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# CHAPTER 1

d1

PROBLEM 1.1

d2

125 kN B

## Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are

welded together at B and loaded as shown.
Knowing that d1 30 mm and d 2 50 mm,
find the average normal stress at the
midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

60 kN
125 kN
0.9 m

1.2 m

SOLUTION
(a)

(b)

Rod AB:
Force:

Area:

Normal stress:

AB

60 103 N tension
4

d12

(30 10 3 ) 2

60 103
706.86 10

P
A

706.86 10 6 m 2
84.882 106 Pa

AB

84.9 MPa

Rod BC:
Force:

Area:

Normal stress:

BC

60 103

4
P
A

d 22

(2)(125 103 )

(50 10 3 )2

190 103
1.96350 10

190 103 N

1.96350 10 3 m 2
96.766 106 Pa

BC

96.8 MPa

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3

d1

PROBLEM 1.2

d2

125 kN B

## Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are

welded together at B and loaded as shown.
Knowing that the average normal stress must
not exceed 150 MPa in either rod, determine
the smallest allowable values of the diameters
d1 and d2.

60 kN
125 kN
0.9 m

1.2 m

SOLUTION
(a)

Rod AB:
Force:

Stress:

AB

Area:

A
AB

d12

60 103 N
150 106 Pa

d12

4
P
A

AB

P
AB

d12

(4)(60 103 )
(150 106 )

4P
AB

(b)

d1

22.568 10 3 m

Force:

60 103

Stress:

BC

509.30 10 6 m 2

d1

22.6 mm

d2

40.2 mm

Rod BC:

Area:

A
BC

d 22

190 103 N

150 106 Pa

4
P
A

d 22
4P
d 22

4P
BC

d2

(2)(125 103 )

## (4)( 190 103 )

( 150 106 )

40.159 10 3 m

1.61277 10 3 m 2

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4

PROBLEM 1.3

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as
shown. Knowing that P = 10 kips, find the average normal stress at the
midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

30 in.
1.25 in.
B
12 kips
25 in.
0.75 in.
C
P

SOLUTION
(a)

Rod AB:
P
A
AB

(b)

12
4
P
A

10
d12

22 kips
(1.25)2

4
22
1.22718

1.22718 in 2

17.927 ksi

AB

17.93 ksi

Rod BC:
P
A
AB

10 kips
4
P
A

d 22

(0.75)2 0.44179 in 2
4
10
22.635 ksi
0.44179

AB

22.6 ksi

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5

PROBLEM 1.4

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as
shown. Determine the magnitude of the force P for which the tensile stresses in
rods AB and BC are equal.

30 in.
1.25 in.
B
12 kips
25 in.
0.75 in.
C
P

SOLUTION
(a)

Rod AB:
P
A

(b)

12 kips
d
4

(1.25 in.)2

1.22718 in 2

AB

P 12 kips
1.22718 in 2

Rod BC:
P
A

P
4

d2

(0.75 in.)2

0.44179 in 2

BC

P
0.44179 in 2

AB

BC

P 12 kips
1.22718 in 2
5.3015

P
0.44179 in 2
0.78539 P

6.75 kips

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6

1200 N

PROBLEM 1.5
A strain gage located at C on the surface of bone AB indicates that the average normal stress
in the bone is 3.80 MPa when the bone is subjected to two 1200-N forces as shown.
Assuming the cross section of the bone at C to be annular and knowing that its outer diameter
is 25 mm, determine the inner diameter of the bones cross section at C.

B
1200 N

SOLUTION
P
A
Geometry:

(d12

d 22 )
4A

d 22

d12

d 22

(25 10 3 )2

4P

d12

(4)(1200)
(3.80 106 )

222.92 10 6 m 2
d2

14.93 10 3 m

d2

14.93 mm

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7

PROBLEM 1.6

A
a

15 mm
B

100 m
b

Two brass rods AB and BC, each of uniform diameter, will be brazed together
at B to form a nonuniform rod of total length 100 m, which will be suspended
from a support at A as shown. Knowing that the density of brass is 8470 kg/m3,
determine (a) the length of rod AB for which the maximum normal stress in
ABC is minimum, (b) the corresponding value of the maximum normal stress.

10 mm

SOLUTION
Areas:

AAB
ABC

From geometry,
Weights:

4
4

(15 mm) 2

176.715 mm 2

(10 mm)2

78.54 mm 2

100

176.715 10 6 m 2
78.54 10 6 m 2

WAB

g AAB

AB

(8470)(9.81)(176.715 10 6 ) a

14.683 a

WBC

g ABC

BC

(8470)(9.81)(78.54 10 6 )(100

a)

652.59

6.526 a

Normal stresses:
At A,

At B,

(a)

PA

WAB

WBC

652.59

PA
AAB

3.6930 106

PB

WBC

652.59

PB
ABC

8.3090 106

46.160 103a

(2)

6.526a
83.090 103a

4.6160 106

a
(b)

(1)

8.157a

129.25 103a

or

35.71 m

AB

35.7 m

A

3.6930 106

8.3090 106

## (83.090 103 )(35.71)

5.34 106 Pa

5.34 MPa

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8

PROBLEM 1.7
0.4 m

## Each of the four vertical links has an 8 36-mm uniform rectangular

cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm diameter. Determine
the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links connecting
(a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

C
0.25 m

0.2 m

B
E

20 kN
D
A

SOLUTION
Use bar ABC as a free body.

MC

0:

(0.040) FBD
FBD

MB

0:

(0.040) FCE

(0.025

0.040)(20 103 )

32.5 103 N

Link BD is in tension.
3

(0.025)(20 10 )
12.5 103 N

FCE

0
Link CE is in compression.

(0.008)(0.036

320 10 6 m 2

(a)

(b)

BD

FBD
Anet

A net

32.5 103
320 10 6

0.016)

101.563 106

BD

(0.008)(0.036)

## For two parallel links,

576 10 6 m 2

CE

FCE
A

12.5 103
576 10 6

160 10 6 m 2

21.701 10

101.6 MPa

288 10 6 m 2

CE

21.7 MPa

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9

PROBLEM 1.8
2 in.

12 in.

## Determine the normal stress in the central portion of the link.

120 lb
4 in.
30!

1
8

120 lb

A
C

10 in.

8 in.

SOLUTION
Use the plate together with two pulleys as a free body. Note that the cable tension causes at 1200 lb-in.
clockwise couple to act on the body.

MB
FAC

0:

(12

## 4)( FAC cos 30 )

1200 lb
16 cos 30 10 sin 30

## Area of link AC:

Stress in link AC:

## (10)( FAC sin 30 )

1200 lb

135.500 lb

1 in.

AC

FAC
A

1
in. 0.125 in 2
8
135.50
1084 psi
0.125

1.084 ksi

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10

0.100 m

PROBLEM 1.9

E
P

P
D

A
0.150 m

## Three forces, each of magnitude P 4 kN, are applied to the mechanism

shown. Determine the cross-sectional area of the uniform portion of rod
BE for which the normal stress in that portion is 100 MPa.

C
0.300 m

0.250 m

SOLUTION
Draw free body diagrams of AC and CD.

MD
C

## Required area of BE:

0: 0.150P

0.250C

0.6 P

MA

0: 0.150 FBE

FBE

1.07
P
0.150

BE

ABE

0.350 P

7.1333 P

0.450 P

0.450C

(7.133)(4 kN)

28.533 kN

FBE
ABE
FBE
BE

28.533 103
100 106

285.33 10 6 m 2
ABE

285 mm 2

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11

PROBLEM 1.10

4 kips

in.

## Link BD consists of a single bar 1 in. wide and

1
in. thick. Knowing that each pin has a 83 -in.
2

## diameter, determine the maximum value of the

= 0,
average normal stress in link BD if (a)
(b) = 90 .

.
2 in

308

SOLUTION
Use bar ABC as a free body.

(a)

0.
MA

FBD

(b

d )t

FBD
A

Stress:
(b)

3 1
8 2
3.4641 kips
0.31250 in 2
1

0.31250 in 2
11.09 ksi

90 .
MA
FBD

0:

## 6 kips i.e. compression.

Stress:

bt
FBD
A

(1)

1
0.5 in 2
2
6 kips
0.5 in 2

12.00 ksi

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12

PROBLEM 1.11

12 ft
H

C
9 ft

E
9 ft

80 kips

For the Pratt bridge truss and loading shown, determine the
average normal stress in member BE, knowing that the crosssectional area of that member is 5.87 in2.

G
9 ft

80 kips

9 ft
80 kips

SOLUTION
Use entire truss as free body.
MH
Ay

0: (9)(80)

(18)(80)

(27)(80)

36 Ay

120 kips

## Use portion of truss to the left of a section cutting members

BD, BE, and CE.
Fy
BE

0: 120

FBE
A

80

12
FBE
15

FBE

50 kips

50 kips
5.87 in 2
BE

8.52 ksi

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13

45 in.

30 in.

PROBLEM 1.12
C

480 lb
4 in.

40 in.

15 in.

4 in.

30 in.

## The frame shown consists of four wooden members, ABC,

DEF, BE, and CF. Knowing that each member has a 2 4-in.
rectangular cross section and that each pin has a 12 -in.
diameter, determine the maximum value of the average
normal stress (a) in member BE, (b) in member CF.

