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Classification: Internal

Status: Draft

Natural Gas Liquefaction


TEP 10 Gas Processing and LNG Fall 2008

Jostein Pettersen

Simplified LNG plant block diagram

Fuel
gas
CH4/N2

End
flash
HHC
Extraction

Power
&
heat

Hammerfest LNG plant - block flow diagram


N2 to atm.

CO2 reinjection
(to pipeline)

Fuel gas
system
Feed from
pipeline

Slug
catcher

Inlet facilities/
Metering

CO2
removal

CO2 drying
and
recompression

Nitrogen
removal
LNG
Storage

Dehydration

Mercury
removal

C1 / C2 / C3 Refrig. Make
-up
MEG
Recovery

Natural gas
liquefaction

Fractionation
(Refrigerant
Make-up)

LNG
Storage

LPG
Storage

Lean MEG
(to pipeline)
Condensate
treatment
Utility
Systems

Flare
Facilities

Condensate
Storage

Control
room

Gas conditioning (pre-treatment)


Acid Gas (CO2 and H2S) removal
Acid gas causes corrosion, reduces heating value, and may freeze and create solids in cryogenic
process
Typical requirements for LNG: Max 50 ppmv CO2, Max 4 ppmv H2S
(ppmv - parts per million by volume)

Dehydration (water removal)


Water will freeze in cryogenic process
Typical requirement: Max 1 ppmw (weight) H2O

Mercury removal
Mercury can cause corrosion problems, especially in aluminium heat exchangers
Requirement: Max 0.01 g/Nm3

Gas quality constraints for gas liquefaction

Source: Advantica

Natural gas and LNG composition


Design data for Hammerfest LNG plant
Composition mol %
Component Slug catcher Liquefaction plant
Nitrogen
2,51
2,67
Methane
80,02
86,34
Ethane
4,97
6,54
Propane
2,50
2,68
Butane
1,22
1,23
Pentane
0,58
0,35
C6+
1,62
0,15
Aromatics
0,23
0,02
CO2
5,20
0,005
H2S
0,0005
0
Water
0,81
0
MEG
0,35
0
Total
100
100

LNG
1,10
91,92
5,59
1,11
0,23
0,04
0
0
0,005
0
0
0
100

Example of ageing/weathering during LNG transport


40.55

GCV (MJ/Sm)

40.5
40.45
40.4
Calculated ageing
effect during the
voyage from Melkya
to USA, Cove Point

40.35
40.3
40.25
0

10

12

14

16

Day
Calculated according to ISO 6976 based on real gas

Nitrogen Removal
Nitrogen need to be removed from LNG in order to meet

Storage and transport specification (Roll Over)


Fuel gas requirements
LNG Heating Value requirements
Systems to handle N2 will vary in complexity, from simple end flash drums, to
complex distillation columns systems for separating N2 from the LNG

Example of end flash with LNG turbine


Flash gas (containing nitrogen) used as fuel gas
High-pressure LNG
from cryogenic HE

Gen Set

LNG
EXPANDER

END
FLAS H

HP
FUEL GAS

LNG
RUNDOWN

Gen Set

LNG at nearatmospheric pressure


pumped to storage tank

10

Qatargas LNG plant layout

Utility power
and steam

Sulphur
recovcery

Utilities

Slugcatch
er

Condensate
stabilization

11

MCR Heat
Exchanger

Gas turbines
and
compressors

CCR

CO2
absorber

Qatargas

12

Jetty

Atlantic LNG Trinidad


(Air cooled)
Jetty

Compressors

Air cooled
condenser
s

Cold boxes
(Heat exchangers)

Classification: Internal

Area 1

Status: Draft

Area 2

Area 3

LAYOUT - HAMMERFEST LNG


PLANT
HP flare
Grid substation

LP flare

Subsea road
tunnel
Administration building / control
room
Sea water outlet /sea water
Holding basin / waste waterinlet

Camp area

treatment
Utility
MDEA storage / substation
fuel gas

Condensate storage
tank

Compressed air and inert gas


facilities
Landfall
Offshore utility substation
MEG process
area
MEG substation
MEG storage tank
area
Hot oil and

