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d1

PROBLEM 1.1

d2

125 kN B

welded together at B and loaded as shown.

Knowing that d1 30 mm and d 2 50 mm,

find the average normal stress at the

midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

60 kN

125 kN

0.9 m

1.2 m

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

Rod AB:

Force:

Area:

Normal stress:

AB

60 103 N tension

4

d12

(30 10 3 ) 2

60 103

706.86 10

P

A

706.86 10 6 m 2

84.882 106 Pa

AB

84.9 MPa

Rod BC:

Force:

Area:

Normal stress:

BC

60 103

4

P

A

d 22

(2)(125 103 )

(50 10 3 )2

190 103

1.96350 10

190 103 N

1.96350 10 3 m 2

96.766 106 Pa

BC

96.8 MPa

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

3

d1

PROBLEM 1.2

d2

125 kN B

welded together at B and loaded as shown.

Knowing that the average normal stress must

not exceed 150 MPa in either rod, determine

the smallest allowable values of the diameters

d1 and d2.

60 kN

125 kN

0.9 m

1.2 m

SOLUTION

(a)

Rod AB:

Force:

Stress:

AB

Area:

A

AB

d12

60 103 N

150 106 Pa

d12

4

P

A

AB

P

AB

d12

(4)(60 103 )

(150 106 )

4P

AB

(b)

d1

22.568 10 3 m

Force:

60 103

Stress:

BC

509.30 10 6 m 2

d1

22.6 mm

d2

40.2 mm

Rod BC:

Area:

A

BC

d 22

190 103 N

150 106 Pa

4

P

A

d 22

4P

d 22

4P

BC

d2

(2)(125 103 )

( 150 106 )

40.159 10 3 m

1.61277 10 3 m 2

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

4

PROBLEM 1.3

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as

shown. Knowing that P = 10 kips, find the average normal stress at the

midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

30 in.

1.25 in.

B

12 kips

25 in.

0.75 in.

C

P

SOLUTION

(a)

Rod AB:

P

A

AB

(b)

12

4

P

A

10

d12

22 kips

(1.25)2

4

22

1.22718

1.22718 in 2

17.927 ksi

AB

17.93 ksi

Rod BC:

P

A

AB

10 kips

4

P

A

d 22

(0.75)2 0.44179 in 2

4

10

22.635 ksi

0.44179

AB

22.6 ksi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

5

PROBLEM 1.4

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as

shown. Determine the magnitude of the force P for which the tensile stresses in

rods AB and BC are equal.

30 in.

1.25 in.

B

12 kips

25 in.

0.75 in.

C

P

SOLUTION

(a)

Rod AB:

P

A

(b)

12 kips

d

4

(1.25 in.)2

1.22718 in 2

AB

P 12 kips

1.22718 in 2

Rod BC:

P

A

P

4

d2

(0.75 in.)2

0.44179 in 2

BC

P

0.44179 in 2

AB

BC

P 12 kips

1.22718 in 2

5.3015

P

0.44179 in 2

0.78539 P

6.75 kips

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

6

1200 N

PROBLEM 1.5

A strain gage located at C on the surface of bone AB indicates that the average normal stress

in the bone is 3.80 MPa when the bone is subjected to two 1200-N forces as shown.

Assuming the cross section of the bone at C to be annular and knowing that its outer diameter

is 25 mm, determine the inner diameter of the bones cross section at C.

B

1200 N

SOLUTION

P

A

Geometry:

(d12

d 22 )

4A

d 22

d12

d 22

(25 10 3 )2

4P

d12

(4)(1200)

(3.80 106 )

222.92 10 6 m 2

d2

14.93 10 3 m

d2

14.93 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

7

PROBLEM 1.6

A

a

15 mm

B

100 m

b

Two brass rods AB and BC, each of uniform diameter, will be brazed together

at B to form a nonuniform rod of total length 100 m, which will be suspended

from a support at A as shown. Knowing that the density of brass is 8470 kg/m3,

determine (a) the length of rod AB for which the maximum normal stress in

ABC is minimum, (b) the corresponding value of the maximum normal stress.

10 mm

SOLUTION

Areas:

AAB

ABC

From geometry,

Weights:

4

4

(15 mm) 2

176.715 mm 2

(10 mm)2

78.54 mm 2

100

176.715 10 6 m 2

78.54 10 6 m 2

WAB

g AAB

AB

(8470)(9.81)(176.715 10 6 ) a

14.683 a

WBC

g ABC

BC

(8470)(9.81)(78.54 10 6 )(100

a)

652.59

6.526 a

Normal stresses:

At A,

At B,

(a)

PA

WAB

WBC

652.59

PA

AAB

3.6930 106

PB

WBC

652.59

PB

ABC

8.3090 106

46.160 103a

(2)

6.526a

83.090 103a

4.6160 106

a

(b)

(1)

8.157a

129.25 103a

or

35.71 m

AB

35.7 m

A

3.6930 106

8.3090 106

5.34 106 Pa

5.34 MPa

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

8

PROBLEM 1.7

0.4 m

cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm diameter. Determine

the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links connecting

(a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

C

0.25 m

0.2 m

B

E

20 kN

D

A

SOLUTION

Use bar ABC as a free body.

MC

0:

(0.040) FBD

FBD

MB

0:

(0.040) FCE

(0.025

0.040)(20 103 )

32.5 103 N

Link BD is in tension.

3

(0.025)(20 10 )

12.5 103 N

FCE

0

Link CE is in compression.

(0.008)(0.036

320 10 6 m 2

(a)

(b)

BD

FBD

Anet

A net

32.5 103

320 10 6

0.016)

101.563 106

BD

(0.008)(0.036)

576 10 6 m 2

CE

FCE

A

12.5 103

576 10 6

160 10 6 m 2

21.701 10

101.6 MPa

288 10 6 m 2

CE

21.7 MPa

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

9

PROBLEM 1.8

2 in.

12 in.

120 lb

4 in.

30!

1

8

120 lb

A

C

10 in.

8 in.

SOLUTION

Use the plate together with two pulleys as a free body. Note that the cable tension causes at 1200 lb-in.

clockwise couple to act on the body.

MB

FAC

0:

(12

1200 lb

16 cos 30 10 sin 30

Stress in link AC:

1200 lb

135.500 lb

1 in.

AC

FAC

A

1

in. 0.125 in 2

8

135.50

1084 psi

0.125

1.084 ksi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

10

0.100 m

PROBLEM 1.9

E

P

P

D

A

0.150 m

shown. Determine the cross-sectional area of the uniform portion of rod

BE for which the normal stress in that portion is 100 MPa.

C

0.300 m

0.250 m

SOLUTION

Draw free body diagrams of AC and CD.

MD

C

0: 0.150P

0.250C

0.6 P

MA

0: 0.150 FBE

FBE

1.07

P

0.150

BE

ABE

0.350 P

7.1333 P

0.450 P

0.450C

(7.133)(4 kN)

28.533 kN

FBE

ABE

FBE

BE

28.533 103

100 106

285.33 10 6 m 2

ABE

285 mm 2

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

11

PROBLEM 1.10

4 kips

in.

1

in. thick. Knowing that each pin has a 83 -in.

2

= 0,

average normal stress in link BD if (a)

(b) = 90 .

.

2 in

308

SOLUTION

Use bar ABC as a free body.

(a)

0.

MA

FBD

(b

d )t

FBD

A

Stress:

(b)

3 1

8 2

3.4641 kips

0.31250 in 2

1

0.31250 in 2

11.09 ksi

90 .

MA

FBD

0:

Stress:

bt

FBD

A

(1)

1

0.5 in 2

2

6 kips

0.5 in 2

12.00 ksi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

12

PROBLEM 1.11

12 ft

H

C

9 ft

E

9 ft

80 kips

For the Pratt bridge truss and loading shown, determine the

average normal stress in member BE, knowing that the crosssectional area of that member is 5.87 in2.

G

9 ft

80 kips

9 ft

80 kips

SOLUTION

Use entire truss as free body.

MH

Ay

0: (9)(80)

(18)(80)

(27)(80)

36 Ay

120 kips

BD, BE, and CE.

Fy

BE

0: 120

FBE

A

80

12

FBE

15

FBE

50 kips

50 kips

5.87 in 2

BE

8.52 ksi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

13

45 in.

30 in.

PROBLEM 1.12

C

480 lb

4 in.

40 in.

15 in.

4 in.

30 in.

DEF, BE, and CF. Knowing that each member has a 2 4-in.

rectangular cross section and that each pin has a 12 -in.

diameter, determine the maximum value of the average

normal stress (a) in member BE, (b) in member CF.