SOLUTION
Add support reactions to figure as shown.
Using entire frame as free body,
MA

0: 40Dx

(45

Dx

30)(480)

900 lb

## Use member DEF as free body.

Reaction at D must be parallel to FBE and FCF .
4
Dx
3

Dy
MF

1200 lb

0:

(30)

FBE

2250 lb

ME

0: (30)

FCE

750 lb

4
FBE
5

4
FCE
5

(30

15) DY

(15) DY

Area:

(a)

BE

2 in.

4 in.

FBE
A

8 in 2

2250
8

BE

281 psi

## Minimum section area occurs at pin.

Amin
Stress in tension member CF:

(b)

CF

(2)(4.0
FCF
Amin

0.5)
750
7.0

7.0 in 2
CF

107.1 psi

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14

PROBLEM 1.13

Dimensions in mm
1150

100
C

850

250

E
500

450

675

825

## An aircraft tow bar is positioned by means of a single

hydraulic cylinder connected by a 25-mm-diameter steel
rod to two identical arm-and-wheel units DEF. The mass
of the entire tow bar is 200 kg, and its center of gravity
is located at G. For the position shown, determine the
normal stress in the rod.

SOLUTION
FREE BODY ENTIRE TOW BAR:
W

MA

0: 850R

2654.5 N

1962.00 N

1150(1962.00 N)

tan

100
675

8.4270

ME

## 0: ( FCD cos )(550)

R(500)

FCD

500
(2654.5 N)
550 cos 8.4270

2439.5 N (comp.)
CD

FCD
ACD

2439.5 N
(0.0125 m)2

4.9697 106 Pa

CD

4.97 MPa

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15

150 mm
300 mm
A

D
F

150 mm

PROBLEM 1.14
Two hydraulic cylinders are used to control the position
of the robotic arm ABC. Knowing that the control rods
attached at A and D each have a 20-mm diameter and
happen to be parallel in the position shown, determine the
average normal stress in (a) member AE, (b) member DG.

400 mm
E

800 N

600 mm

200 mm

SOLUTION
Use member ABC as free body.

MB

0: (0.150)

FAE

4 103 N

4
FAE
5

## Area of rod in member AE is

Stress in rod AE:

(0.600)(800)

d2

(20 10 3 ) 2

4 103
314.16 10

FAE
A

AE

314.16 10 6 m 2
12.7324 106 Pa

(a)

AE

12.73 MPa

## Area of rod DG:

Stress in rod DG:

MF

0: (0.150)

FDG

1500 N

4
DG

d2
FDG
A

4
FAE
5

(20 10 3 ) 2
1500
3.1416 10

(0.200)

4
FDG
5

(1.050

0.350)(800)

314.16 10 6 m 2
6

4.7746 106 Pa
(b)

DG

4.77 MPa

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16

PROBLEM 1.15
Determine the diameter of the largest circular hole that can be punched into a sheet of polystyrene 6 mm
thick, knowing that the force exerted by the punch is 45 kN and that a 55-MPa average shearing stress is
required to cause the material to fail.

SOLUTION
For cylindrical failure surface:

P
or
A

Shearing stress:
Therefore,
Finally,

dt

P
d

dt
P
t
45 103 N
(0.006 m)(55 106 Pa)
43.406 10 3 m
d

43.4 mm

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17

5
8

P'

1 in.
2 in.

PROBLEM 1.16

in.
5
8

in.

2 in.
1 in.

## Two wooden planks, each 12 in. thick and 9 in.

wide, are joined by the dry mortise joint shown.
Knowing that the wood used shears off along its
grain when the average shearing stress reaches
1.20 ksi, determine the magnitude P of the axial
load that will cause the joint to fail.

9 in.

SOLUTION
Six areas must be sheared off when the joint fails. Each of these areas has dimensions

5
8

in.

1
2

being
A

5
8

1
2

5 2
in
16

0.3125 in 2

## At failure, the force carried by each area is

F

(1.20 ksi)(0.3125 in 2 )

0.375 kips

## Since there are six failure areas,

P

6F

(6)(0.375)

2.25 kips

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18

PROBLEM 1.17

0.6 in.

P'
Steel

3 in.

Wood

When the force P reached 1600 lb, the wooden specimen shown failed
in shear along the surface indicated by the dashed line. Determine the
average shearing stress along that surface at the time of failure.

SOLUTION
Area being sheared:

Force:

1600 lb

Shearing stress:

P
A

1600 lb
1.8 in 2

1.8 in 2

## 8.8889 102 psi

889 psi

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19

40 mm

PROBLEM 1.18

10 mm
8 mm
12 mm

## A load P is applied to a steel rod supported as shown by an aluminum

plate into which a 12-mm-diameter hole has been drilled. Knowing that
the shearing stress must not exceed 180 MPa in the steel rod and 70 MPa
in the aluminum plate, determine the largest load P that can be applied to
the rod.

SOLUTION
For steel:

A1

dt

(0.012 m)(0.010 m)

376.99 10 6 m 2
P
A

A1

## (376.99 10 6 m 2 )(180 106 Pa)

67.858 103 N

For aluminum:

A2
2

P
A2

dt
A2

(0.040 m)(0.008 m)

1.00531 10 3 m 2

## Limiting value of P is the smaller value, so

70.372 103 N
P

67.9 kN

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20

PROBLEM 1.19
The axial force in the column supporting the timber beam shown is
P 20 kips. Determine the smallest allowable length L of the bearing
plate if the bearing stress in the timber is not to exceed 400 psi.

6 in.

SOLUTION
Bearing area: Ab

Lw
b

P
Ab
P
bw

P
Lw
20 103 lb
(400 psi)(6 in.)

8.33 in.

8.33 in.

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21

PROBLEM 1.20
Three wooden planks are fastened together by a series of bolts to form
a column. The diameter of each bolt is 12 mm and the inner diameter
of each washer is 16 mm, which is slightly larger than the diameter of
the holes in the planks. Determine the smallest allowable outer
diameter d of the washers, knowing that the average normal stress in
the bolts is 36 MPa and that the bearing stress between the washers
and the planks must not exceed 8.5 MPa.

12 mm

SOLUTION
Bolt:

d2
4

ABolt

(0.012 m)2
4

P
A

1.13097 10 4 m 2

## (36 106 Pa)(1.13097 10 4 m 2 )

4.0715 103 N
Bearing area for washer:

Aw

and

Aw

d o2

di2

P
BRG

## Therefore, equating the two expressions for Aw gives

4

d o2

di2

P
BRG

d o2

4P

di2

BRG

d o2

4 (4.0715 103 N)
(8.5 106 Pa)

d o2

8.6588 10 4 m 2

do

29.426 10 3 m

(0.016 m) 2

do

29.4 mm

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22

PROBLEM 1.21

P 5 40 kN

120 mm

## A 40-kN axial load is applied to a short wooden post that is

supported by a concrete footing resting on undisturbed soil.
Determine (a) the maximum bearing stress on the concrete
footing, (b) the size of the footing for which the average bearing
stress in the soil is 145 kPa.

100 mm

SOLUTION
(a)

40 kN

(100)(120)

Footing area. P

12 103 mm 2

40 103
12 10 3

P
A
(b)

40 103 N

40 103 N

3.3333 106 Pa

3.33 MPa

45 103 Pa

145 kPa

P
A

12 10 3 m 2

40 103
145 103

0.27586 m 2

b2

## Since the area is square, A

b

0.27586

0.525 m

525 mm

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23

PROBLEM 1.22
a

An axial load P is supported by a short W8 40 column of crosssectional area A 11.7 in 2 and is distributed to a concrete foundation
by a square plate as shown. Knowing that the average normal stress in
the column must not exceed 30 ksi and that the bearing stress on the
concrete foundation must not exceed 3.0 ksi, determine the side a of
the plate that will provide the most economical and safe design.

SOLUTION
For the column,

P
or
A
P

For the a

a plate,

(30)(11.7)

351 kips

3.0 ksi

## Since the plate is square, A

351
3.0

117 in 2

a2
a

117

10.82 in.

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24

PROBLEM 1.23
Link AB, of width b = 2 in. and thickness t = 14 in., is used to support the end of a
horizontal beam. Knowing that the average normal stress in the link is 20 ksi and
that the average shearing stress in each of the two pins is 12 ksi, determine (a) the
diameter d of the pins, (b) the average bearing stress in the link.

A
d

B
d

SOLUTION
Rod AB is in compression.
A

bt

where b

Pin:

and

AP

(a)

4 AP

4P
P

(b)

P
dt

2 in. and t

( 20)(2)

1
4

1
in.
4

10 kips

P
AP

d2
(4)(10)
(12)

10
(1.03006)(0.25)

1.03006 in.

1.030 in.

38.8 ksi

38.833 ksi

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25

PROBLEM 1.24

## Determine the largest load P which may be applied at A when

60, knowing that the average shearing stress in the 10-mmdiameter pin at B must not exceed 120 MPa and that the average
bearing stress in member AB and in the bracket at B must not
exceed 90 MPa.

16 mm

750 mm
750 mm

!
50 mm

12 mm

SOLUTION
Geometry: Triangle ABC is an isoseles triangle with angles shown here.