LNG storage
tanks
Product jetty
LPG storage tank
Storage & loading
N2substation
cold box
NG Cold box
Process
substation
Electrical power generation

chemical storage
tanks

Pig receiver

Compression area, barge


Process area, barge

Construction jetty
Slug catcher

14

Gas liquefaction process - ideal


Example: Natural gas at 60 bar, 10oC ambient temperature

50

Heat is removed as the gas is


cooled at gliding temperature
Ambient temperature 10oC

Heat removed during liquefaction


(Q), and ideal work (W), are shown
as areas

Gas pressure has a large influence


on work

Ideal work of liquefaction: Natural gas


at 60 bar: 0.11 kWh/kg

60

10
20 bar

-30
Temperature, C

100

p=1.3 bar

-70
-110
-150
-190

-230

(0.8 % of Lower Heating Value)


-273
-270
-6

-4
-2
Entropy, kJ/(kgK)

15

Energy (fuel gas) use for liquefaction

Energy input as % of LHV

20

Liquefaction process 2nd law


Efficiency of power generation:

(exergy) efficiency typically


around 50%

30 %

15

50 %

Typical fuel use 5-10% of feed


Ambient temperature and feed

100 %

10

gas pressure has large effect


Hammerfest

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Exergy efficiency of liquefaction cycle, %

16

Natural gas cooling

Cooling of natural gas stream occurs


over large temperature span
Heat must be removed from natural gas
stream at varying temperature

Temperature of evaporating refrigerant


must be as high as possible to reduce
power need for heat pumping

Close match between NG temperature


curve and refrigerant temperature can
be achieved by

T, oC

Ambient temperature (air / sea water)

10oC
NG
Pumping of heat

- using many stages of

evaporation temperature
(cascade process), or

- using a refrigerant that

evaporates at gliding
temperature (mixed refrigerant
process)

-160oC
Heat transferred

17

Temperature difference in heat exchangers is increasingly


important at lower temperatures
Consequence: T need to be

reduced as much as possible at


low temperatures

W = T0 S = To(SC - SH)

W/Q - Change in work (MW) per MW


heat transferred, for 1 K delta T

To

T = 1 K

SC

SH

Sub-ambient temperature
W = extra power input needed to
compensate for heat transfer across
a temperature difference of T = 1 K

10

Ambient temp 10oC


0,1
Increased work
input

0,01
-250

-150

-50

Reduced work
output

50

150

Temperature, deg C

W grows more than exponentially


as temperature level T is reduced

18

Natural gas path through liquefaction


pressure-enthalpy diagram (C1:89.7% C2:5,5% C3:1.8% N2:2.8%)
100

-200oC

-100oC

-150oC

-50oC

0 oC
Precooling

Liquefaction

Subcooling

50oC

Pressure [bara]

Expansion

10

JT Throttling

1
-900

End
-800 flash -700

-600

-500LNG

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

19

Simple vapour compression refrigeration system


Flow circuit
Condensing refrigerant

Heat sink
(Air/water)

Condenser
High pressure

Compressor
Expansion valve
Low pressure

Fluid to
be cooled

Evaporator

Evaporating
refrigerant

20

Refrigeration cycle in ph-coordinates (propane)


3
Evaporation at -30oC

40oC at
Compressor
discharge

Condensation at 30oC

2
100,0

T [oC]: -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60

80 100

1
3

10,0
Pressure [bara]

Evaporating
temperature 30oC

1,0

Condensing
temperature 30oC
0,1
-700

-600

-500

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

10

21

Refrigeration cycle in Th-coordinates (propane)


120
100
80

25
20

Temperature [C]

60

15
40

10

20

2 bar

0
-20

p = 1 bar

-40
-60
-80
-700

-600

-500

-400

-300
-200
-100
Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

100

200

300

22

Vapour pressure of pure fluids relevant for LNG


processes
Refrigerant Vapour Pressure

100

CO2
C1

N2

Ethylene
C2

Pressura(Bara)

C3
10

n-C4
LNG Range

1
-200

-150

-100

-50

50

Temp(C)

11

23

Data for some relevant fluids


Normal boiling point, at 1.013 bara
Enthalpy of evaporation at NBP

Nitrogen

NBP

dhNBP

[C]

