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Paper 0518

FOR MINIMIZING THE IMPACT OF VOLTAGE SAGS IN POWER NETWORKS WITH

HIGH WIND ENERGY PENETRATION

Mnica ALONSO

Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Spain

moalonso@ing.uc3m.es

Hortensia AMARIS

Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Spain

hamaris@ing.uc3m.es

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a methodology for the optimal

placement of wind farms and FACTS units in power

networks, in order to guarantee the voltage profile and to

maximize the loadability of the system under voltage sags

conditions. Results shown in the paper indicate that the

proposed formulations can be used to determine which the

best buses are where the addition of Var sources can

enhance the voltage stability of the whole network.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the

production of electric energy from renewable energy

sources. By 2020, it is expected that the total wind power

generation will supply around 12% of the total world

electricity demands. However, integration of such wind

resources into power system grids presents still some major

challenges to power system operators and planners. The

more critical aspects are the fault ride-through capability of

wind farms and the voltage stability of the power network.

Electric power planning with the presence of high wind

energy requires the definition of several factors, such as: the

best technology to be used, the number and capacity, the

best location or the grounding connection. The installation

of STATCOM, SVC or DVR units at optimal places can

result in an improvement of voltage stability and a reduction

of system losses.

The selection of the best places for installing FACTS in

large distribution system is a complex combinatorial

problem. Recently, Distributors Operators have successfully

applied metaheuristics optimization methods for planning

issues. Among the advantages of using it, are the capability

to provide a satisfactory solution of the problem, the low

computational complexity and the speed to reach the

solution. The use of Genetic Algorithms (GA) in power

systems planning is gaining popularity, not only due to the

robustness of the method, but also to the possibility to find

the global optimal solution in complex multi-dimensional

search spaces [1].

Start

candidate solutions

Satisfactory

solution?

Apply genetic

operators

No

Yes

Display results

Satisfactory

solution?

No

Yes

Finish: Power network

configuration

VOLTAGE STABILITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this analysis is to find the best allocation of

different FACTS systems in order to maximize loadability

CIRED2009 Session 5

situations using heuristic methods. The methodology is

based on the application of the two following processes:

- An automatic method for optimal allocation of wind

and FACTS units on distribution network. The aim of

this method is to maximize loadability conditions of

the system and to provide potential candidates to the

problem solution. For this task GA are used to

evaluate possible solution of the optimization

problem.

- A method for evaluating the impact of wind farm and

FACTS units installation on voltage profile and

voltage stability after voltage sags on the distribution

network.

Paper No 0518

to maintain steady-state voltage at all buses in the system

CIRED

Paper 0518

operating condition [2]. In the literature, two voltage

stability problems are analysed:

- Estimation of the maximum loadability.

- Computation of the critical power system loading that

could lead to voltage collapse.

Voltage stability is usually represented by P-V curve (Fig.

2). In this figure the noise point is called the point of

voltage collapse (PoVC) or equilibrium point. At this point,

voltage drops rapidly with an increase of the power load

and subsequently, the power flow Jacobean matrix becomes

singular. Classical power-flow methods fail to converge

beyond this limit. This failure is considered as an indication

of voltage instability and frequently associated with a

saddle-node bifurcation point.

Although voltage instability is a local phenomenon, the

problem of voltage stability concerns to the whole power

system, becoming essential for its operation and control.

This aspect is more critical in power networks, which are

heavily loaded, faulted, or with insufficient reactive power

supply.

Vmin

VSM

PoVC

P

Fig. 2 P-V curve

levels, the role of voltage stability is of great importance due to

the lack of reactive power contribution of many Wind

generators as well as their integration into weak networks.

The use of FACTS devices in power networks with wind

generation, make the application of a large amount of Var

compensation more efficient. To determine the optimal

location of reactive power compensators, two key aspects

must be taken into account by planners and manufacturers:

the right location and size of the device. Up to now,

locations of Var sources were computed by estimation or by

approach; however, neither of both methods are effective.

Traditionally, the Reactive Power Planning (RPP)

methodology is based on the definition of complex

objective functions and network constrains, and on the use

of optimization algorithms. In this paper, the following

assumptions are considered while formulating the Var

planning problem:

CIRED2009 Session 5

Paper No 0518

- The active and reactive powers consider only the

fundamental frequency component.

- The size of Var source is treated as a continuous

variable.

- The reactive capability of a generator is portrayed by

the conventional PQ diagram.

It should be emphasized that the methodology proposed in

this paper can be directly applied to locate any type of

FACTS devices. In this paper, for the sake of simplicity

only the placement of SVCs is considered.

GENETIC ALGORITHM

Genetic algorithms (GA) are a family of computational

optimization models invented by Goldberg (1989) and

Hopgood (2001). GA [3] has been used for solving both

constrained and unconstrained optimization problems

modelled on a natural evolution process. It drives to the

biological selection, where the operators employed are

inspired by the natural evolution process. The GA method

modifies a population of individual solutions on each step

(generation) of the algorithm according to genetic operators.

The main advantages of GA over conventional optimization

methods are:

- They do not need any prior knowledge, space

limitations, or special properties of the objective

function about the problem to be optimised.

- They do not deal directly with the parameters of the

problem. They only require codes, which represent the

parameters and the evaluation of the fitness function to

assign a quality value to every solution produced.

- They work with a set of solutions from one generation

to the next, making the process likely to converge to a

global minimum.

- The solutions obtained are randomly based on the

probability rate of the genetic operators such as

mutation and crossover.