## Law of sines applied to force triangle:

P
sin 30

FAB
sin 120

FAC
sin 30

FAB sin 30
sin 120

0.57735FAB

FAC sin 30
sin 30

FAC

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26

## PROBLEM 1.24 (Continued)

If shearing stress in pin at B is critical,
A

d2

(0.010) 2

78.54 10 6 m 2

2A

FAB

18.850 103 N

Ab

td

FAB

Ab

(0.016)(0.010)
b

160 10 6 m 2

14.40 103 N

## If bearing stress in the bracket at B is critical,

Ab

2td

FAB

Ab

(2)(0.012)(0.010)
b

## Allowable FAB is the smallest, i.e., 14.40

Then from statics,

Pallow

240 10 6 m 2

## (240 10 6 )(90 106 )

21.6 103 N

103 N

(0.57735)(14.40 103 )
8.31 103 N

8.31 kN

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27

PROBLEM 1.25

P
A

16 mm

750 mm
750 mm

!
50 mm

Knowing that
40 and P 9 kN, determine (a) the smallest
allowable diameter of the pin at B if the average shearing stress in
the pin is not to exceed 120 MPa, (b) the corresponding average
bearing stress in member AB at B, (c) the corresponding average
bearing stress in each of the support brackets at B.

12 mm

SOLUTION
Geometry: Triangle ABC is an isoseles triangle with angles shown here.

## Law of sines applied to force triangle:

P
sin 20
FAB

FAB
FAC
sin110
sin 50
P sin110
sin 20
(9)sin110
24.727 kN
sin 20

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28

(a)

## Allowable pin diameter.

FAB
2 AP

d2

FAB
2 4 d2

2FAB
where FAB
d2

(2)(24.727 103 )
(120 106 )

2 FAB

(b)

131.181 10 6 m 2
11.4534 10 3 m

11.45 mm

Bearing stress in AB at A.
Ab
b

(c)

24.727 103 N

(0.016)(11.4534 10 3 )

td

24.727 103
183.254 10 6

FAB
Ab

183.254 10 6 m 2

134.933 106 Pa

134.9 MPa

## Bearing stress in support brackets at B.

A
b

(0.012)(11.4534 10 3 )

td
1
2

FAB
A

(0.5)(24.727 103 )
137.441 10 6

137.441 10 6 m 2
89.955 106 Pa

90.0 MPa

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29

PROBLEM 1.26

175 mm

100 mm

D
B

208

The hydraulic cylinder CF, which partially controls the position of rod
DE, has been locked in the position shown. Member BD is 15 mm
thick and is connected at C to the vertical rod by a 9-mm-diameter
bolt. Knowing that P 2 kN and
75 , determine (a) the average
shearing stress in the bolt, (b) the bearing stress at C in member BD.

u
E

200 mm

45 mm

SOLUTION
Free Body: Member BD.

Mc

40
9
FAB (100 cos 20 )
FAB (100 sin 20 )
41
4
(2 kN) cos 75 (175sin 20 ) (2 kN)sin 75 (175cos 20 )

0:

100
FAB (40 cos 20
41

9sin 20 )
FAB

Fx

0: C x

9
(4.1424 kN)
41

(2 kN)(175)sin(75

(a)
(b)

0: C y

ave

C
A

5.9860 103 N
(0.0045 m) 2

C
td

5.9860 103 N
(0.015 m)(0.009 m)

40
(4.1424 kN)
41

94.1 106 Pa

20 )

4.1424 kN

(2 kN) cos 75
Cx

Fy

(2 kN)sin 75

0
0.39167 kN

Cy

5.9732 kN

5.9860 kN

86.2

94.1 MPa

44.3 106 Pa

44.3 MPa

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30

PROBLEM 1.27
0.4 m

For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.7, determine (a) the average
shearing stress in the pin at B, (b) the average bearing stress at B in
member BD, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member ABC,
knowing that this member has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross
section.

C
0.25 m

0.2 m

B
E

20 kN

## PROBLEM 1.7 Each of the four vertical links has an 8

36-mm
uniform rectangular cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm
diameter. Determine the maximum value of the average normal stress in
the links connecting (a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

D
A

SOLUTION
Use bar ABC as a free body.

MC
FBD

(a)

0 : (0.040) FBD

0.040)(20 103 )

(0.025

32.5 10 N

FBD
for double shear
2A

Shear pin at B.
where

d2

(0.016) 2

32.5 103
(2)(201.06 10 6 )
(b)

## Bearing: link BD.

A
b

(c)

Bearing in ABC at B.

(0.016)(0.008)

dt
1
2

FBD
A

dt

FBD
A

201.06 10 6 m 2

80.822 106 Pa

80.8 MPa

128 10 6 m 2

(0.5)(32.5 103 )
128 10 6

126.95 106 Pa

(0.016)(0.010)

160 10 6 m 2

32.5 103
160 10 6

203.12 106 Pa

127.0 MPa

203 MPa

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31

PROBLEM 1.28
A

B
12 in.
C

12 in.
1500 lb
15 in.

16 in.

## Two identical linkage-and-hydraulic-cylinder systems control the

position of the forks of a fork-lift truck. The load supported by the one
system shown is 1500 lb. Knowing that the thickness of member BD is
5
in., determine (a) the average shearing stress in the 12 -in.-diameter
8
pin at B, (b) the bearing stress at B in member BD.

16 in.

20 in.

SOLUTION
Use one fork as a free body.
MB

0: 24 E

(20)(1500)

(a)

0: E

Bx

Bx

Bx

1250 lb

Fy

0: By

Bx2

1500
By2

1250 lb

0
12502

By

1500 lb

15002

1952.56 lb

Apin

1
4 2

2
d pin

0.196350 in 2

1952.56
0.196350

B
Apin

(b)

Fx

## 9.94 103 psi

9.94 ksi

Bearing stress at B.
B
dt

1952.56
1
2

5
8

## 6.25 103 psi

6.25 ksi

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32

PROBLEM 1.29

P'
150 mm

## Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section are joined

11 kN,
by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that P
determine the normal and shearing stresses in the glued splice.

45""
45

75 mm

SOLUTION
90
P
A0

45

11 kN

45
11 103 N

(150)(75)

11.25 103 mm 2

11.25 10 3 m 2

P cos 2
A0

11.25 10 3

489 103 Pa

489 kPa

P sin 2
2 A0

## (11 103 )(sin 90 )

(2)(11.25 10 3 )

489 103 Pa

489 kPa

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33

P'
150 mm

## Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section are joined

by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that the maximum
allowable shearing stress in the glued splice is 620 kPa, determine
(a) the largest load P that can be safely applied, (b) the corresponding
tensile stress in the splice.

45""
45

PROBLEM 1.30

75 mm

SOLUTION
90
A0

45

45

(150)(75)

11.25 103 mm 2

620 kPa

620 103 Pa

11.25 10 3 m 2

P sin 2
2 A0
(a)

2 A0
sin2

sin 90

13.95 103 N

(b)

P cos 2
A0

13.95 kN

## (13.95 103 )(cos 45 ) 2

11.25 10 3

620 103 Pa

620 kPa

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34

PROBLEM 1.31

P
5.0 in.

3.0 in.

The 1.4-kip load P is supported by two wooden members of uniform cross section
that are joined by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Determine the normal and
shearing stresses in the glued splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION
P
A0

1400 lb

90

60

30

(5.0)(3.0)

15 in

P cos 2
A0

(1400)(cos30 )2
15

70.0 psi

P sin 2
2 A0

(1400)sin 60
(2)(15)

40.4 psi

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35

PROBLEM 1.32

P
5.0

3.0 in.

Two wooden members of uniform cross section are joined by the simple scarf splice
shown. Knowing that the maximum allowable tensile stress in the glued splice is 75 psi,
determine (a) the largest load P that can be safely supported, (b) the corresponding
shearing stress in the splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION
A0

(5.0)(3.0)

15 in 2

90

30

P cos
A0
(a)
(b)

60
2

A0
cos 2

(75)(15)
cos 2 30

P sin 2
2 A0

1500 lb

(1500)sin 60
(2)(15)

1.500 kips
43.3 psi

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36

PROBLEM 1.33

A centric load P is applied to the granite block shown. Knowing that the
resulting maximum value of the shearing stress in the block is 2.5 ksi, determine
(a) the magnitude of P, (b) the orientation of the surface on which the maximum
shearing stress occurs, (c) the normal stress exerted on that surface, (d ) the
maximum value of the normal stress in the block.

6 in.
6 in.

SOLUTION
A0
max

(6)(6)

36 in 2

2.5 ksi
45 for plane of

(a)

max

(b)

sin 2

(c)

45

(d )

max

| P|
2 A0
1 2

| P|

2 A0

max

(2)(36)(2.5)

max

45.0

90

P
P
cos 2 45
A0
2 A0
P
180
A0
36

180.0 kips

180
(2)(36)

45

2.50 ksi

max

5.00 ksi

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37

PROBLEM 1.34

A 240-kip load P is applied to the granite block shown. Determine the resulting
maximum value of (a) the normal stress, (b) the shearing stress. Specify the
orientation of the plane on which each of these maximum values occurs.

6 in.
6 in.

SOLUTION
A0

(6)(6)

36 in 2

P
cos 2
A0
(a)

0 at

(b)

## max. compressive stress

P
240
max
2 A0
(2)(36)

240
cos 2
36

6.67 cos 2

90.0
6.67 ksi at

max

at

3.33 ksi
45

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38

PROBLEM 1.35

## A steel pipe of 400-mm outer diameter is fabricated from 10-mm thick

plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a plane
perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that a 300-kN axial
force P is applied to the pipe, determine the normal and shearing
stresses in directions respectively normal and tangential to the weld.

