You are on page 1of 13

Johnson & Johnson

Not to be confused with S. C. Johnson & Son.


Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational
medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged
goods manufacturer founded in 1886. Its common stock
is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and
the company is listed among the Fortune 500.
Johnson & Johnson is headquartered in New Brunswick,
New Jersey, directly adjacent to the campus of Rutgers
University, the consumer division being located in
Skillman, New Jersey. The corporation includes some
250 subsidiary companies with operations in over 57
countries and products sold in over 175 countries. Johnson & Johnson had worldwide sales of $65 billion for the
calendar year of 2011.[3]
Johnson & Johnsons brands include numerous household
names of medications and rst aid supplies. Among its
well-known consumer products are the Band-Aid Brand
line of bandages, Tylenol medications, Johnsons baby
products, Neutrogena skin and beauty products, Clean &
Clear facial wash and Acuvue contact lenses.

History

Robert Wood Johnson

Johnson & Johnson operates over 260 companies, in


what is termed, the Johnson & Johnson family of
companies.[4] The company operates in three broad divisions; Consumer Healthcare, Medical Devices and Pharmaceuticals.

son Richards, was the rst baby to appear on a Johnson &


Johnson baby powder label.[8][9][10] His great-grandson,
Jamie Johnson, made a documentary called Born Rich
about the experience of growing up as the heir to one of
the worlds greatest fortunes.

1.1

1.2 1959: McNeil Consumer Healthcare

Foundation and early history

McNeil Consumer Healthcare was founded on March 16,


1879 by 23-year-old Robert McNeil. In 1904, one of McNeils sons, Robert Lincoln McNeil, became part of the
company and together they created McNeil Laboratories
in 1933. The company focused on direct marketing of
prescription drugs to hospitals, pharmacists, and doctors.
Development of acetaminophen began under the leadership of Robert L. McNeil, Jr., who later served as the
rms chairman.[11] In 1959, Johnson & Johnson acquired
McNeil Laboratories and a year later the company was
able to sell Tylenol for the rst time ever, without a prescription. In 1977, two subsidiary companies were created; McNeil medicals products and McNeil Consumer
Products Company (also known as McNeil Consumer
Healthcare). The focus of McNeil medicals products is

Inspired by a speech by antiseptic advocate Joseph Lister,


Robert Wood Johnson joined his brothers James Wood
Johnson and Edward Mead Johnson to create a line of
ready-to-use surgical dressings in 1885. The company
produced its rst products in 1886 and incorporated in
1887.
Robert Wood Johnson served as the rst president of the
company. He worked to improve sanitation practices in
the nineteenth century, and lent his name to a hospital in
New Brunswick, New Jersey. Upon his death in 1910,
he was succeeded in the presidency by his brother James
Wood Johnson until 1932, and then by his son, Robert
Wood Johnson II.
Robert Wood Johnsons granddaughter, Mary Lea John1

to market prescription drugs. In 1993 McNeil medicals


products merged with the Ortho Pharmaceutical to form
Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical. In 2001 McNeil Consumer Healthcare changed its name to McNeil Consumer
& Specialty medicals products. However, it was later
changed to McNeil Consumer Healthcare. The company markets over-the-counter and prescription medicals
products including complete lines of Tylenol and Motrin
IB (ibuprofen) products for adults and children.

1.3

1959: Cilag

In 1933, Swiss chemist Bernhard Joos set up a small research laboratory in Schahausen, Switzerland. This set
the basis for the founding of Chemische Industrie-Labor
AG (Chemical Industry Laboratory AG or Cilag) on 12
May 1936. In 1959, Cilag joined the Johnson & Johnson family of companies. In the early nineties the marketing organizations of Cilag and Janssen Pharmaceutica
were joined to form Janssen-Cilag. The non-marketing
activities of both companies still operate under their original name. Cilag continues to have operations under the
Cilag name in Switzerland, ranging from research and development through manufacturing and international services. In August 2014 Cilag acquired Covagen a biopharmaceutical company which specialises in the development of multi-specic protein based therapeutics. As
part of the acquisition Cilag wll gain access to Covagens
lead drug candidate, COVA 322, a bi-specic anti-tumor
necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha/anti-interleukin (IL)17A
FynomAb, is in a Phase Ib study for psoriasis.[12]

1.4

1961: Janssen Pharmaceuticals

mately 28000 employees worldwide. In 1999, clinical


research and non-clinical development become a global
organization within Johnson & Johnson. In 2001, part
of the research activities was transferred to the United
States with the reorganization of research activities in
the Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and
Development organization. The research activities of
the Janssen Research Foundation and the R.W. Johnson
Pharmaceutical Research Institute were merged into the
new global research organization. On 27 October 2004,
the Paul Janssen Research Center, for discovery research,
was inaugurated.
In August 2013, the company acquired Aragon Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. In November 2014, the company acquired
Alios BioPharma, Inc. for $1.75 billion. As a result
of the purchase, Alios was incorporated into the infectious diseases therapeutic area of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson.[14] In March
2015, Janssen licensed Tipofarnib (a farnesyl transferase
inhibitor) to Kura Oncology who will assume sole responsibility for developing and commericalisaing the anticancer drug.[15] Later in the same month the company announced that Galapagos Pharma and regained the rights
to the anti-inammatory drug candidate GLPG1690 as
well as two other compounds including GLPG1205 (a
rst-in-class inhibitor of GPR84).[16] Finally, in March,
the company acquired XO1 Limited [17] In November
2015, the company acquired Novira Therapeutics, Inc.,
gaining the lead candidate, NVR 3-778.[18]

1.5 1998: DePuy


DePuy was acquired by J&J in 1998, rolling it into the
Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices group. On June 14,
2012, Johnson and Johnson completed the acquisition of
Synthes for $19.7 billion,[19] which was then integrated
with the DePuy franchise to establish the DePuy Synthes Companies of Johnson & Johnson which includes;
Codman & Shurte, Inc., DePuy Mitek, Inc., DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc. and DePuy Spine, Inc.