This technique is very useful for solving optimization

problems, such as the proposed in this paper, which consists

on searching the best allocation of FACTS units in

distribution networks with wind energy in order to alleviate

the voltage profile and to maximize the loadability of a

power network. The optimisation problem is formulated as:

Min F(x)

Subject to:

Aeq(x) = Beq

A(x) Beq

xS

Where:

- F(x) is the objective function to be optimised

- Aeq is equality constraints

-A

is inequality constraints

-x

is the vector of variables

-S

is the search space.

CIRED

Paper 0518

Subject to:

Pgmin Pgk Pgmx

Qgmin Qgk Qgmx

OPTIMIZATION

METHODOLOGY

FOR

OPTIMAL ALLOCATION AND REACTIVE

POWER PLANNING

n=1,2,,N

k=1,2,, K

k=1,2,, K

Encoding

CASE STUDIED

used where the placement problem is modelled by using

real numbers. Each chromosome has seven genes that

represent the variables of the system. The first one

represents the loadability parameter of the system (); the

other ones represent the bus number location at which wind

units could be connected and the size of Var injection from

the SVC unit.

distribution network such as the modified IEEE 34 node test

feeder [4]. Two different situations have been considered.

Fitness Function

The Fitness Function (FF) assigns a goodness value for each

individual of the population and is used for driving the

evolution process. In the case of GA, this calculation must

be automatic, and the development of a procedure for

computing the quality of the solution must be solved. In this

paper, to consider the load change scenarios, PD and QD can

be modified as:

wind farms

Initially (base case), there are not any wind unit connected

to the distribution network (Fig. 3). The GA will indicate

the optimal allocations of several SVC units which have

been computed in consecutive iterations steps at different

wind farm penetration levels.

16

13

FF ( x) =

Where:

- x is a vector of variables: load parameter, bus

connection and VAr injection.

- value depends on voltage constraints violation.

Constraints

The main constraints considered in the optimization

process are the following:

- Voltage level at all buses should be held within

established limits.

- Active and reactive power generation is limited by the

generator capabilities.

Optimisation Formulation

According to the fitness function objective and constraints

equations, the optimization problem can be formulated as:

Min F(x) =1 -FF(x)

Paper No 0518

6

3

28

10

7

17

18

19

20

21

27 26 25 24 23

11

31

12

32

33

34

22

loadability voltage profile of the case studied at the base

case and after the application of the optimisation algorithm.

Three wind energy penetration scenarios are considered. On

each scenario, optimal allocations of SVCs are computed by

the GA.

1.02

1

Voltage (p.u .)

parameter , the FF function used is:

CIRED2009 Session 5

critical loading value of the system (= critical). A load

increase beyond this limit will result on a voltage constraint

violation and the system would no longer operate.

29

14

PD() = PD0(1+K)

QD() = QD0(1+K)

Where:

- PD0 and QD0 are the original power load (base case).

- K is a multiplier designating the rate of load change.

- represents the load parameter.

( =0 corresponds to the base case).

30

15

0.98

0.96

0.94

0.92

0.9

Without SVC

With one SVC

With two SVC

With three SVC

10

15

Buses

20

25

30

number where each SVC unit is located, the reactive power

injected by the SVC and the maximum loadability for low

limit operational voltage (mx).

CIRED

Paper 0518

in PSS/E [5]. A three-phase fault is simulated at bus # 9,

producing a voltage sag depth of 80% with 0.5s voltage sag

duration. In Fig.7, it can be seen how the installation of

optimally located SVC units increases the fault ride through

capability of the wind turbines under voltage sag situations.

V o ltag e (p .u .)

0.98

0.96

0.94

0.92

0.9

Without SVC

With one SVC

With two SVC

With three SVC

10

15

Buses

20

25

30

Table I. Results of GA

Case

SVC bus

location

Qinj

(MVAr)

mx

27

2.77

0.06

11

25

10

23

26

2.95

2.79

2.15

2.45

2.71

wind farm and one

SVC

GA solution with two

wind farms and SVCs

GA solution with three

wind farms and SVCs

0.30

0.74

CONCLUSIONS

distribution networks with wind generation enhance the

voltage profile and increase the maximum loading of the

system. In the particular case of adding three wind farms

and SVC units connected to the power network the

maximum loading of the system for operational voltage

limit is increased 74% (Fig. 6).

1

REFERENCES

Without SVC

With one SVC

With two SVC

With three SVC

V o lt a g e (p .u )

0.8

0.6

Lambda mx

0.4

Voltage Stability Margin

0.2

0

0

0.5

1.5

2

2.5

3

Loading parameter (p.u.)

of FACTS has been successfully developed to maximize the

loadability of the system and to improve the fault-ride

through capability of wind turbines under voltage sag

situations. GA has been tested in distribution networks and

it has been proved its ability to reach the global optimal

solution for the allocation of VAr compensation units in

distribution networks with wind generation.

3.5

4.5

Heurstica y Redes Neuronales en Direccin de

Operaciones e Ingeniera, Parininfo, Spain.

[2] Prabha Kundur, 1994, Power System Stability and

Control, MC-Graw-Hill, California.

[3] D.E. Goldberg, 1989, Genetic algorithms in search,

optimization and machine learning, AdddisonWesley.

[4] M.M.A. Salama and A.Y. Chikhani, 1993 A

simplified network approach to the VAR control

problem for radial distribution systems, IEEE Trans.

On Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 3: pp 1529-1535.

[5] PSS/E 30, 2004, On-Line Documentation,

Schenectady, US: Power Technologies, Inc.

Acknowledgments

sag situations, the modified IEEE-34 bus power network

with three wind farms and three SVC units optimally

Science Ministry for the financial support under research

projects: ENE2006-28503-E and ENE2008-06504-C02.

CIRED2009 Session 5

Paper No 0518

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