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Couurse notes for control systems 101

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You are on page 1of 7

Control Systems

1,2

( 3 hours )

Note

1. Please study chapter 6 of your text book and do the following examples and related MATLAB exercises:

examples 6.3, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8 and 6.9.

2. Please complete and submit Assignment No.3 before coming to the lab.

3. Please provide the listing of all programs and plots for all signals.

4. The following MATLAB commands might be used: conv, poly, tf, step, loop, cloop,

feedback, dcgain, roots, zero, pole, impulse, plot, xlabel, damp, pzmap and

minreal.

Aim

The aim of this lab is to understand the stability of linear SISO time-invariant systems by checking on the

location of the roots of the characteristic equation.

Introduction

From the studies of linear differential equations with constant coefficients of SISO systems, we learned

that the roots of the characteristic equation govern the homogeneous solution that corresponds to the

transient response of the system. The design of a linear control system may be regarded as a problem of

arranging the location of the poles and zeros of the system transfer function such that the system will

perform according to the prescribed specifications. Among the many forms of performance specifications

used in design, the most important requirement is that the system be stable. An unstable system is

generally considered useless. We deal only with the stability of linear SISO time invariant systems in the

following lab.

In this laboratory we make use of Virtual Laboratory software developed by the University of Newcastle.

This series of programs aims to expose students to real world control systems engineering problems,

within the time and physical constraints of a typical teaching laboratory. Further, it gives students the

capacity to test ideas in a realistic setting but without fear of costly failure 3.

The Virtual Laboratory used in this experiment, the CONTINUOUS CASTER VIRTUAL

LABORATORY (CCVL), is designed to emulate a continuous casting system such as that used in the

BHP Steel Mill in Newcastle, Australia in the 1990s (see Figures 1 and 2). A continuous caster is a

common means of solidifying molten steel into a rectangular bar. Molten steel is poured from the

Tundish into a rectangular mould, intensely cooled by water jets, and slowly drawn out as a solid steel bar

the other end. These solid rectangular bars are then cut into manageable pieces called blooms and further

processed (e.g. rolled, forged) as required.

Continuous casting involves a number of processes running at the same time. Failure or incorrect

operation of any of these processes can result in a dangerous and expensive accident. In the CCVL, it is

assumed that the cooling system and withdrawal mechanisms have been properly tuned and work safely,

and we examine the system controlling the pouring of the molten steel into the mould.

1/7

1. Designed in line with the textbook by N. Nise: Control Systems Engineering, prescribed for the course.

2. Designed for use with: Sobora,F. & Bastiani,A., Continuous Caster Virtual Laboratory Version 2.8, Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3. Goodwin, G.C., Virtual Laboratories for Control System Design Laboratory Book : Continuous Caster Package Student Manual,

Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3304ENG

Control Systems

1,2

( 3 hours )

at BHP Steel Mill, Newcastle3.

the secondary cooling chamber3.

Figure 3 shows a schematic of the continuous caster. The Tundish (molten steel reservoir) is located

directly above the mould, with the flow of molten steel controlled by a slide gate valve (SGV). The

height of steel in the mould is particularly important. If height fluctuates too much, flux material can be

embedded into the surface of the steel, contaminating it. This can weaken the steel and is expensive to

purify.

Molten steel enters the mould via a sub merged nozzle. While this nozzle is lined so as to withstand

extreme conditions, flux material on the surface of the steel pool eventually destroys the lining. To

maximize nozzle life, the height setpoint is periodically changed.

Therefore the primary objective is to accurately control the height of the steel in the mould. Since height

needs to periodically be changed to extend nozzle life, the control system needs to have an acceptable

response to these changes.

2/7

1. Designed in line with the textbook by N. Nise: Control Systems Engineering, prescribed for the course.

2. Designed for use with: Sobora,F. & Bastiani,A., Continuous Caster Virtual Laboratory Version 2.8, Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3. Goodwin, G.C., Virtual Laboratories for Control System Design Laboratory Book : Continuous Caster Package Student Manual,

Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3304ENG

Control Systems

1,2

( 3 hours )

To find a model representing this system, we start by defining the relationship between the height of the

steel in the mould h, mould cross-sectional area Am, flow of steel into mould fin , and flow of steel out of

the mould fout :

dh

= f in f out

dt

1

h(t ) =

( f in f out )dt

Am

Am

f out = Am d (t )

The flow of steel into the mould is proportional to the area of the slide gate valve opening Av (mm2) and

the square root of the height of steel in the Tundish. Assuming the height of steel is approximately

constant,

f in = K 1 Av .