SOLUTION

Add support reactions to figure as shown.

Using entire frame as free body,

MA

0: 40Dx

(45

Dx

30)(480)

900 lb

Reaction at D must be parallel to FBE and FCF .

4

Dx

3

Dy

MF

1200 lb

0:

(30)

FBE

2250 lb

ME

0: (30)

FCE

750 lb

4

FBE

5

4

FCE

5

(30

15) DY

(15) DY

Area:

(a)

BE

2 in.

4 in.

FBE

A

8 in 2

2250

8

BE

281 psi

Amin

Stress in tension member CF:

(b)

CF

(2)(4.0

FCF

Amin

0.5)

750

7.0

7.0 in 2

CF

107.1 psi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

14

PROBLEM 1.13

Dimensions in mm

1150

100

C

850

250

E

500

450

675

825

hydraulic cylinder connected by a 25-mm-diameter steel

rod to two identical arm-and-wheel units DEF. The mass

of the entire tow bar is 200 kg, and its center of gravity

is located at G. For the position shown, determine the

normal stress in the rod.

SOLUTION

FREE BODY ENTIRE TOW BAR:

W

MA

0: 850R

2654.5 N

1962.00 N

1150(1962.00 N)

tan

100

675

8.4270

ME

R(500)

FCD

500

(2654.5 N)

550 cos 8.4270

2439.5 N (comp.)

CD

FCD

ACD

2439.5 N

(0.0125 m)2

4.9697 106 Pa

CD

4.97 MPa

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

15

150 mm

300 mm

A

D

F

150 mm

PROBLEM 1.14

Two hydraulic cylinders are used to control the position

of the robotic arm ABC. Knowing that the control rods

attached at A and D each have a 20-mm diameter and

happen to be parallel in the position shown, determine the

average normal stress in (a) member AE, (b) member DG.

400 mm

E

800 N

600 mm

200 mm

SOLUTION

Use member ABC as free body.

MB

0: (0.150)

FAE

4 103 N

4

FAE

5

Stress in rod AE:

(0.600)(800)

d2

(20 10 3 ) 2

4 103

314.16 10

FAE

A

AE

314.16 10 6 m 2

12.7324 106 Pa

(a)

AE

12.73 MPa

Stress in rod DG:

MF

0: (0.150)

FDG

1500 N

4

DG

d2

FDG

A

4

FAE

5

(20 10 3 ) 2

1500

3.1416 10

(0.200)

4

FDG

5

(1.050

0.350)(800)

314.16 10 6 m 2

6

4.7746 106 Pa

(b)

DG

4.77 MPa

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

16

PROBLEM 1.15

Determine the diameter of the largest circular hole that can be punched into a sheet of polystyrene 6 mm

thick, knowing that the force exerted by the punch is 45 kN and that a 55-MPa average shearing stress is

required to cause the material to fail.

SOLUTION

For cylindrical failure surface:

P

or

A

Shearing stress:

Therefore,

Finally,

dt

P

d

dt

P

t

45 103 N

(0.006 m)(55 106 Pa)

43.406 10 3 m

d

43.4 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

17

5

8

P'

1 in.

2 in.

PROBLEM 1.16

in.

5

8

in.

2 in.

1 in.

wide, are joined by the dry mortise joint shown.

Knowing that the wood used shears off along its

grain when the average shearing stress reaches

1.20 ksi, determine the magnitude P of the axial

load that will cause the joint to fail.

9 in.

SOLUTION

Six areas must be sheared off when the joint fails. Each of these areas has dimensions

5

8

in.

1

2

being

A

5

8

1

2

5 2

in

16

0.3125 in 2

F

(1.20 ksi)(0.3125 in 2 )

0.375 kips

P

6F

(6)(0.375)

2.25 kips

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

18

PROBLEM 1.17

0.6 in.

P'

Steel

3 in.

Wood

When the force P reached 1600 lb, the wooden specimen shown failed

in shear along the surface indicated by the dashed line. Determine the

average shearing stress along that surface at the time of failure.

SOLUTION

Area being sheared:

Force:

1600 lb

Shearing stress:

P

A

1600 lb

1.8 in 2

1.8 in 2

889 psi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

19

40 mm

PROBLEM 1.18

10 mm

8 mm

12 mm

plate into which a 12-mm-diameter hole has been drilled. Knowing that

the shearing stress must not exceed 180 MPa in the steel rod and 70 MPa

in the aluminum plate, determine the largest load P that can be applied to

the rod.

SOLUTION

For steel:

A1

dt

(0.012 m)(0.010 m)

376.99 10 6 m 2

P

A

A1

67.858 103 N

For aluminum:

A2

2

P

A2

dt

A2

(0.040 m)(0.008 m)

1.00531 10 3 m 2

70.372 103 N

P

67.9 kN

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

20

PROBLEM 1.19

The axial force in the column supporting the timber beam shown is

P 20 kips. Determine the smallest allowable length L of the bearing

plate if the bearing stress in the timber is not to exceed 400 psi.

6 in.

SOLUTION

Bearing area: Ab

Lw

b

P

Ab

P

bw

P

Lw

20 103 lb

(400 psi)(6 in.)

8.33 in.

8.33 in.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

21

PROBLEM 1.20

Three wooden planks are fastened together by a series of bolts to form

a column. The diameter of each bolt is 12 mm and the inner diameter

of each washer is 16 mm, which is slightly larger than the diameter of

the holes in the planks. Determine the smallest allowable outer

diameter d of the washers, knowing that the average normal stress in

the bolts is 36 MPa and that the bearing stress between the washers

and the planks must not exceed 8.5 MPa.

12 mm

SOLUTION

Bolt:

d2

4

ABolt

(0.012 m)2

4

P

A

1.13097 10 4 m 2

4.0715 103 N

Bearing area for washer:

Aw

and

Aw

d o2

di2

P

BRG

4

d o2

di2

P

BRG

d o2

4P

di2

BRG

d o2

4 (4.0715 103 N)

(8.5 106 Pa)

d o2

8.6588 10 4 m 2

do

29.426 10 3 m

(0.016 m) 2

do

29.4 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

22

PROBLEM 1.21

P 5 40 kN

120 mm

supported by a concrete footing resting on undisturbed soil.

Determine (a) the maximum bearing stress on the concrete

footing, (b) the size of the footing for which the average bearing

stress in the soil is 145 kPa.

100 mm

SOLUTION

(a)

40 kN

(100)(120)

Footing area. P

12 103 mm 2

40 103

12 10 3

P

A

(b)

40 103 N

40 103 N

3.3333 106 Pa

3.33 MPa

45 103 Pa

145 kPa

P

A

12 10 3 m 2

40 103

145 103

0.27586 m 2

b2

b

0.27586

0.525 m

525 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

23

PROBLEM 1.22

a

An axial load P is supported by a short W8 40 column of crosssectional area A 11.7 in 2 and is distributed to a concrete foundation

by a square plate as shown. Knowing that the average normal stress in

the column must not exceed 30 ksi and that the bearing stress on the

concrete foundation must not exceed 3.0 ksi, determine the side a of

the plate that will provide the most economical and safe design.

SOLUTION

For the column,

P

or

A

P

For the a

a plate,

(30)(11.7)

351 kips

3.0 ksi

351

3.0

117 in 2

a2

a

117

10.82 in.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

24

PROBLEM 1.23

Link AB, of width b = 2 in. and thickness t = 14 in., is used to support the end of a

horizontal beam. Knowing that the average normal stress in the link is 20 ksi and

that the average shearing stress in each of the two pins is 12 ksi, determine (a) the

diameter d of the pins, (b) the average bearing stress in the link.

A

d

B

d

SOLUTION

Rod AB is in compression.

A

bt

where b

Pin:

and

AP

(a)

4 AP

4P

P

(b)

P

dt

2 in. and t

( 20)(2)

1

4

1

in.

4

10 kips

P

AP

d2

(4)(10)

(12)

10

(1.03006)(0.25)

1.03006 in.

1.030 in.

38.8 ksi

38.833 ksi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

25

PROBLEM 1.24

60, knowing that the average shearing stress in the 10-mmdiameter pin at B must not exceed 120 MPa and that the average

bearing stress in member AB and in the bracket at B must not

exceed 90 MPa.

16 mm

750 mm

750 mm

!

50 mm

12 mm

SOLUTION

Geometry: Triangle ABC is an isoseles triangle with angles shown here.

