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You are on page 1of 30

Jaehyun Park

CS 97SI

Stanford University

Outline

Algebra

Number Theory

Combinatorics

Geometry

Algebra

Sum of Powers

n

X

k2 =

k=1

k3 =

1

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

6

X 2

Memorize above!

Algebra

2

1

n(n + 1)

2

Fast Exponentiation

Recursive computation of an :

an =

Algebra

(an/2 )2

a(a(n1)/2 )2

n=0

n=1

n is even

n is odd

Implementation (recursive)

if(n == 0) return 1;

if(n == 1) return a;

double t = pow(a, n/2);

return t * t * pow(a, n%2);

}

Algebra

Implementation (non-recursive)

double ret = 1;

while(n) {

if(n%2 == 1) ret *= a;

a *= a; n /= 2;

}

return ret;

}

Algebra

Linear Algebra

Invert a matrix

Algebra

Outline

Algebra

Number Theory

Combinatorics

Geometry

Number Theory

Some facts:

gcd(a, b) = gcd(a, b a)

gcd(a, 0) = a

gcd(a, b) is the smallest positive number in {ax + by | x, y Z}

Number Theory

Euclidean Algorithm

Example:

gcd(1989, 867) = gcd(1989 2 867, 867)

= gcd(255, 867)

= gcd(255, 102)

= gcd(51, 102)

= gcd(51, 0)

= 51

Number Theory

10

Implementation

while(b){int r = a % b; a = b; b = r;}

return a;

}

Be careful: a % b follows the sign of a

5 % 3 == 2

-5 % 3 == -2

Number Theory

11

when divided by n

Multiplicative inverse

51 3 (mod 7) because 5 3 15 1 (mod 7)

May not exist (e.g., inverse of 2 mod 4)

Exists if and only if gcd(x, n) = 1

Number Theory

12

Multiplicative Inverse

are integer combinations of a and b

Therefore, gcd(a, b) = ax + by for some integers x, y

If gcd(a, n) = 1, then ax + ny = 1 for some x, y

Taking modulo n gives ax 1 (mod n)

Number Theory

13

intermediate numbers as integer combinations of a and b

Exercise: implementation!

Number Theory

14

Solution:

Let m1 be the inverse of m modulo n

Set x = ann1 + bmm1 (check this yourself)

Number Theory

15

Outline

Algebra

Number Theory

Combinatorics

Geometry

Combinatorics

16

Binomial Coefficients

n

is the number of ways to choose k objects out of n

k

distinguishable objects

same as the coefficient of xk y nk in the expansion of

(x + y)n

Hence the name binomial coefficients

Combinatorics

17

!

n

k

n(n 1) (n k + 1)

k!

Combinatorics

18

Fibonacci Sequence

Definition:

F0 = 0, F1 = 1

Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 , where n 2

Combinatorics

19

Closed Form

Fn = (1/ 5)(n n )

There is a more stable way to compute Fn

= (1 + 5)/2

= (1 5)/2

5 are irrational

Combinatorics

20

"

Fn+1

Fn

"

1 1

1 0

#"

Fn

Fn1

"

1 1

1 0

#n "

F1

F0

constant coefficients

Combinatorics

21

Outline

Algebra

Number Theory

Combinatorics

Geometry

Geometry

22

Geometry

Will cover basic stuff today

Geometry

23

If you have to, always use double and never use float

Avoid division whenever possible

Introduce small constant in (in)equality tests

No hacks!

In most cases, randomization, probabilistic methods, small

perturbations wont help

Geometry

24

2D Vector Operations

Counterclockwise rotation by :

"

cos sin

sin cos

x2 + y 2

#"

x

y

Memorize all of them!

Geometry

25

Line-Line Intersection

Write in matrix form:

"

a b

d e

#"

x

y

"

c

f

"

a b

d e

#1

1

=

ae bd

"

e b

d a

Memorize this!

Edge case: ae = bd

The lines coincide or are parallel

Geometry

26

Circumcircle of a Triangle

Instead, do the following:

Compute their intersection

Geometry

27

Area of a Triangle

Cross product:

x

(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ) = 1

y1

x2

y2

= x1 y2 x2 y1

Geometry

28

Want to compute the area S of P

If P is convex, we can decompose P into triangles:

n1

X

2S = (Pi+1 P1 ) (Pi P1 )

i=2

polygons too

Area is the absolute value of the sum of signed area

n

X

2S = (xi yi+1 xi+1 yi )

i=1

Geometry

29

Conclusion

Have fun with the exercise problems

Geometry

30

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