10 mm

Weld
208

SOLUTION
do
ro
ri
Ao

0.400 m
1
d o 0.200 m
2
ro t 0.200 0.010
(ro2

ri2 )

(0.2002

0.190 m
0.1902 )

12.2522 10 3 m 2
20
P
Ao

cos 2

P
2 A0

sin 2

12.2522 10 3

21.621 106 Pa

21.6 MPa

## 300 103 sin 40

(2)(12.2522 10 3 )

7.8695 106 Pa

7.87 MPa

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39

PROBLEM 1.36

## A steel pipe of 400-mm outer diameter is fabricated from 10-mm

thick plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a
plane perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that the
maximum allowable normal and shearing stresses in the directions
respectively normal and tangential to the weld are
60 MPa and
36 MPa, determine the magnitude P of the largest axial force that
can be applied to the pipe.

10 mm

Weld
208

SOLUTION
do
ro
ri
Ao

0.400 m
1
d o 0.200 m
2
ro t 0.200 0.010
(ro2

ri2 )

(0.2002

0.190 m
0.1902 )

12.2522 10 3 m 2
20

Based on

| |
P

Based on

| |
P

60 MPa:

P
cos 2
A0

cos 2 20
P
30 MPa:
sin 2
2 Ao
Ao
cos 2

2 Ao
sin 2

sin 40

## Smaller value is the allowable value of P.

832.52 103 N

1372.39 103 N
P

833 kN

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40

PROBLEM 1.37

Q
12 in.

12 in.

## A steel loop ABCD of length 5 ft and of 83 -in. diameter is placed as

shown around a 1-in.-diameter aluminum rod AC. Cables BE and DF,
each of 12 -in. diameter, are used to apply the load Q. Knowing that the
ultimate strength of the steel used for the loop and the cables is 70 ksi,
and that the ultimate strength of the aluminum used for the rod is 38 ksi,
determine the largest load Q that can be applied if an overall factor of
safety of 3 is desired.

E
B

9 in.

1 in.
C

A
9 in.
3
8

in.

D
1
2

in.

Q'

SOLUTION
Using joint B as a free body and considering symmetry,
2

3
FAB
5

6
FAB
5

0 Q

2

4
FAB
5
8 5
Q
5 6

FAC

FAC

3
FAC
4

QU

UA

d2

(70)

1
4 2

13.7445 kips

QU

6
FAB, U
5

6
5

6
3
(70)
5
4 8

UA

6
5

d2

9.2775 kips

QU

3
FAC , U
4

3
4

3
4

## Actual ultimate load QU is the smallest,

d2

QU
Q

QU
F.S .

3
(38) (1.0)2
4
4

22.384 kips

9.2775 kips
9.2775
3

3.0925 kips

3.09 kips

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41

w
908

PROBLEM 1.38

## Link BC is 6 mm thick, has a width w 25 mm, and is made of a steel with

a 480-MPa ultimate strength in tension. What was the safety factor used if the
structure shown was designed to support a 16-kN load P?

480 mm
C
D
P

SOLUTION
Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

MA

0:

(480) FBC
FBC

600
P
480

(600)(16 103 )
480
FU

## Ultimate load for member BC:

Factor of safety:

(600) P

20 103 N

UA

FU

## (480 106 )(0.006)(0.025)

F.S.

FU
FBC

72 103
20 103

72 103 N

F.S.

3.60

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42

w
908

PROBLEM 1.39
Link BC is 6 mm thick and is made of a steel with a 450-MPa ultimate strength in
tension. What should be its width w if the structure shown is being designed to
support a 20-kN load P with a factor of safety of 3?

480 mm
C
D
P

SOLUTION
Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

MA

0:

(480) FBC
FBC
For a factor of safety F.S.
FU

But FU

UA

600P

600P
480

(600)(20 103 )
480

25 103 N

(F.S.)( FBC )
FU
U

## For a rectangular section, A

(3)(25 103 )

75 103
450 106

wt or w

A
t

75 103 N

166.667 10 6 m 2
166.667 10
0.006

27.778 10 3 m
w

27.8 mm

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43

PROBLEM 1.40

0.75 m
A
0.4 m
B
1.4 m

Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known
that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an
ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If a factor of safety of 3.2 is to be
achieved for both bars, determine the required cross-sectional area of (a) bar
AB, (b) bar AC.

SOLUTION
Length of member AB:
AB

0.752

0.42

0.85 m

Mc

0: 1.4 Ax

(0.75)(28)
Ax

Fy

0: Ay

28

Ay

28 kN

0
15 kN

Fx

0:

0.75
FAB
0.85
FAB

Fy

0: Ay

FAC
FAC

## For the test bar,

For the material,

(0.020)2

PU
A

Ax

(0.85)(15)
17 kN
0.75
0.4
FAB 0
0.85
(0.4)(17)
28
20 kN
0.85

400 10 6 m 2

120 103
400 10 6

PU

120 103 N

300 106 Pa

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44

(a)

F.S.
AAB

PU
FAB

U AAB

FAB
(3.2)(17 103 )
300 106

(F.S.) FAB
U

(b)

## For member AC:

F.S.
AAC

PU
FAC

181.333 10 6 m 2

AAB

181.3 mm 2

U AAC

FAC

(F.S.) FAC
U

(3.2)(20 103 )
300 106

213.33 10 6 m 2

AAC

213 mm 2

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45

PROBLEM 1.41

0.75 m
A
0.4 m
B
1.4 m

Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known
that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an
ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If bar AB has a cross-sectional area of
225 mm2, determine (a) the factor of safety for bar AB and (b) the crosssectional area of bar AC if it is to have the same factor of safety as bar AB.

SOLUTION
Length of member AB:
AB

0.752

0.42

0.85 m

Mc

0: 1.4 Ax

(0.75)(28)
Ax

Fy

0: Ay

28

Ay

28 kN

0
15 kN

Fx

0:

0.75
FAB
0.85
FAB

Fy

0: Ay

FAC
FAC

(0.020)2

## For the material,

PU
A

Ax

(0.85)(15)
0.75

17 kN

0.4
FAB 0
0.85
(0.4)(17)
28
0.85

400 10 6 m 2

120 103
400 10 6

PU

20 kN
120 103 N

300 106 Pa

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46

(a)

F.S.

FU
FAB

U AAB

FAB

17 103
F.S.

(b)

## For bar AC:

F.S.
AAC

FU
FAC

3.97

U AAC

FAC

(F.S.) FAC
U

(3.97)(20 103 )
300 106

264.67 10 6 m 2

AAC

265 mm 2

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47

PROBLEM 1.42

600 lb/ft

## Link AB is to be made of a steel for which the ultimate normal stress is

65 ksi. Determine the cross-sectional area of AB for which the factor
of safety will be 3.20. Assume that the link will be adequately
reinforced around the pins at A and B.

35!
B

5 kips
1.4 ft

1.4 ft

1.4 ft

SOLUTION

P
MD

(4.2)(0.6)
0:

2.52 kips

## (2.8)( FAB sin 35 )

(0.7)(2.52)

FAB
AB

AAB

(1.4)(5)

5.4570 kips
FAB
AAB

ult

F. S .

( F. S .) FAB
ult

(3.20)(5.4570 kips)
65 ksi
0.26854 in 2

AAB

0.268 in 2

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48

PROBLEM 1.43

16 kN

6 mm

Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that are fully glued on
the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the ends of the members
is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued joint is 2.5 MPa,
determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for the loading shown.

125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION
all

2.5 MPa
2.75

0.90909 MPa

A

0.006 m
(0.125 m)
2

## Since there are 2 contact surfaces,

all

0.90909 106
L

P
2A
(L

16 103
0.006)(0.125)

0.14680 m

146.8 mm

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49

PROBLEM 1.44

16 kN

For the joint and loading of Prob. 1.43, determine the factor of safety when
L = 180 mm.
L

6 mm

PROBLEM 1.43 Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that
are fully glued on the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the
ends of the members is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued
joint is 2.5 MPa, determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for

125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION
Area of one face of upper contact surface:
A
A

0.180 m

0.006 m
2

(0.125 m)

10.8750 10 3 m 2

## Since there are two surfaces,

all
all

F.S.

P
2A

16 103 N
2(10.8750 10 3 m 2 )

0.73563 MPa
u

all

2.5 MPa
0.73563 MPa

3.40

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50

PROBLEM 1.45
Three 34 -in.-diameter steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to
a wooden beam. Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 24 kips and that
the ultimate shearing stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, determine the factor of
safety for this design.

SOLUTION
For each bolt,

A
PU

4
A

d2
U

3
4 4

0.44179 in 2

(0.44179)(52)

22.973 kips
For the three bolts,

PU

(3)(22.973)

68.919 kips

Factor of safety:
F. S .

PU
P

68.919
24

F. S .

2.87

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51

PROBLEM 1.46
Three steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to a wooden beam.
Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 28 kips, that the ultimate shearing
stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, and that a factor of safety of 3.25 is desired,
determine the required diameter of the bolts.

SOLUTION
For each bolt,

Required:

PU

24
3

8 kips

( F. S.) P
PU
A

(3.25)(8.0)

PU
d2
4

4 PU
U

26.0 kips

4PU
d2
(4)(26.0)
(52)

0.79789 in.

0.798 in.