P

sin 30

FAB

sin 120

FAC

sin 30

FAB sin 30

sin 120

0.57735FAB

FAC sin 30

sin 30

FAC

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

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26

If shearing stress in pin at B is critical,

A

d2

(0.010) 2

78.54 10 6 m 2

2A

FAB

18.850 103 N

Ab

td

FAB

Ab

(0.016)(0.010)

b

160 10 6 m 2

14.40 103 N

Ab

2td

FAB

Ab

(2)(0.012)(0.010)

b

Then from statics,

Pallow

240 10 6 m 2

21.6 103 N

103 N

(0.57735)(14.40 103 )

8.31 103 N

8.31 kN

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

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27

PROBLEM 1.25

P

A

16 mm

750 mm

750 mm

!

50 mm

Knowing that

40 and P 9 kN, determine (a) the smallest

allowable diameter of the pin at B if the average shearing stress in

the pin is not to exceed 120 MPa, (b) the corresponding average

bearing stress in member AB at B, (c) the corresponding average

bearing stress in each of the support brackets at B.

12 mm

SOLUTION

Geometry: Triangle ABC is an isoseles triangle with angles shown here.

P

sin 20

FAB

FAB

FAC

sin110

sin 50

P sin110

sin 20

(9)sin110

24.727 kN

sin 20

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28

(a)

FAB

2 AP

d2

FAB

2 4 d2

2FAB

where FAB

d2

(2)(24.727 103 )

(120 106 )

2 FAB

(b)

131.181 10 6 m 2

11.4534 10 3 m

11.45 mm

Bearing stress in AB at A.

Ab

b

(c)

24.727 103 N

(0.016)(11.4534 10 3 )

td

24.727 103

183.254 10 6

FAB

Ab

183.254 10 6 m 2

134.933 106 Pa

134.9 MPa

A

b

(0.012)(11.4534 10 3 )

td

1

2

FAB

A

(0.5)(24.727 103 )

137.441 10 6

137.441 10 6 m 2

89.955 106 Pa

90.0 MPa

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29

PROBLEM 1.26

175 mm

100 mm

D

B

208

The hydraulic cylinder CF, which partially controls the position of rod

DE, has been locked in the position shown. Member BD is 15 mm

thick and is connected at C to the vertical rod by a 9-mm-diameter

bolt. Knowing that P 2 kN and

75 , determine (a) the average

shearing stress in the bolt, (b) the bearing stress at C in member BD.

u

E

200 mm

45 mm

SOLUTION

Free Body: Member BD.

Mc

40

9

FAB (100 cos 20 )

FAB (100 sin 20 )

41

4

(2 kN) cos 75 (175sin 20 ) (2 kN)sin 75 (175cos 20 )

0:

100

FAB (40 cos 20

41

9sin 20 )

FAB

Fx

0: C x

9

(4.1424 kN)

41

(2 kN)(175)sin(75

(a)

(b)

0: C y

ave

C

A

5.9860 103 N

(0.0045 m) 2

C

td

5.9860 103 N

(0.015 m)(0.009 m)

40

(4.1424 kN)

41

94.1 106 Pa

20 )

4.1424 kN

(2 kN) cos 75

Cx

Fy

(2 kN)sin 75

0

0.39167 kN

Cy

5.9732 kN

5.9860 kN

86.2

94.1 MPa

44.3 106 Pa

44.3 MPa

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30

PROBLEM 1.27

0.4 m

For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.7, determine (a) the average

shearing stress in the pin at B, (b) the average bearing stress at B in

member BD, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member ABC,

knowing that this member has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross

section.

C

0.25 m

0.2 m

B

E

20 kN

36-mm

uniform rectangular cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm

diameter. Determine the maximum value of the average normal stress in

the links connecting (a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

D

A

SOLUTION

Use bar ABC as a free body.

MC

FBD

(a)

0 : (0.040) FBD

0.040)(20 103 )

(0.025

32.5 10 N

FBD

for double shear

2A

Shear pin at B.

where

d2

(0.016) 2

32.5 103

(2)(201.06 10 6 )

(b)

A

b

(c)

Bearing in ABC at B.

(0.016)(0.008)

dt

1

2

FBD

A

dt

FBD

A

201.06 10 6 m 2

80.822 106 Pa

80.8 MPa

128 10 6 m 2

(0.5)(32.5 103 )

128 10 6

126.95 106 Pa

(0.016)(0.010)

160 10 6 m 2

32.5 103

160 10 6

203.12 106 Pa

127.0 MPa

203 MPa

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31

PROBLEM 1.28

A

B

12 in.

C

12 in.

1500 lb

15 in.

16 in.

position of the forks of a fork-lift truck. The load supported by the one

system shown is 1500 lb. Knowing that the thickness of member BD is

5

in., determine (a) the average shearing stress in the 12 -in.-diameter

8

pin at B, (b) the bearing stress at B in member BD.

16 in.

20 in.

SOLUTION

Use one fork as a free body.

MB

0: 24 E

(20)(1500)

(a)

0: E

Bx

Bx

Bx

1250 lb

Fy

0: By

Bx2

1500

By2

1250 lb

0

12502

By

1500 lb

15002

1952.56 lb

Apin

1

4 2

2

d pin

0.196350 in 2

1952.56

0.196350

B

Apin

(b)

Fx

9.94 ksi

Bearing stress at B.

B

dt

1952.56

1

2

5

8

6.25 ksi

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32

PROBLEM 1.29

P'

150 mm

11 kN,

by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that P

determine the normal and shearing stresses in the glued splice.

45""

45

75 mm

SOLUTION

90

P

A0

45

11 kN

45

11 103 N

(150)(75)

11.25 103 mm 2

11.25 10 3 m 2

P cos 2

A0

11.25 10 3

489 103 Pa

489 kPa

P sin 2

2 A0

(2)(11.25 10 3 )

489 103 Pa

489 kPa

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33

P'

150 mm

by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that the maximum

allowable shearing stress in the glued splice is 620 kPa, determine

(a) the largest load P that can be safely applied, (b) the corresponding

tensile stress in the splice.

45""

45

PROBLEM 1.30

75 mm

SOLUTION

90

A0

45

45

(150)(75)

11.25 103 mm 2

620 kPa

620 103 Pa

11.25 10 3 m 2

P sin 2

2 A0

(a)

2 A0

sin2

sin 90

13.95 103 N

(b)

P cos 2

A0

13.95 kN

11.25 10 3

620 103 Pa

620 kPa

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34

PROBLEM 1.31

P

5.0 in.

3.0 in.

The 1.4-kip load P is supported by two wooden members of uniform cross section

that are joined by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Determine the normal and

shearing stresses in the glued splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION

P

A0

1400 lb

90

60

30

(5.0)(3.0)

15 in

P cos 2

A0

(1400)(cos30 )2

15

70.0 psi

P sin 2

2 A0

(1400)sin 60

(2)(15)

40.4 psi

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35

PROBLEM 1.32

P

5.0

3.0 in.

Two wooden members of uniform cross section are joined by the simple scarf splice

shown. Knowing that the maximum allowable tensile stress in the glued splice is 75 psi,

determine (a) the largest load P that can be safely supported, (b) the corresponding

shearing stress in the splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION

A0

(5.0)(3.0)

15 in 2

90

30

P cos

A0

(a)

(b)

60

2

A0

cos 2

(75)(15)

cos 2 30

P sin 2

2 A0

1500 lb

(1500)sin 60

(2)(15)

1.500 kips

43.3 psi

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36

PROBLEM 1.33

A centric load P is applied to the granite block shown. Knowing that the

resulting maximum value of the shearing stress in the block is 2.5 ksi, determine

(a) the magnitude of P, (b) the orientation of the surface on which the maximum

shearing stress occurs, (c) the normal stress exerted on that surface, (d ) the

maximum value of the normal stress in the block.

6 in.

6 in.

SOLUTION

A0

max

(6)(6)

36 in 2

2.5 ksi

45 for plane of

(a)

max

(b)

sin 2

(c)

45

(d )

max

| P|

2 A0

1 2

| P|

2 A0

max

(2)(36)(2.5)

max

45.0

90

P

P

cos 2 45

A0

2 A0

P

180

A0

36

180.0 kips

180

(2)(36)

45

2.50 ksi

max

5.00 ksi

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37

PROBLEM 1.34

A 240-kip load P is applied to the granite block shown. Determine the resulting

maximum value of (a) the normal stress, (b) the shearing stress. Specify the

orientation of the plane on which each of these maximum values occurs.

6 in.

6 in.

SOLUTION

A0

(6)(6)

36 in 2

P

cos 2

A0

(a)

0 at

(b)

P

240

max

2 A0

(2)(36)

240

cos 2

36

6.67 cos 2

90.0

6.67 ksi at

max

at

3.33 ksi

45

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38

PROBLEM 1.35

plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a plane

perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that a 300-kN axial

force P is applied to the pipe, determine the normal and shearing

stresses in directions respectively normal and tangential to the weld.

