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BRICKS

IST SEMESTER
MO 2012

A PICTURE

BRICK POSITIONS

BRICK POSITIONS
Positions
Bond: a pattern in which brick is laid.
Stretcher: a brick laid horizontally, flat with the long side of the
brick exposed on the outer face of a wall.
Header: a brick laid flat with the short end of the brick exposed.
Soldier: a brick laid vertically with the narrow ("stretcher") side
exposed.
Sailor: a brick laid vertically with the broad side exposed.
Rowlock or Bull Header: a brick laid on the long, narrow side with
the small or "header" side exposed.
Shiner: a brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad side
exposed.

This is the most commonly used bond, for all wall


thicknesses. This bond is considered to be the strongest.

The bond consists of alternate courses of headers and


stretchers. In this bond, the vertical joints of the header
courses come over each other; similarly, the vertical joints

of the stretcher courses also come over each other. In order


to break the vertical joints in the successive courses, it is
essential to place queen closer after the first header (quoin
header) in each heading course. Also only headers are used
for hearting of thicker walls.

1. Alternative courses will show either headers or stretchers in elevation.


2. Every alternate header comes centrally over the joint between two stretchers in
1course below.
3. In the stretcher course, the stretchers have a min. lap of 1/4th their length over
headers.
4.There is no continuous vertical joint.
5.Walls of even multiple. of half bricks (i.e. 1 brick thick wall, 2-bricks thick
Q,

wall, 3-bricks thick wall) present the same appearance on both faces. Thus a course

showing stretchers on the front face will also show stretchers on the back face.
6. Wall of odd multiple of half bricks (i.e. 1 1/2 brick thick wall, 2 1/2 brick thick
wall etc.) will show stretchers on one face and headers on the other face.

7. The hearting (middle portion) of each of the thicker walls consists entirely
of headers.
8.At least every alternate transverse joint is continuous from face to face.

8. A header course should never start with queen's closer, as it will get displaced.
9. The queen's closer should be placed just next to the quoin header. Queen's
closers are not required in stretcher courses.
10. Since the number of vertical joints in the header course are twice the number
of vertical joints in the stretcher course, the joint in the header course are made
thinner than the joints in the stretcher course.

ENGLISH BOND

FLEMISH BOND
In this type of bond, each course is comprised of alternate headers

and stretchers.
Every alternate course starts with a header at the corner (i.e .. quoin
header). Quoin closers are placed next to the quoin header in

alternate courses to develop the face lap. Every header is centrally


supported over the stretcher below it.
Flemish bonds are of two types :
(i) Double flemish bond

(ii) Single flemish bond.

DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

In the double flemish bond, each course presents the same


appearance both in the front face as well as in the back face. Alternate
headers and stretcher are laid in each course. Because of this, double
flemish bond presents better appearance than English bond.

Special features of double flemish bond


1. Every course consists of headers and
stretchers placed alternately
2. The facing and backing of the wall, in each course,
have the same appearance.
3. Quoin closers are used next to quoin headers in every
alternate course.
4. In walls having thickness equal to odd multiple of half bricks, halfbats
and three-quarter bats are amply used.
5. For walls having thickness equal to even multiple of half bricks, no bats are
required. A header or stretcher will come out as header or stretcher on the same
course in front as well as back faces.

. Single

flemish bond : Single flemish bond is comprised of double

flemish bond facing and English bond backing and hearting in each
course. This bond thus uses the strength of the English bond and
appearance of flemish bond. However, this bond can be used for

those walls having thickness at least equal to 1 1/2 brick. Double


flemish bond facing is done with good quality expensive bricks.
However, cheaper bricks can be used for backing and hearting.

Comparison of English Bond and Flemish Bond


1.English bond is stronger than flemish bond for walls thicker than 1
1/2 brick.
2.Flemish bond gives more pleasing appearance than the English

bond.
3.Broken bricks can be used in the form of bats in Flemish bond.
However, more mortar is required.
4. Construction with Flemish bond requires greater skill in
comparison to English bond.

ENGLISH CROSS BOND

This is a modification of English bond, used to improve the


appearance of the wall. This bond combines the requirements of
beauty and strength. Special features of the bond are as follows:
1. Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as

in English bond.

