13
(12329)
A.R C. Technml
MINISTRY
AERONAUTICAL
OF SUPPLY
RESEARCH
CURRENT
The Viscid
COUNCIL
PAPERS
Flow
in a Narrow
of Air
Slot
G L. Shires
LONDON
Price 2s 6d net
OFFICE
Report
The Vucld
Flav of Air
rn a Narrw
Slot
 by G.L. Shires.
Intra&u3t~cn
2.0
The Equations
2.1
2.2
2.3
The ;ippwatus
4.0
The Aralysls
Coefficient
:
5
7
ii
9
\i'ldth
Depth
Conclusions
5.0
List
Flw
The TheoretxxilEquat.tlon
for Lanruar Flow
The Empuxal3quatk~1
usu~g the Resutvlce
Solutions for Thrct Partxular
Cases
3.0
::;
L.3
of Vlscld
10
of Illustrataons
IO
L3.st 9f Appendices
11
References
II
Appendices I to IV
Figures
1 .o
12
 16
1 to 13
Introduction
Although the above analysis 1s concerned ,iith the pressure drop alow, ;
narrwcc rectangular
slot the exparmental
results may also be expressed in tams
of %ch number, !4. For thu purpose tke mean velocity
bzsad on IY=SS flew,
iii=  G , 1s taken as representative
and values of ii calculated from the
c.a.h
expression Id=
. G
p.a.h
mOver the test length the i,&.ch nmbor was almys low and vlriatlons
mre negligible.
Hensti, ovc:c this sectron,
of temperature
ooeffx~ent,
number, Re.
The relationship
betweenh and. Rc for the flo;i of an mncofi\presslble
f'luld in pipes and slots has been a subjeot of research for marq yexs,
but
little
information
1s wadable
ooncern~~g the flow &a csmpresslble flud
subject to large char.ges in pressure and therefore to 1arr~ changes III Censrty.
Experiments have therefore been performed In slots of various shapes on the
flow of air subject to such changes, and the results,
when expressed In terns
of the paramtters A and Re, are compared with the results
3f experiments with
incompressible
fluids carrIea gut by Ylasius (Ref. 1).
2.0
The Equations
of TIxxzd
Flow
corresponding
to that
ob
The____
TheoretxcalEatlon

Consder an elementary
at a point In the slot.
for Larmnar
_ Flow
volume of the fluid,
The inertia
tern b*lng neglect&,
element m the dlrectlon
of the xs,
The vised
The pressure
force
=  g
which,
these forces
since s = I? . &
3Y
pressure,
i.'e obtan
anadS
ay
and
where s 1s the shearing
. 6X . 6;1 . 6e,
sltuated
: &Z . by . 6x . 6z
ay
fxce
as shown m Flg.la,
p 1s the denszty,
ancl u is
the relatlonshlp
&
a9
p.
, may be written
as
.l.....
fluid
2
III a sld
..(I)
adja
therefore,
cquatmn
iE?=,.i.s
8.x
Integrating
this
iilth
.*...**...*.
(2)
3Y2
to y we obtain
respect
u
(1) becomes
&
= L
2p
. y* + c, .Y + s:2
* a.x
3me
U= 0
. . . . . ~ *. . . . . . . .
and this
1s a parabolx
form of velocity
.(3)
profile.
1s
h
1
= h'ax
y2.aY
2.E.
s0
2li
=  92 .A?ax 12 P
**..
. . . . . . . . . ...(4)
?.o.h.u
 3 .".
&
dx
and, substituting
h3
12c
12.v.G
', . c . d
m thzs equation
c&
ax
or 2 . dp
of X,
the vslue
1211.RT.G
p.a.h3
=
.dx
?2p.KT.G
c . 0
of x, ths equation
so obtaaad.
. . . . . . ~. . . . . . . (5)
can be mtegmted
and
the z direction
being umty.
When cons:dermg
ment the assumptions made are that:1)
The kmetlc
2)
&=a
ay
the forces
acting
on this
ele
are negllglble,
= 0.
dz
I.e.