Janssen Pharmaceuticals can be traced back to 1933. In


1933 Constant Janssen, the father of Paul Janssen, acquired the right to distribute the pharmaceutical products of Richter, a Hungarian pharmaceutical company,
for Belgium, the Netherlands and Belgian Congo. On 23
October 1934, he founded the N.V. Produkten Richter in
Turnhout. After the Second World War, the name for the
company products was changed to Eupharma, although 1.6
the company name Richter would remain until 1956.[13]
Paul Janssen founded his own research laboratory in 1953
on the third oor of the building in the Statiestraat, still
within the Richter-Eurpharma company of his father. On
5 April 1956, the name of the company was changed to
NV Laboratoria Pharmaceutica C. Janssen (named after
Constant Janssen). On 2 May 1958, the research department in Beerse became a separate legal entity, the
N.V. Research Laboratorium C. Janssen. On 24 October
1961, the company was acquired by the American corporation Johnson & Johnson. On 10 February 1964, the
name was changed to Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Between 1990 and 2004, Janssen Pharmaceuticals expanded
worldwide, with the company grew in size to approxi-

HISTORY

1999: Janssen Biotech, Inc.

Janssen Biotech, Inc., formerly known as Centocor


Biotech, Inc., is a biotechnology company that was
founded in Philadelphia in 1979. In 1982 Centocor
transitioned into a publicly traded company. In 1999,
Centocor became a wholly owned subsidiary of Johnson
& Johnson. Since the acquisition, Janssen Biotech increased its annual sales from $500 million to more than
$2 billion. During the same period, research and development investment increased from $75 million to more than
$300 million. In 2008, Centocor, Inc. and Ortho Biotech
Inc. merged to form Centocor Ortho Biotech Inc. In
June 2010 Centocor Ortho Biotech acquired RespiVert,
a privately held drug discovery company focused on de-

1.9

Subsidiary holdings

veloping small-molecule, inhaled therapies for the treatment of pulmonary diseases.[20] In June 2011 Centocor
Ortho Biotech changed its name to Janssen Biotech, Inc.
as part of a global eort to unite the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies around the world under a common
identity. In December 2014, the company announced
it would co-develop MacroGenics cancer drug candidate
(MGD011) which targets both CD19 and CD3 proteins in
treating B-cell malignant tumours. This could net MacroGenics up to $700 million.[21] In January 2015, the company announced it will utilise Isis Pharmaceuticals' RNAtargeting technology to discover and develop antisense
drugs targeting autoimmune disorders of the gastroin- J&J headquarters in Madrid, Spain.
testinal tract, with the partnership potentially generating
up to $835 million for Isis.[22]

1.7

Ethicon, Inc

In 1915, George F. Merson opened a facility in Edinburgh for the manufacturing, packaging and sterilising
of catgut, silk and nylon sutures. Johnson & Johnson
acquired Mr. Mersons company in 1947, and this was
renamed Ethicon Suture Laboratories.[23] In 1953 this
became Ethicon Inc.[24] In 1992, Ethicon was restructured, and Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. became a separate corporate entity. During the 1990s, Ethicon diversied into new and advanced products and technologies Johnson & Johnson oce in Ontario
and formed four dierent companies under the Ethicon
umbrella, each of which specialize in dierent prod Groupe Vendme SA
ucts. In 2008 J&J announced it would acquire Mentor
Corporation for $1 billion and merge its operations into
Gynecare
Ethicon.[25] In March 2016, J&Js Ethicon business unit
announced it would acquire NeuWave Medical, Inc.[26]
HealthMedia
1.7.1

Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.

Ethicon Endo-Surgery was part of Ethicon Inc. until


1992, when it became a separate corporate entity under
the J&J umbrella.

1.8

2010: Crucell

In October 2010 J&J acquired Crucell for $2.4 billion.[27]

1.9

Subsidiary holdings

Johnson & Johnson is a highly diversied company with


at least 250 subsidiaries, which it refers to as the Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies. Some of these
subsidiaries include as follows:

Independence Technology, LLC


Information Technology Services
Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C.
Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Services,
L.L.C.
Noramco, Inc.
OraPharma
Ortho-Neutrogena (a merge of Neutrogena and Ortho Dermatological)
NeoStrata Company
Personal Products Company
Penaten

BabyCenter, L.L.C.

Pharmaceutical Group Strategic Marketing (PGSM)

Children With Diabetes, Inc..

Peninsula Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Global Pharmaceutical Supply Group (GPSG)

PriCara, Inc.

4 PRODUCTS
Scios Inc.
Tasmanian Alkaloids

In 2002, the company released its plan of setting up


Asia-Pacic information technology headquarters in New
South Wales within ve years.[33]

Tibotec
Transform Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

3.1 Chairmen

Veridex, LLC

Robert Wood Johnson I (18871910)

Vistakon

James Wood Johnson (19101932)


Robert Wood Johnson II (19321963)

1.10 Structure
The following is an illustration of the companys structure, maintained though a number of mergers & acquisitions (this is not a comprehensive list):

Philip B. Hofmann (19631973)


Richard B. Sellars (19731976)
James E. Burke (19761989)
Ralph S. Larsen (19892002)

Corporate governance

William C. Weldon (20022012)

Alex Gorsky (2012present)


Current members of the board of directors of Johnson &
Johnson are: Mary Sue Coleman, James G. Cullen, Dominic Caruso, Michael M.E. Johns, Ann Dibble Jordan,
Arnold G. Langbo, Susan L. Lindquist, Leo F. Mullin, 4 Products
William Perez, Steven S. Reinemund, David Satcher, and
William C. Weldon.[28]
The companys business is divided into three major segSandi Peterson has served as Group Worldwide Chairman ments, Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and Diagnostics, and Consumer Products. In 2013, these segments
since 2012.[29]
contributed 39%, 40%, and 21% of the companys total
On top of Alex Gorsky and Sandi Peterson, current mem- revenues.[34]
bers of Executive Committees of Johnson & Johnson are:
Dominic Caruso, Peter Fasolo, Paul Stoels, and Michael
Sneed.[30]
4.1 Pharmaceuticals