[kg/kJ]]
[kJ/kg

Triple point
[bara]
[C]

N2

-195,75 202,678

-210,0

Critical point
[bara]
[C]

0,125 -146,95

33,944

0,117 -82,55

46,002

Methane

CH4

-161,45 522,080

-182,5

Ethylene

C2H4

-103,71 487,132

-169,2

0,0012

9,20

50,359

Carbon dioxide

CO2

-78,45 392,780

-56,6

5,170

31,05

73,765

Ethane

C2H6

-88,65 496,999

-182,8 0,000013

32,25

48,839

Propane

C3H8

-42,07 431,517

-187,6 1,960E-09

96,67

42,496

n-Butane

C4H10

-0,45 389,746

-138,3 6,740E-06 152,05

37,997

Normal sublimation temperature (NBP lower than triple point temp)

24

Phase envelope
(for a given composition)

Cricondenbar

Bubble Point Curve

Boundary between liquid phase and 2-phase region

Dew Point Curve

Boundary between gas phase and 2-phase region.

Critical Point

Location where bubble point and dew-point curves meet.

Cricondentherm

Highest T in phase envelope.

Cricondenbar

Highest P in phase envelope.

Quality Lines

Lines of constant volumetric or molar percentage of a phase.

Bubblepoint Curve

Critical

Pressure

Dew Point Curve

75%

Quality
Lines

50%
Cricondentherm
25%

Temperature

12

25

Tx-diagram example:
Cooling C2/C3 at a constant pressure of 5 bara
Equilibrium between
liquid and vapour

5
0

Bubble

Superheated
vapour

-5

Dew

(Saturated)

T em p erature [C ]

-10
Temp/concentration
of last vapour to
condense

Two-phase

-15
-20
-25

-30
-35
Temp/concentration
of first liquid
condensed

-40
-45
-50

Subcooled
liquid

-55
-60
0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
Weight-% Ethane

26

Mixed-fluid process in Th-coordinates


(50/50 w-% C2/C3)
120
100
80

T em p eratu re [C ]

60
40

25

20

20
15

10
-20

2 bar
-40
-60
-80
-800

p = 1 bar
-700

-600

-500

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

13

27

Process licensors Base load LNG plants

Air Products and Chemicals Inc (APCI)


World leader since since the 1970s More than 130 Mtpa installed, 50 Mtpa under construction,
more than 60 operating trains
C3MR process ( < 60 trains)
AP-XTM Hybrid (Qatar Gas II, 2 x 7.8 Mtpa, Start up 2008 and 2009)

ConocoPhillips (Optimised) Cascade


Trinidad: Atlantic LNG - 4 trains
Egypt: Idku
Alaska: Kenai (Operating since 1969!)
Australia: Darwin LNG
Equatorial Guinea

Shell

Linde/Statoil MFC Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (Snhvit, 4.3 Mtpa start up 2007)

DMR Double Mixed Refrigerant (Sakhalin, 2 x 4.8 Mtpa)


PMR (same as C3MR but parallel MR circuits) no references

Axens Liquefin (No references)

Mtpa = Million tonnes per year

28

Cascade process for natural gas liquefaction


1.4 bar

45 bar

1.4 bar

19 bar

1.4 bar

LNG -155 C

-96 C

-32 C

7 bar

12 C

NG

Methane
Ethylene
Propane

14

29

Mixed-fluid process in Th-coordinates


(50/50 w-% C2/C3)
120
100
80

T em p eratu re [C ]

60
40

25
20

20
15

10

-20

2 bar

-40
-60

p = 1 bar

-80
-800

-700

-600

-500

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

30

Principles of mixed refrigerant cycle


(Prico single-mix cycle)
Composition:

NG
12 C

30 bar

NG

6,5 C

12 C

99,8 C
-155 C
LN
G

5 bar
-155 C

-155,5 C

Refrig

C1

0.897 0.360

C2

0.055 0.280

C3

0.018 0.110

nC4

0.001 0.150

N2

0.028 0.100

15

31

Temperature - Enthalpy
150

Mixed refrigerant dew point line


Mixed refrigerant 30 bar
Mixed refrigerant bubble point line

100

Temperature, C

50

NG 60 bar

NG dew point line


-50

Mixed refrigerant 5 bar

NG bubble point line


-100

-150

-200
-1500

-1000

-500

500

1000

1500

Enthalpy, x 10^6 kJ/hr

32

Mixed Fluid Cascade

(MFC)

process (Linde-Statoil)