10 mm

Weld

208

SOLUTION

do

ro

ri

Ao

0.400 m

1

d o 0.200 m

2

ro t 0.200 0.010

(ro2

ri2 )

(0.2002

0.190 m

0.1902 )

12.2522 10 3 m 2

20

P

Ao

cos 2

P

2 A0

sin 2

12.2522 10 3

21.621 106 Pa

21.6 MPa

(2)(12.2522 10 3 )

7.8695 106 Pa

7.87 MPa

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39

PROBLEM 1.36

thick plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a

plane perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that the

maximum allowable normal and shearing stresses in the directions

respectively normal and tangential to the weld are

60 MPa and

36 MPa, determine the magnitude P of the largest axial force that

can be applied to the pipe.

10 mm

Weld

208

SOLUTION

do

ro

ri

Ao

0.400 m

1

d o 0.200 m

2

ro t 0.200 0.010

(ro2

ri2 )

(0.2002

0.190 m

0.1902 )

12.2522 10 3 m 2

20

Based on

| |

P

Based on

| |

P

60 MPa:

P

cos 2

A0

cos 2 20

P

30 MPa:

sin 2

2 Ao

Ao

cos 2

2 Ao

sin 2

sin 40

832.52 103 N

1372.39 103 N

P

833 kN

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40

PROBLEM 1.37

Q

12 in.

12 in.

shown around a 1-in.-diameter aluminum rod AC. Cables BE and DF,

each of 12 -in. diameter, are used to apply the load Q. Knowing that the

ultimate strength of the steel used for the loop and the cables is 70 ksi,

and that the ultimate strength of the aluminum used for the rod is 38 ksi,

determine the largest load Q that can be applied if an overall factor of

safety of 3 is desired.

E

B

9 in.

1 in.

C

A

9 in.

3

8

in.

D

1

2

in.

Q'

SOLUTION

Using joint B as a free body and considering symmetry,

2

3

FAB

5

6

FAB

5

0 Q

2

4

FAB

5

8 5

Q

5 6

FAC

FAC

3

FAC

4

QU

UA

d2

(70)

1

4 2

13.7445 kips

QU

6

FAB, U

5

6

5

6

3

(70)

5

4 8

UA

6

5

d2

9.2775 kips

QU

3

FAC , U

4

3

4

3

4

Allowable load:

d2

QU

Q

QU

F.S .

3

(38) (1.0)2

4

4

22.384 kips

9.2775 kips

9.2775

3

3.0925 kips

3.09 kips

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41

w

908

PROBLEM 1.38

a 480-MPa ultimate strength in tension. What was the safety factor used if the

structure shown was designed to support a 16-kN load P?

480 mm

C

D

P

SOLUTION

Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

MA

0:

(480) FBC

FBC

600

P

480

(600)(16 103 )

480

FU

Factor of safety:

(600) P

20 103 N

UA

FU

F.S.

FU

FBC

72 103

20 103

72 103 N

F.S.

3.60

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42

w

908

PROBLEM 1.39

Link BC is 6 mm thick and is made of a steel with a 450-MPa ultimate strength in

tension. What should be its width w if the structure shown is being designed to

support a 20-kN load P with a factor of safety of 3?

480 mm

C

D

P

SOLUTION

Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

MA

0:

(480) FBC

FBC

For a factor of safety F.S.

FU

But FU

UA

600P

600P

480

(600)(20 103 )

480

25 103 N

(F.S.)( FBC )

FU

U

(3)(25 103 )

75 103

450 106

wt or w

A

t

75 103 N

166.667 10 6 m 2

166.667 10

0.006

27.778 10 3 m

w

27.8 mm

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43

PROBLEM 1.40

0.75 m

A

0.4 m

B

1.4 m

Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known

that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an

ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If a factor of safety of 3.2 is to be

achieved for both bars, determine the required cross-sectional area of (a) bar

AB, (b) bar AC.

SOLUTION

Length of member AB:

AB

0.752

0.42

0.85 m

Mc

0: 1.4 Ax

(0.75)(28)

Ax

Fy

0: Ay

28

Ay

28 kN

0

15 kN

Fx

0:

0.75

FAB

0.85

FAB

Fy

0: Ay

FAC

FAC

For the material,

(0.020)2

PU

A

Ax

(0.85)(15)

17 kN

0.75

0.4

FAB 0

0.85

(0.4)(17)

28

20 kN

0.85

400 10 6 m 2

120 103

400 10 6

PU

120 103 N

300 106 Pa

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44

(a)

F.S.

AAB

PU

FAB

U AAB

FAB

(3.2)(17 103 )

300 106

(F.S.) FAB

U

(b)

F.S.

AAC

PU

FAC

181.333 10 6 m 2

AAB

181.3 mm 2

U AAC

FAC

(F.S.) FAC

U

(3.2)(20 103 )

300 106

213.33 10 6 m 2

AAC

213 mm 2

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45

PROBLEM 1.41

0.75 m

A

0.4 m

B

1.4 m

Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known

that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an

ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If bar AB has a cross-sectional area of

225 mm2, determine (a) the factor of safety for bar AB and (b) the crosssectional area of bar AC if it is to have the same factor of safety as bar AB.

SOLUTION

Length of member AB:

AB

0.752

0.42

0.85 m

Mc

0: 1.4 Ax

(0.75)(28)

Ax

Fy

0: Ay

28

Ay

28 kN

0

15 kN

Fx

0:

0.75

FAB

0.85

FAB

Fy

0: Ay

FAC

FAC

(0.020)2

PU

A

Ax

(0.85)(15)

0.75

17 kN

0.4

FAB 0

0.85

(0.4)(17)

28

0.85

400 10 6 m 2

120 103

400 10 6

PU

20 kN

120 103 N

300 106 Pa

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46

(a)

F.S.

FU

FAB

U AAB

FAB

17 103

F.S.

(b)

F.S.

AAC

FU

FAC

3.97

U AAC

FAC

(F.S.) FAC

U

(3.97)(20 103 )

300 106

264.67 10 6 m 2

AAC

265 mm 2

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47

PROBLEM 1.42

600 lb/ft

65 ksi. Determine the cross-sectional area of AB for which the factor

of safety will be 3.20. Assume that the link will be adequately

reinforced around the pins at A and B.

35!

B

5 kips

1.4 ft

1.4 ft

1.4 ft

SOLUTION

P

MD

(4.2)(0.6)

0:

2.52 kips

(0.7)(2.52)

FAB

AB

AAB

(1.4)(5)

5.4570 kips

FAB

AAB

ult

F. S .

( F. S .) FAB

ult

(3.20)(5.4570 kips)

65 ksi

0.26854 in 2

AAB

0.268 in 2

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48

PROBLEM 1.43

16 kN

6 mm

Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that are fully glued on

the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the ends of the members

is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued joint is 2.5 MPa,

determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for the loading shown.

125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION

all

2.5 MPa

2.75

0.90909 MPa

A

0.006 m

(0.125 m)

2

all

0.90909 106

L

P

2A

(L

16 103

0.006)(0.125)

0.14680 m

146.8 mm

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49

PROBLEM 1.44

16 kN

For the joint and loading of Prob. 1.43, determine the factor of safety when

L = 180 mm.

L

6 mm

PROBLEM 1.43 Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that

are fully glued on the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the

ends of the members is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued

joint is 2.5 MPa, determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for

the loading shown.

125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION

Area of one face of upper contact surface:

A

A

0.180 m

0.006 m

2

(0.125 m)

10.8750 10 3 m 2

all

all

F.S.

P

2A

16 103 N

2(10.8750 10 3 m 2 )

0.73563 MPa

u

all

2.5 MPa

0.73563 MPa

3.40

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50

PROBLEM 1.45

Three 34 -in.-diameter steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to

a wooden beam. Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 24 kips and that

the ultimate shearing stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, determine the factor of

safety for this design.

SOLUTION

For each bolt,

A

PU

4

A

d2

U

3

4 4

0.44179 in 2

(0.44179)(52)

22.973 kips

For the three bolts,

PU

(3)(22.973)

68.919 kips

Factor of safety:

F. S .

PU

P

68.919

24

F. S .

2.87

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51

PROBLEM 1.46

Three steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to a wooden beam.

Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 28 kips, that the ultimate shearing

stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, and that a factor of safety of 3.25 is desired,

determine the required diameter of the bolts.

SOLUTION

For each bolt,

Required:

PU

24

3

8 kips

( F. S.) P

PU

A

(3.25)(8.0)

PU

d2

4

4 PU

U

26.0 kips

4PU

d2

(4)(26.0)

(52)

0.79789 in.