It is also assumed that the valve area Av is directly related to valve position u(t), therefore

f in = K1 K 2 u (t )

Letting K v = K 1 K 2 A , and taking the Laplace Transform, the plant is shown to be modelled as a simple

m

integrator. The resulting open-loop system is shown in Figure 4.

Valve

position

Plant gain

Plant

Kv

1

s

u(t)

h(t)

Height of

molten

Height

setpoint

+

_

PID Controller

Plant gain

Plant

C(s)

Kv

1

s

Height of

molten

molten steel into the mould of the continuous caster.

3/7

1. Designed in line with the textbook by N. Nise: Control Systems Engineering, prescribed for the course.

2. Designed for use with: Sobora,F. & Bastiani,A., Continuous Caster Virtual Laboratory Version 2.8, Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3. Goodwin, G.C., Virtual Laboratories for Control System Design Laboratory Book : Continuous Caster Package Student Manual,

Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3304ENG

Control Systems

1,2

( 3 hours )

Experiment 1 - COMPULSORY

Given the feedback system:

R(s)

E(s)

G(s)

C(s)

H(s)

G (s) =

with

K ( s + 7)

s ( s + 4)( s + 8)( s + 12)

and H ( s ) =

( s + 10)

( s + 5)( s + 15)( s + 20)

use MATLAB to find the range of K for stability and discuss the system behaviour for various K values.

In particular, ask Matlab to:

a) Find the range of K values that make the system stable; examine the values from 0 to 50,000 in steps

of 1;

b) Calculate value K with accuracy of 0.0005, that takes the system to critical oscillations; to do this,

cr,

cr

c) Plot the step response for a value of K = K -50 ; plot the system poles;

cr

d) Plot the step response for a value of K = K ; plot the system poles;

cr

e) Plot the step response for a value of K = K + 50 ; plot the system poles;

cr

f) Plot the system poles (on one graph) for 45 values of K, starting with K = 1 in steps of 1,000 to create

a path of the system pole changes.

Step response generated by MATLAB, for K = Kcr 50, K = Kcr , and K = Kcr + 50.

Plot of system poles for K = Kcr 50, K = Kcr , and K = Kcr + 50.

Plot of system poles (overlayed) for 45 different values of K.

Results tabulated in Table 1.

Your discussion of experiment 1 should compare and discuss results, and answer the following

questions:

Q1: What did your results show as the region of stability?

Q2: Describe the poles and step response for gains less than, equal to, and greater than the critical gain.

Relate your observations to definitions for stability.

4/7

1. Designed in line with the textbook by N. Nise: Control Systems Engineering, prescribed for the course.

2. Designed for use with: Sobora,F. & Bastiani,A., Continuous Caster Virtual Laboratory Version 2.8, Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3. Goodwin, G.C., Virtual Laboratories for Control System Design Laboratory Book : Continuous Caster Package Student Manual,

Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3304ENG

Control Systems

1,2

( 3 hours )

Q3: What does the pole map tell you about the change in pole/zero locations as K increases?

Experiment 2 COMPULSORY

Consider the Continuous Caster system of figure 5. In proportional control (Ki=0, Kd=0) with

proportional gain Kp, this system reduces to:

Height

setpoint

Hsp(s) +

Kp

Kv

1

s

H (s)

Height of

molten

Figure 6 : Block diagram for continuous caster system under proportional control.

Set up CCVL for proportional control and height setpoint stepping between 75 and 85mm:

reset to standard settings (click reset)

set the height setpoint to a square wave (80mm offset, 5mm amplitude, 40sec period, and 0.5

duty cycle)

set PID block to proportional control (Kp=1, Ki=0, Kd=0).

Run the simulation and observe the response. Determine response characteristics such as time constant

and steady-state error, and add to table 2 column(c).

