasses
from petroleum fuelled engines. Many studies have proven that emulsified fuels hold
promise as one of the succeeded alternative diesel engine fuels. The conventional fossil
fuels depletion, increasing cost of the fuels and increasing polluted air caused by fossil
fuels combustion make the alternative fuel sources more attractive and in demand.

Emulsified fuels are regularly elevated as having the capacity to beat the trouble
of all the while lessening emanations of both oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate
matter from diesel engines. Furthermore, the engine torque, power and brake thermal
efficiency increases as the water percentage in the emulsion increases as reported by
(Zaid, 2004). In this research, the various blends of emulsified fuels with addition of
surfactant are being developed to analyse the combustion performance in a single
cylinder diesel engine.

1.2

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Vehicles controlled by a diesel engine are viewed as one of the principal


wellsprings of air contamination, particularly in metropolitan zones, yet it is normal that
diesel motors will keep on being broadly utilized as a part of the not so distant.
However, diesel engines combustion produces displeasure and unwanted emissions
such as NOx, CO and CO2 that contribute to the increasing of the greenhouse effects,
deteriorates the ozone layer in the stratosphere, produce acid rains and also affect the
human respiratory health (C-Y Lin and Wang, 2004).

Other than that, diesel fuel combustion that deliver emissions of gas and
particulate matter have long been viewed as one of the significant air contamination
sources, especially in metropolitan ranges. It is also has been a source of serious public
concern for a long time until now and will be continuously in the future if this matter is
ignored. According to that, researches all around the world have been working hard on
many researches to find the way on how to overcome this matter. One of the researches
they had been working on is by using emulsified fuel in diesel engine combustion. The
system for emulsification is spurred by expense lessening as well as one of the possibly
compelling methods to lessen the undesirable exhaust emissions from diesel engines.
Emulsions of diesel and water plans are broadcasted to lessen the outflows of NOx,
SOx, CO and particulate matter (PM) without remunerating the engine's performance
(Nadeem M. et al., 2006).

In addition, the advantage of emulsions of diesel and water in the combustion is


it does not require any engine retrofitting (A. Lif and Holmberg, 2006). In order to
sustain the emulsion, a surfactant (surface active reactant) must be added. This
surfactant is added to reduce the surface tension forces thus, permit two different
densities of liquids to mix with stable chemical composition. Therefore, regarding to
this research, there will be a various blends of emulsified fuels to be developed in order
to obtain the comparable performance with pure diesel fuel.

1.3

OBJECTIVES

There are three objectives of this research will be achieved to which are;
i.

To develop the various blends of emulsified fuel with addition of


surfactant.

1.4

ii.

To compare the emulsified fuel by using different methods.

iii.

To obtain stabilized emulsified fuel.

SCOPE OF PROJECT

There are few scopes of project for this research which are:
i.

To produce the various blends of emulsified fuel.

ii.

Develop the various blends of emulsified fuel by using mechanical


stirrer.

iii.

Develop the chosen stabilized emulsified fuel by using high shear


laboratory mixer.

iv.

To compare the emulsified fuel results to obtain the stabilized emulsified


fuel.

1.5

HYPOTHESIS

In this research, there are few expected outcomes which are:


i.

Emulsified fuels with higher than HLB number of 10 will produce less
stable.

ii.

Emulsified fuels with low water content show better results.

1.6

FLOW CHART
Start
Literature Review
Develop emulsified fuel with different surfactant
by using mechanical stirrer
Collecting and verifying data
Analyse emulsified fuel stability time
Develop chosen previous emulsified fuel
by using high shear laboratory mixer

Collecting and verifying data


Analyse emulsified fuel stability time
Emulsified fuel stability time by using
different methods
No
Result
acceptable

Repeat another blend


Yes

Run the engine by using emulsified fuel


Preparation draft thesis
Finalize the complete thesis

End
Figure 1.1: Final year project flow chart

1.7

WORK SCHEDULE

Refer to Appendix A.

1.8

THESIS OVERVIEW

Literature review will be clarified for the following chapter. That chapter will
portray the data identified with this research, for example, emulsified fuel and diesel
engine. Chapter 3 will clarify about procedure for the led test. It will depict about the
creation of different mixes of emulsified fuel, surfactant utilized, set up of the
experiment and the procedure for data analysis.

Results and discussion will be deciphered in Chapter 4. The result will be plot in
diagram and each result will be examined in points of interest. Finally, Chapter 5 will
clarify about the conclusion and the suggestion for the future investigation. From the
results obtained, the conclusion can be made whether the targets are attained or rather
and the suggestion is for development of the results later on.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

INTRODUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE

Compression-ignition engine is also given name for diesel engine. The diesel
engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate
ignition and burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel
engine is widely used in numerous industries especially heavy industries such as
transportation, locomotive, marine, power plant, construction and so on. Diesel engine
is predicted to be more widely use due to its durability and efficiency in the future (A.
Alahmer et al., 2010).

This diesel engine is diverges from the spark- ignition engines, for example,
petrol engine which is otherwise called gasoline engine or gas engine which is utilizing
a vaporous fuel instead of gas. Both fuel engines utilize a spark plug as a part of request
to touch off an air-fuel mixture. The diverse between diesel engine and petrol engine is
that in diesel motor, just air is compacted and in this way heated, and the fuel is infused
into extremely hot air toward the end of the compression stroke, and self-ignites
however in petrol engine, the fuel and air are typically premixed before packing that
once in the past done in carburettor, yet now it is carried out by electronically controlled
by fuel injection. Furthermore, diesel engine has the most elevated thermal efficiency of
any standard inside or outside combustion engine. This characteristic of diesel engine is
because of its high compression ratio and inherent lean burn which empowers heat
dispersal by the excess air.

Figure 2.1: P-V and T-S diagram of Diesel cycle

Source: (Yunus A. Cengel and Boles, 2011)

Figure 2.1 above shows the P-V and T-S diagram of Diesel cycle. There are four
processes in diesel cycle which are:i.

Process 1-2: Isentropic (Reversible adiabatic) Compression.

ii.

Process 2-3: Constant Pressure (Isobaric) Heat Addition.

iii.

Process 3-4: Isentropic Expansion.

iv.

Process 4-1: Constant Volume (Isochoric) Heat Rejection.

2.1.1 PROCESS 1-2: ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION

From the get go, in this process, the cylinder moves from Bottom Dead Centre
(BDC) to Top Dead Centre (TDC) position. Inside the chamber, air will be layered
isentropically. The weight of air increments from P1 to P2, temperature increments from
T1 to T2 and volume will be diminished from V1 to V2. Moreover, the entropy stays
steady and work is carried out on the system in this procedure.

2.1.2 PROCESS 2-3: CONSTANT PRESSURE HEAT ADDITION

In this process, there is heat addition at the constant pressure from an external
heat source. The volume increases from V2 to V3, temperature increases from T2 to T3
and the entropy increases from s2 to s3. Addition of heat in process 2-3 is given by;
Qin = mcp (T3 T2) kJ

(2.1)

where m is mass of air in kg, cp is specific heat at constant pressure in kJ/kgK, T2 is


temperature at point 2 in Kelvin and T3 is temperature at point 3 in Kelvin.

2.1.3 PROCESS 3-4: ISENTROPIC EXPANSION

In this process, isentropic compressed and heated air is expanded inside the
cylinder. In the cylinder, the piston is forced down from TDC to BDC due to
combustion. The pressure of air decreases from P3 to P4, temperature decreases from T3
to T4 and the volume will be increased from V3 to V4. For the entropy, it remains
constant and work is done by the system in this process.