0.798 in.

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52

PROBLEM 1.47

1

2

short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The ultimate strength of

the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in shear, while the

ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear. Knowing that

b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the load P if an

overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.

d

P

1

2

40 mm

SOLUTION

Based on double shear in pin,

PU

2A

4

d2

32.80 103 N

PU

w (b

d)

0.012)(60 106 )

(0.040)(0.040

67.2 103 N

Based on double shear in the wood,

PU

2A

2wc

(2)(0.040)(0.055)(7.5 106 )

33.0 103 N

Use smallest

PU

Allowable:

32.8 103 N

PU

F .S.

32.8 103

3.2

10.25 103 N

10.25 kN

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53

PROBLEM 1.48

For the support of Prob. 1.47, knowing that the diameter of the pin is

d 16 mm and that the magnitude of the load is P 20 kN, determine

(a) the factor of safety for the pin, (b) the required values of b and c if the

factor of safety for the wooden members is the same as that found in part a

for the pin.

1

2

been inserted in a short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The

ultimate strength of the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in

shear, while the ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear.

Knowing that b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the

load P if an overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.

P

1

2

40 mm

SOLUTION

(a)

Pin:

20 kN

20 103 N

d2

(0.016) 2

P

2A

Double shear:

PU

2A

Tension in wood:

PU

P

PU

w U

0.016

Shear in wood:

c

PU

2w U

58.336 103 N

58.336 103

20 103

PU

A

PU

w(b d )

58.336 103

(0.040)(60 106 )

PU

PU

2A

F .S.

2.92

PU

U

F .S.

(b)

2.01.06 10 6 m 2

where w

40.3 10 3 m

40 mm

0.040 m

40.3 mm

97.2 mm

wc

58.336 103

(2)(0.040)(7.5 106 )

PU

2A

97.2 10 3 m

PU

2wc

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54

PROBLEM 1.49

A steel plate 14 in. thick is embedded in a

concrete wall to anchor a high-strength cable

as shown. The diameter of the hole in the plate

is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the steel used is

36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding stress between

plate and concrete is 300 psi. Knowing that a

factor of safety of 3.60 is desired when

P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required width a

of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to which a

plate of that width should be embedded in the

concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses

between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

a

3

4

in.

1

4

in.

b

P

SOLUTION

Based on tension in plate,

(a

PU

d )t

UA

F .S.

PU

P

U (a

d )t

Solving for a,

a

( F .S .) P

Ut

3

4

(3.60)(2.5)

(36) 14

(a) a

1.750 in.

A

PU

Solving for b,

perimeter

UA

2(a

depth

U (a

( F .S .) P

2(a t ) U

t )b

t )b

F .S.

0.300 ksi

PU

P

(3.6)(2.5)

(2) 1.75 14 (0.300)

(b) b

7.50 in.

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55

PROBLEM 1.50

Determine the factor of safety for the cable

anchor in Prob. 1.49 when P 2.5 kips, knowing

that a 2 in. and b 6 in.

PROBLEM 1.49 A steel plate 14 in. thick is

embedded in a concrete wall to anchor a highstrength cable as shown. The diameter of the hole

in the plate is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the

steel used is 36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding

stress between plate and concrete is 300 psi.

Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.60 is desired

when P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required

width a of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to

which a plate of that width should be embedded

in the concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses

between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

a

3

4

in.

1

4

in.

b

P

SOLUTION

Based on tension in plate,

A

(a

d )t

2

PU

3

4

1

4

0.31250 in 2

UA

(36)(0.31250)

F .S .

PU

P

11.2500

3.5

11.2500 kips

4.50

perimeter

27.0 in 2

PU

F .S .

UA

PU

P

2(a

depth

2 2

1

(6.0)

4

0.300 ksi

(0.300)(27.0)

8.10

2.5

t )b

8.10 kips

3.240

F .S .

3.24

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56

PROBLEM 1.51

A

1

2

Link AC is made of a steel with a 65-ksi ultimate normal stress and has

a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is connected to a

support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter pins, while

member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.-diameter pin.

All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate shearing stress

and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.25 is

desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D. Note that

link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

in.

8 in.

B

C

6 in.

D

4 in.

SOLUTION

Use free body BCD.

MB

8

FAC

10

0 : (6)

10 P

P

Fx

0 : Bx

6

FAC

10

Bx

6

FAC

10

1.25P

MC

0:

2

P

3

By

B

Bx2

6By

0.48 FAC

(1)

i.e. By

2

P

3

1.252

2

3

d2

25

3.25

3

8

Anet

65

3.25

1

4

1

2

By2

4P

1.41667 P

0.70588B

(2)

FAC

Apin

F. S . 4

0.84959 kips

FAC

Anet

F. S .

3

8

0.625 kips

From (1),

Shear in pin at B.

From (2),

(0.48)(0.625)

Apin

F. S. 4

0.300 kips

d2

(0.70588)(0.58999)

25

3.25

5

16

0.58999 kips

0.416 kips

0.300 kips

or

300 lb

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57

PROBLEM 1.52

A

1

2

Solve Prob. 1.51, assuming that the structure has been redesigned to use

5

-in-diameter pins at A and C as well as at B and that no other changes

16

have been made.

in.

8 in.

B

C

6 in.

normal stress and has a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is

connected to a support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter

pins, while member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.diameter pin. All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate

shearing stress and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of

3.25 is desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D.

Note that link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

D

4 in.

SOLUTION

Use free body BCD.

MB

8

FAC

10

0 : (6)

10 P

P

Fy

0 : Bx

MC

2

P

3

By

B

By2

1.25

(1)

i.e. By

2

P

3

2

3

0.48 FAC

6

FAC 1.25P

10

0:

6By 4 P

Bx

Bx2

6

FAC

10

1.41667 P

0.70583 B

(2)

FAC

Apin

d2

25

3.25

5

16

Anet

65

3.25

1

4

1

2

F. S . 4

0.58999 kips

FAC

Anet

F. S .

5

16

0.9375 kips

From (1),

Shear in pin at B.

From (2),

(0.48)(0.58999)

Apin

F. S. 4

0.283 kips

d2

(0.70588)(0.58999)

25

3.25

5

16

0.58999 kips

0.416 kips

P

0.283 kips

or

283 lb

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58

PROBLEM 1.53

250 mm

400 mm

A

members AD and EG has a 10

40-mm uniform rectangular cross

section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of

400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and

are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.

Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins

connecting them to the horizontal members.

250 mm

B

C

D

E

F

24 kN

SOLUTION

ME

0 : 0.40 FCF

(0.65)(24 103 )

FCF

39 103 N

d)t

(0.040

A

FU

(b

2

UA

200 10 6 m 2

0.02)(0.010)

6

(2)(400 10 )(200 10 )

(one link)

160.0 10 N

A

FU

4

2

Factor of safety:

F. S .

d2

UA

(0.020) 2

314.16 10 6 m 2

94.248 103 N

94.248 103 N

FU

FCF

94.248 103

39 103

F. S .

2.42

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59

PROBLEM 1.54

250 mm

400 mm

A

Solve Prob. 1.53, assuming that the pins at C and F have been replaced

by pins with a 30-mm diameter.

250 mm

PROBLEM 1.53 Each of the two vertical links CF connecting the two

horizontal members AD and EG has a 10

40-mm uniform rectangular

cross section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of

400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and

are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.

Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins

connecting them to the horizontal members.

C

D

E

F

24 kN

SOLUTION

Use member EFG as free body.

ME

(0.65)(24 103 )

0 : 0.40FCF

FCF

39 103 N

A

(b

FU

d)t

(0.040

0.030)(0.010)

6

UA

100 10 6 m 2

(2)(400 10 )(100 10 )

(one link)

80.0 10 N

A

FU

4

2

Factor of safety:

F. S .

d2

UA

(0.030) 2

706.86 10 6 m 2

212.06 103 N

80.0 103 N

FU

FCF

80.0 103

39 103

F. S .

2.05

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60

PROBLEM 1.55

Top view

200 mm

180 mm

12 mm

is used at A, and 12-mm-diameter pins are

used at B and D. Knowing that the ultimate

shearing stress is 100 MPa at all connections

and that the ultimate normal stress is 250 MPa

in each of the two links joining B and D,

determine the allowable load P if an overall

factor of safety of 3.0 is desired.

8 mm

A

C

B

20 mm

8 mm

8 mm

D

12 mm

Front view

Side view

SOLUTION

Statics: Use ABC as free body.