NG

Three mixed refrigerant circuits


Precooling (Mainly: C2, C3)

PrePre-cooling
Section

Liquefaction (Mainly: C1, C2, C3)

E1A

Subcooling (Mainly: N2, C1, C2)


CW1

E1B

C1

Liquefaction
Section

E2

CW2
C2

SubSub-cooling
Section

E3

LNG

CW
3A/B

G
X1

Cascade connection of the circuits


Precooling in two (sometimes three)
stages
No fractionation of the mixed
refrigerant flows
Expander on subcooling cycle

C3

16

33

Heavy hydrocarbon extraction

Natural gas
from pre-processing

Scrubber column (Snhvit)

Natural gas liquids (NGL/LPG) are formed during


precooling, and can/must be separated from the gas
stream

Propane and butane are valuable products

Extraction process is needed to reach lean gas


specifications, LNG specs demand that C3 and C4 is
removed

A relatively simple solution is to use a scrubber column


that separates out liquid components which are formed
during cooling of the natural gas

Some LPG is fractionated to give pure C1, C2 and C3 for


refrigerant make-up

Precooling

-25oC

-50oC

Scrubber column

Natural Gas Liquefaction Circuiting

LPG Fractionation
Refrigerant make-up

34

Feedgas from
pre-processing

Precooling

Liquefaction

Subcooling
CH4 from
nitrogen
removal

N2/CH4 to
nitrogen
removal

LPG Fractionation
Refrigerant make-up
LNG

17

35

Natural gas circuiting

36

Composite temperature curves - Hammerfest


Overall Heat / Temperature Diagram for Cold Equipment in System 25
Snhvit A Plant Feed Stock
360

320

280

Heat [MW]

240

200

160

120

R
e
b
o
i
l
e
r

Liquefaction
Refrigerant

Subcooling Refrigerant

Precooling Refrigerant

80

40

0
110

130

150

170

190

210

230

250

270

290

Temperature [K]
Hot (sum)
Cold (sum)