7 . (AE) . DOS 8 +
27.6x.
The pressure
force
acting
'u = p.
7 . (CD) . cos 6
m the &e&Ion
of motxon 1s given by
I (AB) sin @+ (C3,i an
h+(p+l&.&)
zax
 (> + ii? . 6x)(h + dh . 6~)
ax
ax
=p. h + (P + 5 2 . cx)
whxh
 iP + g
. &x)jh+
. 6~)
. . . . e,....
~ . . . . . . . . (6)
reduces to
P =
Equating
h.&.fix
7.
ax
=h.&.Sx
ax
&=
ax
or
Now T/$$
 27
h
1s the resdxmce
coeffux.ent,
h,
and hence
I_
c&.=h'k
,dx
* u
h
The coeffiolent,
A, 1s dependent on the Reynolds number, Re, apertainug.
For laminar flw the value ofh~ v&ah gives an equattlon da.tloal
tulth (5) in
section 2.1 1s
For turbulent
SubstltutughL
equatitlon (6),
g=
2.
as
we have
,=
h
where
by Blasius
3.
Re
G2
,, .c 2 .h 3
or
whxh
=  12 p.RT.G.dx
c . d
P . dP
(5).
+p=~.~=
Rei
0.079.
1
ReL
flow we substitute
G2
p . a2 . d
7
=  I0 067
i;
G
pt.
I
h3.
a4
.p
I!
or
p . ap
p . RT .
= _ 0.067
a;:
.
2.3
G4
. &
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(7)
Solutions

Cases
a mnd
.h oonstant
_
The lntegratlon
of equation
for steadjr lamu~~r flow.
p2
or Pq
=.Z~IJ
 P22
gives in this
(5)
.RT
. G(+
x1)
. . . . . . . . . . . .(3)
. . . . ..*......
(5)
0 . h3
On lntegratlng
equation
73
we obtain
(7),
ECconstant
for turbulent
flow
. . . . . . . . (IO)
Case 2. h constant
__
.pf_ and a= cx x
If
in this
circular
the frIctiona
effect of the two side walls 1s negleoted, the flow
case 1s analogous to the r&al
flow between two wLfx%Ly
spaced
flat plates and by symmetry the pressure at any radius 1s cons'csxt.
5
ProvxM.,
therefore,
that the tivergence 1s small the pressure in any plane
perpendmular
to the axis 1s approxmately
constant and equatmns (5) and (7)
may be applied.
By substituting
in these equstlons & = o( .s, w obtazn for
larmnar flow
p,ap
whxh when integrated
= constant
or PI 2  P22
ap
P.
 24 u .RT . G . lo&
q . h3
i
= 24 u . RT . G . log,
o(. h3
x2
T
. . . . . . . . . . (12)
>
. ..*......*.......
(13)
fla7,
I
0.067
y:
.
RT
.
G'
1
ct.4 . h3
becomes
= constant
p2
e
x
becomes
P2
12p.RT.G.
cx . h3
kdth
&
1
x4
I
0.178 P . RP . G4 . 1
I
x4 i
z
GC4 .h3
Case 3. Constant
and. Inoreaslw
. . . . . . . . ..a.. (14)
Depth
As the deviation 3f the two plane surfaces is very small, the components
of velocity
perpendicular
to tht ax~ of the slot must also be very small, and
the pressure distribution
zver any cross sectlsn x,therefore,
assumed to be
dorm.
For laminar
P *
dp
flsw,
_
and %ghenintegrated
p*
or PI 2 p22
by substituting
1211.RT.G
@ .P 3
vkch
constant
we abtam
&
x3
+ '2 p 6 RT * G . 1
i \ a.!3 3
x2
12i1.W.G
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(16)
. . . . . . . ..*............
(7) we have, for
turbulent
(t7)
flow,
 9.067 p' . RT , Gt . +
3
1
3
04
* p
when integrated
p*
(5),
thus becomes
3
a  B
By the same substitution
in equation
P . dp =
h = p . x in equation
gives
,..*,...*.*...*
6
(18)
.RT.G
or
PI
p*2
0.067 I cl;
04 .