2.1.4 PROCESS 4-1: CONSTANT VOLUME HEAT REJECTION

Rejection of heat occurs in this process at the constant volume. Pressure


decreases from P4 to P1, temperature decreases from T4 to T1 and the entropy will be
decreased from s4 to s1. Rejection of heat in this process is given by;
Qout = mcv (T4 T1) kJ

(2.2)

where m is mass of air in kg, cv is specific heat at constant volume in kJ/kgK, T2 is the
temperature at point 2 in Kelvin and T3 is the temperature at point 3 in Kelvin.

10

In the application of massive amounts of power and torque requirements, diesel


engine is the absolute choice due to its low fuel cost and high in efficiency of fuel and
thus make it very popular and in demand. Modern diesel engine has more efficient and
quicker in the injection of fuel. The working modern diesel engine is the fuel will be
continuously injected until it reaches TDC and late ignition will be take place in the
compression stroke. This whole process can be created as the combination of constantvolume and constant-pressure processes. Thus, dual cycle has been introduced
regarding to this concept (Yunus A. Cengel and Boles, 2011). Referring to Figure 2.2,
the dual cycle will be explained by the P-V and T-S diagram.

Figure 2.2: P-V and T-S diagram of Dual cycle

Source: (Yunus A. Cengel and Boles, 2011)

Nowadays, the diesel engine is not even just limited for certain application only
but also widely used in daily life. Thus, in the future, the diesel engine expected to be
completely take over from here rather than gasoline engine.

11

2.2

DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE

Internal combustion engine in transportation has gained lot of influence and


attention in automobile industry and highly demanded nowadays. Thus, it is very
necessary to develop an efficient and economical engine in order to make it more
reliable and vast contribution for the future. Consideration of all parameters that are
affecting the engine design and performance is required for internal combustion engine
to be developed. There are many parameters that must be considered of and thus,
becomes tough to account them while designing an engine.

Regarding to this matter, numerous tests have to be conducted on the engine in


order to determine the measures that have to be taken for the engines performance
improvement. There are eight performance parameters needed to be concerned of to
conduct the tests which are:
a.

Power and mechanical efficiency

b.

Fuel-air ratio

c.

Thermal efficiency and heat balance

d.

Mean effective pressure and torque

e.

Specific output

f.

Brake specific fuel consumption

g.

Volumetric efficiency

h.

Exhaust smoke and other emissions

2.2.1 POWER AND MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

Mechanical power can be produced by combustion of fuel in an internal


combustion engine. Power can be defined as the rate of work produced from the
combustion. Furthermore, power is expressed as the product of force and linear velocity
or product of torque and angular velocity. Measurement of torque or force and speed
must be needed in order to measure the power. Dynamometer and tachometer are used
to measure force or torque and speed. Brake power (
measured at the output shaft of the engine and is given by;

) is defined as the power

12

where

(2.3)

is the torque in Newton meter (N.m), N is the rotational speed in minutes and

is the brake power in watt. Another factor must be concerned in order to calculate
mechanical efficiency which is indicated power ( ). Indicated power ( ) can be
defined as the power developed by the combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber.
The formula is given by;

(2.4)

where p is the mean pressure, A is the area of the piston and k is the number of
cylinders. Thus, the power loss in the mechanical components of engine due to friction
can be indicated by the difference between

and

. So, mechanical efficiency can be

defined as the ratio of brake power to the indicated power.

m =

(2.5)

Friction power is the difference between indicated power and brake power.

(2.6)

2.2.2 FUEL-AIR RATIO

Fuel-air ratio is characterized as the degree of fuel mass to air mass in the
mixture for ignition. It is utilized to focus the flame propagation velocity that is heat
released in ignition chamber which is influences the combustion phenomenon. The ratio
of actual fuel-air ratio to that of the stoichiometric fuel air ratio is needed for burning of
fuel. Relative fuel-air ratio is given by;

( )

(2.7)

13

2.2.3 THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND HEAT BALANCE

Thermal efficiency is defined as the output to input energy ratio in the form of
fuel. Mechanical work is being converted by the chemical energy which is the way this
thermal gives the efficiency. Not all the chemical energy of fuel will be converted into
heat energy. Some of the energy is converted into other form of energy such as heat
engines transform thermal energy. The brake thermal efficiency can be defined as;

where

(2.8)

is the mass of fuel supplied in kg/sec and

in kJ/kg.

is changed by

is the calorific value of the fuel

to indicate the thermal efficiency. Besides, in order to

determine the thermal efficiency, total energy input is also included. The energy that
released from the engine is dispersed to many parts such as exhaust and brake power.
Then, this energy will be taken by lubricating oil and also coolant. This phenomenon of
break up can be defined as heat balance which is consists of exhaust, brake output,
coolant losses radiation and so on.

2.2.4 MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE AND TORQUE

In order to compare the different engines performance, mean effective pressure


is the chosen parameter to play this important role as it can be determined as the mean
pressure acting over piston throughout a power stroke. The relation is given by;

where

is the mean effective pressure,

is the area of the piston,

(2.9)

is indicated power,

is the rotational speed and

is referred to brake mean effective pressure (


based on the brake power (

is the length of stroke,

is the number of cylinders. It

) as if mean effective pressure is

) and for the indicated mean effective pressure (

), it

is being referred as if the mean effective pressure is based on the indicated power ( ).

14

There is also friction mean effective pressure (

) which is the power required to

overcome the friction and the relation is given by;

(2.10)

Mean effective pressure can also be affected by torque and the relation can be
expressed by;

(2.11)

The size of engine also has an effect on both mean effective pressure and torque.
More torque can be generated by a large engine at the constant mean effective pressure.
So, engines mean effective pressure gives indication of its displacement utilization and
not torque. Engine power is reliant on the size itself thus; there is no real way to make
the correlation of the distinctive engines based on their power or torque. In this manner,
true indication of the relative performance of different engines is mean effective
pressure.

2.2.5 SPECIFIC OUTPUT

Specific output is defined as the brake power per unit of engine displacement. It
is given by;

Brake mean effective pressure (

(2.12)

) and operating speed are the main

elements based on the equation (2.9). Although the displacement and brake mean
effective pressure (

) are constant, the engine that is operating at high speed will

produced more output than low speed regarding to this matter. Therefore, it can
conclude that as the speed or the brake mean effective pressure (
output of the engine is also increased.

) increased, the

15

2.2.6 BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION

Brake specific fuel consumption (

) can be determined as the consumption

of amount of fuel for each unit of brake power per hour it indicates the efficiency with
which the power is developed from the fuel by the engine. Different engines
performance can be compared by using this brake specific fuel consumption (

).

The relation is given by;

(2.13)

2.2.7 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY

Volumetric efficiency assumes the essential part of parameter in the internal


combustion of engine. It is alludes to the efficiency in which the charge can be moved
into and out of the cylinders by the engine. In points of interest, volumetric efficiency
can be characterized as the ratio of trapped air amid the suction stroke over the swept
volume of the cylinder. The volumetric efficiency of engine is relies on upon the
amount of air is taken inside the cylinder. Subsequently, it puts a cut-off on the measure
of fuel which can be efficiently burned and the power output.

