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S C Misra
Law of Floatation:
Equilibrium requires
Weight = Buoyancy
LCB = LCG
Types of Equilibrium
Stable Equilibrium
Unstable Equilibrium
Neutral Equilibrium
Transverse Equilibrium - Equilibrium in
Transverse Plane heel
Longitudinal Equilibrium Equilibrium in
Longitudanal Plane - Trim
Equilibrium
(a) Equilibrium in static position
(b) Stable
(c) Unstable
Neutral Equilibrium
(a)
(b)
External Forces and Moments
Extrnal Forces and Moments can be
Static or Dynamic
Examples
waves in a seaway
wind force
turning of a vessel
collision
grounding
grain shifting etc.
Assumptions
Due to proportions of vessel dimensions, heel is large
compared to trim. So stability normally means transverse
stability whereas trim is necessary for vessel equilibrium.
In this chapter we ignore the dynamic aspects and consider
only static effects due to external forces and moments
acting on the ship.
Normally heel and trim act together on the ship. But for
convenience we consider heel and trim separately at this
stage.
Metacentre and Righting Arm
SHIP
Transverse Stability at Small Angles
Heel Angle is small, say where → →0
M: Metacentre intersection of vertical lines through
B in the original position and through B in its heeled
position
GZ: Righting Lever
.GZ: Righting Moment
GM : Transverse Metacentric Height
GZ = GM .sin
Transverse Stability at Small Angles
The ship will come back to its original position or has
positive stability if
GZ > 0.0 or
GM > 0.0 or
metacenric height is positive or
M is above G
Transverse Metacentre
Transverse Metacentre
Transverse metacentre, M , is the intersection of the
vertical line through the CB in undisturbed condition and
through the CB in the inclined position.
Port and starboard sides being symmetrical in a ship, the
CB and hence , M , is on a fixed centre line
p
lane at various
draughts.
M is fixed for small angles of inclination in the transverse
plane.
The height of M above CB or CG is not large and therefore
stability in the transverse plane could be a matter of
concern.
The trans. metacentric height GM is necessary to calculate
the heel of the vessel.
Calculation of GM
Undisturbed waterline WL and inclined water line
W L intersect at a point F on the ship s centre plane
since the ship is symmetrical about the centre plane. It
is assumed that the ship is wall sided in the vicinity of
water lines WL and W L .
Let the inclination be small denoted by .
The volume of the immersed wedge must be equal to
the volume of the emerged wedge.
Also the moment due to shift of wedge volume
through g g must be equal to the moment due to shift
of CB from B to B
Calculation of GM
Ship s centre of buoyancy will move:
in a direction parallel to a line connecting g and g
a distance, BB equal to v.g g /vol. Of displacement.
As →0, → BB will tend to become parallel to the
inclined water line
Calculation of BM
Equating moment of shifting of wedge volume to
the moment due to shift of CB
BB
vg
.
g
1
12
BM
tan

tan

L
1
2
vg
.
g
yy
tan

2.
yd x
12
2
3
0
L
vg
.
g
2
12
3
yd x
Or
= I
tan

3
0
I
Thus, →0 ,
T
BM
Righting Moment
GM = KB + BM - KG
= KM - KG
GZ = GM . sin = GM .
This is true only if is small.
Righting Moment = .GZ
= .GM . at small angles
Stability of Submerged Bodies
POSITIVE STABILITY
NEGATIVE STABILITY
(a) RIGHTING MOMENT WHEN HEELED
(b) HEELING MOMENT
WHEN HEELED
SURFACE SHIP
POSITIVE STABILITY
NEGATIVE STABILITY
(c) RIGHTING MOMENT WHEN HEELED
(d) HEELING MOMENT
WHEN HEELED
SUBMERGED
SUBMARINE
Longitudinal Metacentre
Longitudinal metacentre, M , is the intersection of the
vertical line through the CB in undisturbed condition and
through the CB in the inclined position.
Fore and aft not being symmetrical in a ship, the CB and
hence , M , is not on a fixed transverse plane at various
draughts.
Like M ,M is fixed for small angles of inclination in the
longitudinal plane.
The height of M above CB or CG is generally large and
therefore stability in the longitudinal plane is always
positive.
The long. metacentric height GM is necessary to calculate
the trim of the vessel.
Longitudinal Stability
Calculation of GM
Undisturbed waterline WL and inclined water line
W L intersect at a point F. Since the ship is not
symmetrical fore and aft, F is not at mid ship. But the
volume of the immersed wed g e must be e q ual to the
volume of the emerged wedge.
Let the inclination be
small denoted by .
Also the moment due to shift of wedge volume
through g g must be equal to the moment due to shift
of CB from B to B
Volume of the emerged wedge =
Q
v
yx
tan
 dx
0
Volume of the immersed wedge =
LQ
v
yx
tan
 dx
0
Q
LQ
Then
tan
d
xy dx
tan