JNJ Headquarters and the New


Brunswick gentrication

The company has historically been located on the


Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Brunswick. The
company considered moving its headquarters out of New
Brunswick in the 1960s, but decided to stay in the town
after city ocials promised to gentrify downtown New
Brunswick by demolishing old buildings and constructing
new ones.
While New Brunswick lost at least one historic edice
(the inn where Rutgers University began) to the redevelopment, the gentrication did attract people back to New
Brunswick. Johnson & Johnson hired Henry N. Cobb
from Pei Cobb Freed & Partners to design an addition
to its headquarters. The white tower in a park across the
railroad tracks from the older portion of the headquarters
in one of tallest buildings in New Brunswick.

The companys major franchises in the Pharmaceutical


segment include Immunology, Neuroscience, Infectious
Disease, and Oncology.
Immunology products include the anti-tumor necrosis
factor antibodies Remicade (iniximab), and Simponi
(golimumab) used for the treatment[35] of autoimmune
diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease
(Remicade only), ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other disorders. In 2013, these two products accounted for 29% of Johnson and Johnsons pharmaceutical revenues, and 11.3% of the companys total revenues.
A third immunology product, Stelara (ustekinumab), targets interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 and is used for the
treatment of psoriasis.[36]

Key infectious diseases products include Incivio


(telaprevir), a hepatitis C protease inhibitor; Intelence
(Etravirine), a non-nucleoside HIV polymerase inhibitor;
and Prezista (darunavir), an HIV protease inhibitor.
Telaprevir sales are expected to decline due to the
recent approval of treatment regimens that are more
The stretch of Delaware and Raritan canal by the com- ecacious and much better tolerated. Etravirine and
panys headquarters was replaced by a stretch of Route darunavir are notable for their high barriers to resistance
18 in the late 1970s,[31] after a lengthy dispute.[32] development.[37][38] Darunavir in combination with HIV

4.3

Consumer health

polymerase inhibitors is recommended as a rst line


treatment option for treatment naive persons with HIV
infection[39] but etravirine is approved only for use in
treatment-experienced patients, owing in part to its
requirement for twice-daily dosing.

5
Self-Measured Blood Glucose Monitors (LifeScan)
Surgical Instruments and Infection
tion(Advanced Sterilization Products)

Preven-

Urologic Surgery (Ethicon)


The companys CNS products include the ADHD
Vision Care (VISTAKON)
drug Concerta (methylphenidate extended release),
and the long-acting injectable antipsychotics Invega
Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) and Risperdal Consta (risperidone). Invega Sustenna and Risperdal Consta 4.3 Consumer health
were the rst widely utilized long-acting depot injections
[47]
for the treatment of schizophrenia. Designed to address Sectors in which the company is active include:
the issue of poor patient compliance with oral therapy,
Baby Care
they are administered by intramuscular injection at intervals of 2 weeks and one month, respectively. Only
Nutritionals
minimal improvements in outcomes relative to the oral
versions of these drugs were observed in the clinical trial
Oral Health Care
setting, but some evidence suggests that the advantages of
long-acting injections in clinical practice may be greater
Over-the-Counter Medicines
than is readily demonstrated in the environment of a clin Skin & Hair Care
ical trial.[40][41][42]
Oncology products include Velcade (bortezomib), for
Vision Care
the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell
Wound Care & Topicals
lymphoma[43] and Zytiga (abiraterone), an androgen antagonist for the treatment of prostate cancer. In clinical trials, abiraterone treatment was associated with a
4.6 to 5.2 survival advantage when used either before 5 Environmental record
or after chemotherapy with platinum based drugs.[44] On
December 31, 2012, the Food and Drug AdministraJohnson & Johnson has set several positive goals to keep
tion approved Sirturo (bedaquiline), a Johnson & Johnson
the company environmentally friendly and was ranked
tuberculosis drug that is the rst new medicine to ght the
third among the United Statess largest companies in
[45]
infection in more than forty years.
Newsweeks Green Rankings.[48] Some examples are
the reduction in water use, waste, and energy use and
an increased level of transparency.[49] Johnson & John4.2 Medical devices
son agreed to change its packaging of plastic bottles used
in the manufacturing process, switching their packaging
Sectors in which the company is active[46] include:
of liquids to non-polycarbonate containers.[50] The corporation is working with the Climate Northwest Initiative
Aesthetics (Ethicon, Mentor)
and the EPA National Environmental Performance Track
Arrhythmias (Biosense Webster)
program.[51] As a member of the national Green Power
Partnership, Johnson & Johnson operates the largest so Bariatric Surgery for Obesity (Ethicon)
lar power generator in Pennsylvania at its site in Spring
House, PA.[52]
Cardiovascular Disease (Biosense Webster, Inc.)
Diabetes Care (LifeScan, Animas Corporation)
Ear, Nose, and Throat Conditions (Acclarent)
General Surgery (Ethicon, Codman Neuro)
Hernia Surgery (Ethicon)
Insulin Delivery Devices (Animas)

6 Recalls and litigation


6.1 1982 Chicago Tylenol murders
Main article: Chicago Tylenol murders

Neurovascular Disease (Codman Neuro, DePuy


On September 29, 1982, a Tylenol scare began
Synthes)
when the rst of seven individuals died in metropolitan
Orthopaedics (DePuy Synthes): Joint Reconstruc- Chicago, after ingesting Extra Strength Tylenol that had
tion, Trauma, Spine, Sports Medicine and Power been deliberately laced with cyanide.[53] Within a week,
the company pulled 31 million bottles of capsules back
Tools

from retailers, making it one of the rst major recalls in American history.[53] The incident led to reforms in the packaging of over-the-counter substances
and to federal anti-tampering laws. The case remains
unsolved and no suspects have been charged. Johnson
& Johnsons quick response, including a nationwide recall, was widely praised by public relations experts and
the media and was the gold standard for corporate crisis
management.[54][55][56]

