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CHAPTER 1

CHEMICAL PRINCIPLE

THE OUTLINES
1. Matter
2. Atoms and Ions
3. Atomic and Molecular Mass
4. Mole Concept
5. Chemical Formula
6. Chemical Equation and Stoichiometry

MATTER
It is anything that has mass and occupies
space
Examples

Classification of MATTER

Physical state

Compositions

Physical state
Depending on its temperature, matter can
be solid, liquid or gas

Compositions
Pure substances
Elements

Atoms
Molecules

Compounds

Ions
Molecules

Mixtures
Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Pure substances
Pure substances are defined as substances that are
made of only one type of atom or molecule, and the
purity of a substance is the measure of the extent to
which a given substance is pure
all substances are either elements or
compounds
Pure water a compound

Pure gold an element

Elements

A chemical element, often called simply


element, is a substance that cannot be
divided or changed into different
substances
by
ordinary
chemical
methods.
The smallest particle of such an element
is an atom, which consists of electrons
centered around a nucleus of protons
and neutrons

Examples of elements
METALS

NON-METAL

Iron (Fe)
Carbon (C)
Gold (Au)
Silver (Ag)
Cuprum (Cu)

GAS

Oxygen (O2)
Nitrogen (N2)
Clorin (Cl2)
Helium (He)

How to read the periodic


table
The vertical columns of the periodic table (black arrow in the figure) are called groups.
The horizontal rows (red arrow) are called periods. There are 18 groups and 7 periods.

Reading the periodic table:


Carbon

periodic properties

Metals
Malleable, ductile, have
luster
oxidize to form +ve ions
Excellent conductors of
heat and electricity
can be broken down into
several groups

Transition
metals
Also called transition
elements
Able to refract light (have
unpaired electron)
Ionic solutions usually
coloured (often used as
pigments)
Lanthanides and actinides
(rarely found)

Nonmetal
Do not conduct electricity
well because they do not
have free e * Hydrogen is placed with
the metals because it has
only one valence
electron, but it is a
nonmetal

periodic properties
Some specific families within the three main groups metals, nonmetals, and
metalloids (have properties between metal and non metal)

ALKALI METALS (1A)


Most reactive metal family
React violently with water!!

ALKALINE EARTH METALS (2A)


Reactive metals but they dont explode in water
Mostly used in batteries

HALOGENS (7A)
Known as salt formers
Exist as diatomic molecules
Used in modern lightning

NOBLE GASES (8A)


Slow reactivity

Compounds
Substances that composed of two or
more elements; they contain two or more
kinds of atoms

Water: composed of two hydrogen


atoms for every oxygen atom

Mixtures
Combinations
of
two
or
more
substances in which each substance
remain its chemical identity

two types of mixtures:


heterogeneous mixture
homogeneous mixture

Heterogeneous mixture
The mixtures do not have the same
composition, properties and appearance;
two or more substances are mixed
together but are not chemically combined
Sand in water

Mixture of oil and water

Homogeneous mixture
The
mixtures
that
are
uniform
throughout; has uniform composition and
appearance
Mixture of air
Metal solution

Orange juice

Atoms and Ions


Atoms
An atom consists of three sub-atomic
particles which are:
Protons - these are positively charged (+)
Electrons - these are negatively charged (-)
Neutrons - these have no charge

Interaction of Atoms
It's the electrons in orbit around the nucleus that allow
one atom to interact with other atoms so they can be
linked together.

For example, H2O consists of an Oxygen atom linked to


2 Hydrogen atoms. The linkage or interaction between
the electrons of the Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms is
called a Chemical Bond.

Atoms and Ions


Ions
An ion is an atom or group of atoms
with a net electric charge.
Sometimes atoms gain or lose electrons. The atom then loses or
gains a "negative" charge. These atoms are then called ions.
Positive Ion - Occurs when an atom loses an electron (negative
charge) it has more protons than electrons. (CATION)
Negative Ion - Occurs when an atom gains an electron (negative
charge) it will have more electrons than proton (ANION)

Ions

Ions
The following image shows Na losing an electron and Cl gaining an
electron
Thus the Na becomes Na+
The Cl becomes Cl-

Ions
Here are some examples of common ions:
Na+
Sodium
K+
Potassium
ClChloride
Ca+
Calcium
Fe+
Iron
PPhosphorous

Ions

Cations & anions

Atomic and Molecular Mass


Atomic mass is the mass of one atom
expressed in units (atomic mass unit,
amu) where 1 amu is equal to 1/12th
of the actual mass of carbon-12.