It can be improved in many ways and one of them is by compressing the


induction charge or by aggressive cam phasing in naturally aspirated engines which are
the most efficient ways that can be achieved. The method of compressing the induction
charge is also called as forced induction which is the volumetric efficiency value of the
engine that used this method could be more than 100 per cent rather than normal engine
that lie only between 70 to 80 per cent. Usually, this forced induction engine that is also
called as naturally aspirated engine can have the value of volumetric efficiency of more
than 100 per cent is because it is using proper induction piping design. It does work by
utilizing the resonance induction pipe and additionally the inertia of the air mass in the
induction system.

16

2.2.8 EXHAUST SMOKE AND OTHER EMISSIONS

Incomplete burning is happened by the presence of smoke. The output of engine


is limited by the pollution control. Besides of exhaust smoke, there are other emissions
that bring some problems to public environment such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen
oxide, hydrocarbon and so on. Because of these massive problems, decision has been
made by the engineers and researches to modify and design an engine that delivers the
minimum pollution effects to the public environment.

Since it has been one of the significant issues in the contemporary world, which
is the real commitment for this pollution is originates from vehicles emissions, it has
been looked into keeping in mind the end goal to take care of the issues. Therefore, it is
important to look over the percentage of emissions of an internal combustion engine as
one of the performance engine parameter.

2.3

EXHAUST EMISSIONS AND PARTICULATE MATTER

Nowadays, diesel engine is labelled as the major source of power for many
industries especially automobile industries because of its character itself which are
simple and high efficiency. Be that as it may, the outflows emitted from the diesel
engine, for example, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter are exceptionally unsafe to
the health of living beings and general society environment. Along these lines, these
discharges have been stamped as the significant air toxins in metropolitan zones
(Scarpete, 2013). Other than nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, there are different
emissions emitted from the diesel engine which are black smoke, hydrocarbon, carbon
monoxide and carbon dioxide.

Due to environmental concerns, exhaust gas emission reduction from diesel


engine become desirable. Enforcement of regulations being strict and traffic congestion
become the worlds domination as exhaust emissions, especially nitrogen oxides
emission become a serious problem in metropolitan areas. At the present day, detail
research has been carried out to minimize the nitrogen oxides emission emitted from the
diesel engine (R. Venkatesh Babu and Sendilvelan, 2011). There are many advanced

17

technology in engine development have been occurred in order to lead to greater


automobile transportation fuel economy. Simultaneously, to develop the new engines,
the engine exhaust emissions reduction and increasing the efficiency of the engine
became the major factors for achievement (Scarpete, 2013).

2.4

WAYS OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION

In the present day, gas emissions become a major pollutants for a global
environment which is contribute to air pollution emitted from diesel engine. These
emissions are also very harmful to living beings as they contained dangerous elements
which can cause the respiratory system destructive. Regarding to this serious matter,
several studies and researches have been conducted in order to solve this problem
before it becomes worse.

It was stated that, in order to increase the output of the engine and improve the
gas engine internal cooling, presence of water into engine combustion chamber is the
brilliant way as it has many advantages rather than disadvantages to use this method
(Prof. B. Hopkinson 1913). Moreover, this method has been developed to improve the
thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions simultaneously (Sheng et al., 1990).

There are four major approaches for introducing water into the combustion
chamber which are direct injection into the engine through separate injectors (DWSI),
hybrid injection using a single injector or as a stratified diesel-water-diesel fuel
injection by means of a special nozzle modification (HDWI), fumigating the water into
the engine intake air (FWIA) and diesel-water emulsions (Canfield, 1999, Ghojel et al.,
2006, Nazha et al., 1998, OSullivan, 1997, Selim and Ghannam, 2010, Sheng et al.,
1990, Trozzi and Vaccaro, 1998). Emulsion of fuel has been occurred to be the most
applicable way among of all the methods suggested of introducing water into the
combustion zone as it does not require any modification of engine (Canfield, 1999).

18

Table 2.1: Comparison of water addition methods (Ghojel et al., 2006)

Methods/Matter

DWSI

HDWI

FWIA

DWE

Relative NOx
reduction

Poor

Best

Poor

Good

Effect on PM
emissions

Poor

Best

Poor

Good

Variability of
water addition

Good

Poor

Good

Good

Lubricating oil
dilution

High

Low

High

Low

Expenditure

High

Average

Low

High

As researches have been carried out for many years, water in fuel emulsion is
one of the effective ways to reduce the nitrogen oxides emission and particulate matter
simultaneously. It was stated that injection of water in cylinder was the successful way
to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions but not for smoke opacity. In addition, water in fuel
emulsion is a diesel substitution without any diesel engine retrofitting requirement
(Sang-Jin Lee et al., 2007).

During combustion, the formation mechanism of nitrogen oxides and particulate


matter become inconsistent and thus reducing the nitrogen oxide and smoke
simultaneously is very difficult. Explosion of microdroplets of water will take place
because of the high temperature and also pressure inside the cylinder during the
combustion. So, it is very helpful in assisting smoother combustion and reducing the
nitrogen oxide emission. Moreover, it is proven that water addition may help for mixing
and atomization improvement in which attribute to emulsion droplet micro-explosions
(Selim and Ghannam, 2010).

19

2.5

EMULSIFIED FUEL

An emulsion can be defined as two incomplete irascible liquids which are oil
and water, with one of the liquids dispersed as small spherical droplets in the other.
Even though emulsions nowadays, have been found in several of food industries,
pharmaceutical and chemical applications, but the diesel-water emulsions are usually
found in the application as the alternative fuels for diesel engines (Chen et al., 1998,
McClements, 2005). However, in order to produce the emulsified fuel, it must be come
out with specific additive called surfactant to stabilize the system.

Surfactant function is as to reduce water and oil surface tension, surface


activation and maximize both liquid superficial contact areas to make oil-in-water or
water-in-oil two-phase emulsions. Surfactant which also can be called as surface-active
agent is amphipathic substance come with lyophobic and lyophilic groups that can make
it able to absorb at the interfaces between solids, liquids and gases. In addition, the
surfactant is also known as emulsification agent because its capable of emulsion
stabilization when it lies along the interface between oil and water (Lin and Wang,
2004). This emulsification agent suspends the water droplets in the fuel in which the
water does not come into direct contact with engine surfaces in diesel-water emulsion
(Canfield, 1999). In order to maintain the emulsion, additives must be included to the
inhibit corrosion, freezing protection and enhance lubricity.

An experimental study on diesel-water emulsion had been conducted by AbuZaid to investigate all the more about the emulsified water impact on a single cylinder
diesel engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Diesel-water emulsions of 0,
5, 10, 15 and 20 water/diesel proportions by volume were utilized as a part of a diesel
engine working at 1200-3300 rpm. Abu-Zaid reported that water addition in the form of
emulsion make the proficiency of combustion progressed. As the percentage of water in
the emulsion increases, the engine power, torque and brake thermal efficiency are also
increases. The results recorded that approximately 3.5% average increment in the brake
thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion over the use of diesel fuel itself for the
engine speed range concentrated on. Moreover, increasing water percentage in the

20

emulsion will decrease the gases exhaust temperature and also brake specific fuel
consumption (Zaid, 2004).

Emulsified fuel has been produced commercially nowadays especially in Europe


region. There are many companies promoted their own recipe of diesel-water emulsions
to be marketed and their experiences of this field are 3 years at least and counting. The
names of product of the emulsified fuel are GecamTM by CAM Technologies, Aquadisel
by Clean Fuels Technology, Aquazole by TotalFinaElf and PuriNOxTM by Lubrizol.
Moreover, these companies have their own distributor to distribute these products all
over the world but not for TotalFinaElf company which is distribute by its own network.
Most of the emulsified fuel produced has 10%-20% water content (Alahmer, 2013).