8,
1
x1
11
A xz2 I
119)
.*............
p3
of two fl2t
The a~p~aratus, as shm,n m Fly. 3, consisted essentially
steal plst'3s sepwated by thin strips sf st2e1 arranged so as t3 form a
The two plates uutire made I" thick to prevent
passage of the required. shape.
8
any appreciable bchdlng, ana, after the upper one hd b?en case h~dencd,
ground
the surfaces forming the hvrleonta.1 iinlls of the slot were carefully
The m~.~mnundenatum
fron the plane,
and tested against an optical "flat".
as estimated by cxntlng
the lnterfzrenoe
fringes,
was about 50 , 106 inches.
Between the tws plates the sl;t *,ns bouded Qn each 31de by strips of steel,
whxh In the case 3f the slots sf constant depth wre of single thickness
but which far slots of vnryzng depth were overlapped In the form 3f steps.
i;'hen the blzck was nsstmbled and firmljr clamped togtther
a szallng conpoUd
was applld
uxternelly
ta 11 the jomnts.
nlr nt z recorded tempedxrre,
T, passed
During the t&.sts cxpresxd
rtservoir
1n
through a wtcrlng
scctlon and lnt t'he sharp edged rectangular
From there It flowd
along the rectangular
passaga between
the upper plate.
pressure being recorded at intervals
the two plates tc atmosphere, the stdx
A line of 7 grLssure tlpplngs
across the slot at
of :I" docg ths 1x1s.
right angles to the 2x1s was use& 2s a check upon the setting of the block,
since any ;nclir,atlon
rf the tv3 surfaces In a plane perpendicular
to the
axis would rtsult
in 2~1~ssyrrwtrxs.1
pressure tistrlbutlon
over these 7
pslnts.
The pressure dlstrxbutxn
at this cross sectron was found to be
umforn as nssuned m the thecry.
The procedure for a<ach test da3 the same and cznsrsted of two parts.
Th6 first
%ras the recwding
of the xlal
pressure dxtribution
for VwlOus
It
values zf the reservoz
pressure, po, and the anjlysrs
sf these results.
was lnverxbly
found that the prxssure dxtrlbution
avtir the central 3"
length sf slat cudxmtd
t3 thz correspstilng
theoretical
form and thd this
The second part of
length could be cx~s~Lred as a sultsble ta:st length.
the procedure involved ,n xwzstlgatlon
of the rilat.tlxxhip
between the a~
mass fl<w, G, in the slot and the prtssures p, and p2, where p, denotes the
pressure at the upstream end <andp2 the pressure at the downstrean end of
the test length.
4.0
The hnalysls
Case 1. Constmt
Cross Section

and a depth,
and O.OC93".
, is a measure
to flaw and is plstted l~garlthdcall~ngalnst the OOFXSHere, the SIX curves represent the results
G, in Fig. 5.
7
PI2
= Constant
G" .
 X1
X2
x2
 x,
of the measured value, is with one exccptron less than $ for 1armns.r flow and
less t hen 1% for turbulent
flow.
The larger overall discrepancy in the case
where h = O.OOjC'" is probably due to a small error in the measurement ,~f h.
To complete the picture a graph is given in Pig. 7 of the resistance
coefficient,
A, against the Rsynold's number, Ra, where h and Re are calculated
according to the equations derived in Appendix II.
For laminnr flow the
points lie on the theoretical
curv,,, XT> = ?L!L, but for turbulent
florJ the
lie
0.079 , as stchod by Blasius gives values of the
empirical
expression, hT = ._
Em;
resistance coefficient
Lswr than those calculated
from the test results.
The experimental points for turbulent
flow lie close to tho two curves,
hTsyandhTs?ip,
th,: first
fitting
the results for h = 0.0033" and
Rez
ReZ
the second the results for h = 0.0058" snd h = 3.0040".