Atomic mass is also called as


relative atomic mass or atomic
weight.

Average Atomic Mass


Most elements have several naturally
occurring isotopes with different
abundance.
Isotopes are atoms with the same number of
protons, but differing numbers of neutrons.
Isotopes are different forms of a single element.

Average Atomic Mass


Example 1
Bromine:
50.69% bromine 79, mass = 78.9183
49.31% bromine 81, mass = 80.9163
Average atomic mass of Br
= (50.69% x 78.9183)
+ (49.31% x 80.9163)
=79.9035
80

Average Atomic Mass


Example 2
Magnesium:
78.99% magnesium24, mass = 23.9850
10.00% magnesium25, mass = 24.9858
11.01% magnesium-26, mass = 25.9826
Average atomic mass of Mg
= (78.99% x 23.9850) + (10.00% x 24.9858)
+ (11.01% x 25.9826)
= 24.3050
24

Average Atomic Mass: Exercise


Isotopes

Mass

Abundance (%)

6Li

6.015

7.59

7Li

7.016

92.41

16O

15.995

99.757

17O

16.999

0.038

18O

17.999

0.205

Calculate the average atomic


mass of lithium and oxygen.

Average Atomic Mass


The atomic mass shown in the periodic
table for an element is actually a weighted
average of the masses of all isotopes of the
element.

Molecular Mass
The molecular mass of a substance
(less accurately called molecular
weight and abbreviated as MW) is
the mass of one molecule of that
substance, relative to the unified
atomic mass unit (u)

Molecular Mass
The molecular mass can be
calculated as the sum of the
atomic masses of all the atoms of
any one molecule.
The molar mass of a substance is
numerically equal to the molecular
mass, but expressed in mass units
per mole (e.g. grams per mole)

Molecular Mass
For example: the atomic mass of hydrogen is
1.00784 u and that of oxygen is 15.9994 u;
therefore:
the molecular mass of water
with formula H2O is
= (2 1.00784 u) + 15.9994 u
= 18.01508 u.
Therefore, one molecule of water weighs 18.01508 u,
and one mole of water weighs 18.01508 grams.

Molecular Mass
Molecular mass or molar mass are
used in stoichiometry calculations.
Stoichiometry is the part of chemistry that studies amounts of substances that are
involved in reactions.
1. You might be looking at the amounts of substances before the reaction.
2. You might be looking at the amount of material that is produced by the
reaction.
Stoichiometry is all about the numbers
When you're doing problems in stoichiometry, you might look at..
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mass of Reactants (chemicals before the reaction)


Mass of Products (chemicals after the reaction)
Chemical Equations
Molecular Weights of Reactants and Products
Formulas of Various Compounds

Mole Concept
The mole (symbol: mol) is one of the
seven SI base units and is commonly
used in chemistry.
Mole is a unit of measurement used in chemistry to
express amounts of a chemical substance, defined as the amount
of any substance that contains as many elementary entities
(e.g., atoms, molecules, ions, electrons) as there are atoms in
12 grams of pure carbon-12 (12C)

Mole of substance A = Mass of substance A(g)


Mass of Formula A(g.mol-1)

SI base units
SI BASE UNITS
QUANTITY

Length

UNIT

SYMBOL

meter

kilogram

kg

Temperature

kelvin

Time

second

mole

mol

Electric current

ampere

Luminous intensity

candela

cd

Mass

Amount of substances

Mole Concept
Avogadro's number
Avogadro's number is the number of particles found in
one mole of a substance.
It is the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams
of carbon-12.
This experimentally determined value is approximately
6.022 x 1023 particles per mole.

Chemical Formula
There are two types of chemical
formulas:
(a) Empirical Formula,
(b) Molecular Formula .
Empirical formula and molecular
formula are used for different purposes.

Empirical Formula

The Empirical Formula gives the simplest


whole-number ratio of atoms of each
element present in a compound.

