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Investigating CIrcles

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Math SL

Rachel McIntosh

Introduction

The aim of this task is to investigate the relationship between circles and their intersecting points.

.

In the diagram aside, Circle 2 (C2) is introduced has the centre point P

and has to intersect the centre of the original circle, C1 at point O.

Circle 3 (C3) has the centre A, where A is the point where C1

and C2 intersect. The point P is the intersection between C3

with the line OP.

r to evaluate the relationship between the circles and their

intersecting points

This circle diagram will be the foundation when examining the

relationship between circles and their intersecting points

DETERMINING OP

Letting r=1 , find OP, when OP= 2, OP=3 and OP=4.

To find OP the points A, O, P and P ( AOP) were used to create a

triangle

one below

such as the

OP WHEN OP = 2

Because both AP and OP equal 2, It is established that it is an isosceles triangle.

This means that angle O and angle A must be of the same value.

To determine the angle the Cosine rule: cos = OA2 + OP2 - AP2 / 2 x OA x OP is used.

cos = 12 + 22 - 22 / 2 x 1 x 2

= cos-1 (1/4)

= 75.5225

Therefore both AOP and OAP = 75.5225

out

triangle OAP

Since AOP = 75.5225 OPA is also

75.5225.

To find OAP:

180- (AOP + OPA) = OAP

180- 151.044 = 28.955

Therefore OAP = 28.955

Now that all three angles of OAP, I can evaluate the length of OP.The sine rule: sin a/ A = sin b/B

sin75.5225/ 1 = sin28.955 / OP

OP x sin75.5225 = sin28.955

OP = sin28.955 / sin75.5225

OP = 0.5 or

1/

2

The same method will be used below to determine the values of OP when OP = 2 and OP= 3.

OP when OP = 3

cos = 12 + 32 - 32 / 3 x 1 x 3

= cos-1 (1/6)

= 80.4059

Therefore both AOP and OAP = 80.4059

AOP = 80.4059 and OPA = 80.4059

Therefore to find OAP:

180- (AOP + OPA) = OAP

180- 160.8118 = 19.1881

Therefore OAP = 19.1881

sin 80.4059/ 1 = sin19.1881 / OP

OP x sin80.4059 = sin19.1881

OP = sin19.1881 / sin80.4059

OP = 1/3

OP when OP = 4

cos = 12 + 42 - 42 / 4 x 1 x 4

= cos-1 (1/8)

= 82.8192

Therefore both AOP and OAP = 82.8192

AOP = 82.8192 and OPA = 82.8192

Therefore to find OAP:

180- (AOP + OPA) = OAP

180- 165.6384 = 82.8192

Therefore OAP = 14.3615

sin 82.8192/ 1 = sin 82.8192 / OP

OP x sin 82.8192 = sin 82.8192

OP = sin 82.8192 / sin 82.8192

OP =

From these results we begin to see a pattern emerging which creates the formula: OP = 1 /OP

As OP is always the positive inverse of OP.

However, it could also be OP = r /OP.

To determine the correct general formula, I will need to keep OP constant and change the values of r.

INTERCHANGEABLE.

let OP=2 and find OP, when r = 2, r = 3 and r = 4.

different value of OP.

To determine the angle of both A and O I have used the

cos rule.

cos = OA2 + OP2 - AP2 / 2 x OA x OP

cos = 22 + 22 - 22 / 2 x 2 x 2

cos = 0.5

Therefore of O and A = 60

Therefore AOP and OAP = 60

Therefore OPA also equals 60 as the following

triangle is isosceles, so P and 0 are equal.

This means that

180 - (60 + 60 ) = 60

So OAP is 60

So, using the sin rule:

sin60 / 2 = sin 60 / OP

OP sin60 = 2 sin60

OP = 2 sin60 / sin60

OP = 2

If we apply this method to r= 3 and r=4 a pattern begins to emerge like before.

From the results its noticed that OP is equal to the squared value of the radius

dividedby OP.

Therefore OP = r2 / OP

This doesnt fit my previous formula of OP = r /OP. as the previous formula was

developed with r=1, not showing a difference if r was squared or not.

r

OP

OP

Formula

12 2

12 3

12 4

22 2

9/2

32 2

42 2

This is a more reliable formula as I have experimented with more data.

So far, the results throughout this investigation are: The formula OP = r2 / OP works with all of the above

results.

OP

Using graphmatica, I will now investigate further values of r and OP to find and test the validity of the current

formula, OP = r2 / OP.

1) r= 1 and OP = 1/2

KEY:

Circle 1 ( radius = 1)

Circle 2 ( radius = 1/2)

In the above diagram it can be seen that C3 cannot be sketched as there is no intersect of C1 and C2 that would

provide point A as the centre of C3.

Therefore I have established that when r = 1 and OP = 1/2 , OP cannot be defined.

This means that there is a limitation to my general statement, OP = r 2 / OP because r needs to be greater than

OP2 or r > OP2.

KEY:

Circle 1 ( radius = 3)

Circle 2 ( radius = 2)

Circle 3 ( radius = 3)

2) r= 3 and OP = 2

In the above diagram, C1 has the radius of 3 and OP is 2. Using the point of intersection of C1 and C2 as the

centre, C3 has been drawn.

Shown in the diagram, C3 has the x-intercept of 4.5, meaning that point OP is 4.5. This result works with my

general statement of OP = r2 / OP as

32 / 2 = 9/2 or 4.5

In the following table, I have calculated the value of OP for more various values of r and OP as well as

including previous results.

r

OP

OP

Formula

2/10

not defined

n/a

1/2

not defined

n/a

3/4

4/3

12 3/4

1/2

12 2

1/3

12 3

1/4

12 4

1/5

12 5

100

1/100

12 100

1000

1/1000

12 1000

2/10

not defined

n/a

1/2

not defined

n/a

3/4

9/32

3/42 2

22 2

9/2

32 2

42 2

not defined

n/a

LIMITATIONS

From the results above, it shows that the formula OP = r2 / OP works. However there are some values which are

not defined in the above table.

This is for reasons such as:

The radius must be a positive number, because it cannot be 0, or be a negative number, because it refers to

length.

If the radius of circle 2 is less than half the radius of circle 1, then the circle wont be large enough to intersect

with circle 1, therefore meaning the value of OP cannot be defined.

When the radius is less than the inverse of OP, circle 3 and OP will not intersect.

Therefore my general statement that OP = r2 / OP does not work for all values of r.

It should then therefore be written like:

OP = r2 / OP provided that r = ( r > 0 , r > OP2 , r < 2OP )

CONCLUSION

Through the experimentation of various values, its been discovered that there are the following limitations to the

formula OP = r2 / OP:

. r has to be greater than 0,

.r has to be greater that the squared value of OP

. r has to be less than twice the value of OP

The use of the program graphmatica enabled me to further explore and discover these limitations, in order to

arrive at a conclusive formula OP = r2 / OP provided that r = ( r > 0 , r > OP2 , r < 2OP ).

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