For example, the Aquazole contains of 85

3% of diesel fuel and 15

3% of

water with addition of special surfactant and fuel additives 2 3%. GecamTM fuel
contains of 88% of diesel fuel and 10% of water come with 2% of special surfactant and
additives addition. These emulsified fuels are for Italy and France user market. Total
sales of 1 million per month have been accumulated on in-land vehicles such as trucks,
busses and so on (Alahmer, 2013).

Recently, the emulsified fuel is proven as the successful way to reduce the
exhaust emissions emitted from the diesel engine. The percentage of emissions such as
nitrogen oxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and so on can be reduced without
any engine modification required. Therefore, this method is very suitable to be applied
as it is simple and easy to use besides low in cost.

21

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1

INTRODUCTION

Several measurements need to be concerned of in order to test the combustion


performance diesel engine. Emulsified fuels are being developed by different
surfactants to study the stability of the emulsions so that the most stable diesel-water
emulsion will be applied into diesel engine for combustion performance test with which
conducted by different ratios of diesel fuel, water and surfactant. An approach taken in
order to conduct this experiment is being fulfilled in this chapter together with the
existing equipment, materials and facilities.

3.2

MATERIALS

There are 4 materials needed to conduct the experiment and they are:
a.

Pure diesel fuel

b.

Distilled water

c.

Various types of surfactants

22

3.2.1 PURE DIESEL FUEL

In this research, pure diesel fuel used is the regular one which can be easily
obtained in Malaysia. Since 2009, EURO 2M Standard was recorded as the standard
diesel fuel in Malaysia. A few modifications have been made in this EURO 2M
Standard diesel fuel in order to make it suitable with the weather condition in Malaysia
(Association, 2012, Vong, 2012). The properties of the pure diesel according to EURO
2M Standard is shown by the Table 3.1 below.

Table 3.1: Diesel fuel properties according to EURO 2M Standard

Properties

Value

Unit

5.8

mm2/s

Density @ 15

0.870

kg/L

Total Acid Number

0.25

mgKOH/g

Water by Distillation

0.05

Viscosity @ 40

Flash Point

60

Cloud Point

19

Total Sulphur

500

mg/kg

Number of Cetane

49

Source: (Isa, 2007)

23

3.2.2 DISTILLED WATER

The development of different blend of emulsified fuels must come with distilled
water. Few properties of distilled water must be concerned of in order to develop
different blend of emulsified fuels. The distilled water properties are shown in Table 3.2
below.

Table 3.2: Distilled water properties

Properties

Value

Unit

8.01 x 10-7

m2/s

1000

kg/m3

Viscosity

7.98 x 10-4

Pa-s

Surface Tension

7.12 x 10-2

N/m

2.26

GPa

Kinematic Viscosity
Density

Bulk Modulus
Thermal Expansion

2.94 x 10-4

Coefficient

2.94 x 10-4

Source: (Lin and Wang, 2004)

24

3.2.3 VARIOUS TYPES OF SURFACTANTS

Span (20, 60 and 80) and Tween (20, 60 and 80) are different surfactants used in
this study to conduct the experiment to obtain the most stable emulsified fuel. Table 3.3
below shows the properties of different surfactant used in this study.

Table 3.3: Properties of different surfactants

Properties

Span20 Span60 Span80 Tween20 Tween60 Tween80

Units

1032

1000

994

1100

1044

1060

kg/m3

346.46

430.62

428.6

1227.54

1131.9

1310

g/mol

Hydroxyl

330-

230-

193-

Value

358

270

210

96-108

89-105

65-80

mgKOH/g

8.6

4.7

4.3

16.7

14.9

15.0

Density
Molar
Mass

HLB
Value

Source: (Lin and Wang, 2004)

25

3.3

EQUIPMENT AND RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES

Research infrastructures are refers to an installation things which facilitate


something or it is simply defined as a place for doing something. Equipment can be
determined as the tools required to do the conducted experiment. Both of them are very
important in this research in order to carry out the experiment and obtain the analysed
data. The equipment and research infrastructure required during the this research are;

a.

Engine test rig

b.

Mechanical stirrer

c.

High shear laboratory mixer

3.3.1 ENGINE TEST RIG

In this research, Yanmar engine test rig is used to run the emulsified fuels that
have been produced. For this experiment, the engine used is 4 strokes, water-cooled
direct injection diesel engines. Table 3.5 below shows the specification of the engine.

Table 3.4: Specifications of engine

Manufacturer

Yanmar Co. Ltd, Indonesia

Model

TF 120M

Bore

92 mm

Stroke

96 mm

No. of Cylinder

1 cylinder

Displacement

0.638 litres

Continuous Rating Output

10.5hp @ 2400 rpm

Maximum Rating Output

12.0hp @ 2400 rpm

26

3.3.2 MECHANICAL STIRRER

Mechanical stirrer can be defined as the designation of high reliability for


stirring low to medium viscous media in silent operation without any vibration. Stirring
volume can be increased to 20 by maintaining the free brushless DC motor with low
noise level. Main body of sturdy aluminium is very efficient as it absorbs and emits the
heat generated by the motor. A precise stirring speed and gentle revolution can be come
out by the electronic speed control from 0 to 2200 rpm.

The display panel of large LED plays the important as it can indicate the set
speed. Besides, this equipment also does have its own safety which is called overload
safety feature. This feature is functioned as to stop the operation automatically in order
to protect all electronic and mechanical components. The system called push through
is very useful for stirring shafts to be inserted to their position easily. Moreover,
maximum torque produced by this tool is 0.4 Nm.

Figure 3.1: Mechanical stirrer

27

3.3.3 HIGH SHEAR LABORATORY MIXER

High shear laboratory mixer is very ideal for all laboratory work, small scale
production and also research and development. This mixer can be used for the widest
range of many applications such as mixing, homogenizing, emulsifying, dissolving and
disintegrating. This machine is also flexible and very efficiency that barely unmatched
by other machines. Furthermore, high shear laboratory mixer can be occupied by 1ml up
to 12 litres and this machine has the ability to mix in-line with flow rates up to 20 litres
per minute.

Besides that, this mixer can make an excellent reproducibility when scaling up
to full-scale production and provide an accurate result needed. This lab mixer features is
very multifunctional as it has touch screen control with digital tachometer, amperage
display and programmable integral timer. This level of instrumentation is invaluable for
applications where process validation and reproducibility are required.

Figure 3.2: High shear laboratory mixer

28

3.4

PROCEDURE OF THE EXPERIMENT

Various blends of diesel-water emulsions are produced manually in this


experiment. In order to develop these various blends of emulsified fuels, pure diesel and
distilled water will be blended with addition of specific surfactants to stabilize these
blends. Blending process is done by mechanical stirrer. After that, emulsified fuels by
mechanical stirrer that show good result are selected and redeveloped by using high
shear laboratory mixer. Later, the results are being compared by using different methods
to achieve stabilized emulsified fuel.

Surfactants used in this experiment are Span (20, 60 and 80) and Tween (20, 60
and 80) to develop the various blends of diesel-water emulsions. At first, pure diesel is
poured into the 1000 ml beaker with different of water volume, constant percentage of
surfactants and different HLB number. Table 3.7 below shows the different water
volume used mixed with the different volume of diesel and constant percentage of
surfactants.