Except for the case
where h = 0.0050", the results indicate that the smalltr the value of h the
closer lie the points to the e?prricni
ourvz,hT
=q
.
ReT
The tranmtion
from laminar to turbulent
flow takes place over a range
of Re whuhichis slightly
different
for each slot.
These ranges are given in
Appendix III,
the average values of Re at the beginning and at the end of
transition
being 2,120 md 3,810.
4.2
Case 2. Constant
?idth
Two slots were used, each having n constant depth, h, and an increasing
width given by n = (;( . x.
The drpth in each case was O.C036", and the values
of awere 0.1 and. 0.2.
reveals
p2
= C+D.i
AB.log,x
The analysis
8.
and
for turbulent
flow.
2
A, a, C, and D are constants,
and x is the axial distance from the imaginary
pslnt of intersection
of the two side walls.
In this ease the analysis is
nat SJ accurate as for case 1 and, although a strazghht line is obtained by
plotting
p2 against x0.75,
this figure cannot be taken as exact since a sin=lzr straight
line may be obtained by plotting
p2 against x", where n rs.ng3~
fron 0.70 to 0.80.
The slight scatter due to errors in the rea&ngs of p is
sufficient
to mask the small deviations
from the linear obtained with the variation of n over this range.
In the first
G" of slot
length
divergence
from
 gz2
= Can&ant
. G;"
Depth
Two slots of constant width equal to 1.8 ' were used, each having a
depth given by h = fi . x,xhere' e was 0.5 . IO 3 in one test and. 0.67 . IO3
1.n the Jther.
central
= x+02
= Constant
1,mma.r flow
. Gn
flaw.
The theoretical
Landempiracal ourvos obtained from equations (17) and
are also shown ~.n Fig. 11.
The d.xwre~anoy between the test results
and the theoretIca
curves fur laxlnar flow is unexpected., since all previous
lsmumr results have been in close agreement snth the theory.
For this
reason an error in the calculation
of e was suspected and it is shown in
Appendix IV that a difference
of la;?. in the theoretrcal
value of (p,2 _ ~22)
rwy be duo to a difference
In lj of less than 49.
The discrepency rosy,
therefore,
be due to an error in the measurement 3f h of onlyQ.C0J2", an
error which IS quite possible wath the stopped shims used in this case.
The
laminar rssults 'iere accordingly
assumed to be correct and new values of p
calculated.
(19)
c = 0.49
x 103 respa3avely.
It appezrs that the constant (XT , Rei) nay
be dependent upm the sld divergence and sz It 1s plAted
agamst I: m
Since
the
nean
&pth
3f
the
tw
slots
used.,m
this
case was less
Q.
13.
the value of (AT . R&) cxrdspmding
to
than 0.006" (see section 4.l.j,
e = 0 (Case 1.) wz.a taken as 0.081.
F1.g:. 13 shms that the three pomts
lie apprximtely
m a straight
lme, thus mdmattlng
a possible relatmnship bttweenhT,
Re, and [ of the fxm
hT = 0.81
 28 p
Rei
However, further
5.0
tests
ml1
be necessary
to vbrd'y
thus hypothesis.
Conclusions
The cmparison
3f the tist results
and empmical relatlonshlps
shows that
fx the flm 3f air ux ,md nammv alot,
and that the length consderod do,us mt
x the slzt txit.
\:lth these prxisims
kinetic
energy are negligible.
so that
thexy
1s valid.
3f Illustrntlms
Flsv Thedry.
Cmsdered.
Dmtrdmtlon
m the Slot
Conparmon with
Scde Effect
Theory.
(Case 1).
af Pressure
m the Slst
(Case 2).
Pressure Dlstrlbutlon
Effect
(Case I).
in Case 1.
Pressure Dlstrlbution
Effect
(Case 1).
=n the Slot
(Case 3).
Scale Effect
The Effect
m Case 3.
of Slot Dlvur~ence.
ik!lsranaum
List
No.
M.46.
af Append~es
Appendix I
Appendix II
The Calculatrsn
Appendix III
Trarmtion
Values of Re.