Q1 : Is the response stable?

Q2 : Is the shape of the closed-loop response consistent with a first order system?

Q3 :

(a) How does the change in molten height compare to the change in height of the setpoint?

(b) Increase Kp to 10, then larger values such as 100 and 200. Observe the response and note how

response characteristics change. Tabulate characteristics for K=200 in table 2 column (e).

Q4 : As K increases, describe the effect on:

(i) response shape

(ii) stability

(iii) steady-state error

(iv) response characteristics

5/7

1. Designed in line with the textbook by N. Nise: Control Systems Engineering, prescribed for the course.

2. Designed for use with: Sobora,F. & Bastiani,A., Continuous Caster Virtual Laboratory Version 2.8, Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3. Goodwin, G.C., Virtual Laboratories for Control System Design Laboratory Book : Continuous Caster Package Student Manual,

Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3304ENG

Control Systems

1,2

( 3 hours )

Q5:

Decrease Kp to very small values such as 0.1, 0.5. Observe the response and note how response

characteristics change.

(a)

In part (a), the response for Kp=1 was used to estimate the time-constant of the closed-loop

response. From Figure 6 and with Kp=1, the closed-loop system simplifies to:

T (s) =

Kv

=

s + Kv

1

Kv

1

s +1

v

Using from part (a), implement the system described by Figure 6 in MATLAB.

(b)

Evaluate the stability of this system for Kp=0.1 to 1000 from the poles of the closed-loop system.

(c)

For Kp=0.1, 1 and 200, find the characteristics of the system. Compare results to those observed in

the CCVL.

Q7 : Are your MATLAB results consistent with CCVL results? What differences can be seen for

smaller / larger Kp values? Explain any differences.

6/7

1. Designed in line with the textbook by N. Nise: Control Systems Engineering, prescribed for the course.

2. Designed for use with: Sobora,F. & Bastiani,A., Continuous Caster Virtual Laboratory Version 2.8, Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3. Goodwin, G.C., Virtual Laboratories for Control System Design Laboratory Book : Continuous Caster Package Student Manual,

Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3304ENG

Control Systems

1,2

( 3 hours )

Experiment 1 solutions :

K = Kcr -50

K = Kcr

K = Kcr +50

gain K

43144

43194.1345

43244

Stability

Stable

Marginally stable

Unstable

relationship to Kcr :

Closed-loop Zeros

-21.4259

-13.1068

-13.1068

-9.5268

-6.8316

-0.0011

-0.0011

Closed-loop Poles

+ 4.6748i

- 4.6748i

+ 3.3443i

- 3.3443i

-21.4270

-13.1069

-13.1069

-9.5273

-6.8318

0.0000

0.0000

-21.4281

-13.1071

-13.1071

-9.5278

-6.8320

0.0011

0.0011

+ 4.6773i

- 4.6773i

+ 3.3458i

- 3.3458i

+ 4.6799i

- 4.6799i

+ 3.3472i

- 3.3472i

Experiment 2 solutions :

(a) CCVL

Simulation,

small Kp

(b) Matlab

Simulation,

small Kp

(c) CCVL

Simulation,

Kp=1

(d) Matlab

Simulation,

Kp=1

(e) CCVL

Simulation,

large Kp

(f) Matlab

Simulation,

large Kp

Kp = 0.1

Kp = 0.1

Kp = 1

Kp = 1

Kp = 200

Kp = 200

4.264 V

8.479 V

1V

1V

4.236 V

0.021 V

Stable?

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Time-constant

35.5

3.556 sec

3.57

0.389 Sec

0.028

Characteristics

Prop. Gain Kp

Steady-state

value

steady-state

value

Steady-state

error

Closed-loop

Poles

-0.028

-0.28

-56

7/7

1. Designed in line with the textbook by N. Nise: Control Systems Engineering, prescribed for the course.

2. Designed for use with: Sobora,F. & Bastiani,A., Continuous Caster Virtual Laboratory Version 2.8, Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

3. Goodwin, G.C., Virtual Laboratories for Control System Design Laboratory Book : Continuous Caster Package Student Manual,

Newcastle Innovation Limited, 2008.

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