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52

PROBLEM 1.47

1
2

## A load P is supported as shown by a steel pin that has been inserted in a

short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The ultimate strength of
the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in shear, while the
ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear. Knowing that
b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the load P if an
overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.

d
P
1
2

40 mm

SOLUTION
Based on double shear in pin,
PU

2A
4

d2

32.80 103 N

## Based on tension in wood,

PU

w (b

d)

0.012)(60 106 )

(0.040)(0.040
67.2 103 N
Based on double shear in the wood,
PU

2A

2wc

(2)(0.040)(0.055)(7.5 106 )

33.0 103 N
Use smallest

PU

Allowable:

32.8 103 N
PU
F .S.

32.8 103
3.2

10.25 103 N

10.25 kN

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53

PROBLEM 1.48
For the support of Prob. 1.47, knowing that the diameter of the pin is
d 16 mm and that the magnitude of the load is P 20 kN, determine
(a) the factor of safety for the pin, (b) the required values of b and c if the
factor of safety for the wooden members is the same as that found in part a
for the pin.
1
2

## PROBLEM 1.47 A load P is supported as shown by a steel pin that has

been inserted in a short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The
ultimate strength of the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in
shear, while the ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear.
Knowing that b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the
load P if an overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.

P
1
2

40 mm

SOLUTION

(a)

Pin:

20 kN

20 103 N

d2

(0.016) 2

P
2A

Double shear:
PU

2A

Tension in wood:

PU
P

PU
w U

0.016

Shear in wood:

c

PU
2w U

58.336 103 N

58.336 103
20 103

PU
A

PU
w(b d )

58.336 103
(0.040)(60 106 )
PU

PU
2A

F .S.

2.92

PU
U

F .S.
(b)

2.01.06 10 6 m 2

where w

40.3 10 3 m

40 mm

0.040 m

40.3 mm

97.2 mm

## 58.336 103 N for same F.S.

wc

58.336 103
(2)(0.040)(7.5 106 )

PU
2A

97.2 10 3 m

PU
2wc

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54

PROBLEM 1.49
A steel plate 14 in. thick is embedded in a
concrete wall to anchor a high-strength cable
as shown. The diameter of the hole in the plate
is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the steel used is
36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding stress between
plate and concrete is 300 psi. Knowing that a
factor of safety of 3.60 is desired when
P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required width a
of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to which a
plate of that width should be embedded in the
concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses
between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

a
3
4

in.
1
4

in.

b
P

SOLUTION
Based on tension in plate,

(a

PU

d )t

UA

F .S.

PU
P

U (a

d )t

Solving for a,
a

( F .S .) P
Ut

3
4

(3.60)(2.5)
(36) 14

(a) a

1.750 in.

## Based on shear between plate and concrete slab,

A
PU
Solving for b,

perimeter
UA

2(a

depth
U (a

( F .S .) P
2(a t ) U

t )b

t )b

F .S.

0.300 ksi

PU
P

(3.6)(2.5)
(2) 1.75 14 (0.300)

(b) b

7.50 in.

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55

PROBLEM 1.50
Determine the factor of safety for the cable
anchor in Prob. 1.49 when P 2.5 kips, knowing
that a 2 in. and b 6 in.
PROBLEM 1.49 A steel plate 14 in. thick is
embedded in a concrete wall to anchor a highstrength cable as shown. The diameter of the hole
in the plate is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the
steel used is 36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding
stress between plate and concrete is 300 psi.
Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.60 is desired
when P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required
width a of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to
which a plate of that width should be embedded
in the concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses
between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

a
3
4

in.
1
4

in.

b
P

SOLUTION
Based on tension in plate,
A

(a

d )t

2
PU

3
4

1
4

0.31250 in 2

UA

(36)(0.31250)

F .S .

PU
P

11.2500
3.5

11.2500 kips

4.50

perimeter

27.0 in 2

PU
F .S .

UA

PU
P

2(a

depth

2 2

1
(6.0)
4

0.300 ksi

(0.300)(27.0)
8.10
2.5

t )b

8.10 kips

3.240

F .S .

## Actual factor of safety is the smaller value.

3.24

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56

PROBLEM 1.51

A
1
2

Link AC is made of a steel with a 65-ksi ultimate normal stress and has
a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is connected to a
support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter pins, while
member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.-diameter pin.
All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate shearing stress
and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.25 is
desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D. Note that
link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

in.

8 in.
B

C
6 in.

D
4 in.

SOLUTION
Use free body BCD.

MB

8
FAC
10

0 : (6)

10 P

P
Fx

0 : Bx

6
FAC
10

Bx

6
FAC
10

1.25P

MC

0:

2
P
3

By
B

Bx2

6By

0.48 FAC

(1)

i.e. By

2
P
3

1.252

2
3

d2

25
3.25

3
8

Anet

65
3.25

1
4

1
2

By2

4P

1.41667 P

0.70588B

(2)

FAC

Apin

F. S . 4

0.84959 kips

FAC

Anet

F. S .

3
8

0.625 kips

## Smaller value of FAC is 0.625 kips.

From (1),

Shear in pin at B.

From (2),

(0.48)(0.625)

Apin

F. S. 4

0.300 kips

d2

(0.70588)(0.58999)

## Allowable value of P is the smaller value.

25
3.25

5
16

0.58999 kips

0.416 kips
0.300 kips

or

300 lb

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57

PROBLEM 1.52
A
1
2

Solve Prob. 1.51, assuming that the structure has been redesigned to use
5
-in-diameter pins at A and C as well as at B and that no other changes
16

in.

8 in.
B

C
6 in.

## PROBLEM 1.51 Link AC is made of a steel with a 65-ksi ultimate

normal stress and has a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is
connected to a support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter
pins, while member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.diameter pin. All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate
shearing stress and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of
3.25 is desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D.
Note that link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

D
4 in.

SOLUTION
Use free body BCD.

MB

8
FAC
10

0 : (6)

10 P

P
Fy

0 : Bx

MC

2
P
3

By
B

By2

1.25

(1)

i.e. By

2
P
3

2
3

0.48 FAC

6
FAC 1.25P
10
0:
6By 4 P

Bx

Bx2

6
FAC
10

1.41667 P

0.70583 B

(2)

FAC

Apin

d2

25
3.25

5
16

Anet

65
3.25

1
4

1
2

F. S . 4

0.58999 kips

FAC

Anet

F. S .

5
16

0.9375 kips

## Smaller value of FAC is 0.58999 kips.

From (1),

Shear in pin at B.

From (2),

(0.48)(0.58999)

Apin

F. S. 4

0.283 kips

d2

(0.70588)(0.58999)

## Allowable value of P is the smaller value.

25
3.25

5
16

0.58999 kips

0.416 kips
P

0.283 kips

or

283 lb

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58

PROBLEM 1.53

250 mm
400 mm
A

## Each of the two vertical links CF connecting the two horizontal

members AD and EG has a 10
40-mm uniform rectangular cross
section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of
400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and
are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.
Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins
connecting them to the horizontal members.

250 mm

B
C

D
E
F

24 kN

SOLUTION

ME

0 : 0.40 FCF

(0.65)(24 103 )

FCF

39 103 N

d)t

(0.040

## Based on tension in links CF,

A
FU

(b
2

UA

200 10 6 m 2

0.02)(0.010)
6

(2)(400 10 )(200 10 )

160.0 10 N

A
FU

4
2

## Actual FU is smaller value, i.e. FU

Factor of safety:

F. S .

d2

UA

(0.020) 2

314.16 10 6 m 2

## (2)(150 106 )(314.16 10 6 )

94.248 103 N

94.248 103 N
FU
FCF

94.248 103
39 103

F. S .

2.42

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59

PROBLEM 1.54

250 mm
400 mm
A

Solve Prob. 1.53, assuming that the pins at C and F have been replaced
by pins with a 30-mm diameter.

250 mm

PROBLEM 1.53 Each of the two vertical links CF connecting the two
horizontal members AD and EG has a 10
40-mm uniform rectangular
cross section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of
400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and
are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.
Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins
connecting them to the horizontal members.

C
D
E
F

24 kN

SOLUTION
Use member EFG as free body.

ME

(0.65)(24 103 )

0 : 0.40FCF
FCF

39 103 N

## Based on tension in links CF,

A

(b

FU

d)t

(0.040

0.030)(0.010)
6

UA

100 10 6 m 2

(2)(400 10 )(100 10 )

80.0 10 N

A
FU

4
2

## Actual FU is smaller value, i.e. FU

Factor of safety:

F. S .

d2

UA

(0.030) 2

706.86 10 6 m 2

## (2)(150 106 )(706.86 10 6 )

212.06 103 N

80.0 103 N
FU
FCF

80.0 103
39 103

F. S .

2.05

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60

PROBLEM 1.55

Top view
200 mm

180 mm

12 mm

## In the structure shown, an 8-mm-diameter pin

is used at A, and 12-mm-diameter pins are
used at B and D. Knowing that the ultimate
shearing stress is 100 MPa at all connections
and that the ultimate normal stress is 250 MPa
in each of the two links joining B and D,
determine the allowable load P if an overall
factor of safety of 3.0 is desired.