Table 3.5: Various blends of emulsified fuels with different water volume and constant
percentage of surfactants addition

Volume of
mixture (ml)

% of water

Volume of
water (ml)

% of
surfactant

% of
diesel fuel

Volume of
diesel fuel (ml)

1000

50

93

930

1000

10

100

88

880

1000

15

150

83

830

1000

20

200

78

780

Based on the table 3.7 above, for example, for the first blend of emulsified fuel
is the mixture of 5% of water by volume, 93% of diesel by volume and also with the
addition of 2% of surfactant by volume are being used and the relative formulation for
this blend is given by;

29

(3.1)

where

is the mixture volume in total,


is the volume of water and

is the volume of diesel fuel,

is the volume of surfactant. Firstly, by

using mechanical stirrer, 930 ml of diesel fuel poured in the 1000 ml beaker. Then, the
diesel fuel will be stirred at given time. Next, the mixture of surfactants which include
some per cent of Span and Tween are added to the stirred diesel fuel. These mixtures
are again stirred at given time constantly and continuously.

Immediately after that, 50 ml of water volume is added into the mixture and
repeat the stirring process again at given time constantly and continuously. Time and
date of one emulsion is noted and the emulsion is labelled for observation purpose. This
experiment is repeated by other three mixture of different water volume and diesel fuel.
Different HLB number is also used in this experiment from the mixture of 2 different
surfactants by ratio. HLB numbers used in this experiment are 8, 10 and 12 and the
results are recorded.

Figure 3.3: Mixing of emulsified fuel

In order to calculate how much of 2 different surfactants can be mixed to attain


HLB value, the following equation can be utilised:

(3.2)

30

(3.3)

where A and B are the different surfactants, HLBA is the HLB number of surfactant A,
HLBB is the HLB number of surfactant B and X is the HLB number given for the
experiment. After that, the stabilized emulsified fuel will be run in the engine by
constant engine speed which is 1860 rpm and different load variation of 0%, 25%, 50%,
75% and 100% to get the result of diesel engine combustion performance. The results
will be recorded and analysed by using DEWECA and DEWESOFT software.

31

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Various results were obtained by experiment conducted will be discussed in this


chapter. Emulsified fuels of different surfactant, water percentage and HLB number
were used to vary the results so that the most stabilized emulsified fuels can be selected
for engine testing. The emulsified fuels were blended with the addition of various
surfactant consist of Span 20, Tween 20, Span 60, Tween 60, Span 80 and Tween 80
with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of water. Two different surfactants of Span and Tween
were mixed by certain ratio to produce different HLB number of 8, 10 and 12 that being
conducted in this experiment. The results were presented by graph of various emulsified
fuels with different surfactant, per cent of water and HLB number and also will be
compared by using different methods which are mechanical stirrer and high shear
laboratory mixer. Refer to Appendix B for full data tabulation of emulsified fuels with
various surfactants with different water content and HLB number.

32

4.1

EFFECT OF VARIOUS SURFACTANTS, WATER CONTENT AND HLB


NUMBER TOWARD EMULSIFIED FUEL BY USING MECHANICAL
STIRRER

The main focus in this experiment is to develop the emulsified fuel of different
surfactants, water content and HLB number by using mechanical stirrer. Various
surfactants of Span 20, Tween 20, Span 60, Tween 60, Span 80 and Tween 80 were
used with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of water. Diesel fuel was mixed by various
surfactants with different HLB number and different water content. Mechanical stirrer
speed was set to 700 rpm to blend these emulsified fuels for 10 minutes.

T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20
T20S20

15
14
13

Separation Length (mm)

12
11
10

5% HLB 8 (mm)
10% HLB 8 (mm)
15% HLB 8 (mm)
20% HLB 8 (mm)
5% HLB 10 (mm)
10% HLB 10 (mm)
15% HLB 10 (mm)
20% HLB 10 (mm)
5% HLB 12 (mm)
10% HLB 12 (mm)
15% HLB 12 (mm)
20% HLB 12 (mm)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.1: Graph of emulsified fuels with surfactant of Tween20 Span20 blended by
mechanical stirrer

33

Figure 4.1 shows the emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer with
surfactant of Tween20 Span20. These emulsified fuels were developed at different HLB
number of 8, 10 and 12 and 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of water. From the figure above,
emulsified fuels with HLB number of 8 and 10 shows the better results as the separation
time for these emulsified fuels were completely separated at 30 minutes and above.
Besides, emulsified fuels with lower content water which are 5% and 10% of water
were also shows better separation time as they were more stable than high content water
which are 15% and 20% of water in emulsified fuels.

T60S60 5% HLB 8 (mm)


T60S60 10% HLB 8 (mm)
T60S60 15% HLB 8 (mm)
T60S60 20% HLB 8 (mm)
T60S60 5% HLB 10 (mm)
T60S60 10% HLB 10 (mm)
T60S60 15% HLB 10 (mm)
T60S60 20% HLB 10 (mm)
T60S60 5% HLB 12 (mm)
T60S60 10% HLB 12 (mm)
T60S60 15% HLB 12 (mm)
T60S60 20% HLB 12 (mm)

15
14
13

Separation Length (mm)

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.2: Graph of emulsified fuels with surfactant of Tween60 Span60 blended by
mechanical stirrer

Figure 4.2 show the emulsified fuels with surfactant of Tween60 Span60 with
HLB number of 8, 10 and 12 and 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of water. These emulsified
fuels were blended by mechanical stirrer and the results were recorded. From the figure
above, emulsified fuels produced by surfactants of Tween60 Span60 were not stable as
both of these surfactants are partly-soluble in water and also insoluble in diesel fuel.
Separation time shown by the graph above was not good compared to Tween20 Span20.
Therefore, these emulsified fuels of Tween60 Span60 are not applicable to carry further

34

for engine testing due to their characteristics themselves which are not totally soluble in
diesel and water. Besides, if these emulsified fuels of Tween60 Span60 are used for
engine testing, corrosion inside of the engine will occurred and leads to engine failure.

T80S80 5% HLB 8 (mm)


T80S80 10% HLB 8 (mm)
T80S80 15% HLB 8 (mm)
T80S80 20% HLB 8 (mm)
T80S80 5% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 10% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 15% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 20% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 5% HLB 12 (mm)
T80S80 10% HLB 12 (mm)
T80S80 15% HLB 12 (mm)
T80S80 20% HLB 12 (mm)

15
14
13

Separation Length (mm)

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.3: Graph of emulsified fuels with surfactant of Tween80 Span80 blended by
mechanical stirrer

Figure 4.3 shows that the emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer with
surfactant of Tween80 Span80 with different HLB number of 8, 10 and 12 and 5%,
10%, 15% and 20% of water. From the figure above, similar to emulsified fuels of
Tween20 Span20, emulsified fuels with HLB number of 8 and 10 shows the better
results as the separation time for these emulsified fuels to separate were longer.
Compared to Tween20 Span20, these emulsified fuels of Tween80 Span80 were
completely separated at 25 minutes and above which are less stable. Furthermore,
emulsified fuels with lower content water of 5% and 10% of water also shows the better
separation time as they were more stable than high content water of 15% and 20% of
water in emulsified fuels.

35

In addition of this experiment, 7 of the stabilized emulsified fuels with various


surfactant by using mechanical stirrer were selected and being compared by different
surfactants, water content and HLB number. The list of selected emulsified fuels is
tabulated in Table 4.1 below.

Table 4.1: Selected emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer

No.