ENGLISH CROSS BOND

2. Queen closers are placed next to quoin headers.


3. A header is introduced next to the quoin stretcher in every
alternate stretcher course.

RAT TRAP BOND / SILVERLOCK BOND

RAT TRAP BOND

This type of bond uses stretcher bricks on edges instead of bed. This bond is
weak in strength, but is economical. Hence it is used for garden walls, compound walls
etc. Bricks are kept standing vertically on end. The bricks are arranged as headers
and stretchers in such a manner that headers are placed on bed and stretchers are
placed on edge thus forming a continuous cavity. Due to this, the bond consumes less
number of bricks.

DUTCH BOND
"This is another modified form of English bond. In this bond the

corners of the wall are strengthened. Special features of this type of


bond is as follows :
1. Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as in

English bond.
2. Every stretcher course starts at the quoin with a three-quarter bat.
3. In every alternate stretcher course, a header is placed next to the
three-quarter brick bat provided at the quoin.

. RAKING BOND
This bond is used in thick walls. In this type of bond, the bonding bricks are kept
at an inclination to the direction of the wall. Due to this, the longitudinal stability of
thick wall built in English bond is very much increased. This bond is introduced at
certain
intervals along the height of the wall. Following are special features of raking bond:
1. The bricks are arranged in inclined direction, in the space between the external
stretchers of the wall.
2. The raking or inclination should be in opposite direction in alternate courses
of raking bond.
3. Raking bond is not provided in successive courses. It is provided at a regular
interval of four to eight courses in the height of a wall.
4. The raking course is generally provided between the two stretcher courses
of the wall having thickness equal to even multiple of half-bricks, to make the bond
more effective.

1.Diagonal bond
In this type of bond, bricks are arranged at 45 in such a way that extreme
corners of the series remain in contact with the external line of stretchers.

Bricks cut to triangular shapes and of suitable sizes are packed in the small tri-

angular spaces at the ends. This bond is best suited for walls which are 2 to 4 bricks
thick. The bond is introduced at regular vertical interval, generally at every fifth or
seventh course. In every alternate course of the bond, the direction of bricks is
reversed.

2.

Herring-bone bond . This bond is more suitable for walls which

are thicker than four bricks thick. Bricks are arranged at 45 in two opposite directions
from the centre of the wall thickness.. The bond is introduced
in the wall at regular vertical interval. In every alternate course, the directions of bricks
are changed. The bond is also used for ornamental finish to the face work, and also for
brick flooring

ZIG ZAG BOND


This bond is similar to herring-bone bond,

except that the bricks are laid in zig-zag fashion, . This


bond is commonly used for making ornamental panels
in the brick flooring.

GARDEN WALL BOND

This type of bond is used for the construction


of garden walls, boundary walls, compound
walls, where the thickness of the wall is one
brick thick and the height does not exceed
two metres.
This type of bond is not so strong as English
bond, but is more attractive. Due to
this reason, it is sometimes used in the
construction of outer leaves of cavity walls.

Garden wall bonds


Garden wall bonds are of three types:

(I) Garden wall English bond


(ii) Garden wall Flemish bond
(iii) Garden wall Monk bond.

Garden wall English bond


Garden wall English bond : In this bond, the
header course is provided only after three to
five stretchers courses. In each header course,
a queen closer is placed next to quoin header,
to provide necessary lap. In stretcher courses,
quoin headers are placed in alternate courses.

Garden wall FIemish bond


Garden wall FIemish bond : In this bond, each
course contains one header after three to five
stretchers continuously placed, throughout
the length of the course. Each alternate course
contains a three-fourth brick bat placed next
to the quoin header, develop necessary
lap, and a header laid over the middle
of each central stretcher. This bond is also
known as scotch bond or Sussex bond.

Garden wall Monk bond


Garden wall Monk bond
This is special type of garden-wall
Flemish bond in which each course contains
one header after two successive stretchers.
Every alternate course contains a quoin
header followed by a 3/4 brick bat. Due to
this, the header rests over the joint
between two successive stretchers.

Bonds at connections
Connection is the place where two walls
coming from different directions meet.
The walls should be properly united at the
connecting point through some proper bond.
The following three requirements should be
satisfied by the bond at the connection.

Bonds at connections
(i) There should be no continuity in the
vertical joints,(ii) use of brick bats should
be as minimum as possible, and (iii) the
connection should be structurally strong to
resist differential settlement, if any.
Connections are of the following two types :

(a) Junctions
(b) Quoins.

