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2. Material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be useful.

This
process is known as _____.
Retrieval
3. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three-stage model of
memory?
Sensory memory short-term memory long-term memory
4. _____ memory refers to the initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an
instant.
Sensory
5. A research participant is required to report as much of a poem as he can remember
immediately after having read the poem once. We would expect the greatest number of recall
errors in lines:
in the middle of the poem.
6. Which of the following expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory?
About seven +/- two chunks
7. Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term
memory is termed _____.
Chunking
9. We look up a number in the phone book, push the book away, and then begin to dial the
number. Why do we discourage an interruption during this process?
Information lasts only 15-25 seconds in short-term memory.
10. Rehearsal refers to the:
repetition of information that has entered short-term memory.
11. The conscious repetition of information to ensure its survival in short-term memory is termed
_____ rehearsal.
Elaborative
12. The concept of working memory represents a contemporary conceptualization of _____
memory.
short-term
13. On your computer desktop, you can see all sorts of different files, each immediately
accessible. Because you are actively working on them, and because you can open them whenever
you want, these files are in fact very similar to the kind of information held in:
working memory.
14. Which of the following statements is true of working memory?

Working memory permits us to keep information in an active state briefly so that we can do
something with the information.
15. Which of the following accurately describes the processing of information in working
memory?
Working memory uses cognitive resources during its operation which makes us less aware of our
surroundings.
16. Which of the following best describes the effect of stress on working memory capacity?
Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity.
17. The primacy effect refers to the fact that:
items presented early in a list are remembered better than items in the middle of the list.
19. The recency effect refers to the fact that:
items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list.
20. "Milk, cereal, candy." Your roommate begins reciting items as you get ready to leave to the
store. He continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps up: "Spaghetti sauce, dish liquid,
and ice tea mix." You forget a few things, but the spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice tea mix are
in the bag. Your memory for these items reflects the _____ effect.
Recency
21. Which of the following refers to declarative memory?
Memory for names
22. _____ memory is memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as
memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts.
Semantic
23. Activating one memory triggers the activation of related memories in a process known as:
spreading activation.
24. The hippocampus is located in the _____ lobe.
Temperal
25. Which of the following is true of the neuroscience of memory?
The amygdala is especially involved with memories involving emotion.
26. Long-term potentiation refers to the process whereby:
neural pathways become activated more easily as learning occurs.
27. The term engram is generally discouraged by psychologists studying memory. Why might
this be?
There is probably no single site or process in the brain corresponding to a particular memory.

28. Akira Haraguchi demonstrated amazing memory ability when he recited all 80,000 digits of
pi. What process in the human memory system did he utilize?
Retrieval
29. Which of the following is NOT one of the three main memory processes?
Thinking
30. Which of the following is NOT included in the encoding process?
Testing yourself
34. Your mom is always giving you grief about how you surf the Web and send text messages
while you are studying. You explain that multitasking does not affect your grades. Is your
position supported by the information presented in the textbook?
No; studies have confirmed that individuals do not do well on memory tests of information that
was acquired while performing other tasks.
35. Steve is studying with his friend Mike for their biology test. Mike asks Steve about a
particular concept, and Steve replies, "I know I was in class that day, but I don't even have that in
my notes. Are you sure the professor mentioned it?" Steve is demonstrating a(n) ________
failure.
Encoding
36. Fifteen-year-old Matt and his father are in an electronics store looking at video game
systems. Matt gives his father a complete breakdown of the pros and cons of each of the different
video game systems on display. Matt is able to accurately recall all of these details because he
has
deeply processed this information.
37. According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the
following three systems?
Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
38. You most likely store the seven-digit phone number from your previous address in ________
memory.
Long-term
39. You tell your friends about the great time you had at a famous amusement park. Most of the
visual and auditory sensations that you experienced and have now forgotten were initially
processed in your ________ memory.
Sensory
40. You are engrossed in your favorite TV show in the living room. Your roommate yells for you
to bring a flyswatter to the kitchen. Vaguely aware that a request is being made of you, you ask
your roommate to repeat herself. Before she can reply, however, the sound of the words "bring a
flyswatter to the kitchen" play through your mind. This is an example of ________ memory.
Echoic

41. Which of the following is TRUE of short-term memory?


It is a limited-capacity memory system.
42. George Miller's classic paper on the seven plus or minus two phenomenon refers to a person's
________ memory.
short-term
43. Chunking involves
packing together information that exceeds the seven plus or minus two rule.
47. Being able to consciously recall information from the past and recite it, involves what type of
memory?
Declarative
44. When asked to memorize these 15 lettersC I A C B S A B C F B I I R SMary
reorganized them into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI, and IRS. Mary used the tactic of
chunking.
45. Talking to people about what you have learned is a form of
rehearsal.
46. ________ memory is the conscious recollection of facts and events that you can verbally
communicate.
Declarative
49. You are relaxing beside a water display in the park. The quiet, scenic environment reminds
you of a poem you read in English class last week. This is an example of ________ memory.
Episodic
50. Remembering the name of the author who wrote The Cat in the Hat is referred to as
________ memory.
Semantic
51. If you remember dancing at your high school prom, it is an example of ________ memory; if
you showed me the dance steps you used, it is an example of ________ memory.
episodic; procedural
52. The activation of information that a person already has in storage is referred to as
priming.
53. A preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people organize and interpret
information is referred to as a
schema.
54. Long-term potentiation is a concept that explains

how memory functions at the neuronal level.


55. In John's favorite picture, he is riding with his father on a lawn mower. John also likes the
smell of freshly mowed grass. Which of the following cues do you predict will elicit the
strongest emotional memory in John?
Smell of freshly cut grass
56. Margaret fell down her basement stairs and suffered serious injury to her amygdala. What
memory problems is she most likely to experience?
Difficulty with emotional memories
57. Juanita is an administrative assistant in the human resources department of a local business.
She has noticed that in nearly every case, the last person interviewed for a job gets hired. What
effect of memory may be influencing the hiring practice?
Recency
58. George just graduated from college and is going on his first job interview. He has learned that
there are two other candidates. Because of the information he has learned about the serial
position effect, George asks to be either the first or the last candidate interviewed. Why?
Either the first or the last candidate will be best remembered.
59. According to the serial position effect, if you are a waiter trying to remember all the orders
for a table of seven, you should pay particular attention to the ________ orders.
3rd, 4th, and 5th
60. Your roommate, Rhiana, asks your advice on how to best study for her final exams. Because
of your knowledge of context dependent memory, you recommend that she study
quietly in the classroom in which she is to take her exam.
61. Detectives take advantage of context-dependent memory by
taking witnesses back to the scene of the crime.
62. Kim was telling her friend about her most recent trip to her grandmother's house, but was
having trouble remembering certain details. Later that month she visited her grandmother again
and the details came flooding back. This is an example of
the effects of context on retrieval.