MB

0 : 0.20 FA

0.18P

MA

0 : 0.20 FBD

0.38P

FA

P

F .S .

10

FA

9

10

FA

9

10

P

FBD

19

P

0

d2

2 UA

F .S .

10

P

FBD

19

Allowable value of P is smallest,

3.351 103 N

3.72 103 N

d2

(0.012) 2

3.0

F .S.

10

P

FBD 3.97 103 N

19

Based on compression in links BD, for one link, A

FBD

50.266 10 6 m 2

3.0

FBD

(0.008)2

113.10 10 6 m 2

7.54 103 N

(0.020)(0.008)

3.0

160 10 6 m 2

26.7 103 N

14.04 103 N

P

3.72 103 N

3.72 kN

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61

PROBLEM 1.56

Top view

200 mm

180 mm

Prob. 1.55, a pin of 10-mm-diameter is to be

used at A. Assuming that all other

specifications remain unchanged, determine

the allowable load P if an overall factor of

safety of 3.0 is desired.

12 mm

8 mm

A

C

B

20 mm

8 mm

8 mm

D

12 mm

Front view

Side view

PROBLEM 1.55 In the structure shown, an 8mm-diameter pin is used at A, and 12-mmdiameter pins are used at B and D. Knowing

that the ultimate shearing stress is 100 MPa at

all connections and that the ultimate normal

stress is 250 MPa in each of the two links

joining B and D, determine the allowable load

P if an overall factor of safety of 3.0 is

desired.

SOLUTION

Statics: Use ABC as free body.

MB

0: 0.20 FA

0.18P

MA

0: 0.20 FBD

0.38P

FA

P

2 UA

F .S .

10

FA

9

10

FA

9

10

P

FBD

19

P

0

d2

2 UA

F .S .

10

FBD

19

(0.010) 2

2 UA

F .S.

10

FBD

19

5.236 103 N

5.82 103 N

d2

(0.012) 2

3.0

113.10 10 6 m 2

7.54 103 N

3.97 103 N

FBD

78.54 10 6 m 2

3.0

FBD

(0.020)(0.008)

3.0

160 10 6 m 2

26.7 103 N

14.04 103 N

P

3.97 103 N

3.97 kN

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62

PROBLEM 1.57

which is supported as shown by a pin at A and by a slender steel rod BC

with a 12-kN ultimate load. (a) Using the Load and Resistance Factor

Design method with a resistance factor

0.90 and load factors

1.25

and

1.6,

determine

the

largest

load that can be safely

D

L

placed on the platform. (b) What is the corresponding conventional

factor of safety for rod BC?

1.8 m

A

B

2.4 m

SOLUTION

MA

P

W1

(40)(9.81)

5

(392.4)

3

PD

W1

mg W2

From which

3 PL

5 g

Design criterion:

392.4 N, W2

D PD

PL

(50)(9.81)

5

(490.5)

6

L PL

PU

PU

D PD

PL

3

0 : (2.4) P

5

5

5

W1

W2

3

6

2.4W1

1.2W2

490.5 N

1.0628 103 N

5

mg

3

(0.90)(12 103 )

(1.25)(1.0628 10 3 )

1.6

5.920 103 N

(a)

Allowable load.

3 5.92 103

5 9.81

362 kg

F. S.

1.718

(b)

1.0628 103

PD

PL

F. S.

PU

P

12 103

6.983 103

5.920 103

6.983 103 N

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63

PROBLEM 1.58

The Load and Resistance Factor Design method is to be used to select

the two cables that will raise and lower a platform supporting two

window washers. The platform weighs 160 lb and each of the window

washers is assumed to weigh 195 lb with equipment. Since these

workers are free to move on the platform, 75% of their total weight and

the weight of their equipment will be used as the design live load of each

cable. (a) Assuming a resistance factor

0.85 and load factors

1.2 and L 1.5, determine the required minimum ultimate load of

D

one cable. (b) What is the corresponding conventional factor of safety

for the selected cables?

SOLUTION

D PD

(a)

PU

D PD

(1.2)

PL

PU

L PL

1

2

160

(1.5)

3

4

2 195

PU

0.85

629 lb

P

(b)

F. S.

PU

P

PD

PL

1

2

160

0.75

629

372.5

2 195

372.5 lb

F. S.

1.689

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64

15 m

25 m

PROBLEM 1.59

3m

B

uniform cross section of 50 150 mm. For the loading

shown, determine`` the normal stress in the central portion

of that link.

35 m

80 Mg

C

15 m

SOLUTION

Weight of loading:

784.8 kN

MA

0: FCD (15 m)

FCD

FCD

CD

FCD

A

W (28 m)

28

28

W

(784.8 kN)

15

15

1465 kN

1465 103 N

(0.050 m)(0.150 m)

195.3 106 Pa

CD

195.3 MPa

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65

PROBLEM 1.60

0.5 in.

Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the assembly shown.

Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each connection,

determine the maximum value of the average normal stress (a) in link

AB, (b) in link BC.

B

1.8 in.

5 kips

5 kips

60!

0.5 in.

45!

1.8 in.

SOLUTION

Use joint B as free body.

Law of Sines:

FAB

sin 45

FBC

sin 60

10

sin 95

FAB

7.3205 kips

FBC

8.9658 kips

Minimum section at pin: Anet

(1.8

0.8)(0.5)

(a)

FAB

Anet

7.3205

0.5

Stress in AB :

AB

0.5 in 2

AB

14.64 ksi

Cross sectional area is A

(b)

Stress in BC:

BC

(1.8)(0.5)

FBC

A

0.9 in 2

8.9658

0.9

BC

9.96 ksi

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66

PROBLEM 1.61

0.5 in.

For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.60, determine (a) the average

shearing stress in the pin at C, (b) the average bearing stress at C in

member BC, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.

B

1.8 in.

5 kips

5 kips

PROBLEM 1.60 Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the

assembly shown. Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each

connection, determine the maximum value of the average normal stress

(a) in link AB, (b) in link BC.

0.5 in.

60!

1.8 in.

45!

SOLUTION

Law of Sines:

FAB

sin 45

(a)

FBC

sin 60

10

sin 95

FBC

8.9658 kips

FBC

2 AP

AP

(0.8)2 0.5026 in 2

4

8.9658

8.92

(2)(0.5026)

4

d2

8.92 ksi

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67

(b)

(c)

FBC

A

td

8.9658

0.4

(0.5)(0.8)

0.4 in 2

22.4

22.4 ksi

FBC

A

2td

2(0.5)(0.8)

8.9658

0.8

11.21

0.8 in 2

b

11.21 ksi

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

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68

PROBLEM 1.62

Two steel plates are to be held together by means of 16-mmdiameter high-strength steel bolts fitting snugly inside cylindrical

brass spacers. Knowing that the average normal stress must not

exceed 200 MPa in the bolts and 130 MPa in the spacers,

determine the outer diameter of the spacers that yields the most

economical and safe design.

SOLUTION

At each bolt location the upper plate is pulled down by the tensile force Pb of the bolt. At the same time, the

spacer pushes that plate upward with a compressive force Ps in order to maintain equilibrium.

Pb

Ps

Fb

Ab

Ps

As

4 Pb

db2

4 Ps

(d s2

db2 )

or

Pb

or

Ps

2

bdb

2

s (d s

db2 )

Equating Pb and Ps ,

4

2

b db

ds

2

s (d s

4

1

db2 )

b

s

db

200

(16)

130

ds

25.2 mm

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69

PROBLEM 1.63

position shown, determine (a) the force P required to hold the engine system in

equilibrium, (b) the average normal stress in the connecting rod BC, which has a

450-mm2 uniform cross section.

C

200 mm

B

M

80 mm

A

60 mm

SOLUTION

Use piston, rod, and crank together as free body. Add wall reaction H

and bearing reactions Ax and Ay.

MA

0 : (0.280 m) H

1500 N m

5.3571 10 N

Use piston alone as free body. Note that rod is a two-force member;

hence the direction of force FBC is known. Draw the force triangle

and solve for P and FBE by proportions.

l

P

H

2002

602

200

60

208.81 mm

P

17.86 103 N

(a)

FBC

H

208.81

60

FBC

17.86 kN

18.6436 103 N

450 mm 2

450 10 6 m 2

Stress:

FBC

A

BC

18.6436 103

450 10 6

41.430 106 Pa

(b)

BC

41.4 MPa

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70

4 in.

PROBLEM 1.64

4 in.

12 in.

E

2 in.

Knowing that the link DE is 18 in. thick and 1 in. wide, determine

the normal stress in the central portion of that link when

(a)

0 , (b)

90 .

D

C

8 in.

6 in.

