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cn

Qing Liu

P

University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China

Tel.: 0086-10-62332880

Fax: 0086-10-62322845

Email: qliu@metal.ustb.edu.cn

Kai Wu

School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering,

University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China

Tel.: 0086-10-62332358

Fax: 0086-10-62322845

E-mail:19816220@163.com

Guangguang Yu

Materials Science and Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University

Tel: 412 268 2573

Fax: 412 268 7569

E-mail: guanggua@andrew.cmu.edu

Chuangji Han

Metallurgy Research Center, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering,

University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China

Tel.: 0086-10-62332358

Fax: 0086-10-62322845

E-mail: chuanjihan@metal.ustb.edu.cn

Kaike Cai

1

http://www.paper.edu.cn

University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 P.R.China

Tel.: 0086-10-62332358

Fax: 0086-10-62322845

E-mail : kaikecai@metal.ustb.edu.cn

Key WordsLadle, Molten steel temperature, Heat transfer, Analysis, RH

FOREWORD

Composition and temperature control of molten steel are extremely important in modern continuous casting production. Quality

control of casting slab is closely related with the control of temperature, composition and its cleanliness level. Moreover,

appropriate casting temperature is an important precondition of stable operation, safe production and high quality acquirement.

Therefore, every factor working on molten steel temperature is to be researched.

As the equipment of liquid steel refining and its temperature adjusting, ladle keeps the smooth production of steelmaking and

continuous casting, and makes it more agile for production schedule. Also each process from tapping to casting is carried out in

the ladle, whose state has become a main factor influencing the liquid steel temperature. There were many studies on heat transfer

in ladle for many years1-4, early research were mainly real temperature measurement and physical simulation5-7, while along with

P

the incessant progress in science and technology, mathematical simulation was applied more and more to establish many kinds of

mathematical models so as to research the different factors in heat loss of ladle and optimize the hot cycling technology of ladle in

continuous casting process, sequentially to reduce the heat loss.

MATHEMATICAL MODELS

Thermal state of ladle influences molten steel temperature greatly during the course of RH-MFB refining, so the thermal state of

ladle should be researched deeply for further exact control and prediction temperature of molten steel.

Heat transfer in ladle

After liquid steel being poured into the ladle, its heat quantity would be taken in the wall and the bottom of the ladle, as well as the

free surface of molten steel itself. The expression of heat transfer is shown as the formula (1).

dTm

1

[qb ( ) Ab + qW ( ) AW + q s ( ) AS ]

=

d Wm C p (m )

Assuming that the temperature of refractory on the wall of ladle was even in all directions except the vertical direction, the heat

2

http://www.paper.edu.cn

would only be transfered from inside to outside along the vertical direction, then the equation of heat transfer was a

one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction, The expression of heat conduction is shown as the formula (2).

WRH CpW ( RH )

TW ( RH )

1

r W ( RH ) ( ) W ( RH )

r

r r

Fig 1 Structure and material of the bottom and the wall of ladle

Initial conditions:

=0

r( RH ) r rw( RH ) T( RH ) (r ,0) = T( RH ) (r , )

Boundary conditions:

T( RH ) (r , ) = T( RH ) ( )

(1) > 0

r = r( RH )

(2) > 0

V

V

T

A Cp A + B Cp B b

2

2

(3) > 0

r1( RH )

= s A

Tb

r

1

r r

2

+ s B

Tb

r

1

r + r

2

r = rWRH

4

4

Tb

Tb

V

Tb + 273 T f + 273

]

CP

rw( RH ) = s..

r rw( RH ) hm f s(Tb T f ) m 0 s[

2

100 100

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Table I Physical parameters of refractory on the lining and bottom of ladle & the wall and the hearth of vacuum room8,10

P

Density

specific heat

Dark

(J/ms)

(kg/m3)

(J/kg)

degree

freeze(KJ/kg)

1.52-0.000186t

2500

836+0.234t

Corundum brick

2.09+0.00187t

2900

794.2+0.418t

armor plate

43.2

7700

470.00

0.80

Molten steel

23.3

7000

880

0.40

251

slag

3500

1340

0.60

453.4

Kinds of refractory

Assuming that the temperature of refractory of the ladle hearth is even in all directions except vertical direction, the heat only

would be transfers from inside to outside along the vertical direction, than the equation of heat transfer is a one-dimensional

unsteady heat conduction9, the initial conditions and the boundary conditions were similar as thses of heat transfer of the wall of

ladle, The expression is showed as the formula (7).

P

Tb

1

T

=

[ (b ( ) )]

b .Cb ( ) x

x

(7)

Temperature variation in slag layer should be considered as the result of the heat conduction, while radial heat transfer could be

totally neglected because the inner diameter is far more greater than the thickness of the slag layer, so heat transfer inside the slag

layer could be treated as a one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction11. Heat loss on surface of the slag layer is composed of

convection and radiation, whose model is shown as below.