xy dx
0
0
Q
LQ
oror
xy dx
xy dx
0
0
Hence F is LCF
BB
vg
.
g
1
12
BM
L
tan

tan

v. gg
m
m
12
1
2
Q
Q
2
m
yx tan
x
dx tan
xy dx
1
0
0
LQ
m
tan

2
xy dx
2
0
m
m
vg
.
g
I
tan

1
2
12
L
vg gI
.
Then
12
L
 0
BM
L
tan 
Moment to change trim
Moment to change trim by angle
= .GM . Tan = .GM . (trim/L)
where trim = draught ford. draught aft.
Then moment to change trim by 1 cm,
MCT 1cm = .GM / (100 L)
So for a longitudinal heeling moment,
trim (cm) = moment / MCT 1cm
Trim ford = trim* dist. Of LCF from ford. end/L
Trim aft =-(trim trim ford)
Draught ford. or aft. = original draught + trim
Rolling Period
Period = Const. x k / GM
CG and then,
Period
= c x B / GM
Where c = 0.72 to 0.91 with mean at 0.80 for surface ships and
0.67 for submarines
(case of ore carrier 0.69 for loaded condition and 0.94 for
ballast condition)
High GM low period, fast rolling, acceleration high,
uncomfortable
Normally period should be between 12 to 18 seconds.
Loss of Initial Stability due to free surface
•Liquid with free surface in a
tank in the ship
•With small angle heel the CG
of liquid moves from B to B
•Perpendiculars through B nd B
intersect at metacentre M as if
CG of the weight has shifted
from b to M
•The rise of CG of liquid from B
to M
= i / v
where v is the volume of liquid
in the tank and i
is the m.i. Of
the free surface.
Loss of Initial Stability due to free surface
Increase mass moment due to rise in CG of the tank liquid = v / .
i / v =i /
where is the specific volume of liquid = m³ / kg
Virtual rise in CG of the ship = (i / ) / V
where V: volume of displacement of the ship
GM
=
KB
+
BM
KG
-( i /) /
V
where (i / ) / V is the free surface correction which does not
depend on the amount of liquid.
Loss of stability due to f.s. can occur during voyage tank
consumables reduce during voyage at arrival port
Loss of stability due to f.s. can occur at port due to loading and
Loss of stability due to f.s. can occur during voyage ballast water
management at sea
Effect of Suspended Weight
cargo on and from the ship
•Shift of cargo from one side
to other
•Crane barge
point of suspension which acts
like metacentre
•The virtual CG of ship moves
to point of suspension.
•The corrected GM and GZ can
be calculate.
•This can happen during
Capacity carriers such as passenger ships, RORO ferries
and similar vessels have high superstructure and hence
high CG. During design and construction this is taken
Vessels such as container vessels, passenger ships and
timber carriers are loaded with weight above deck. Care
should be loaded with light containers on top tiers.
Therefore, in such vessels, stability must be evaluated
It may be necessary to load ballast water at lower levels
of the ship to bring down the CG.
Stability of Multibody Systems
Moment of Inertia of Waterplane about system
longitudinal axis =
Own M.I. About its own long. Axis + Transfer of MI to
system long. Axis. Thus
Trans M.I. = (own M.I. + Awp.d²)
where d: distance between the body long. Axis and
systen long. axis
High BM, KG can be high
Examples catamarans, trimarans, pentamarans,
SWATH vessels, floating semi-submersibles.
Training on Catamaran
CATAMARAN - Ferry
Trimaran Artist s Impression
Hydrofoil
SWATH Vessel
Semi-submersible platform
Thunder Horse, USA
Inclining experiment
Purpose : To determine the light ship weight and it CG position
Environmental Condition : Calm weather, no wind, waves or
current, preferably hip floating in dry dock
Ship condition : Ship nearly complete in all respects prior to
delivery
Experiment : Read Ta and Tf. Get ship displacement and LCB
pos t on an
ii
d KM f rom
hd y rostat i cs.
Th
en
light ship weight = Displacement and LCG = LCB
Move weight w though a distance d from one side of ship to the
other.
Measure heel angle (small) .
Then w . d = . GM . Tan and GM can be calculated and
KG = KM GM
Take usual expt. precautions repeat readings, take average and
make corrections for addition and removal of weights.