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Heat Transfer Analysis of Molten Steel in Ladle

Qing Liu
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Ferrous Metallurgy Department, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering,


University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China
Tel.: 0086-10-62332880
Fax: 0086-10-62322845
Email: qliu@metal.ustb.edu.cn
Kai Wu
School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering,
University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China
Tel.: 0086-10-62332358
Fax: 0086-10-62322845
E-mail:19816220@163.com
Guangguang Yu
Materials Science and Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University
Tel: 412 268 2573
Fax: 412 268 7569
E-mail: guanggua@andrew.cmu.edu

Chuangji Han
Metallurgy Research Center, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering,
University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China
Tel.: 0086-10-62332358
Fax: 0086-10-62322845
E-mail: chuanjihan@metal.ustb.edu.cn

Kaike Cai
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Metallurgy Research Center, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering,


University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China
Tel.: 0086-10-62332358
Fax: 0086-10-62322845
E-mail : kaikecai@metal.ustb.edu.cn
Key WordsLadle, Molten steel temperature, Heat transfer, Analysis, RH

FOREWORD

Composition and temperature control of molten steel are extremely important in modern continuous casting production. Quality
control of casting slab is closely related with the control of temperature, composition and its cleanliness level. Moreover,
appropriate casting temperature is an important precondition of stable operation, safe production and high quality acquirement.
Therefore, every factor working on molten steel temperature is to be researched.
As the equipment of liquid steel refining and its temperature adjusting, ladle keeps the smooth production of steelmaking and
continuous casting, and makes it more agile for production schedule. Also each process from tapping to casting is carried out in
the ladle, whose state has become a main factor influencing the liquid steel temperature. There were many studies on heat transfer
in ladle for many years1-4, early research were mainly real temperature measurement and physical simulation5-7, while along with
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the incessant progress in science and technology, mathematical simulation was applied more and more to establish many kinds of
mathematical models so as to research the different factors in heat loss of ladle and optimize the hot cycling technology of ladle in
continuous casting process, sequentially to reduce the heat loss.

MATHEMATICAL MODELS

Thermal state of ladle influences molten steel temperature greatly during the course of RH-MFB refining, so the thermal state of
ladle should be researched deeply for further exact control and prediction temperature of molten steel.
Heat transfer in ladle
After liquid steel being poured into the ladle, its heat quantity would be taken in the wall and the bottom of the ladle, as well as the
free surface of molten steel itself. The expression of heat transfer is shown as the formula (1).

dTm
1
[qb ( ) Ab + qW ( ) AW + q s ( ) AS ]
=
d Wm C p (m )

Heat transfer in refractory of ladle wall


Assuming that the temperature of refractory on the wall of ladle was even in all directions except the vertical direction, the heat
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would only be transfered from inside to outside along the vertical direction, then the equation of heat transfer was a
one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction, The expression of heat conduction is shown as the formula (2).

WRH CpW ( RH )

TW ( RH )

1
r W ( RH ) ( ) W ( RH )

r
r r

Fig 1 Structure and material of the bottom and the wall of ladle
Initial conditions:

=0

r( RH ) r rw( RH ) T( RH ) (r ,0) = T( RH ) (r , )

Boundary conditions:

T( RH ) (r , ) = T( RH ) ( )

(1) > 0

r = r( RH )

(2) > 0

r = r1( RH ) (on the compound lined wall)


V
V
T
A Cp A + B Cp B b
2
2

(3) > 0

r1( RH )

= s A

Tb
r

1
r r
2

+ s B

Tb
r

1
r + r
2

r = rWRH
4

4
Tb
Tb
V
Tb + 273 T f + 273
]
CP
rw( RH ) = s..
r rw( RH ) hm f s(Tb T f ) m 0 s[

2

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Table I Physical parameters of refractory on the lining and bottom of ladle & the wall and the hearth of vacuum room8,10
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Heat conduction efficiency

Density

specific heat

Dark

potential heat from

(J/ms)

(kg/m3)

(J/kg)

degree

freeze(KJ/kg)

Heavy high Al brick

1.52-0.000186t

2500

836+0.234t

Corundum brick

2.09+0.00187t

2900

794.2+0.418t

armor plate

43.2

7700

470.00

0.80

Molten steel

23.3

7000

880

0.40

251

slag

3500

1340

0.60

453.4

Kinds of refractory

Heat transfer in refractory of the hearth of ladle


Assuming that the temperature of refractory of the ladle hearth is even in all directions except vertical direction, the heat only
would be transfers from inside to outside along the vertical direction, than the equation of heat transfer is a one-dimensional
unsteady heat conduction9, the initial conditions and the boundary conditions were similar as thses of heat transfer of the wall of
ladle, The expression is showed as the formula (7).
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Tb
1

T
=
[ (b ( ) )]

b .Cb ( ) x
x

(7)

Heat transfer in slag layer of ladle


Temperature variation in slag layer should be considered as the result of the heat conduction, while radial heat transfer could be
totally neglected because the inner diameter is far more greater than the thickness of the slag layer, so heat transfer inside the slag
layer could be treated as a one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction11. Heat loss on surface of the slag layer is composed of
convection and radiation, whose model is shown as below.
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Fig 2 Model of heat transfer in slag


Equation of heat transfer is as the following:
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S (