P

Equation of heat transfer is as the following:

4

S (

http://www.paper.edu.cn

2TS

T

) = S Cs S

2

y

0 y L1

(8)

Initial conditions:

TS ( y,= Tm ( ) = 0

(9)

Boundary conditions:

y = L1 , TS = Tm

(10)

y

100

100

(11)

Q Lsag = F {hS (Ti T0 ) + [(

Ti + 273 4 T0 + 273 4

) (

) ]}

100

100

(12)

Ten heats of data were tested to verify the model from one steel plant which has 300t ladle. Fig.3 shows the comparison between

calculation and survey of liquid temperature at the end of ladle transportation. As seen from the figure, the absolute differences

between calculating value and surveying value are as below: maximum value is 7, minimum value is 0, and average error is

3.4, and ratio of error value within5 attains 80%.

Fig 3 Comparison between calculation and survey of liquid temperature at the end of ladle cycle

Temperature distribution in refractory of the wall of ladle is calculated under different temperature conditions, whose results are

shown in Fig.4, and the temperature distribution in refractory of the inner layer of the bottom is shown in Fig 5.

As seen from Fig.4 and Fig.5, temperature variation was obvious in refractory of the wall and the bottom of ladle.

5

Fig 4

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Fig 5 Temperature distribution in refractory of the bottom under different temperature conditions

For ladle in use, calculation should be carried out at different preheating temperature. Fig.6 indicates that preheating temperature

influences the molten steel temperature greatly. When preheating temperature rises from 700 to 1300, the temperature of

liquid steel would be raised

http://www.paper.edu.cn

ladle preheating

temperature 700

ladle preheating

temperature 800

ladle preheating

temperature 900

ladle preheating

temperature 1000

ladle preheating

temperature 1100

1620

1610

1600

1590

1580

1570

1560

1550

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 4

time min

As seen from Fig.7, initial heat state of ladle has a lot to do with the temperature of molten steel. The three different heat states of

ladles which are the new ladle, the hot one and the old one, and the corresponding temperature variation of liquid steel are great,

and it would increase from 1562 to 1592 at the end of refining.

CONCLUSIONS

1At different temperatures, temperature of refractory on the wall and at the bottom change a lot.

2Preheating temperature influences the molten steel temperature greatly, when preheating temperature rising from 700 to

1300, the temperature of molten steel would be raised by 3.5 averagely along with every 100 increase in preheating

7

http://www.paper.edu.cn

temperature.

3Initial heat states of ladles influenced a lot on has a lot to do with the temperature of molten steel, which would increase from

1562 to 1592 at the end of refining.

S : Density of slag, kg / m3 ;

P

TS : Temperature of slag, ;

QSlag : Amount of heat dispersion on surface of the slag in one unit of time, J / s ;

r( RH ) rw( RH ) : inner diametermand outer diametermof the ladle wall;

qb Ab Density of heat flow into the bottom of the ladleJ/m2.s, area of the bottomm2;

P

q s As Density of heat flow into the slag layerJ/m2.s, area of the slag layerm2;

P

q w AW Density of heat flow into the wall of the ladleJ/m2.s, area of the wallm2.

P

REFERENCE

1. J. W. Hinka, T. W. Miller. Temperature Loss in Liquid-Steel-Refractory System, Iron and Steel Engineering, 1970, Issue.8,

pp.123-133.

2. Sanjib Chakraborty, Yogeshwar Sahai. Effect of Slag Cover on Heat Loss and Liquid Steel Flow in Ladels before and during

Teeming to a Continuous Casting Tundish, Metall. Transactions B, Volume 23, 1992, pp.135-150.

8

http://www.paper.edu.cn

3. A.Herbert, M.J. Thorndike, and G. Fawkes. Production of High Quality Continuously Cast Slabs for Hot-Rolled Coil and Weld

Tube Application, Ironmaking and Steelmaking, Volume.12, 1985, Issue.1, pp.35-36.

4. M.A.Omotani. L.J.Heaslip,A.Mclean, Ladle Temperature Control During Continuous Casting, I&SM, 1983, Issue.10,

pp.29-35.

5. S.J.Ritza. H.J.Thibodeau. Recent Steel Ladle Practices at Algomas No.2 Steelmaking Shop, I&SM, 1987, Issue.6, pp.33-37.

6. I.D.Prendergast. Practical Aspects of Refractory Selection and Performance in Steel Ladel_Part III&SM, 1988, Issue.2,

pp.18-22.

7. C.E.Tomazin, E.A.Upton and R.A.Wallis. The effect of ladle refractiries and practices on steel temperature control, I&SM,

1986, Issue.6, pp.28-34.

8. Chen Jiaxiang. Handbook of Common Diagram and Data in Steel Making, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 1984, pp.58

9. Yang Shiming. Heat Transfer, Xian: Xian Jiaotong University press, 1982,pp.168.

10.Qian Zhirong, Fan Guangju. Handbook of Refractory for Practical Use, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 1992, pp.367.

11. Zhang Xianzhao. Theory of Metallurgical Heat Transfer, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 1988, pp.436.

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