Appen&x IV
The Effect
sf h and Re.
Refzrcnces
Jg.
1.
Author
N.A.V. Piercy
Title
Aerodynamics:
11
pp.
278;
E.U.P.:
1937.
mm1x
List
3f SyriDols Used
absolute
pressure
aens1ty
zbsolute
!J
coefficient
af absolute
ooefflclent
of kmemtic
width
depth of slot
I.
length
Ilass flaw
valne
ii
man velocity
surface
reslstanm
Re
Reyndds
tenperature
viscosity
vmcoslty
of slot
of test
sectmn
I?f flow
=
Qc . h
frxtmn
T
= p ii2
2
coeffloxnt
number
2 .h
.u
11
 12 
AP?ENDIX II
The odculztlun
based on the formula
of the Rejwdds:
Re
where
results
1s
= 4m.c
v
m =
ii
and. v
the klnematw
Fx a slot af rectangular
ble compared with a, the width,
Therefore
the test
Re
depth,
vlwx'slty.
cross section
is negl~gl
= =.h.ii
P
That is
equatix
whxh,
Re
= ?s.
fi . P
Fran oonsderdlx
(6) 1s dw~ved
since
and, replacing
p.ap
. . . . . ..*....*..*m
af on ele;ler;tary
irk .sotmn 2.2.
p L Li , a . h ,
fip
=A
dx
. G2
J . n 2 . h3
;l by $
volume of air
This g~vos
(20)
bccomzs
, : e have
=
h . RT ~ G2
. dx
. . . . . . ...........
c2 h3
t 21)
P,2P$
=
a2 . d
 13 
ma hence
h
PI
2  P22
c2 h3
. . . . . . . . . . . ..(22)
2 RT . G2
x2  7
ana
This is p , dp
P12  P*2
 A.
RT , G2 . &
x3
2 63
A.
RT . G2 (1
a2 p3
2
Xl
2
2)
x2
....o..,,,.......*
 II+ 
(23)
Ax?ENDIX III
Transltmn
flm
The followmg
flm far each test,
fron the relation
V'alucs of RC
Range of G
lbs ./set.
(22.9
(20.0
 28.8)
(16.6
 37.2)
(17.38
(15.9
to turbulent
lb/ft.
 31.6)
Range d' Re
1.189
. lO5
2,640
. 10'4
1.198
. 155
2,290
 3,290
, IO4
1.201
. 105
1,890
 4,250
1.198
. lo5
1,990
 4,150
1.225
. IO5
I.780
 3,540
) . 104
 36.3)
sec.
. 1O4
, IO4
/
%ith
th e available
au supply it was not possible t'3 obtam
in the slot having a depth of 0.0030" and the higher limits
cannot,
therefore,
be given XI this case.
15
are
turbulent
flow
of transltzon
APTNDIX Iv
The
 Effect
of Errxs
m the Measurement of 8
agamst
a straight
ti
empmxal
line
IS obtund
The pod
0 is then flxed,
of the angle GOA.
equstims
for
slots
the
pq2p22
and
0.067 ,I ; . ET . G4
04 3
for turbulent
flow,
3
2.0".
of h cre
h"
lo3
of @ whxh, since
m the theoretxal
Then
6.0".
lO3
0.667 . 103
Suppose that the actual
h'
Then P*(the
real
value)
=
=
values
of h are
1.933.
h"  h'
x1'  x'
103
=J.667.
6
The resulting
error in (p,2  p,2)
a maximum error, Sh", of only 0.0002".
h"
103
IS, therefore,
 16 
5.8".
 0.6L5
lo3
.
IC3
FIG. I.
VISCID
(4
ELEMENTARY
FLOW
THEORY.
VOLUME
OF FLUID
(b)
ELEMENTARY
VOLUME
BfTWEEN
TWO PLATES
FIG. 2.
THE
TYPES
OF SLOT
CONSIDERED.