F

60 lb

"

SOLUTION

Use member CEF as a free body.

MC

FDE

ADE

DE

(a)

0:

12 FDE

40 sin

(1)

1

8

(16)(60 cos )

80 cos lb

0.125 in 2

FDE

ADE

0: FDE

80 lb

DE

(b)

(8)(60 sin )

90 : FDE

DE

80

0.125

DE

640 psi

DE

320 psi

40 lb

40

0.125

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71

PROBLEM 1.65

1500 lb

1 in.

750 lb

A

4 in.

the wooden member CD. For the loading shown, determine (a) the

maximum average normal stress in the wood, (b) the distance b for

which the average shearing stress is 100 psi on the surfaces indicated

by the dashed lines, (c) the average bearing stress on the wood.

D

750 lb

B

C

b

SOLUTION

(a)

Anet

(b)

Distance b for

(1) 4

5

8

P

Anet

1500

3.375

3.375 in 2

444 psi

444 psi

= 100 psi.

(c)

P

A

P

2t

P

2bt

1500

(2)(1)(100)

7.50 in.

7.50 in.

b

P

Ab

P

dt

1500

5

(1)

8

2400 psi

2400 psi

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72

PROBLEM 1.66

D

Front view

6 mm

18 mm

A

B

160 mm

120 mm

Side view

B

Top view

In the steel structure shown, a 6-mmdiameter pin is used at C and 10-mmdiameter pins are used at B and D. The

ultimate shearing stress is 150 MPa at all

connections, and the ultimate normal

stress is 400 MPa in link BD. Knowing

that a factor of safety of 3.0 is desired,

determine the largest load P that can be

applied at A. Note that link BD is not

reinforced around the pin holes.

SOLUTION

Use free body ABC.

MC

0 : 0.280 P

0.120 FBD

0

3

FBD

7

P

MB

0 : 0.160 P

0.120 C

P

(1)

0

3

C

4

(2)

FBD

Anet

F. S.

Anet

400 106

(6 10 3 )(18

3

10)(10 3 )

6.40 103 N

FBD

Apin

F. S. 4

d2

150 106

3

(10 10 3 )2

3.9270 103 N

P

From (1),

Shear in pin at C:

From (2),

3

(3.9270 103 )

7

2 Apin

F. S . 4

d2

3

(2.8274 103 )

4

1.683 103 N

(2)

150 106

3

(6 10 3 )2

2.8274 103 N

2.12 103 N

1.683 103 N

1.683 kN

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73

40!

PROBLEM 1.67

BD, was designed to support the 16-kN load P as shown. Knowing that

the ultimate load for cable BD is 100 kN, determine the factor of safety

with respect to cable failure.

30!

B

0.6 m

C

0.8 m

0.4 m

SOLUTION

Use member ABC as a free body, and note that member BD is a two-force member.

Mc

0 : ( P cos 40 )(1.2)

( P sin 40 )(0.6)

( FBD cos 30 )(0.6)

( FBD sin 30 )(0.4)

1.30493P

FBD

FU

F. S .

1.81335P

0.71962FBD

(1.81335)(16 103 )

0

0

29.014 103 N

100 103 N

FU

FBD

100 103

29.014 103

F. S.

3.45

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74

PROBLEM 1.68

A force P is applied as shown to a steel reinforcing bar that has

been embedded in a block of concrete. Determine the smallest

length L for which the full allowable normal stress in the bar can be

developed. Express the result in terms of the diameter d of the bar,

the allowable normal stress all in the steel, and the average

allowable bond stress all between the concrete and the cylindrical

surface of the bar. (Neglect the normal stresses between the

concrete and the end of the bar.)

SOLUTION

For shear,

dL

all A

For tension,

P

Equating,

all

dL

all

dL

d2

all A

all

all

d2

d2

Lmin

Solving for L,

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75

PROBLEM 1.69

2.4 kips

forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress

for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine

(a) the value of

for which the factor of safety of the member is

maximum, (b) the corresponding value of the factor of safety. (Hint:

Equate the expressions obtained for the factors of safety with respect to the

normal and shearing stresses.)

"

1.25 in.

2.0 in.

SOLUTION

A0

( F. S.)

( F. S.)

PU ,

U A0

2

P

cos 2

A0

Normal stress:

cos

P

sin

A0

cos

Equating,

Solving,

(b)

PU

U A0

2

P cos

sin

cos

P cos

U A0

PU ,

sin

cos

U A0

PU ,

( F. S.)

U A0

2

PU ,

( F. S .)

Shearing stress:

2.50 in 2

(2.0)(1.25)

P sin

cos

U A0

P sin

tan

U A0

2

cos

cos

U

U

(12.5)(2.50)

cos 2 27.5

F. S.

1.3

2.5

0.520

(a)

opt

27.5

7.94 kips

PU

P

7.94

2.4

F. S.

3.31

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76

PROBLEM 1.70

2.4 kips

forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress

for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine

the range of values of for which the factor of safety of the members is

at least 3.0.

"

1.25 in.

2.0 in.

SOLUTION

A0

(2.0)(1.25)

2.4 kips

PU

( F. S.) P

2.50 in.2

7.2 kips

PU

cos 2

A0

U A0

cos 2

cos

Based on shearing stress,

0.93169

U

sin 2

2

PU

64.52

PU

sin

A0

2 A0

PU

(2.5)(2.50)

7.2

0.86806

21.3

21.3

PU

sin 2

2 A0

cos

(2)(2.50)(1.3)

7.2

32.3

0.90278

32.3

Hence,

21.3

32.3

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77

PROBLEM 1.C1

Element n

Pn

A solid steel rod consisting of n cylindrical elements welded together is subjected to the

loading shown. The diameter of element i is denoted by di and the load applied to its

lower end by Pi with the magnitude Pi of this load being assumed positive if Pi is

directed downward as shown and negative otherwise. (a) Write a computer program

that can be used with either SI or U.S. customary units to determine the average stress

in each element of the rod. (b) Use this program to solve Problems 1.1 and 1.3.

Element 1

P1

SOLUTION

Force in element i:

It is the sum of the forces applied to that element and all lower ones:

i

Fi

Pk

k 1

Area

Ai

Ave. stress

Fi

Ai

1 2

di

4

Program outputs:

Problem 1.1

Problem 1.3

Element

Stress (MPa)

Element

Stress (ksi)

84.883

22.635

96.766

17.927

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78

PROBLEM 1.C2

A 20-kN load is applied as shown to the horizontal member ABC.

Member ABC has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross section

and is supported by four vertical links, each of 8 36-mm uniform

rectangular cross section. Each of the four pins at A, B, C, and D has the

same diameter d and is in double shear. (a) Write a computer program

to calculate for values of d from 10 to 30 mm, using 1-mm increments,

(i) the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links

connecting pins B and D, (ii) the average normal stress in the links

connecting pins C and E, (iii) the average shearing stress in pin B,

(iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average bearing stress

at B in member ABC, and (vi) the average bearing stress at C in member

ABC. (b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for

d 16 mm with the answers given for Probs. 1.7 and 1.27. (c) Use this

program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the pins,

knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and bearing

stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 150 MPa, 90 MPa, and

230 MPa. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that the thickness of member ABC

has been reduced from 10 to 8 mm.

0.4 m

C

0.25 m

0.2 m

B

E

20 kN

D

A

SOLUTION

P = 20 kN

Forces in links.

F.B. diagram of ABC:

(i)

Link BD.

Thickness

ABD

t L ( wL

MC

0: 2FBD ( BC ) P( AC ) 0

FBD

MB

P( AC )/2( BC ) (tension)

0: 2FCE ( BC ) P( AB) 0

FCE

P( AB)/2( BC ) (comp.)

(ii)

Link CE.

Thickness

tL

ACE

d)

FBD / ABD

BD

(v)

(iv)

Sig Bear B

FCE / ACE

Pin C.

FCE /( d 2 /4)

Shearing stress in ABC under Pin B.

FB

AC t AC ( wAC /2)

FBD /( d 2 /4)

Bearing stress at B.

Thickness of member AC

tL wL

CE

(iii) Pin B.

tL

t AC

FBD /(dt AC )

Sig Bear C FCE /( dt AC )

Fy

0: 2FB

AC

2 FBD

AC wAC

2 FBD

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79

Program Outputs

P

20 kN, AB

0.25 m, BC

0.40 m, AC

0.65 m,

TL

8 mm, WL

(c) Answer: 16 mm

Check: For d

22 mm

(c)

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80

20 kN,

AB = 0.25 m, BC = 0.40 m,

AC = 0.65 m, TL = 8 mm, WL = 36 mm,

TAC

8 mm, WAC

50 mm

(d) Answer: 18 mm

22 mm

(d)

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81

PROBLEM 1.C3

0.5 in.