RECALLS AND LITIGATION

& Johnson to pay more than $8.3 million in damages to


a Montana man in the rst of more than 10,000 lawsuits
pending against the company in connection with the nowrecalled DePuy hip.[61]
Some lawyers and industry analysts have estimated that
the suits ultimately will cost Johnson & Johnson billions
of dollars to resolve.[61]

6.4 2010 Tylenol recall


6.2

2010 childrens product recall

In 2010 and 2011, Johnson & Johnson voluntarily recalled some over-the-counter products including Tylenol
Main article: 2010 Johnson & Johnson childrens
due to an odor caused by tribromoanisole.[62][63] In this
product recall
case, 2,4,6-tribromophenol was used to treat wooden pallets on which product packaging materials were transOn April 30, 2010, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, a sub- ported and stored.[62]
sidiary of Johnson and Johnson, voluntarily recalled 43
over-the-counter childrens medicines, including Tylenol,
Tylenol Plus, Motrin, Zyrtec and Benadryl. The re- 6.5 Shareholders lawsuit
call was conducted after a routine inspection at a manufacturing facility in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, In 2010 a group of shareholders sued the board for alUnited States revealed that some products may not fully legedly failing to take action to prevent serious failings
meet the required manufacturing specications.[57][58] and illegalities since the 1990s, including manufacturAected products may contain a higher concentra- ing problems, bribing ocials, covering up adverse eftion of active ingredients or exhibit other manufactur- fects and misleading marketing for unapproved uses. The
ing defects.[58] Products shipped to Canada, Domini- judge initially dismissed the case in September 2011,
can Republic, Guam, Guatemala, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, but allowed the plaintis opportunity to rele at a later
Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, the United Arab Emi- time.[64] In 2012 Johnson and Johnson proposed a settlerates, Kuwait and Fiji were included in the recall.[57] In ment with the shareholders, whereby the company would
a statement, Johnson & Johnson said a comprehensive institute new oversight, quality and compliance procequality assessment across its manufacturing operations dures binding for ve years.[65]
was underway.[57][58] A dedicated website was established
by the company listing aected products and other consumer information.[58]

6.6 Illegal marketing of Risperdal

6.3

2010 hip-replacement recall

Main article: 2010 DePuy Hip Recall


On August 2009, 2010, DePuy, a subsidiary of American giant Johnson & Johnson, recalled its ASR (articular surface replacement) hip prostheses from the market. DePuy said the recall was due to unpublished National Joint Registry data showing a 12% revision rate for
resurfacing at ve years and an ASR XL revision rate of
13%. All hip prostheses fail in some patients, but it is
expected that the rate will be about 1% a year.[59] Pathologically, the failing prosthesis had several eects. Metal
debris from wear of the implant led to a reaction that
destroyed the soft tissues surrounding the joint, leaving
some patients with long term disability. Ions of cobalt
and chromiumthe metals from which the implant was
madewere also released into the blood and cerebral
spinal uid in some patients.[60]

Juries in several US states have found J&J guilty of concealing the adverse eects of Janssen Pharmaceuticals'
antipsychotic medication Risperdal, produced by its unit,
in order to promote it to doctors and patients as better than cheaper generics, and of falsely marketing it
for treating patients with dementia.[66] States that have
awarded damages include Texas ($158 million), South
Carolina ($327 million), Louisiana ($258 million), and
most notably Arkansas ($1.2 billion).[67]

In 2010, the United States Department of Justice joined


a whistleblowers suit accusing the company of illegally
marketing Risperdal through Omnicare, the largest company supplying pharmaceuticals to nursing homes.[68][69]
The allegations include that J&J were warned by the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not to promote
Risperdal as eective and safe for elderly patients, but
they did so, and that they paid Omnicare to promote the
drug to care home physicians.[70] The settlement was nalized on November 4, 2013, with J&J agreeing to pay
a penalty of around $2.2 billion, including criminal nes
In March 2013, a jury in Los Angeles ordered Johnson and forfeiture totaling $485 million and civil settlements

6.8

Boston Scientic lawsuits

with the federal government and states totaling $1.72 In May 2008, the judge in the case dismissed most of
billion.[71]
Johnson & Johnsons claims, and a month later the two orin
Johnson & Johnson has also been subject to congressional ganizations announced a settlement had been reached[77]
which
both
parties
would
continue
to
use
the
symbol.
investigations related to payments given to psychiatrists
to promote its products and ghost write articles, notably
Joseph Biederman and his pediatric bipolar disorder research unit.[72]

6.7

Use of the Red Cross symbol

6.8 Boston Scientic lawsuits


Since 2003, Johnson & Johnson and Boston Scientic
have both claimed that the other had infringed on their
patents covering heart stent medical devices. The litigation was settled when Boston Scientic agreed to pay
$716 million to Johnson & Johnson in September 2009
and an additional $1.73 billion in February 2010.[78]
Their dispute was renewed in 2014, now on the grounds
of a contract dispute.[79]