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2TS
T
) = S Cs S
2
y

0 y L1

(8)

Initial conditions:

TS ( y,= Tm ( ) = 0

(9)

Boundary conditions:

y = L1 , TS = Tm

(10)

y = 0 . TS = hS (Ti T0 ) + [(Ti + 273) 4 ( T0 + 273) 4 ]


y

100

100

(11)

Equation of heat transfer on slag surface:


Q Lsag = F {hS (Ti T0 ) + [(

Ti + 273 4 T0 + 273 4
) (
) ]}
100
100

(12)

ANALYSIS OF INFLUENTIAL FACTORS IN HEAT TRANSFER OF LADLE

Prediction of liquid steel temperature at the end of ladle turnaround


Ten heats of data were tested to verify the model from one steel plant which has 300t ladle. Fig.3 shows the comparison between
calculation and survey of liquid temperature at the end of ladle transportation. As seen from the figure, the absolute differences
between calculating value and surveying value are as below: maximum value is 7, minimum value is 0, and average error is
3.4, and ratio of error value within5 attains 80%.

Fig 3 Comparison between calculation and survey of liquid temperature at the end of ladle cycle

Temperature distribution in refractory of ladle


Temperature distribution in refractory of the wall of ladle is calculated under different temperature conditions, whose results are
shown in Fig.4, and the temperature distribution in refractory of the inner layer of the bottom is shown in Fig 5.
As seen from Fig.4 and Fig.5, temperature variation was obvious in refractory of the wall and the bottom of ladle.
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Fig 4

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Temperature distribution in refractory of the wall under different temperature conditions

Fig 5 Temperature distribution in refractory of the bottom under different temperature conditions

Effect of preheating state on the temperature of molten steel


For ladle in use, calculation should be carried out at different preheating temperature. Fig.6 indicates that preheating temperature
influences the molten steel temperature greatly. When preheating temperature rises from 700 to 1300, the temperature of
liquid steel would be raised

by 3.5 averagely along with every 100 increase in preheating temperature.

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ladle preheating
temperature 700
ladle preheating
temperature 800
ladle preheating
temperature 900
ladle preheating
temperature 1000
ladle preheating
temperature 1100

molten steel temperature

1620
1610
1600
1590
1580
1570
1560
1550

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 4
time min

Fig 6 Effect of preheating temperatures on the temperature of molten steel


As seen from Fig.7, initial heat state of ladle has a lot to do with the temperature of molten steel. The three different heat states of
ladles which are the new ladle, the hot one and the old one, and the corresponding temperature variation of liquid steel are great,
and it would increase from 1562 to 1592 at the end of refining.

Fig 7 Effect of thermal states of ladle on the temperature of molten steel

CONCLUSIONS

1At different temperatures, temperature of refractory on the wall and at the bottom change a lot.
2Preheating temperature influences the molten steel temperature greatly, when preheating temperature rising from 700 to
1300, the temperature of molten steel would be raised by 3.5 averagely along with every 100 increase in preheating
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temperature.
3Initial heat states of ladles influenced a lot on has a lot to do with the temperature of molten steel, which would increase from
1562 to 1592 at the end of refining.

LIST OF SYMBOLS IN THIS PAPER

Tm Molten steel temperature in ladle;

S : Density of slag, kg / m3 ;

W1 molten steel weight in vacuum-room (Kg ) ;

Wm : amount of molten steel in ladle (Kg ) ;

Ti : Surface temperature of slag at the time of i, C ;

: Surface temperature of slag, 0.6 is selected.

: Boltzmann constant, 5.67108 is selected, J / m .s.K


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; F : effective radiant area, m ;

S : Heat conduction coefficient of slag, J / m.s.C ;

y : Thickness of slag layer, m ;

T0 : Atmosphere temperature, 25 is selected;

Tm : Temperature of molten steel, ;

Cs : Thermal capacity of slag; J / kg.C ;

TS : Temperature of slag, ;

hS : Convection coefficient of slag surface, J / m 2 .s.C ; : Time, s;


QSlag : Amount of heat dispersion on surface of the slag in one unit of time, J / s ;
r( RH ) rw( RH ) : inner diametermand outer diametermof the ladle wall;
qb Ab Density of heat flow into the bottom of the ladleJ/m2.s, area of the bottomm2;
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q s As Density of heat flow into the slag layerJ/m2.s, area of the slag layerm2;
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q w AW Density of heat flow into the wall of the ladleJ/m2.s, area of the wallm2.
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REFERENCE
1. J. W. Hinka, T. W. Miller. Temperature Loss in Liquid-Steel-Refractory System, Iron and Steel Engineering, 1970, Issue.8,
pp.123-133.
2. Sanjib Chakraborty, Yogeshwar Sahai. Effect of Slag Cover on Heat Loss and Liquid Steel Flow in Ladels before and during
Teeming to a Continuous Casting Tundish, Metall. Transactions B, Volume 23, 1992, pp.135-150.
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3. A.Herbert, M.J. Thorndike, and G. Fawkes. Production of High Quality Continuously Cast Slabs for Hot-Rolled Coil and Weld
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10.Qian Zhirong, Fan Guangju. Handbook of Refractory for Practical Use, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 1992, pp.367.
11. Zhang Xianzhao. Theory of Metallurgical Heat Transfer, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 1988, pp.436.