Example:
Acetylene (C2H2) and benzene (C6H6)
the simplest ratio C : H = 1 : 1
Empirical Formula = CH

Molecular Formula

The Molecular Formula gives the actual


number of atoms of each element present
in a molecule.
Example:
a) Acetylene C2H2
b) Benzene C6H6
c) Glucose C6H6O6
d) Water H2O

Chemical Equation
aA + bB

cC

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical


reaction wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand
side and the product entities on the right-hand side
The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities
are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers.
A chemical equation consists of the chemical formulas of the
reactants (the starting substances) and the chemical formula of
the products (substances formed in the chemical reaction)

-A chemical equation uses chemical symbols to show what happens


during a chemical reaction
-As an example, the equation for the reaction of hydrochloric
acid with sodium can be denoted:

2 HCl + 2 Na 2 NaCl + H2

Chemical Equation
3 ways of representing the reaction of H2 with O2 to form H2O

reactants

products

How to Read Chemical Equations


2 Mg + O2

2 MgO

2 atoms Mg + 1 molecule O2 makes 2 formula units MgO


2 moles Mg + 1 mole O2 makes 2 moles MgO
48.6 grams Mg + 32.0 grams O2 makes 80.6 g MgO

Balancing Chemical Equations


1. Write the correct formula(s) for the reactants on the left
side and the correct formula(s) for the product(s) on the
right side of the equation.
Ethane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water

C2H6 + O2

CO2 + H2O

2. Change the numbers in front of the formulas (coefficients)


to make the number of atoms of each element the same
on both sides of the equation. Do not change the
subscripts.

2C2H6

NOT

C4H12

Balancing Chemical Equations..contd


3. Start by balancing those elements that appear in only one
reactant and one product.
C2H6 + O2

2 carbon
on left
C2H6 + O2
6 hydrogen
on left
C2H6 + O2

CO2 + H2O

start with C or H but not O

1 carbon
on right

multiply CO2 by 2

2CO2 + H2O
2 hydrogen
on right
2CO2 + 3H2O

multiply H2O by 3

Balancing Chemical Equations.contd


4. Balance those elements that appear in two or more reactants
or products.
C2H6 + O2
2 oxygen
on left

2CO2 + 3H2O
4 oxygen + 3 oxygen
(3x1)
(2x2)

7O
2 2

2CO2 + 3H2O

2C2H6 + 7O2

4CO2 + 6H2O

C2H6 +

multiply O2 by

7
2

= 7 oxygen
on right
remove fraction
multiply both sides by 2

Balancing Chemical Equationscontd


5. Check to make sure that you have the same number of each
type of atom on both sides of the equation.

2C2H6 + 7O2
12
4 CH
14
O(2(2
(7xx2)6)
2)

4CO2 + 6H2O
1412
OH
(44(6
xC 2x +2)6)
Reactants

Products

4C

4C

12 H

12 H

14 O

14 O

EXERCISE:
Write a balanced chemical equation for:

Magnesium nitride reacting with water to form magnesium oxide and


ammonia
Mg3N2 + H2O MgO + NH3

Mass Changes in Chemical Reactions

1.

Write balanced chemical equation

2.

Convert quantities of known substances into moles

3.

Use coefficients in balanced equation to calculate the number of moles


of the sought quantity

4.

Convert moles of sought quantity into desired units


3.8

Methanol burns in air according to the equation


2CH3OH + 3O2
2CO2 + 4H2O
If 209 g of methanol are used up in the combustion,
what mass of water is produced?
grams CH3OH

moles CH3OH

molar mass
CH3OH
209 g CH3OH

moles H2O

molar mass
H2O

coefficients
chemical equation

1 mol CH3OH
32.0 g CH3OH

4 mol H2O
2 mol CH3OH

235 g H2O

grams H2O

18.0 g H2O
1 mol H2O

Limiting and Excess Reagents


Limiting Reactant - The reactant in a chemical reaction that limits the amount of product
that can be formed. The reaction will stop when all of the limiting reactant is consumed.

Excess Reactant - The reactant in a chemical reaction that remains when a reaction
stops when the limiting reactant is completely consumed. The excess reactant remains
because there is nothing with which it can react.

No matter how many tires there are, if there are only 8 car bodies, then only 8 cars can
be made. Likewise with chemistry, if there is only a certain amount of one reactant
available for a reaction, the reaction must stop when that reactant is consumed
whether or not the other reactant has been used up.

6 green used up

6 red left over

Do You Understand Limiting Reagents?