8 mm
A

C
B
20 mm

8 mm

8 mm

D
12 mm

Front view

Side view

SOLUTION
Statics: Use ABC as free body.
MB

0 : 0.20 FA

0.18P

MA

0 : 0.20 FBD

0.38P

## Based on double shear in pin A, A

FA
P

F .S .
10
FA
9

10
FA
9
10
P
FBD
19

P
0

d2

2 UA
F .S .
10
P
FBD
19
Allowable value of P is smallest,

3.351 103 N

3.72 103 N

d2

(0.012) 2

## (2)(100 106 )(113.10 10 6 )

3.0

F .S.
10
P
FBD 3.97 103 N
19
Based on compression in links BD, for one link, A
FBD

50.266 10 6 m 2

3.0

FBD

(0.008)2

113.10 10 6 m 2
7.54 103 N

(0.020)(0.008)

## (2)(250 106 )(160 10 6 )

3.0

160 10 6 m 2

26.7 103 N

14.04 103 N
P

3.72 103 N

3.72 kN

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61

PROBLEM 1.56

Top view
200 mm

180 mm

## In an alternative design for the structure of

Prob. 1.55, a pin of 10-mm-diameter is to be
used at A. Assuming that all other
specifications remain unchanged, determine
the allowable load P if an overall factor of
safety of 3.0 is desired.

12 mm

8 mm
A

C
B
20 mm

8 mm

8 mm

D
12 mm

Front view

Side view

PROBLEM 1.55 In the structure shown, an 8mm-diameter pin is used at A, and 12-mmdiameter pins are used at B and D. Knowing
that the ultimate shearing stress is 100 MPa at
all connections and that the ultimate normal
stress is 250 MPa in each of the two links
joining B and D, determine the allowable load
P if an overall factor of safety of 3.0 is
desired.

SOLUTION
Statics: Use ABC as free body.
MB

0: 0.20 FA

0.18P

MA

0: 0.20 FBD

0.38P

FA
P

2 UA
F .S .
10
FA
9

10
FA
9
10
P
FBD
19

P
0

d2

2 UA
F .S .
10
FBD
19

(0.010) 2

2 UA
F .S.
10
FBD
19

5.236 103 N

5.82 103 N

d2

(0.012) 2

3.0

113.10 10 6 m 2
7.54 103 N

3.97 103 N

FBD

78.54 10 6 m 2

3.0

FBD

(0.020)(0.008)

## (2)(250 106 )(160 10 6 )

3.0

160 10 6 m 2

26.7 103 N

14.04 103 N
P

3.97 103 N

3.97 kN

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on a website, in whole or part.
62

PROBLEM 1.57

## A 40-kg platform is attached to the end B of a 50-kg wooden beam AB,

which is supported as shown by a pin at A and by a slender steel rod BC
with a 12-kN ultimate load. (a) Using the Load and Resistance Factor
Design method with a resistance factor
0.90 and load factors
1.25
and
1.6,
determine
the
largest
load that can be safely
D
L
placed on the platform. (b) What is the corresponding conventional
factor of safety for rod BC?

1.8 m
A

B
2.4 m

SOLUTION

MA
P

W1

(40)(9.81)
5
(392.4)
3

PD

W1

mg W2

From which

3 PL
5 g

Design criterion:

392.4 N, W2

D PD

PL

(50)(9.81)

5
(490.5)
6

L PL

PU

PU

D PD

PL

3
0 : (2.4) P
5
5
5
W1
W2
3
6

2.4W1

1.2W2

490.5 N

1.0628 103 N

5
mg
3

(0.90)(12 103 )

(1.25)(1.0628 10 3 )
1.6

5.920 103 N

(a)

3 5.92 103
5 9.81

362 kg

F. S.

1.718

## Conventional factor of safety:

(b)

1.0628 103

PD

PL

F. S.

PU
P

12 103
6.983 103

5.920 103

6.983 103 N

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on a website, in whole or part.
63

PROBLEM 1.58
The Load and Resistance Factor Design method is to be used to select
the two cables that will raise and lower a platform supporting two
window washers. The platform weighs 160 lb and each of the window
washers is assumed to weigh 195 lb with equipment. Since these
workers are free to move on the platform, 75% of their total weight and
the weight of their equipment will be used as the design live load of each
cable. (a) Assuming a resistance factor
0.85 and load factors
1.2 and L 1.5, determine the required minimum ultimate load of
D
one cable. (b) What is the corresponding conventional factor of safety
for the selected cables?

SOLUTION
D PD

(a)

PU

D PD

(1.2)

PL

PU

L PL

1
2

160

(1.5)

3
4

2 195

PU

0.85

629 lb

## Conventional factor of safety:

P
(b)

F. S.

PU
P

PD

PL

1
2

160

0.75

629
372.5

2 195

372.5 lb
F. S.

1.689

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64

15 m

25 m

PROBLEM 1.59

3m
B

## In the marine crane shown, link CD is known to have a

uniform cross section of 50 150 mm. For the loading
shown, determine`` the normal stress in the central portion

35 m
80 Mg

C
15 m

SOLUTION

784.8 kN

## Free Body: Portion ABC.

MA

0: FCD (15 m)
FCD
FCD

CD

FCD
A

W (28 m)

28
28
W
(784.8 kN)
15
15
1465 kN

1465 103 N
(0.050 m)(0.150 m)

195.3 106 Pa

CD

195.3 MPa

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65

PROBLEM 1.60

0.5 in.

Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the assembly shown.
Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each connection,
determine the maximum value of the average normal stress (a) in link
AB, (b) in link BC.

B
1.8 in.

5 kips
5 kips
60!

0.5 in.

45!

1.8 in.

SOLUTION
Use joint B as free body.

Law of Sines:
FAB
sin 45

FBC
sin 60

10
sin 95

FAB

7.3205 kips

FBC

8.9658 kips

## Link AB is a tension member.

Minimum section at pin: Anet

(1.8

0.8)(0.5)

(a)

FAB
Anet

7.3205
0.5

Stress in AB :

AB

0.5 in 2
AB

14.64 ksi

## Link BC is a compression member.

Cross sectional area is A
(b)

Stress in BC:

BC

(1.8)(0.5)
FBC
A

0.9 in 2
8.9658
0.9

BC

9.96 ksi

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66

PROBLEM 1.61

0.5 in.

For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.60, determine (a) the average
shearing stress in the pin at C, (b) the average bearing stress at C in
member BC, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.

B
1.8 in.

5 kips
5 kips

PROBLEM 1.60 Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the
assembly shown. Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each
connection, determine the maximum value of the average normal stress
(a) in link AB, (b) in link BC.

0.5 in.

60!

1.8 in.

45!

SOLUTION

Law of Sines:
FAB
sin 45

(a)

FBC
sin 60

10
sin 95

FBC

8.9658 kips

FBC
2 AP

## Shearing stress in pin at C.

AP

(0.8)2 0.5026 in 2
4
8.9658
8.92
(2)(0.5026)
4

d2

8.92 ksi

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67

(b)

(c)

## Bearing stress at B in member BC.

FBC
A

td

8.9658
0.4

(0.5)(0.8)

0.4 in 2

22.4

22.4 ksi

FBC
A

2td

2(0.5)(0.8)

8.9658
0.8

11.21

0.8 in 2
b

11.21 ksi

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68

PROBLEM 1.62
Two steel plates are to be held together by means of 16-mmdiameter high-strength steel bolts fitting snugly inside cylindrical
brass spacers. Knowing that the average normal stress must not
exceed 200 MPa in the bolts and 130 MPa in the spacers,
determine the outer diameter of the spacers that yields the most
economical and safe design.

SOLUTION
At each bolt location the upper plate is pulled down by the tensile force Pb of the bolt. At the same time, the
spacer pushes that plate upward with a compressive force Ps in order to maintain equilibrium.
Pb

Ps

Fb
Ab

## For the spacer,

Ps
As

4 Pb
db2
4 Ps

(d s2

db2 )

or

Pb

or

Ps

2
bdb

2
s (d s

db2 )

Equating Pb and Ps ,
4

2
b db

ds

2
s (d s

4
1

db2 )
b
s

db

200
(16)
130

ds

25.2 mm

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69

PROBLEM 1.63

## A couple M of magnitude 1500 N m is applied to the crank of an engine. For the

position shown, determine (a) the force P required to hold the engine system in
equilibrium, (b) the average normal stress in the connecting rod BC, which has a
450-mm2 uniform cross section.

C
200 mm
B
M

80 mm

A
60 mm

SOLUTION

Use piston, rod, and crank together as free body. Add wall reaction H
and bearing reactions Ax and Ay.
MA

0 : (0.280 m) H

1500 N m

5.3571 10 N

Use piston alone as free body. Note that rod is a two-force member;
hence the direction of force FBC is known. Draw the force triangle
and solve for P and FBE by proportions.
l
P
H

2002

602

200
60

208.81 mm
P

17.86 103 N
(a)

FBC
H

208.81
60

FBC

17.86 kN

18.6436 103 N

## Rod BC is a compression member. Its area is

450 mm 2

450 10 6 m 2

Stress:
FBC
A

BC

18.6436 103
450 10 6

41.430 106 Pa

(b)

BC

41.4 MPa

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70

4 in.

PROBLEM 1.64

4 in.

12 in.

E
2 in.

Knowing that the link DE is 18 in. thick and 1 in. wide, determine
the normal stress in the central portion of that link when
(a)
0 , (b)
90 .

D
C

8 in.

6 in.

F
60 lb

"

SOLUTION
Use member CEF as a free body.