Surfactants

Water percentage HLB number

Tween20 Span20

5%

Tween20 Span20

5%

10

Tween20 Span20

10%

10

Tween80 Span80

5%

Tween80 Span80

5%

10

Tween80 Span80

10%

10

Tween80 Span80

15%

10

T20S20 5% HLB 8 (mm)


T80S80 5% HLB 8 (mm)

Separation Length (mm)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.4: Comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 8 and
Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 8

36

Figure 4.4 above shows that the comparison of emulsified fuels between
Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 8 and Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 8 blended by mechanical
stirrer. As refer to the graph, emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 8 shows
similar separation time with emulsified fuel of Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 8 which is
separated completely at 25 minutes and above. However, Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 8
produced more stable emulsified fuel because of the separation length that is not rapidly
increase compared to Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 8. Besides, the difference of separation
length between both emulsified fuels are about 0.5 mm which Tween20 Span20 5%
HLB 8 shows better result as this separation length of emulsified fuel of Tween20
Span20 5% HLB 8 is less than Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 8.

Separation Length (mm)

T20S20 5% HLB 10 (mm)


T80S80 5% HLB 10 (mm)

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.5: Comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 and
Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 10

37

Figure 4.5 above shows the comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20
Span20 5% HLB 10 and Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 10 blended by mechanical stirrer.
From the figure above, emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 shows similar
separation time with emulsified fuel of Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 10 which is
separated completely at 25 minutes and above. Although time taken for both emulsified
fuels to separate completely is similar, but emulsified fuel of Tween80 Span80 5% HLB
10 shows rapid increment of separation length compared to emulsified fuel of Tween20
Span20 5% HLB 10. Besides, the difference separation length with time between
emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 and emulsified fuel of Tween80
Span80 5% HLB 10 is getting bigger started from 15 minutes and above in which
Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 shows better result and more stable as the increment of
separation length of this emulsified fuel is small with time.

Separation Length (mm)

T20S20 5% HLB 10 (mm)


T20S20 10% HLB 10 (mm)

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.6: Comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 and
Tween20 Span20 10% HLB 10

38

Figure 4.6 above shows the comparison of emulsified fuels between Tween20
Span20 5% HLB 10 and Tween20 Span20 10% HLB 10 which are same surfactants and
HLB number but different in water content. As refer to the graph, emulsified fuel with
5% water content shows similar separation time with emulsified fuels with 10% water
content at 25 minutes and above to separate completely. Besides, water contains in the
emulsified fuel with 5% water content after completely separated was below than 5%
which shows better result emulsified fuels with 10% water content. Even though time
taken for both emulsified fuels to separate completely is similar, but emulsified fuel
with 10% water content shows rapid increment of separation length compared to
emulsified fuel with 5% water content. Besides, the difference separation length with
time between emulsified fuel with 5% water content and emulsified fuel with 10%
water content is getting bigger started from 5 minutes and above in which 5% water
content shows better result and more stable as the increment of separation length of this
emulsified fuel is small with time.

T80S80 5% HLB 10 (mm)


T80S80 10% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 15% HLB 10 (mm)

Separation Length (mm)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.7: Comparison of emulsified fuels of Tween80 Span80 HLB 10 with different
water content

39

Figure 4.7 above shows the comparison of emulsified fuels of Tween80 Span80
HLB 10 with different water content which are 5%, 10% and 15%. As refer to the
graph, separation time for emulsified fuel with 5% water content and 10% water content
to separate completely is similar which at 25 minutes and above. But for emulsified fuel
with 15% water content, it takes 35 minutes and above to separate completely which is
less stable than the other two emulsified fuels with 5% and 10% water content.
Furthermore, difference of separation length between these three emulsified fuels is
large in which it started at 5 minutes and above. Emulsified fuel with 5% content water
shows better result and more stable as the increment of separation length with time is
small and not rapidly as the other two emulsified fuels with 10% and 15% water
content.

4.2

EFFECT OF VARIOUS SURFACTANTS, WATER CONTENT AND HLB


NUMBER TOWARD EMULSIFIED FUEL BY USING HIGH SHEAR
LABORATORY MIXER

After all the selected emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer have been
compared, 6 of these emulsified fuels were chosen and the one which not selected was
emulsified fuels of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 8 because of its poor stability compared
to the emulsified fuels of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 even though it is more stable
than Tween80 Span80. The selected emulsified fuels were going further experiment as
they were blended by high shear laboratory mixer.

These selected emulsified fuel were blended by high speed machine which can
make the mixture of the emulsified fuels were completely mixed and produced more
stable emulsified fuels. This machine was set to 10000 rpm speed in order to blend the
emulsified fuels for 10 minutes. Results obtained by running this machine were
recorded and graph was plotted to be discussed.

40

T80S80 5% HLB 8 (mm)


T80S80 15% HLB 8 (mm)
T20S20 5% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 5% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 10% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 15% HLB 10 (mm)

Separation Length (mm)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.8: Comparison of selected emulsified fuels blended by high shear laboratory
mixer

Figure 4.8 above shows the comparison of selected emulsified fuels blended by
high shear laboratory mixer for 10 minutes in 10000 rpm speed. As refer to the graph,
separation time for emulsified fuels of Tween80 Span80 15% HLB 8, Tween80 Span80
5% HLB 10 and Tween80 Span80 10% HLB 10 to separate completely is similar which
at 120 minutes and above. Furthermore, separation time for emulsified fuels of
Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 and Tween80 Span80 15% HLB 10 to separate
completely is similar which at 150 minutes and above. For emulsified fuel of Tween80
Span80 5% HLB 8, it takes 180 minutes and above to separate completely. This
emulsified fuel also is the last one to separate completely compared to the others.

41

In addition, separation length of emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB


10 is smaller than the other emulsified fuels. Even though emulsified fuel of Tween80
Span80 5% HLB 8 is the last emulsified fuel to separate completely, but the increment
in separation length of this emulsified is large and rapidly after 120 minutes and above.
Therefore, emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 shows better result and
more stable than the other emulsified fuels which takes 150 minutes and above to
separate completely with time and the increment of separation length also smaller and
not rapidly.

4.3

COMPARISON OF SELECTED STABILIZED EMULSIFIED FUELS BY


DIFFERENT METHODS

After that, 3 stabilized emulsified fuels blended by high shear laboratory mixer
were selected and being compared by the same selected emulsified fuels that blended by
mechanical stirrer. The 3 selected emulsified fuels were emulsified fuels of Tween80
Span80 (HLB 8) 5% water, Tween20 Span20 (HLB 10) 5% water, and Tween80
Span80 (HLB 10) 5% water. These emulsified fuels were selected according to their
stabilization themselves after being consider of their length of separation along with
time until they are completely separated.

T80S80 5% HLB 8 (mm)


T20S20 5% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 5% HLB 10 (mm)

1.6

Separation Length (mm)

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.9: Selected emulsified fuels blended by mechanical stirrer

42

T80S80 5% HLB 8 (mm)


T20S20 5% HLB 10 (mm)
T80S80 5% HLB 10 (mm)
1.6

Separation Length (mm)

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

Time (minutes)

Figure 4.10: Selected emulsified fuels blended by high shear mechanical laboratory

Figure 4.9 and figure 4.10 above shown the selected 3 stabilized emulsified fuels
blended by mechanical stirrer and high shear laboratory mixer. As refer to Figure 4.9,
separation time for emulsified fuel of Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 10 which is blended
by mechanical stirrer to separate completely is at 35 minutes and above and also shows
better separation time than the other two emulsified fuels. Although that, increment of
separation length for this emulsified fuel is bigger and rapidly at 5 minutes and above
compared to the others. Thus, emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 shows
better emulsified fuel and more stable as increment of separation length is smaller and
not rapidly as the others. Similar to Figure 4.9, Figure 4.10 also shows the separation
length increment of emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 which is blended
by high shear laboratory mixer is smaller and not rapidly as the other emulsified fuels.