6.9 Patent-infringement case against Abbott


Flag of the Red Cross

Further information: Emblems of the International Red


Cross and Red Crescent Movement Use of the emblems
Johnson & Johnson registered the Red Cross as a U.S.
trademark for medicinal and surgical plasters in 1905
and has used the design since 1887.[73] The Geneva Conventions, which reserved the Red Cross emblem for specic uses, were rst approved in 1864 and ratied by
the United States in 1882; however, the emblem was not
protected by U.S. law for the use of the American Red
Cross and the U.S. military until after Johnson & Johnson had obtained its trademark. A clause in this law (now
18 U.S.C. 706) permits this pre-existing uses of the Red
Cross to continue.
A declaration made by the U.S. upon its ratication of
the 1949 Geneva Conventions includes a reservation that
pre-1905 U.S. domestic uses of the Red Cross, such as
Johnson & Johnsons, would remain lawful as long as the
cross is not used on aircraft, vessels, vehicles, buildings
or other structures, or upon the ground, i.e. uses which
could be confused with its military uses.[74] This means
that the U.S. did not agree to any interpretation of the
1949 Geneva Conventions that would overrule Johnson
& Johnsons trademark. The American Red Cross continues to recognize the validity of Johnson & Johnsons
trademark.[75]
In August 2007, Johnson & Johnson led a lawsuit against
the American Red Cross (ARC), demanding that the
charity halt the use of the red cross symbol on products it
sells to the public, though the company takes no issue with
the charitys use of the mark for non-prot purposes.[76]

In 2007, Johnson & Johnson sued Abbott Laboratories over the development and sale of the arthritis drug
Humira. Johnson & Johnson claimed that Abbott used
technology patented by New York University and licensed exclusively to Johnson & Johnsons Centocor division to develop Humira. Johnson & Johnson won the
court case, and in 2009 Abbott was ordered to pay Johnson & Johnson $1.17 billion in lost revenues and $504
million in royalties.[80] The judge also added $175.6 million in interest to bring the total to $1.84 billion.[81]
This was the largest patent-infringement award in U.S.
history[80] until the 2013 decision against Teva in favor of
Takeda and Pzer for over 2.1 billion dollars.[82] Abbott
has since successfully reversed the verdict at appeal.[83]

6.10 Baby powder


In February 2016, J&J was ordered to pay $72 million in damages to the family of Jackie Fox, a 62-yearold woman who died of ovarian cancer in 2015.[84] She
had used Johnsons Baby Powder for many years. J&J
claimed that the safety of cosmetic talc is supported by
decades of scientic evidence and it plans to appeal the
verdict. The British charity, Ovacome was quoted as saying that while there were 16 studies which showed that
using talc increased the risk of ovarian cancer by around
a third, and a 2013 review of US studies had similar results for genital, but not general, talcum powder use they
were not convinced that the results were reliable. Furthermore, Ovacome said, "Ovarian cancer is a rare disease,
and increasing a small risk by a third still gives a small
risk.[84]

7 PRODUCTS

Products
Acuvue
Actifed
Aveeno
Bactidol
Band-Aid
Bebe[85] (German market moisturisers and cosmetic
products available in all German speaking countries).
Benadryl
Benecol
Bengay
Benylin
Bonamine
Caring Everyday
Calpol
Calcough

Gynol
Healthy Woman
Inadine
Imodium
Johnsons Baby
Johnson & Johnson Red Cross
Jontex
Lactaid
Listerine
Listermint
Lubriderm
Meds[86]
Micatin
Monistat
Micralax
Migraleve
Modess[86]

Calprofen

Motrin

Calgel

Motrin Children

Calrub

Myadec

Carefree

Mylanta

Clean & Clear

Neko

Codral

Neosporin

Combantrin

Neutrogena

Compeed

Nicoderm

Conceptrol

Nicorette

Corn Huskers Lotion

Nizoral

Cortaid

Nu-Gauze

Cortef

O.B.

Delfen

Olysio

Desitin

OneTouch

Dolormin

Pediacare

E.P.T.

Penaten

Eerdent

Pepcid

Euthymol

Piz Buin

First-Aid

Pepcid AC

9
Polysporin
Ponstan
Priligy
Provin

8 See also
Frederick Barnett Kilmer Director of Scientic
Laboratories from 1889 to 1934.
Zodiac Historic schooner built for the Johnson
family heirs.

Purell
Pure Essentials
Quantrel
REACH
Reactine
Regaine
Rembrandt toothpaste
Remicade
Risperdal
RoC
Rogaine
Rolaids
Savlon
Simply Sleep
Simponi
Sinutab
Sirturo
Splenda
Steri-Pad
Stim-u-dent
Sudacare
Sudafed
Tucks Pads
Tylenol
Tylenol Baby

9 References
[1] Johnson & Johnson 2015 Annual Report Form (10-K)"
(XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 5, 2016.
[2] anonymous. VisionCare Corporate - Our History. jnjvc.com.
[3] Johnson & Johnson Reports 2011 Fourth-Quarter and
Full-Year Results | Johnson & Johnson. Jnj.com. January 24, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
[4] J&J Company Structure - Johnson & Johnson.
[5] Consumer Health Care.
[6] Medical Devices.
[7] Pharmaceutical Companies - Johnson & Johnson.
[8] Horner, Shirley (February 15, 1987). About Books.
The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
[9] Conni, Richard. The Natural History of the Rich: A Field
Guide. W. W. Norton. p. 126.
[10] Crazier then You and Me. New York Magazine. February 23, 1987: 129.
[11] Singer, Natasha (June 3, 2010). Robert L. McNeil Jr.,
Chemist Who Introduced Tylenol, Dies at 94. The New
York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
[12] Janssen Aliate Cilag Acquires Covagen. GEN.
[13] Lopez-Munoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio (2009). The
Consolidation of Neuroleptic Therapy: Janssen, the Discovery of Haloperidol and Its Introduction into Clinical Practice. Brain Research Bulletin. 79: 130
141. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.01.005. PMID
19186209.
[14] Johnson & Johnson Announces Completion Of Alios
Biopharma Acquisition. Janssen.
[15] GEN - News Highlights:Kura Oncology Licenses
Janssens Tipofarnib in Cancer. GEN.

Tylenol Children

[16] GEN - News Highlights:Galapagos Regains Rights to


GLPG1690 from Janssen. GEN.

Ultracet

[17] Janssen Acquires XO1 Limited. Janssen.