MC
FDE
DE

(a)

0:

12 FDE

40 sin
(1)

1
8

(16)(60 cos )

80 cos lb
0.125 in 2

FDE

0: FDE

80 lb

DE

(b)

(8)(60 sin )

90 : FDE
DE

80
0.125

DE

640 psi

DE

320 psi

40 lb
40
0.125

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71

PROBLEM 1.65

1500 lb

1 in.
750 lb
A

4 in.

## A 85 -in.-diameter steel rod AB is fitted to a round hole near end C of

the wooden member CD. For the loading shown, determine (a) the
maximum average normal stress in the wood, (b) the distance b for
which the average shearing stress is 100 psi on the surfaces indicated
by the dashed lines, (c) the average bearing stress on the wood.

D
750 lb
B

C
b

SOLUTION
(a)

Anet

(b)

Distance b for

(1) 4

5
8

P
Anet

1500
3.375

3.375 in 2
444 psi

444 psi

= 100 psi.

(c)

P
A
P
2t

P
2bt
1500
(2)(1)(100)

7.50 in.

7.50 in.

## Average bearing stress on the wood.

b

P
Ab

P
dt

1500
5
(1)
8

2400 psi

2400 psi

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72

PROBLEM 1.66
D

Front view

6 mm

18 mm

A
B

160 mm

120 mm

Side view

B
Top view

In the steel structure shown, a 6-mmdiameter pin is used at C and 10-mmdiameter pins are used at B and D. The
ultimate shearing stress is 150 MPa at all
connections, and the ultimate normal
stress is 400 MPa in link BD. Knowing
that a factor of safety of 3.0 is desired,
determine the largest load P that can be
applied at A. Note that link BD is not
reinforced around the pin holes.

SOLUTION
Use free body ABC.
MC

0 : 0.280 P

0.120 FBD

0
3
FBD
7

P
MB

0 : 0.160 P

0.120 C
P

(1)

0
3
C
4

(2)

FBD

Anet

F. S.

Anet

400 106
(6 10 3 )(18
3

10)(10 3 )

6.40 103 N

FBD

Apin

F. S. 4

d2

150 106
3

(10 10 3 )2

3.9270 103 N

## Smaller value of FBD is 3.9270 103 N.

P

From (1),
Shear in pin at C:

From (2),

3
(3.9270 103 )
7
2 Apin

F. S . 4

d2

3
(2.8274 103 )
4

## Smaller value of P is allowable value.

1.683 103 N
(2)

150 106
3

(6 10 3 )2

2.8274 103 N

2.12 103 N
1.683 103 N

1.683 kN

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73

40!

PROBLEM 1.67

## Member ABC, which is supported by a pin and bracket at C and a cable

BD, was designed to support the 16-kN load P as shown. Knowing that
the ultimate load for cable BD is 100 kN, determine the factor of safety
with respect to cable failure.

30!
B

0.6 m
C

0.8 m

0.4 m

SOLUTION
Use member ABC as a free body, and note that member BD is a two-force member.
Mc

0 : ( P cos 40 )(1.2)

( P sin 40 )(0.6)
( FBD cos 30 )(0.6)
( FBD sin 30 )(0.4)

1.30493P

FBD
FU
F. S .

1.81335P

0.71962FBD

(1.81335)(16 103 )

0
0

29.014 103 N

100 103 N
FU
FBD

100 103
29.014 103

F. S.

3.45

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74

PROBLEM 1.68
A force P is applied as shown to a steel reinforcing bar that has
been embedded in a block of concrete. Determine the smallest
length L for which the full allowable normal stress in the bar can be
developed. Express the result in terms of the diameter d of the bar,
the allowable normal stress all in the steel, and the average
allowable bond stress all between the concrete and the cylindrical
surface of the bar. (Neglect the normal stresses between the
concrete and the end of the bar.)

SOLUTION
For shear,

dL

all A

For tension,

P
Equating,

all

dL

all

dL

d2

all A

all

all

d2

d2
Lmin

Solving for L,

## all d/4 all

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75

PROBLEM 1.69

2.4 kips

## The two portions of member AB are glued together along a plane

forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress
for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine
(a) the value of
for which the factor of safety of the member is
maximum, (b) the corresponding value of the factor of safety. (Hint:
Equate the expressions obtained for the factors of safety with respect to the
normal and shearing stresses.)

"

1.25 in.

2.0 in.

SOLUTION
A0

## At the optimum angle,

( F. S.)

( F. S.)

PU ,

U A0
2

P
cos 2
A0

Normal stress:

cos

P
sin
A0

cos

Equating,
Solving,
(b)

PU

U A0
2

P cos

sin
cos

P cos
U A0

PU ,

sin

cos
U A0

PU ,

( F. S.)

U A0
2

PU ,

( F. S .)
Shearing stress:

2.50 in 2

(2.0)(1.25)

P sin

cos

U A0

P sin

tan

U A0
2

cos

cos
U
U

(12.5)(2.50)
cos 2 27.5
F. S.

1.3
2.5

0.520

(a)

opt

27.5

7.94 kips
PU
P

7.94
2.4

F. S.

3.31

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76

PROBLEM 1.70

2.4 kips

## The two portions of member AB are glued together along a plane

forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress
for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine
the range of values of for which the factor of safety of the members is
at least 3.0.

"

1.25 in.

2.0 in.

SOLUTION
A0

(2.0)(1.25)

2.4 kips

PU

( F. S.) P

2.50 in.2
7.2 kips

## Based on tensile stress,

PU
cos 2
A0

U A0

cos 2
cos
Based on shearing stress,

0.93169
U

sin 2
2

PU

64.52

PU
sin
A0
2 A0
PU

(2.5)(2.50)
7.2

0.86806

21.3

21.3

PU
sin 2
2 A0

cos

(2)(2.50)(1.3)
7.2
32.3

0.90278

32.3

Hence,

21.3

32.3

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77

PROBLEM 1.C1
Element n
Pn

A solid steel rod consisting of n cylindrical elements welded together is subjected to the
loading shown. The diameter of element i is denoted by di and the load applied to its
lower end by Pi with the magnitude Pi of this load being assumed positive if Pi is
directed downward as shown and negative otherwise. (a) Write a computer program
that can be used with either SI or U.S. customary units to determine the average stress
in each element of the rod. (b) Use this program to solve Problems 1.1 and 1.3.

Element 1
P1

SOLUTION
Force in element i:
It is the sum of the forces applied to that element and all lower ones:
i

Fi

Pk
k 1

## Average stress in element i:

Area

Ai

Ave. stress

Fi
Ai

1 2
di
4

Program outputs:

Problem 1.1

Problem 1.3

Element

Stress (MPa)

Element

Stress (ksi)

84.883

22.635

96.766

17.927

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78

PROBLEM 1.C2
A 20-kN load is applied as shown to the horizontal member ABC.
Member ABC has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross section
and is supported by four vertical links, each of 8 36-mm uniform
rectangular cross section. Each of the four pins at A, B, C, and D has the
same diameter d and is in double shear. (a) Write a computer program
to calculate for values of d from 10 to 30 mm, using 1-mm increments,
(i) the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links
connecting pins B and D, (ii) the average normal stress in the links
connecting pins C and E, (iii) the average shearing stress in pin B,
(iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average bearing stress
at B in member ABC, and (vi) the average bearing stress at C in member
ABC. (b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for
d 16 mm with the answers given for Probs. 1.7 and 1.27. (c) Use this
program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the pins,
knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and bearing
stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 150 MPa, 90 MPa, and
230 MPa. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that the thickness of member ABC
has been reduced from 10 to 8 mm.

0.4 m
C
0.25 m

0.2 m

B
E

20 kN
D
A

SOLUTION

P = 20 kN

F.B. diagram of ABC:

(i)

Thickness
ABD

t L ( wL

MC

0: 2FBD ( BC ) P( AC ) 0

FBD
MB

P( AC )/2( BC ) (tension)
0: 2FCE ( BC ) P( AB) 0

FCE

P( AB)/2( BC ) (comp.)
(ii)
Thickness

tL

ACE

d)

FBD / ABD

BD

(v)

(iv)

Sig Bear B

FCE / ACE

Pin C.

FCE /( d 2 /4)
Shearing stress in ABC under Pin B.
FB
AC t AC ( wAC /2)

FBD /( d 2 /4)

Bearing stress at B.
Thickness of member AC

tL wL

CE

(iii) Pin B.

tL

t AC

FBD /(dt AC )

## (vi) Bearing stress at C.

Sig Bear C FCE /( dt AC )

Fy

0: 2FB

AC

2 FBD
AC wAC

2 FBD

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79

Program Outputs

P

20 kN, AB

0.25 m, BC

0.40 m, AC

0.65 m,

TL

8 mm, WL

## 36 mm, TAC 10 mm, WAC 50 mm

(c) Answer: 16 mm
Check: For d

22 mm

(c)

## 22 mm, Tau AC = 65 MPa < 90 MPa O.K.

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80

## Input data for Part (d): P

20 kN,
AB = 0.25 m, BC = 0.40 m,
AC = 0.65 m, TL = 8 mm, WL = 36 mm,
TAC

8 mm, WAC

50 mm

(d) Answer: 18 mm

22 mm

(d)

## Check: For d = 22 mm, Tau AC = 81.25 MPa < 90 MPa O.K.

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81

PROBLEM 1.C3
0.5 in.