Junctions
Junction is that connection which is formed at
the meeting of one (subsidiary) wall at same
intermediate position of another wall. When
both these walls meet at right angles, we get a
tee-junction. If the subsidiary wall crosses the
main wall and continues beyond the junction,
we have a cross-junction or intersection.
However, if the subsidiary wall meets the main
wall at some intermediate point, and if the
angle formed between the two is other than a
right angle, a squint junction is formed.

Quoin
Quoin is the connection formed when two
external walls meet. Alternatively, quoin
is the connection which is formed when a wall
takes a turn. When the two walls
meet at 90, we have a right angled or square
quoin. If the angle at the connection
is other than 90, a squint quoin is formed.

Tee Junctions
(a) External and Internal walls in English
bond
Tee-junction is formed when the internal wall
at its end meets external wall at some
intermediate position. Tee-junctions can be
either in English bond or in Flemish bond.

Tee junction in one brick thick external wall and brick


internal wall

Tee junctions
The picture in previous slide shows the Teejunction between a one-brick thick external
wall and a half-brick thick internal wall
(partition wall), both walls being constructed
in English bond. Bond is obtained by making
alternate courses of internal wall entering into
the stretcher course of the main wall. Due to
this, lap of half brick is obtained through the
brick (shown shaded). Alternate courses of
both the walls remain unbonded.

Tee junctions
The picture in the next slide shows a Teejunction between a 1 brick thick external
wall and one brick thick internal (cross) wall,
both the walls being constructed in English
bond. Here, the header course of the internal
wall centres the stretcher course of the main
wall through half of its width. Due to this, lap
of quarter-brick is obtained through the tiebrick, which is placed near the queen closer
(Q). Alternate courses of both the walls
remain unbonded

Tee junction in 1 1/2 brick thick external wall and 1


brick internal wall

Tee Junctions
The picture in the next slide shows the Tee-junction
between 1 1/2 brick thick external wall and 1 1/2
brick thick internal wall, both the walls being
constructed in English bond. In alternate courses, the
header brick at the junction enters the stretcher
course of the main wall. The tie-brick (shown
shaded), placed near the queen closer (Q) furnishes
a lap of quarter brick. Additional lap is obtained in
the same course, through placing a 3/4 brick bat as
shown. Alternate courses of both the walls remain
unbonded.

Tee junction in 1 1/2 brick thick external wall and 1 1/2


brick internal wall

Tee Junctions
The picture in the next slide shows the Tee-junction
between 2-brick thick main wall and 1 1/2 brick thick
cross-wall, both the walls being constructed in
English bond. Here, the header course of internal
wall enters the stretcher course of the main wall
through half of its width. Due to this, lap of quarter
brick is obtained through the tie-brick (header brick)
Which is placed near the queen closer (Q). Additional
lap is obtained in the same course, through placing a
3/4brick bat as shown. Here also, alternate courses
of both the walls remain unbonded.

Tee junction in 2 brick thick external wall and 1 1/2


brick internal wall

External wall in Flemish bond and


Internal wall in English bond.
The picture in the next slideshows the Teejunction for an 1 1/2 brick thick external wall
in Double Flemish bond and one brick thick
internal wall in English bond.
The header course of internal wall enters into
the main wall, thus getting a lap of one-quarter brick. The tie-brick (header course) is
placed adjacent to a queen closer. Alternate
courses of both the walls remain unbonded.

Both external and internal walls in


double Flemish bond
The picture in the next slide shows the Teejunction for a 1-brick thick main wall and t
brick thick cross wall, both being constructed
in Double Flemish bond. The stretcher bricks
of alternate courses of the cross- wall enter
into the main wall through half brick length.
Due to this, it is necessary to place a half-brick
bat adjacent to it, in the main wall. The
alternate courses of each wall
remain unbonded.

Both external and internal walls in


double Flemish bond
The picture in the next slideshows the teejunction for a 1 brick thick main wall and
one-brick thick cross-wall, both being
constructed in double Flemish bond. In
alternate courses, the stretcher bricks of the
cross wall enter into the main wall through
quarter brick. A queen closer (Q) is placed
next to it in the main wall as shown.
Alternate courses of both the walls remain
unbonded

Cross-junction or Intersection
Cross-junction or Intersection
A cross-junction is formed when two internal
walls cross each other at right angles. One of
the walls may be called as the main wall while
the other of lesser thickness as cross-wall.