Vania
Visine
Zyrtec

[18] Johnson & Johnson Announces Agreement To Acquire


Novira Therapeutics, Inc.. Janssen.
[19] Johnson & Johnson Announces Completion of Synthes
Acquisition.

10

[20] http://www.infogrok.com/index.php/pharmaceutical/
centocor-ortho-biotech-acquires-respivert.html
[21] Janssen Joins MacroGenics in Up-to-$700M Cancer
Collaboration. GEN.
[22] Janssen, Isis Pharma Ink Up-to-$835M Antisense
Agreement. GEN.
[23] ETHICON History. www.ethiconproducts.co.uk. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
[24] A history of advancing surgery. www.ethicon.com.
Ethicon U.S., LLC. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
[25] Johnson & Johnson Announces Denitive Agreement to
Acquire Mentor Corporation.
[26] Ethicon Announces Agreement To Acquire NeuWave
Medical, Inc.. FierceMedicalDevices.
[27] Eva von Schaper; Ellen Gibson (6 October 2010). J&J,
Crucell Reach Agreement on $2.4 Billion Takeover.
Bloomberg.com.
[28] Board of Directors. jnj.com.
[29] Sandra E. Peterson to Join Johnson & Johnson as Group
Worldwide Chairman and Member of the Executive
Committee. Pharma Business Week. 24 September
2012.
[30] http://www.jnj.com/our-news-center/
senior-management
[31] 2 Long-Disputed Projects to Begin, The New York Times,
July 9, 1977
[32] Old Raritan Canal Lock Is Focus of a Classic Dispute, The
New York Times, April 16, 1977.
[33] JOHNSON & JOHNSON ASIA-PACIFIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEADQUARTERS. March
14, 2002. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
[34] Downloads (PDF). les.shareholder.com.
[35] "www.accessdata.fda.gov" (PDF).
[36] "www.accessdata.fda.gov" (PDF).
[37] Ruela Corra JC, D'Arcy DM, dos Reis Serra CH, Nunes
Salgado HR (2012). Darunavir: a critical review of
its properties, use and drug interactions. Pharmacology. 90 (1-2): 1029. doi:10.1159/000339862. PMID
22797653.
[38] Wikipedia template lling. Tools.wmabs.org. Retrieved 2014-05-29.
[39] aidsinfo.nih.gov (PDF).
[40] Kaplan G, Casoy J, Zummo J (2013). Impact of
long-acting injectable antipsychotics on medication adherence and clinical, functional, and economic outcomes
of schizophrenia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 7: 1171
80. doi:10.2147/PPA.S53795. PMC 3833623 . PMID
24265549.

REFERENCES

[41] Kane JM, Kishimoto T, Correll CU (August 2013). Assessing the comparative eectiveness of long-acting injectable vs. oral antipsychotic medications in the prevention of relapse provides a case study in comparative effectiveness research in psychiatry. J Clin Epidemiol. 66
(8 Suppl): S3741. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.01.012.
PMID 23849151.
[42] Fusar-Poli P, Kempton MJ, Rosenheck RA (March
2013). Ecacy and safety of second-generation longacting injections in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of
randomized-controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol.
28 (2): 5766. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32835b091f.
PMID 23165366.
[43] "www.accessdata.fda.gov" (PDF).
[44] "www.accessdata.fda.gov" (PDF).
[45] FDA Approves 1st New Tuberculosis Drug in 40 Years.
ABC News. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
[46] Healthcare products - Medical technologies. jnj.com.
Retrieved 13 March 2015.
[47] Healthcare products - consumer. jnj.com. Retrieved 13
March 2015.
[48] Green Rankings
[49] Johnson & Johnson Ocial Site. Retrieved May 4,
2008.
[50] Environment New Service, December 8, 2004. Retrieved
May 4, 2008
[51] Coop America. March 27, 2008. Retrieved May 4,
2008.
[52] Department of Environmental Protection. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
[53] Judith Rehak (March 23, 2002). Tylenol made a hero
of Johnson & Johnson : The recall that started them all.
The New York Times.
[54] Toyota, whats so hard about doing the right thing?, Los
Angeles Times, February 11, 2010
[55] Jennifer Latson for Time Magazine Sept. 29, 2014 How
Poisoned Tylenol Became a Crisis-Management Teaching
Model
[56] Judith Rehak for The New York Times. March 23, 2002
Tylenol made a hero of Johnson & Johnson : The recall
that started them all
[57] US rm recalls childrens drugs. Aljazeera. May 1,
2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
[58] Watts, Alex (May 2, 2010). Warning As Baby Medicines
Are Recalled. Sky News. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
[59] Deborah Cohen (May 14, 2011). Out of joint: The story
of the ASR.
[60] FDA. Concerns about metal-on-metal hip implant systems. 2011. 2011.

11

[61] Meier, Barry (March 8, 2013). J.&J. Loses First Case


Over Faulty Hip Implant. New York Times. Retrieved
September 4, 2013.
[62] Tylenol Recall Expands, WebMD Health News, January
18, 2010
[63] McNeil Consumer Healthcare Announces Voluntary Recall Of One Product Lot Of TYLENOL Extra Strength
Caplets 225 Count Distributed In The U.S.

[82] Pzer, Takeda to Get $2.15 Billion Settlement, WSJ, 6 12


2013
[83] Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg.com.
[84] Johnson & Johnson hit with $72m damages in talc-cancer
case. BBC News. 24 February 2016. Retrieved 24
February 2016.
[85] Bebe Website. Johnson & Johnson GmbH. Retrieved
February 15, 2014.

[64] 10-cv-2033, D. NJ., Sept. 29, 2011


[65] J&J, shareholders reach tentative deal in lawsuit By
LINDA A. JOHNSON AP Business Writer / July 12,
2012

[86] New Meds Tampons Make You Feel Only a Little


More Secure. But Thats a Lot. (PDF). News Record.
Cincinnati, Ohio: University of Cincinnati. April 22,
1968. p. 2, center-left. Retrieved November 25, 2011.