(4
CASE
CONSTANT
CROSS
(L = CONSTANT
SECTION
a=d
A=
CASE 2
(b>
IN CREASI NG
CONSTANT
WIDTH
Q = CONSTANT
kk
03
CASE
INCREASING
rL
DfpTH
= p
FIG.3.
THE
TEST
BLOCK.
FIG 4.
PRESSURE
(CASE
DISTRIBUTION
I : CONSTANT
CROSS
IN THE
SECTION,
SLOT
I .75)
a. =
60
01
Ccl)
I
I
DISTANCE
(4
I
2'
DfPlHR
FROM m=VUlR
 0amo
INCHfZS
INCHfS
43
FIG.5.
EFFECT
OF
PRESSURE
I : CONSTANT
CROSS
DROP
ON
SECTION,
FLOW.
MASS
a = 1 .75)
TURBULENT
FLOW.
_.L
TRANSIl
3.5
3
IN
t.0
FIG. 6.
COMPARISON
(CASEI :
CONSTANT
WITH
THEORY.
3.5 /
//
FIG. 7.
SCALE
EFFECT
IN CASE
I.
0038
0 034
0 030
I
!2
w
OGO8
lO,QQQ
5,QOO
RCfNOLDS
NUMBER
Re
FlG.8.
PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION
(CASE 2 : CONSTANT
IN THE
SLOT:
60
I
0
I
DISTANCE FROM
WIDTH
INCREASINL;
,a
I
DISTANCE
WIDTH
o(
RfSfRVOlR
INCREASINq
43l
= 0I
2
FROM
4
INCHES
2
3
RESERVOIR

M=OZ
INCHES
49
FIG. 9.
EFFECT
OF PRESSURE
CASE
2 :
CONSTANT
DEPTH,
38
= 34.5
IO; Q=d*Y
LAMINAF
FLOW
THEO:OREITICAL RELATIONSHIPS
SHOWN AS BROKEN
LINES.
z.8
LOG10 G  G
3.0
IN
LB./SEC.
52
34
PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION
( CASE: 3 : CONSTANT
IN
WIDTH,
30
THE
I a3;
(9
DEPTH
90
/3.x)
INCHES
= 0.5 x la 3
80
70
IL =
FIG IO.
SLOT.
TEST
LENCTH
y=
3*
60
50
40
30
20
IO
0
0
DISTANCE
INCRE,WN~
FROM
2.
RESERVOIR
DEPTH
 p = 0*67*X
INCHES
lO3
49
FIG. II.
EFFECT
OF
(CASE
PRESSURE
3:
CONSTANT
DROP
WIDTH,
ON MASS
a = 1.83:
di = p .x)
38
36
THEORETICAL
SHOWN AS
T.6
5.0
LOG10 4
RELATIONSHIPS
LINES
BROKfN
32
IN
LB/SEC
34
56
FLOW.
FIG. 12.
SCALE
EFFECT
(CORRECTED
VALUES
IN CASE
0~
3.
R>
0 08
RESULTS
0 07
Q
A
006
,A=
(A=
/WC)
p = 049 x 103
p = 0.64
x ro3
Rf?
0 05
0 04
0.03
r
SI
t
o0;
r!?i
A=
0 01
0
IO
1000
REYNOLDS
2000
3000
NUMBER
Re
FIG 13
THE EFFECT OF SLOT
DIVERGENCE.
0
SLOT
(4
DlVER~fNCE
VARIATION
Of (h.
,f3 X IO3
Reg)
WITH
/3
0
B
THE: STEPPED
(b)
THE fFFfCT
OF ERRORS
IN THf
SHIMS.
MEASLlRfMf
NT OF /3.
f IG 14.
MACH
NUMBER
VARIATION.
0a
+
/I
043 
1
%
MASS &V
(9
EXIT
MACH
O6
0.4
PARAMETER, $ANUMBER
ID
03
LB/SEC. IN!
DS 47612llIR.72
Kj
8150
DL
C.P. No.13
(12329)
ARC. Technical
S.Q.
Code
No
Report
23.90%.13