Cross-junction or Intersection
The picture in the next slide shows a crossjunction between 1 brick thick main wall and
1 brick thick cross-wall, both being
constructed in English bond. The header
course of cross-wall enter into the main wall :
the tie bricks thus give a lap of quarter brick
on both sides. Alternate courses of both the
walls remain unbonded.

Cross-junction or Intersection
The picture in the next slide shows a crossjunction between two walls, each of 1 brick thick constructed in English bond. A lap
of quarter brick is obtained through header
courses, on both the sides. Alternate courses
thus remain unbonded.

Squint junction
A squint junction is formed when an internal
wall meets an external continuous wall at an
angle other than 90. Usually, the angle of
squint is kept at 45 degrees, though
squint junctions are not very common in brick
work.

Squint junction in
English bond
The next slide shows a squint junction
between a 1 1/2 brick thick external wall and a
1-brick thick internal wall, (a) both being
constructed in English bond. The header
courses of the cross-wall is taken inside the
main wall, thus getting the required bond.
Alternate courses of both the walls remain
unbonded.

SQUINT JUNCTION IN ENGLISH BOND

Squint junction in
English bond
The next slide shows a squint junction between
two (b) wall each of 1 brick thickness and
constructed in English both. The header bricks
are taken inside the main wall. Alternate
courses remain unbonded.

SQUINT JUNCTION IN ENGLISH BOND

Squint junction in
Double Flemish bond
The picture in the next slide shows the squint
junction for the walls constructed in Double
Flemish bond. These junctions are quite
difficult to be constructed.

SQUINT JUNCTION IN DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

SQUINT JUNCTION IN DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

QUOINS
Quoin is the connection formed when two
external walls meet. Alternatively, quoin is the
connection which is formed when an external
wall takes a turn. Quoins are of two types :
1. Right-angle or square quoin.
2. Squint quoin

Squint Quoins
Squint quoins can be of two types:
(a) Acute squint.
(b) Obtuse squint.

Acute squint
(a) Acute squint:
This is formed when the enclosed angle on the
inside of the two walls is less than 90 .
Generally, the acute angle is kept
equal to 60 .

ACUTE SQUINT JUNCTION IN ENGLISH BOND

ACUTE SQUINT JUNCTION IN DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

Obtuse squint
Obtuse squint :
This is formed when the enclosed angle on the
inside of the two walls is more than 90 . The
angle generally varies from 105 to 135 , the
more common being 120

OBTUSE SQUINT JUNCTION IN ENGLISH BOND

OBTUSE SQUINT JUNCTION IN DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

BOND IN BRICK
PIERS
Piers of brick masonry are provided to have
supports for beams, trusses or other structural
members. Piers are also known as columns or
pillars. These piers may be of two types,
depending upon their location with reference
to the adjoining load bearing wall (if, any):
(a) Detached or isolated piers.
(b) Attached piers.

ISOLATED PIERS
Though piers may be constructed in any type
of bond, generally English bond or double
Flemish bond is adopted. The size of the pier
as well as its shape (i.e., square, rectangular or
circular) depends upon the magnitude of the
load as well as architectural requirements.

ISOLATED PIERS IN ENGLISH BOND

ISOLATED PIERS IN ENGLISH BOND

ISOLATED PIERS IN DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

ISOLATED PIERS IN DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

ATTACHED PIERS
Attached piers are constructed along the wall
for two purposes:
(i) to provide larger bearing. area for
supporting heavy girders, roof etc. and
(ii) to provide stiffness to the wall.

BOND IN FOOTINGS
Footings distribute the load of wall or pier, to a wider area at
its base, through the provision of steps or offsets. Each step of
the footing can be constructed either in single course of bricks
or in double or more courses. Footings of single course of
brick in each step is adopted for light loads. In such a case the
bricks are laid as headers on the outside. This would make it
possible to give greater bearing to the projecting portion
(offset) inside the wall or pier. In the case of double or
multiple courses, the method of construction and bonding is
similar. to that adopted for the wall or pier.

BOND IN FOOTINGS
The previous shows an isometric view of wall
footing in which each step consists of one
brick course only and the offset is equal to
brick.
Each alternate course consists of header bricks
only.