43

Compared to emulsified fuels of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 blended by


mechanical stirrer, emulsified fuel of Tween20 Span20 5% HLB 10 blended by high
shear laboratory mixer shows better delayed time separation at 150 minutes and above
even though the length of separation for both emulsified fuels were the same until they
are completely separated. Better results also shown by the other two emulsified fuels
blended by high shear laboratory mixer than blended by mechanical stirrer. As for
emulsified fuel of Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 8 blended by high shear laboratory mixer,
it takes 180 minutes and above to separate completely rather than blended by
mechanical stirrer which only takes 25 minutes and above to separate completely.
Besides, Tween80 Span80 5% HLB 10 blended by high shear laboratory mixer takes
120 minutes and above to separate completely rather than blended by mechanical stirrer
which only takes 35 minutes and above to separate completely.

44

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1

CONCLUSION
Based on the title of this study of A Study of The Stability of Emulsified Fuel

Blended with Various Surfactant, the main objectives of this study were to develop the
various blends of emulsified fuel with addition of surfactant as well as emulsified fuel
comparison blended by different methods which were by using mechanical stirrer and
high shear laboratory mixer. In this study, effect water content and different HLB
number with various surfactant addition were focused in order to develop better
stabilized emulsified fuel in which the separation length with time were being consider
as well as the delayed time separation.

Six surfactants were used during the experiment was conducted which are
Tween20, Span20, Tween60, Span60, Tween80 and Span80. These surfactants then
were mixed in different ratios to obtain desired HLB number. Water content used in this
experiment were 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and these per cent of water and surfactants
were being added to diesel fuel in respective ratios to develop various blends of
emulsified fuels. Average length of separation of each emulsified fuel produced were
being recorded in the table and the graphs were plotted according to the results obtained
until they were completely separated in order to gain the better stabilized emulsified
fuels after being compared in different aspects.

45

Based on the results obtained after being compared by different water content,
various surfactants and different HLB number that are being blended by mechanical
stirrer, stabilized emulsified fuels can be achieved by using Tween20 Span20 and
Tween80 Span 80 together with HLB 8 and HLB 10. Furthermore, emulsified fuels
contains of lower per cent of water shows better results as they were more stable in
separation of length compared to the others which have high water content. After being
compared, several emulsified fuels were selected to be run by high shear laboratory
mixer.

Results obtained by selected six of stabilized emulsified fuels blended by high


shear laboratory mixer were recorded and the graphs were plotted to be compared by
different methods. Separation time of fuel and water were delayed show a better
emulsified fuels can be obtained when using high shear laboratory mixer.

In conclusion, stabilized emulsified fuel can be achieved by using Tween20


Span20 and Tween80 Span80 together with HLB 8 and HLB 10. Emulsified fuel with
lower water content also shows better result and more stable than the one which has
high water content. In comparison of different methods, separation time of fuel and
water were delayed show a better emulsified fuels can be obtained when using high
shear laboratory mixer rather than mechanical stirrer.

5.2

RECOMMENDATIONS

There were several recommendations that could be considered upon next study.
The recommendations were stated below:

i.

Future studies should include the properties and characteristics of


surfactant when developing the emulsified fuel as it can be produced in
more stable condition with the perfect combination ratios of different
surfactants.

46

ii.

Future works on improving the formulation of the emulsified fuels to


prolong the separation time are highly recommended due to the
limitation of the quantity of surfactant and also the fuels to stay in its
form for a longer period of time.

iii.

Development of facilities like the equipment and apparatus used to


produce emulsified fuel is also recommended as the developing process
of emulsified fuel was subtle.

iv.

Last but not least, the effect of emulsified fuel towards the fuel delivery
system must be studied as when the fuel separated, it left jelly like
substances.

47

REFERENCES

A. Alahmer, J. Yamin, A. Sakhrieh & Hamdan, M. A. 2010. Engine Performance Using


Emulsified Diesel Fuel. Energy Conversion And Management, 51, 17081713.
A. Lif & Holmberg, K. 2006. Water-In-Diesel Emulsions And Related Systems.
Advances In Colloid And Interface Science, 123-126, 231-239.
Alahmer, A. 2013. Influence Of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel On The Performance
And Pollutants Emitted From Diesel Engine. Energy Conversion And
Management, 73, 361-369.
Angela Chiosa, Dan Scarpete & Buturca, R.-C. 2013. An Overview On Combustion
And Performance Characteristics Of Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water
Emulsion. University Dunarea De Jos Of Galati.
Association, A. C. F. 2012. Malaysia To Implement Euro 4m In 2015 [Online].
C-Y Lin & Wang, K.-H. 2004. Effects Of A Combustion Improver On Diesel Engine
Performance And Emission Characteristics When Using Three-Phase
Emulsions As An Alternative Fuel. Energy & Fuels, 18, 477-484.
Canfield, C. A. 1999. Effects Of Diesel-Water Emulsion Combustion On Diesel Engine
Nox Emissions. Degree Of Master Of Science, University Of Florida.
Chen, Z., Prss, J. & Warneckes, H.-J. 1998. A Population Balance Model For Disperse
Systems: Drop Size Distribution In Emulsion. Chemical Engineering Science,
53, 1059-1066.
Ghojel, J., Honnery, D. & Al-Khaleefi, K. 2006. Performance, Emissions And Heat
Release Characteristics Of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Operating On Diesel
Oil Emulsion. Applied Thermal Engineering, 26, 21322141.
H M. Herzwan, Agung Sudrajad, A A. Adam & Ayob, A. 2012. An Experimental
Study Of Diesel Engine Fuelled With Emulsion Fuel.
Isa, F. M. 2007. Malaysian Fuel Quality And Bio-Fuel Alternative In 5th Asian
Petroleum Technology Symposium.
Lin, C.-Y. & Wang, K.-H. 2004. Diesel Engine Performance And Emission
Characteristics Using Three-Phase Emulsions As Fuel. Fuel, 83, 537-545.
Mcclements, D. J. 2005. Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices, And Techniques, New
York, Crc Press.