[66] Gregory Wallace (November 4, 2013). Johnson & Johnson to pay $2 billion for false marketing. CNN Money.
Retrieved November 6, 2013.

10 External links

[67] J.&J. Fined $1.2 Billion in Drug Case NY Times, By


KATIE THOMAS Published: April 11, 2012
[68] Hilzenrath, David S. (January 16, 2010). Justice suit
accuses Johnson & Johnson of paying kickbacks. The
Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
[69] Singer, Natasha (January 15, 2010). Johnson & Johnson Accused of Drug Kickbacks. The New York Times.
Retrieved January 17, 2010.
[70] J&J Said to Agree to $2.2 Billion Drug Marketing Accord
Bloomberg News. By Margaret Cronin Fisk, Jef Feeley &
David Voreacos June 11, 2012
[71] Oce of Public Aairs, Department of Justice (November 4, 2013). Johnson & Johnson to Pay More Than
$2.2 Billion to Resolve Criminal and Civil Investigations.
United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 16 June
2015.
[72] Research Center Tied to Drug Company By Gardiner
Harris, The New York Times, 2008
[73] Trademark Status & Document Retrieval. uspto.gov.
[74] U.S. reservations to the 1949 Geneva Conventions
(International Committee of the Red Cross website)
[75] American Red Cross Defends Use of Emblem and Mission (American Red Cross press release, August 10, 2007)
[76] Red Cross Is Sued by J&J Over Signature Emblem The
Wall Street Journal August 9, 2007
[77] Stephanie Saul (June 18, 2008). Claim Over Red Cross
Symbol Is Settled. The New York Times.
[78] Boston Scientic to Pay J&J $1.73B to Settle Stent Patent
Disputes, The Wall Street Journal, February 2, 2010
[79] J&J seeks over $5 billion in damages from Boston Scientic at trial. Reuters, 19 November 2014
[80] Abbott Told to Pay Record $1.67 billion Award to J&J,
Bloomberg News, June 29, 2009
[81] Abbott Challenges $1.67 billion Patent Loss to J&J Over
Humira, Bloomberg News, November 2, 2010

Ocial website

Business data for Johnson & Johnson:


Hoovers
Bloomberg
Reuters
SEC lings

Coordinates: 402955N 742637W / 40.49861N


74.44361W

12

11

11

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

11.1

Text

Johnson & Johnson Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson_%26_Johnson?oldid=734683142 Contributors: The Anome, LA2,