B
1.8 in.

5 kips
5 kips
0.5 in.

60!

1.8 in.

45!

## Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to Pin B of the assembly

shown. Each of the three pins at A, B, and C has the same diameter d
and is double shear. (a) Write a computer program to calculate for
values of d from 0.50 to 1.50 in., using 0.05-in. increments, (i) the
maximum value of the average normal stress in member AB, (ii) the
average normal stress in member BC, (iii) the average shearing stress
in pin A, (iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average
bearing stress at A in member AB, (vi) the average bearing stress at C
in member BC, and (vii) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.
(b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for
d 0.8 in. with the answers given for Problems 1.60 and 1.61. (c) Use
this program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the
pins, knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and
bearing stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 22 ksi, 13 ksi, and
36 ksi. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that a new design is being
investigated in which the thickness and width of the two members are
changed, respectively, from 0.5 to 0.3 in. and from 1.8 to 2.4 in.

SOLUTION
Forces in members AB and BC.
Free body: Pin B.
From force triangle:
FAB
sin 45

(i)

FBC
sin 60

2P
sin 75

FAB

2 P (sin 45 /sin 75 )

FBC

2 P (sin 60 /sin 75 )

Width

(ii)

Thickness

ABC
t

(w d ) t

AB

FAB / AAB

(iv)

(iii) Pin A.

(v)

## ( FAB /2)/( d 2 /4)

FBC / ABC

Pin C.
C

(vi)

Bearing stress at A.
Sig Bear A

wt

BC

AAB

## ( FBC /2) /( d 2 /4)

Bearing stress at C.
Sig Bear C

FAB /dt

FBC /dt

## (vii) Bearing stress at B in member BC.

Sig Bear B

FBC /2dt

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82

Program Outputs

## Input data for Parts (a), (b), (c):

P = 5 kips, w = 1.8 in., t = 0.5 in.

## (c) Answer: 0.70 in.

d 1.10 in.

(c)

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83

P = 5 kips, w

2.4 in., t

0.3 in.

## (d) Answer: 0.85 in.

1.25 in.

(d)

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84

PROBLEM 1.C4
a

A
B
15 in.

18 in.

12 in.

## A 4-kip force P forming an angle

with the vertical is applied as
shown to member ABC, which is supported by a pin and bracket at C
and by a cable BD forming an angle with the horizontal. (a) Knowing
that the ultimate load of the cable is 25 kips, write a computer program
to construct a table of the values of the factor of safety of the cable for
values of
and
from 0 to 45 , using increments in
and
corresponding to 0.1 increments in tan
and tan . (b) Check that
for any given value of , the maximum value of the factor of safety is
obtained for
38.66 and explain why. (c) Determine the smallest
possible value of the factor of safety for
38.66 , as well as the
corresponding value of , and explain the result obtained.

SOLUTION
(a)

MC

## 0 : (P sin )(1.5 in.) ( P cos )(30 in.)

( F cos )(15 in.) ( F sin )(12 in.)

15 sin
15 cos
F .S . Fult /F
F

Output for P

(b)

When

(c)

F .S . 3.579 for

38.66, tan

30 cos
12 sin
20 kips:

## 26.6 ; P is perpendicular to the lever arm AC.

Note: The value F . S . 3.579 is the smallest of the values of F.S. corresponding to
38.66 and the
largest of those corresponding to
26.6 ,
38.66 is a saddle point, or
26.6 . The point
minimax of the function F .S . ( , ).

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85

PROBLEM 1.C5
A load P is supported as shown by two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross
section that are joined by a simple glued scarf splice. (a) Denoting by U and U ,
respectively, the ultimate strength of the joint in tension and in shear, write a
computer program which, for given values of a, b, P, U and U , expressed in either
SI or U.S. customary units, and for values of
from 5 to 85 at 5 intervals, can be
used to calculate (i) the normal stress in the joint, (ii) the shearing stress in the joint,
(iii) the factor of safety relative to failure in tension, (iv) the factor of safety relative
to failure in shear, and (v) the overall factor of safety for the glued joint. (b) Apply
this program, using the dimensions and loading of the members of Probs. 1.29 and
1.31, knowing that U 150 psi and U 214 psi for the glue used in Prob. 1.29, and
that U 1.26 MPa and U 1.50 MPa for the glue used in Prob. 1.31. (c) Verify in
each of these two cases that the shearing stress is maximum for a 45 .

P'

SOLUTION
(i) and (ii) Draw the F.B. diagram of lower member:
Fx

0:

P cos

P cos

Fy

0:

P sin

P sin

Area ab/sin
Normal stress:

F
Area

( P/ab) sin 2

Shearing stress:

V
Area

( P/ab) sin

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

cos

FSN

U/

FSS

U/

Overall F.S.:
F.S.

## The smaller of FSN and FSS.

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86

## PROBLEM 1.C5 (Continued)

Program Outputs

Problem 1.29
a 150 mm
b

75 mm

P 11 kN

ALPHA

SIG (MPa)

TAU (MPa)

1.26 MPa

1.50 MPa
FSN

FSS

FS

0.007

0.085

169.644

17.669

17.669

10

0.029

0.167

42.736

8.971

8.971

15

0.065

0.244

19.237

6.136

6.136

20

0.114

0.314

11.016

4.773

4.773

25

0.175

0.375

7.215

4.005

4.005

30

0.244

0.423

5.155

3.543

3.543

35

0.322

0.459

3.917

3.265

3.265

40

0.404

0.481

3.119

3.116

3.116

45

0.489

0.489

2.577

3.068

2.577

50

0.574

0.481

2.196

3.116

2.196

55

0.656

0.459

1.920

3.265

1.920

60

0.733

0.423

1.718

3.543

1.718

65

0.803

0.375

1.569

4.005

1.569

70

0.863

0.314

1.459

4.773

1.459

75

0.912

0.244

1.381

6.136

1.381

80

0.948

0.167

1.329

8.971

1.329

85

0.970

0.085

1.298

17.669

1.298

(b), (c)

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87

## PROBLEM 1.C5 (Continued)

Problem 1.31
a

5 in.

b 3 in.
P 1400 lb
U

150 psi

214 psi

ALPHA

SIG (psi)

TAU (psi)

FSN

FSS

FS

0.709

8.104

211.574

26.408

26.408

10

2.814

15.961

53.298

13.408

13.408

15

6.252

23.333

23.992

9.171

9.171

20

10.918

29.997

13.739

7.134

7.134

25

16.670

35.749

8.998

5.986

5.986

30

23.333

40.415

6.429

5.295

5.295

35

30.706

43.852

4.885

4.880

4.880

40

38.563

45.958

3.890

4.656

3.890

45

46.667

46.667

3.214

4.586

3.214

50

54.770

45.958

2.739

4.656

2.739

55

62.628

43.852

2.395

4.880

2.395

60

70.000

40.415

2.143

5.295

2.143

65

76.663

35.749

1.957

5.986

1.957

70

82.415

29.997

1.820

7.134

1.820

75

87.081

23.333

1.723

9.171

1.723

80

90.519

15.961

1.657

13.408

1.657

85

92.624

8.104

1.619

26.408

1.619

(c)

(b)

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88

PROBLEM 1.C6

Top view
200 mm

180 mm

12 mm

8 mm
A

C
B
20 mm

8 mm

8 mm

D
12 mm

Front view

Side view

## Member ABC is supported by a pin and

bracket at A and by two links, which are pinconnected to the member at B and to a fixed
support at D. (a) Write a computer program to
calculate the allowable load Pall for any given
values of (i) the diameter d1 of the pin at A,
(ii) the common diameter d2 of the pins at B
and D, (iii) the ultimate normal stress U in
each of the two links, (iv) the ultimate shearing
stress U in each of the three pins, and (v) the
desired overall factor of safety F.S. (b) Your
program should also indicate which of the
following three stresses is critical: the normal
stress in the links, the shearing stress in the pin
at A, or the shearing stress in the pins at B and
D. (c) Check your program by using the data
of Probs. 1.55 and 1.56, respectively, and
comparing the answers obtained for Pall with
those given in the text. (d) Use your program to
determine the allowable load Pall, as well as
which of the stresses is critical, when d1
d 2 15 mm, U 110 MPa for aluminum links,
100 MPa for steel pins, and F.S. 3.2.
U

SOLUTION
(a)

MA

0: P

MB

0: P

200
FBD
380
200
FA
180

d12 /4),

(i)

FA

(ii)

FBD

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

## For desired overall F.S.:

2(

2(
2(

FBD

U /FS )(

U /FS )(

d 22 /4),

P1

200
FA
180

P2

200
FBD
380

/FS )(0.02)(0.008), P3

200
FBD
380

## If P3 < P4 , stress is critical in links.

If P4 < P3 and P1 < P2 , stress is critical in Pin A.
If P4

P3 and P2

## P1 , stress is critical in Pins B and D.

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89

Program Outputs
(b)

Problem 1.55.

Data: d1
Pall

(c)

Problem 1.56.

Data:

d1
Pall

12 mm,

, 250 MPa,

100 MPa,

F .S . 3.0

## 3.72 kN. Stress in Pin A is critical.

Data: d1 10 mm, d 2
Pall

(d)

8 mm, d 2

12 mm,

250 MPa,

d2

15 mm,

110 MPa,

## 5.79 kN. Stress in links is critical.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.
90