48

Nadeem M., C. Rangkuti, K. Anuar, M. Haq, I. B. Tan & Shah, S. 2006. Diesel Engine
Performance And Emission Evaluation Using Emulsified Fuels Stabilized By
Conventional And Gemini Surfactants. Fuel, 85, 2111-2119.
Nazha, M. A. A., Rajakaruna, H. & Crookes, R. J. 1998. Soot And Gaseous Species
And Formation In A Water-In-Liquid Fuel Emulsion Spray-A Mathematical
Approach. Energy Conversion Management, 39, 19811989.
Osullivan, C. 1997. Investigation Of The Nox And Pm Emissions From A Diesel
Engine Operating On Nano-Emulsified Fuels. Massachusetts Institute Of
Technology.
R. Venkatesh Babu & Sendilvelan, D. S. 2011. Reduction Of Pollutants In Ci Engine
Using Emulsion Fuels To Reduce Overall Traffic-Induced Emissions.
Sang-Jin Lee, Soo-Jin Jeong, Woo-Seung Kim & Lee, C. B. 2007. Numerical Study On
The Effect Of Geometric Shape Of Doc/Dpf And Catalyst Loading For No2Assisted Continuous Regeneration
Scarpete, P. D. E. D. 2013. Diesel-Water Emulsion, An Alternative Fuel To Reduce
Diesel Engine Emissions.
Selim, M. Y. E. & Ghannam, M. T. 2010. Combustion Study Of Stabilized Water-InDiesel Fuel Emulsion. Energy Sources, 32, 256-274.
Sheng, H.-Z., Zhang Z.-P. & Wu, C. K. 1990. Study Of Atomization And MicroExplosion Of Water-In-Diesel Fuel Emulsion Droplets In Spray Within A High
Temperature, High Pressure Bomb. 275-280.
Trozzi, C. & Vaccaro, R. 1998. Methodologies For Estimating Future Air Pollutant
Emissions From Ships.
Vong, Y. 2012. Euro 4m Diesel Only In 2015.
Yunus A. Cengel & Boles, M. A. 2011. Thermodynamics : An Engineering Approach,
Singapore London Mcgraw-Hill.
Zaid, M. A. 2004. Performance Of Single Cylinder, Direct Injection Diesel Engine
Using Water Fuel Emulsions. Energy Conversion And Management, 45, 697705.

49

Appendix A

Table A1: Work Schedule for Final Year Project 1

Activities/Week
Description

No.

Activities

Discussion

Introduction

Literature review

Methodology

Simple
experimentations

Thesis writing

Preparation of thesis for PSM 1

Presentation

Mid-term and final PSM 1


presentation

Submission

Report submission

Background of the project discussion


Discuss the problem statement,
objectives, project scope and thesis
writing of Chapter 1
Journal reading, summarization of
journal and thesis writing of Chapter
2
Based on the literature review,
preparation of method to obtain data
Conducting simple experiment,
develop the various blends of
emulsified fuel

1
Planning
Actual
Planning
Actual
Planning
Actual
Planning
Actual
Planning
Actual
Planning
Actual
Planning
Actual
Planning
Actual

10 11 12 13 14 15

50

Table A2: Work Schedule for Final Year Project 2

No.
1

2
3
4
5

Activities/Week
Activities
Description
Discuss the
Planning
Experimentation background of the
Actual
project
Completion of
Planning
Thesis writing
thesis and
and correction
Actual
correction
Planning
Draft
Submission of
submission
draft
Actual
Planning
FYP 2
Presentation
presentation
Actual
Planning
Submission
Thesis submission
Actual

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

51

Appendix B

Full tabulation of data

Table B1: Average emulsified fuels of 5% water HLB 8 blended by using mechanical
stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 5%
HLB 8 (mm)
0
0.1
0.5
0.967
1.167
1.5
1.5
1.5

Tween60 Span60 5%
HLB 8 (mm)
0
0.8
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

Tween80 Span80 5%
HLB 8 (mm)
0
0.5
1
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

Table B2: Average emulsified fuels of 10% water HLB 8 blended by using mechanical
stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 10%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
0.53
1.297
2.1
3.293
3.8
3.8
3.8

Tween60 Span60 10%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
5.3
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1

Tween80 Span80 10%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
1.467
2.43
3.03
3.967
4
4
4

52

Table B3: Average emulsified fuels of 15% water HLB 8 blended by using mechanical
stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 15%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
0.8
1.7
2.3
3.797
4.297
4.3
4.3

Tween60 Span60 15%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
7.6
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2

Tween80 Span80 15%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
1.5
2.5
3.567
5.03
5.93
6
6

Table B4: Average emulsified fuels of 20% water HLB 8 blended by using mechanical
stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 20%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
1.793
2.797
4.297
5.19
6.3
6.3
6.3

Tween60 Span60 20%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
11.8
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3

Tween80 Span80 20%


HLB 8 (mm)
0
2.93
5.567
6
6.53
6.967
7
7

Table B5: Average emulsified fuels of 5% water HLB 10 blended by using mechanical
stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 5%
HLB 10 (mm)
0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

Tween60 Span60 5%
HLB 10 (mm)
0
2.8
3.297
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

Tween80 Span80 5%
HLB 10 (mm)
0
0.21
0.29
0.487
0.793
1.29
1.29
1.29

53

Table B6: Average emulsified fuels of 10% water HLB 10 blended by using
mechanical stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 10%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
0.9
1.296666667
2.296666667
2.793333333
3.043333333
3.043333333
3.043333333

Tween60 Span60 10%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
4.797
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3

Tween80 Span80 10%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
1.047
1.79
2.297
2.79
3.797
3.797
3.8

Table B7: Average emulsified fuels of 15% water HLB 10 blended by using
mechanical stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 15%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
0.966666667
1.616666667
1.866666667
2.796666667
2.8
2.8
3.296666667

Tween60 Span60 15%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
7.793
8.297
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3

Tween80 Span80 15%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
1.29
2.79
3.79
4.803
5.293
5.793
5.8

Table B8: Average emulsified fuels of 20% water HLB 10 blended by using
mechanical stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 20%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
1
1.5
2.033333333
3.466666667
4.9
5.296666667
5.3

Tween60 Span60 20%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
10.297
10.797
10.8
10.8
10.8
10.8
10.8

Tween80 Span80 20%


HLB 10 (mm)
0
5.29
5.79
6.297
6.393
6.783
6.8
6.8

54

Table B9: Average emulsified fuels of 5% water HLB 12 blended by using mechanical
stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 5%
HLB 12 (mm)
0
2
5
6
6
6
6
6

Tween60 Span60 5%
HLB 12 (mm)
0
2.297
3.297
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

Tween80 Span80 5%
HLB 12 (mm)
0
2.03
5
5.797
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8

Table B10: Average emulsified fuels of 10% water HLB 12 blended by using
mechanical stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 10%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
6.797
8.793
9
9
9
9
9

Tween60 Span60 10%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
5.69
6.793
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8

Tween80 Span80 10%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
4.967
8
8
8
8
8
8

Table B11: Average emulsified fuels of 15% water HLB 12 blended by using
mechanical stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 15%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
9.8
10.797
11
11
11
11
11

Tween60 Span60 15%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
7.793
8.797
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8

Tween80 Span80 15%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
10.93
12
12
12
12
12
12

55

Table B12: Average emulsified fuels of 20% water HLB 12 blended by using
mechanical stirrer

Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

Tween20 Span20 20%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
12.797
13.793
13.8
13.8
13.8
13.8
13.8

Tween60 Span60 20%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
10.793
11.297
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3

Tween80 Span80 20%


HLB 12 (mm)
0
12
12.53
13
13
13
13
13

Table B13: Average selected emulsified fuels blended by using high shear laboratory
mixer

Time
(min
utes)
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210

Tween80
Span80 5%
HLB 8
(mm)
0
0
0
0
0
1
1.5
1.5

Tween80
Span80 15%
HLB 8
(mm)
0
0
1.32
5.13
6
6
6
6

Tween20
Span20 5%
HLB 10
(mm)
0
0
0
0
0
0.08
0.1
0.1

Tween80
Span80 5%
HLB 10
(mm)
0
0
0.3
0.83
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29

Tween80
Span80 10%
HLB 10
(mm)
0
0
1.8
2.79
3.797
3.8
3.8
3.8

Tween80
Span80 15%
HLB 10
(mm)
0
0
1.45
3.95
5.295
5.8
5.8
5.8