Olivier, Rickyrab, Flamurai, Ahoerstemeier, Ike9898, Choster, WhisperToMe, Dfarmer, Altenmann, Wayland, Dufresne, Smjg, Christopher Parham, Rj, J~enwiki, OverlordQ, Gary D, Oknazevad, Sonett72, Ix, DMG413, Dr.frog, Beirne, Martin TB, LindsayH, Xezbeth,
Bender235, ESkog, Ylee, Linkoman, RoyBoy, Coolcaesar, Bobo192, Func, Adraeus, BrokenSegue, Oop, Jerryseinfeld, Rajah, Amcl,
Alison9, Zachlipton, Alansohn, Ganat1, Kurieeto, Spangineer, Xiaoyanggu, RyanGerbil10, TorontoStorm, Boothy443, Richard Arthur
Norton (1958- ), Woohookitty, Myleslong, Stickguy, Ekem, Fred J, Bluemoose, Joerg Kurt Wegner, Graham87, BD2412, Kbdank71,
Ketiltrout, Rjwilmsi, MZMcBride, Vegaswikian, Theodork, The wub, Oo64eva, A Man In Black, FlaBot, Ground Zero, Nihiltres, Who,
RobyWayne, Idaltu, Sherool, Bgwhite, YurikBot, Sceptre, Mikalra, NTBot~enwiki, RussBot, Bovineone, NawlinWiki, Ajish, Takiman, Veracious Rey, Tony1, Alex43223, Namnam, Gsherry, Gulliveig, Shawnc, EMcCutchan, Guillom, Leeannedy, Rathfelder, Alin0Steglinski,
Sardanaphalus, SmackBot, ParkerHiggins, ProveIt, Gjs238, Kintetsubualo, Edgar181, Yamaguchi , Ohnoitsjamie, Rst20xx, Chris the
speller, Jnelson09, MalafayaBot, Deli nk, Bazonka, DHN-bot~enwiki, Sgt Pinback, Yidisheryid, Rrburke, Aquahelper, Greenshed, Flyguy649, Cybercobra, Schnarr, DMacks, Soarhead77, Kristenq, Ohconfucius, Thepangelinanpost, ArglebargleIV, LtPowers, John, Catapult, Guat6, Mr. Vernon, Jfollansbee, Beetstra, Boomshadow, AEMoreira042281, MrDolomite, Hu12, Seqsea, IvanLanin, Octane,
Andy120, CRGreathouse, Raysonho, Ewc21, Robguru, Cydebot, Cahk, Peripitus, Gogo Dodo, Pig de Wig, Trident13, Gnfnrf, Aldis90,
TonyTheTiger, Facembanorth, Serpent-A, Bobblehead, JustAGal, Nick Number, MichaelMaggs, SusanLesch, Visik, Opelio, Dr. Blofeld,
Unintentional Guy, Mack2, Zigzig20s, Handicapper, Res2216restar, Barek, Epeeeche, Cabled Substitution, Z22, Magioladitis, Soup100,
RBBrittain, AtticusX, Jllm06, Gr1st, Plavnik, DIEXEL, Pvosta, Candlewicke, Anaxial, J.delanoy, Deedeedum, Slideshow Bob, Edgeweyes,
Uncle Dick, HonoluluGuy, Crocodile Punter, Grez868, Ephebi, Oceanynn, Mrceleb2007, Tkaizan, Jvcdude, Djem, Juan.santamaria,
Shortride, Jamcib~enwiki, Ionut.shaggy, TXiKiBoT, Jacob Lundberg, D. patterson, m.d., Rsecker, Ng.j, UnitedStatesian, Vgranucci, Natg
19, Maxim, Urbanrenewal, The Devils Advocate, Doc James, AlleborgoBot, Marshwell102, Slig303, SieBot, Trackinfo, Moretto, Kirstensmith1, Aspects, Fratrep, TaerkastUA, Neo., DutchTreat, Martarius, ClueBot, Kennvido, Uncle Milty, Ottawahitech, Excirial, CohesionBot, Versus22, Life of Riley, Jytdog, CrackerJack7891, FlyingScientist, Svgalbertian, TomDonohue,NewsVisual, Good Olfactory, Addbot,
Jojhutton, AlbinoFerret, Britt25, Scientus, CanadianLinuxUser, Fluernutter, MrOllie, Download, ShepBot, The Shadow-Fighter, Leebeo, Qmark42, Gregweitzner, Beinar, Zorrobot, Delta 51, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Electronsoup, Jujubean55, Nokorola,
AnomieBOT, DemocraticLuntz, ThaddeusB, Csigabi, Materialscientist, Astor14, Mkernan, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Kenr123, Trut-h-urts man,
J04n, Vishnu.h, Shadowjams, Joaquin008, Creation7689, Colt .55, Therius, SD5, Jade0970, FrescoBot, Paine Ellsworth, Tobby72, Alejandroadan, Lackett, Lmculwell, Tinton5, MondalorBot, Labrynthia9856, , Lotje, I am Blue 862, Financial Zorro, Pinkstate, Mean as custard, RjwilmsiBot, Whywhenwhohow, EmausBot, Vanished user 3943rtorikksaeio23r, Super48paul, MotherOfBaby, Dewritech, RA0808,
NoisyJinx, Aurora 260, Elixir 259, Dcirovic, Djembayz, Shearonink, Kkm010, Madame Web 213, Dolovis, Pulse 355, Wolfsbane 141,
Unreal7, Vanguard 413, Mikhail Rasputin 76, Ivan Dembicki, Cody5882300, CockpitJim, Guest03, Spicemix, ClueBot NG, Iiii I I I,
Sshorey, Frietjes, Stevensanchez1, WikiPuppies, Soccerkid1014, Anupmehra, Helpful Pixie Bot, Thomasbergerwalker, HMSSolent, Lead
holder, Contextual stimuli, Ricky carandang, BG19bot, Selvakumar Sham, Samast13, Metricopolus, IraChestereld, Merielw, CodyWherestheBeef, CitationCleanerBot, Cgx8253, Mocahante, Liam Braithwaite, Writ Keeper, Listwhiel, Gretchen1952, XyZAn, David.moreno72,
DarafshBot, Swaraj.chhallani, Mogism, Einae3578, WikimatCS, Corn cheese, DingusKisser, JuicyJam, Hardmanrc, Sighola, RaphaelQS,
Clr324, SiuMai, Richardk85, Melody Lavender, SoylentHolger, Trickyliv, Sam Sailor, Chrismorey, Lobojorgesa, Lakun.patra, TwoTimothy47, Hidpg20, Monkbot, Renamed user 51g7z61hz5af2azs6k6, Filedelinkerbot, A915, Coeedrinker115, JVD1129, Bryn again,
Xbrlus, HistBuGuy, Baligema, 1miguelcortes, ClassicOnAStick, Mr P. Kopee, TigerInWoods, Tiltedtonic, SergeantPep, Shaqiri19,
EmilyvstheGorn, Delta seria, Bbarmadillo, Cmlevinlaw, KasparBot, JJMC89, Srednuas Lenoroc, Dom18pars, Vistadan, Igotrekt, Narutolovespokemon, Gzkefpro, Enmeshed and Anonymous: 370

11.2

Images

File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?


File:Decrease2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Decrease2.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Sarang
File:Esculaap4.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Esculaap4.svg License: GFDL Contributors: selfmade, SVG-version of Image:Esculaap3.png by Evanherk, GFDL Original artist: .Koen
File:Flag_of_New_Jersey.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Flag_of_New_Jersey.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_Red_Cross.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_the_Red_Cross.svg License:
Public domain Contributors: This le was derived from: [[:File:|]]
Original artist: Jon Harald Sby
File:Free-to-read_lock_75.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Free-to-read_lock_75.svg License: CC0
Contributors:
Adapted
from
<a
href='//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg'
class='image'
title='Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg'><img
alt='Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg'
src='//upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg/9px-Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg.png'
width='9' height='14' srcset='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg/
14px-Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Open_Access_
logo_PLoS_white_green.svg/18px-Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white_green.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='640' data-le-height='1000'
/></a>
Original artist:
This version:Trappist_the_monk (talk) (Uploads)

11.3

Content license

13

File:Increase2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Increase2.svg License: Public domain Contributors:


Own work Original artist: Sarang
File:Industry5.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Industry5.svg License: CC0 Contributors: https://
openclipart.org/detail/237859/factory Original artist: Tsaoja
File:JNJIOffice3.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/JNJIOffice3.jpg License: CC0 Contributors: Own
work Original artist: Raysonho @ Open Grid Scheduler / Grid Engine
File:JohnsonJohnson_HQ_building.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/JohnsonJohnson_HQ_
building.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Johnson_&_Johnson_offices_in_Madrid_(Spain)_01.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/
Johnson_%26_Johnson_offices_in_Madrid_%28Spain%29_01.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Luis
Garca (Zaqarbal)
File:JohnsonandJohnsonLogo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/JohnsonandJohnsonLogo.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia Original artist: Original uploader was Alex43223 at en.wikipedia
File:Robert-wood-johnson-i.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Robert-wood-johnson-i.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: http://www.kilmerhouse.com/?p=67 Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>

11.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0