18

37

Precooling cicruit

25-133

SW

25-262

25-171
25-UV-1009
25-UV-1308

25-129

25-164

27

25-HX-103
25-166

25-158
25-TV-1268

25-128

46A
25-162

25-HG-103 A/B
25-161
25-HV-1302

25-HX-101
25-125

25-VE-102

25-154

25-181

25-132

25-131

SC I

SC II

25-UV-1878

25-130

25-121

25-169

25-163

25-127

25-281.1

25-254

25-PV-1255B
42-104

25-124

25-257

25-149

42

25-155

25-156

25-149.1
25-FV-1203

27A

25-137

25-179

25-HX-102

25-PV-1559

25-135

25-256
25-FV-1236A
25-FV-1236B

26

25-PV-1560B
25-PV-1560C

25-VD-104

25-PA-102 A/B

25-FV-1543
25-132.2

25-141

25-PV-1282A
25-HV-1138

25-255

25-148

25-253

25-211

25-143

25-CT-101

25-EG-101

25-VD-106

25-259

46A

25-260

26A

25-140.2

25-140.1

25-165

25-261

26B

25-FV-1451

26-139

25-FV-1562A
25-FV-1562B

25-144.1

25-KA-103

25-120

27A
25-PV-1282B

25-PV-1561B
25-PV-1561C

25-VD-114
START-UP LINE

25-VD-107A

25-173

25-UV-1010

25-209
25-177

27A

25-133.1

25-258

25-136

25-183

LC
25-KA-102

25-140

26-174

25-VD-107

25-VD-105

25-223

25-FV-1221A
25-FV-1221B

25-113

25-VD-112

25-VD-110

25-133.2

25-820

25-115

25-225

MIN. FLOW

25-122.1
25-PV-1561A

25-FV-1227A
25-FV-1227B

25-215

25-121.1
25-202

25-PV-1560A
25-122.2

25-810

26-205

25-196

25-UV-1548

25-203

25-818

25-816

25-116

25-FV-1546

ANTISURGE

25-118
25-LV-1435A
25-LV-1435B
25-817

25-819

25-UV-1877

27A

25-189
25-114

25-806

25-219

25-102

25-KA-101

25-117
25-808

25-121.2

25-LV-1327A
25-LV-1327B

SW
25-HA-113

ANTISURGE

25-206

25-807

25-141

PC

25-105
25-117

42

25-196.1

25-196.3

25-196.2
25-FV-1549

25-205

25-VD-101

25-196.4

25-UV-1879

ANTISURGE

START UP RECYCLE

ANTISURGE

25-815

25-HA-104
SW

25-132.1

25-202

25-200

MIN. FLOW

26A
26-140

25-168

26-102

25-106

25-FV-1550

26B

25-114

25-190

25-HG-102 A-F

25-809

25-280

26-112
25-811

25-VD-111

26D

25-112

25-142

26-184

25-271

25-812

25-813

25-FV-1224A
25-FV-1224B

25-HG-101 A-D

25-LV-1430A
25-LV-1430B
25-268

26-175
25-109
25-FV-1219A
25-FV-1219B

25-805

26-180

25-801

25-272

26C

25-108

25-804
25-139

25-VD-109

25-803

25-802

26D

25-LV-1448

25-248

25-LV-1321A
25-LV-1321B

26C

25-111

25-LV-1463

25-252

25-VE-101

25-195
25-UV-1012

25-274

25-VD-102

25-UV-1011

25-273

25-VD-116

25-HG-105

25-264

25-110

25-138

25-172

25-HA-114

25-201

25-279

MIN. FLOW

25-247

25-270

25-HA-101

MIN. FLOW LINE

25-263.1

25-PV-1626

25-277

25-249

25-HG-104

25-167
27-131

27-FV-1025

27-130

27

25-156.1

25-156.2

25-159

25-153

25-HA-105
25-123
25-152

25-212

HO

25-134

G
25-EG-102

25-CT-102
25-PV-1316
25-157

25-PA-103 A/B

25-144

25-FV-1654
25-FV-1657

25-FV-1531

25-126

SW

21-102

25-VD-115

25-251

SW

25-LV-1007
25-263.2

25-266
25-269

25-PV-1464

25-278

21

25-207

25-263

25-193
25-104
25-265

25-210

25-HA-111

25-103

25-VD-103

OVERVIEW

38

25-133

25-122

SW
25-HA-112

25-198

25-PA-101
A/B

25-160

42

25-FV-1725A
25-150

25-151

26

19

26-VE-101

25-HA-105

25-VE-101

25-CT-102

25-HG-101

27-VE-102
25-HX-102
25-HX-101
25-HX-103
25-VD-107
25-HG-103

25-PA-103

25-VE-102

25-HA-101

27-VE-101

25-PA-101
25-PA-102

PROSESS STRM

Classification: Internal
Status: Draft

26-VE-101

39
27-KA-101

25-HA-105

25-VE-101

25-CT-102
25-HG-102
25-HG-101

27-VE-102
25-HX-102
25-HX-101
25-HX-103
25-VD-107
25-HG-103

25-PA-103

25-VE-102

25-HA-101

27-VE-101

25-PA-101
25-PA-102
25-VD-105

25-HA-114

Classification: Internal
Status: Draft

PROSESS STRM
VSKEDANNINGSKRETS

40

25-KA-102

27-KA-101

20

26-VE-101

25-HA-105

25-VE-101

25-CT-102