B

1.8 in.

5 kips

5 kips

0.5 in.

60!

1.8 in.

45!

shown. Each of the three pins at A, B, and C has the same diameter d

and is double shear. (a) Write a computer program to calculate for

values of d from 0.50 to 1.50 in., using 0.05-in. increments, (i) the

maximum value of the average normal stress in member AB, (ii) the

average normal stress in member BC, (iii) the average shearing stress

in pin A, (iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average

bearing stress at A in member AB, (vi) the average bearing stress at C

in member BC, and (vii) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.

(b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for

d 0.8 in. with the answers given for Problems 1.60 and 1.61. (c) Use

this program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the

pins, knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and

bearing stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 22 ksi, 13 ksi, and

36 ksi. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that a new design is being

investigated in which the thickness and width of the two members are

changed, respectively, from 0.5 to 0.3 in. and from 1.8 to 2.4 in.

SOLUTION

Forces in members AB and BC.

Free body: Pin B.

From force triangle:

FAB

sin 45

(i)

FBC

sin 60

2P

sin 75

FAB

2 P (sin 45 /sin 75 )

FBC

2 P (sin 60 /sin 75 )

Width

(ii)

Thickness

ABC

t

(w d ) t

AB

FAB / AAB

(iv)

(iii) Pin A.

(v)

FBC / ABC

Pin C.

C

(vi)

Bearing stress at A.

Sig Bear A

wt

BC

AAB

Bearing stress at C.

Sig Bear C

FAB /dt

FBC /dt

Sig Bear B

FBC /2dt

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82

Program Outputs

P = 5 kips, w = 1.8 in., t = 0.5 in.

d 1.10 in.

(c)

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83

P = 5 kips, w

2.4 in., t

0.3 in.

1.25 in.

(d)

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84

PROBLEM 1.C4

a

A

B

15 in.

18 in.

12 in.

with the vertical is applied as

shown to member ABC, which is supported by a pin and bracket at C

and by a cable BD forming an angle with the horizontal. (a) Knowing

that the ultimate load of the cable is 25 kips, write a computer program

to construct a table of the values of the factor of safety of the cable for

values of

and

from 0 to 45 , using increments in

and

corresponding to 0.1 increments in tan

and tan . (b) Check that

for any given value of , the maximum value of the factor of safety is

obtained for

38.66 and explain why. (c) Determine the smallest

possible value of the factor of safety for

38.66 , as well as the

corresponding value of , and explain the result obtained.

SOLUTION

(a)

MC

( F cos )(15 in.) ( F sin )(12 in.)

15 sin

15 cos

F .S . Fult /F

F

Output for P

(b)

When

(c)

F .S . 3.579 for

38.66, tan

30 cos

12 sin

20 kips:

Note: The value F . S . 3.579 is the smallest of the values of F.S. corresponding to

38.66 and the

largest of those corresponding to

26.6 ,

38.66 is a saddle point, or

26.6 . The point

minimax of the function F .S . ( , ).

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85

PROBLEM 1.C5

A load P is supported as shown by two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross

section that are joined by a simple glued scarf splice. (a) Denoting by U and U ,

respectively, the ultimate strength of the joint in tension and in shear, write a

computer program which, for given values of a, b, P, U and U , expressed in either

SI or U.S. customary units, and for values of

from 5 to 85 at 5 intervals, can be

used to calculate (i) the normal stress in the joint, (ii) the shearing stress in the joint,

(iii) the factor of safety relative to failure in tension, (iv) the factor of safety relative

to failure in shear, and (v) the overall factor of safety for the glued joint. (b) Apply

this program, using the dimensions and loading of the members of Probs. 1.29 and

1.31, knowing that U 150 psi and U 214 psi for the glue used in Prob. 1.29, and

that U 1.26 MPa and U 1.50 MPa for the glue used in Prob. 1.31. (c) Verify in

each of these two cases that the shearing stress is maximum for a 45 .

P'

SOLUTION

(i) and (ii) Draw the F.B. diagram of lower member:

Fx

0:

P cos

P cos

Fy

0:

P sin

P sin

Area ab/sin

Normal stress:

F

Area

( P/ab) sin 2

Shearing stress:

V

Area

( P/ab) sin

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

cos

FSN

U/

FSS

U/

Overall F.S.:

F.S.

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86

Program Outputs

Problem 1.29

a 150 mm

b

75 mm

P 11 kN

ALPHA

SIG (MPa)

TAU (MPa)

1.26 MPa

1.50 MPa

FSN

FSS

FS

0.007

0.085

169.644

17.669

17.669

10

0.029

0.167

42.736

8.971

8.971

15

0.065

0.244

19.237

6.136

6.136

20

0.114

0.314

11.016

4.773

4.773

25

0.175

0.375

7.215

4.005

4.005

30

0.244

0.423

5.155

3.543

3.543

35

0.322

0.459

3.917

3.265

3.265

40

0.404

0.481

3.119

3.116

3.116

45

0.489

0.489

2.577

3.068

2.577

50

0.574

0.481

2.196

3.116

2.196

55

0.656

0.459

1.920

3.265

1.920

60

0.733

0.423

1.718

3.543

1.718

65

0.803

0.375

1.569

4.005

1.569

70

0.863

0.314

1.459

4.773

1.459

75

0.912

0.244

1.381

6.136

1.381

80

0.948

0.167

1.329

8.971

1.329

85

0.970

0.085

1.298

17.669

1.298

(b), (c)

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87

Problem 1.31

a

5 in.

b 3 in.

P 1400 lb

U

150 psi

214 psi

ALPHA

SIG (psi)

TAU (psi)

FSN

FSS

FS

0.709

8.104

211.574

26.408

26.408

10

2.814

15.961

53.298

13.408

13.408

15

6.252

23.333

23.992

9.171

9.171

20

10.918

29.997

13.739

7.134

7.134

25

16.670

35.749

8.998

5.986

5.986

30

23.333

40.415

6.429

5.295

5.295

35

30.706

43.852

4.885

4.880

4.880

40

38.563

45.958

3.890

4.656

3.890

45

46.667

46.667

3.214

4.586

3.214

50

54.770

45.958

2.739

4.656

2.739

55

62.628

43.852

2.395

4.880

2.395

60

70.000

40.415

2.143

5.295

2.143

65

76.663

35.749

1.957

5.986

1.957

70

82.415

29.997

1.820

7.134

1.820

75

87.081

23.333

1.723

9.171

1.723

80

90.519

15.961

1.657

13.408

1.657

85

92.624

8.104

1.619

26.408

1.619

(c)

(b)

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88

PROBLEM 1.C6

Top view

200 mm

180 mm

12 mm

8 mm

A

C

B

20 mm

8 mm

8 mm

D

12 mm

Front view

Side view

bracket at A and by two links, which are pinconnected to the member at B and to a fixed

support at D. (a) Write a computer program to

calculate the allowable load Pall for any given

values of (i) the diameter d1 of the pin at A,

(ii) the common diameter d2 of the pins at B

and D, (iii) the ultimate normal stress U in

each of the two links, (iv) the ultimate shearing

stress U in each of the three pins, and (v) the

desired overall factor of safety F.S. (b) Your

program should also indicate which of the

following three stresses is critical: the normal

stress in the links, the shearing stress in the pin

at A, or the shearing stress in the pins at B and

D. (c) Check your program by using the data

of Probs. 1.55 and 1.56, respectively, and

comparing the answers obtained for Pall with

those given in the text. (d) Use your program to

determine the allowable load Pall, as well as

which of the stresses is critical, when d1

d 2 15 mm, U 110 MPa for aluminum links,

100 MPa for steel pins, and F.S. 3.2.

U

SOLUTION

(a)

MA

0: P

MB

0: P

200

FBD

380

200

FA

180

d12 /4),

(i)

FA

(ii)

FBD

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

2(

2(

2(

FBD

U /FS )(

U /FS )(

d 22 /4),

P1

200

FA

180

P2

200

FBD

380

/FS )(0.02)(0.008), P3

200

FBD

380

If P4 < P3 and P1 < P2 , stress is critical in Pin A.

If P4

P3 and P2

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

89

Program Outputs

(b)

Problem 1.55.

Data: d1

Pall

(c)

Problem 1.56.

Data:

d1

Pall

12 mm,

, 250 MPa,

100 MPa,

F .S . 3.0

Data: d1 10 mm, d 2

Pall

(d)

8 mm, d 2

12 mm,

250 MPa,

d2

15 mm,

110 MPa,

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

90

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