25-VD-109
25-HG-102
25-HG-101
25-VD-112
25-VD-110
27-VE-102
25-HX-102
25-HX-101
25-HX-103
25-VD-107
25-HG-103

25-PA-103

25-VE-102

25-HA-101

27-VE-101

25-PA-101
25-PA-102
25-VD-105
25-HA-112
25-HA-111

25-HA-114

25-HG-105
25-HG-104
25-VD-101

PROSESS STRM
VSKEDANNINGSKRETS
41
FORKJLINGSKRETS

25-VD-115

Classification: Internal
25-VD-116
Status: Draft 25-VD-103

25-VD-102

26-VE-101

25-KA-101

25-HA-105

25-KA-102

25-VE-101

27-KA-101

25-CT-102

25-VD-109
25-HG-102
25-HG-101
25-VD-112
25-VD-110
27-VE-102
25-HX-102
25-HX-101
25-HX-103
25-VD-107
25-HG-103

25-PA-103

25-VE-102

25-HA-101

27-VE-101

25-PA-101

25-CT-101

25-PA-102

25-HA-104

25-VD-105

25-VD-106

25-HA-112

27-HA-113

25-HA-111

25-HA-114

25-HG-105
25-HG-104
25-VD-101
25-VD-115

Classification: Internal
25-VD-116
Status: Draft 25-VD-103

25-VD-102

25-KA-101

25-KA-102

27-KA-101

25-KA-103

PROSESS STRM
VSKEDANNINGSKRETS
42
FORKJLINGSKRETS
UNDERKJLINGSKRETS

21

25-HG-102
25-VD-104

25-HX-102

25-HX-101

25-VD-105

25-HA-114

25-KA-102

VSKEDANNINGSKRETS

Classification: Internal
Status: Draft

43

25-VD-109
25-HG-102
25-HG-101
25-VD-112
25-VD-110

27-HG-101

25-HA-112
25-HA-111
25-HG-105
25-HG-104
25-VD-101
25-VD-115

Classification: Internal
Status: Draft 25-VD-103

25-VD-116

44
FORKJLINGSKRETS
25-VD-102

25-KA-101

22

25-HG-102

25-VD-114

25-HX-102
25-HX-101

25-CT-101
25-HA-104
25-VD-106
27-HA-113

Classification: Internal
Status: Draft

45
25-KA-103

UNDERKJLINGSKRETS

46

Liquefaction technology present and prediction


(Source: Shell)

23

47

Compressor driver alternatives


Steam turbine
Refrigerant compressor(s) driven by steam turbine
Common in older LNG plants
Steam plant needed, including boiler, feedwater treatment etc.

Gas turbine
Direct mechanical compressor drive using gas turbine
Small plot area, low CAPEX
Most common solution today
Capacity of plant determined by available gas turbine sizes

Electric
Only Snhvit so far, but considered in several current developments
Increased availability, potential use of high-efficiency combined-cycle technology

48

Compressor driver trends

24

49

Mixed Fluid Cascade (MFC) process and energy system at Hammerfest


Cold box

Cycle compression and


seawater cooling

Unit 25

Unit 25

Electric power generation


waste heat recovery,
hot oil cycle
Unit 81 and 50
Electric
Power
Gener.

NG

G
Plate Fin
Heat
Exchangers

Precooling
Cycle

Sea
water
cooling

Spiral Wound
Heat
Exchangers
Generator

PCC Compressor

Hot
oil
cycle

M
Subcooling
Cycle

LNG Expander/
Generator

LNG

Air
Fuel gas

M
Liquefaction
Cycle

5 x GE LM 6000 GT
with waste heat recovery

SCC
Exp./
Gener.

LCC Compressor

M
SCC Compressor

Electric Power
from the Grid

G
Process heat
consumers

50

Parallel drivers/compressors (increasing availability)


Two in one concept

25

51

Process availability (on-stream time)

On-line Availability
Fraction of time

2 circuits

GT

2 circuits
1 parallel
driver/compr

3 circuits

= 0.96

GT
0.98

0.98
GT

= 0.97

GT
0.98

GT

GT
0.99

= 0.94

GT

GT
0.98

0.98

0.98

52

Heat rejection
Air cooling

Water cooling

Tube-in-shell
heat exchanger

26

53

Heat rejection
Air cooling

Water cooling

Large plot area needed

More compact plant

Lower CAPEX than water cooling

High process efficiency

Lower process efficiency (less LNG for given


power input)

Larger seasonal variation in capacity and


efficiency

Costly corrosion-resistant materials needed


(e.g. titanium)

May need chlorination to prevent fouling

54

Air cooled condensers

27

55

Cooling of LNG plants

28