In one process, 124 g of Al are reacted with 601 g of Fe2O3
2Al + Fe2O3

Al2O3 + 2Fe

Calculate the mass of Al2O3 formed.


g Al

mol Al

mol Fe2O3 needed

g Fe2O3 needed

OR

g Fe2O3
124 g Al x

mol Fe2O3
1 mol Al
27.0 g Al

mol Al needed
1 mol Fe2O3
2 mol Al

Start with 124 g Al

160. g Fe2O3
1 mol Fe2O3

g Al needed
=

need 367 g Fe2O3

Have more Fe2O3 (601 g) so Al is limiting reagent

367 g Fe2O3

Use limiting reagent (Al) to calculate amount of product that


can be formed.
g Al

mol Al

2Al + Fe2O3

124 g Al x

mol Al2O3

g Al2O3

Al2O3 + 2Fe

1 mol Al2O3
102. g Al2O3
1 mol Al
= 234 g Al2O3
x
x
27.0 g Al
2 mol Al
1 mol Al2O3

3.9

Theoretical Yield is the amount of product that would


result if all the limiting reagent reacted.

Actual Yield is the amount of product actually obtained


from a reaction.
% Yield =

Actual Yield
Theoretical Yield

x 100

Chemical Equation
and Stoichiometry
When a stream of chlorine gas, Cl2, is
directed onto solid phosphorus, P4, the
mixture bursts into flame, and a chemical
reaction produces liquid phosphorus
trichloride, PCl3.
This reaction can be represented by using
a balanced chemical equation:
P4(s) + 6Cl2(g) 4PCl3(l)

Chemical Equation
and Stoichiometry
The problem is:
How we get the chemical equation?
Look at the data given:
1. chlorine gas, Cl2
2. solid phosphorus, P4
3. liquid phosphorus trichloride, PCl3.

Chemical Equation
and Stoichiometry
So, the chemical equation should be:
Cl2 + P4 PCl3
Consider the chemical phase:
Cl2(g) + P4 (s) PCl3 (l)

Chemical Equation
and Stoichiometry
Balance the chemical equation:
66Cl2(g) + P4 (s) 4 PCl3 (l)
or
P4 (s) + 6Cl2(g) 4PCl3 (l)

Chemical Equation and Stoichiometry


(Exercise)
1.

Write the balanced equation for the


combustion of ethyl alcohol:
C2 H5 OH (l) + O2(g) CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Answer

Chemical Equation and Stoichiometry


(Exercise)
2. Determine the number of grams of
lead(II) sulfide, PbS, that can be
oxidised by 5.22 mol of oxygen gas
according to the following equation.
2PbS(s) + 3O2(g) 2PbO(s) + 2SO2(g)
Answer

Solution and Mixtures


Solutions are groups of molecules that are
mixed up in a completely even distribution
is basically two substances that are going to be
combined
One of them is called the solute. A solute is the
substance to be dissolved (sugar). The other is
a solvent. The solvent is the one doing the
dissolving (water)

Mixtures are absolutely everywhere we look.


Most things in nature are mixtures. Look at
rocks, the ocean, or even the atmosphere.
They are all mixtures, and mixtures are
about physical properties, not chemical ones

UNITS OF CONCENTRATION
There are a number of different ways of expressing solute concentration that are
commonly used
Molarity, M = moles solute/liter of solution
Normality, N = equivalents of solute/liter of solution

Weight %, Wt % = mass ratio x 100% = mass of solute/mass of solution x 100%


Parts per million, ppm = mass ration x 106 = mass of solute/mass of solution x 106
Mass per volume, mg/L = mass of solute/liter of solution
molality, m = moles of solute/mass of solvent
mole fraction, = moles of solute/total moles

Concentrations of Solutions
Molarity (M)
The most widely used to quantify
the concentration of solutions.

Concentrations of Solutions
Molarity (M)
The molarity of a solution is
defined as

molessolutes
Molarity
volume of solution(L)
n
or M
V

Molarity Exercise 1
Calculate the molarity of a
solution made by dissolving
23.4 g of sodium sulphate in
enough water to form 125 mL of
solution.
Answer

1.32 M

Molarity Exercise 2
How many grams of sodium
sulphate, Na2SO4 are required to
make 0.350 L of 0.500 M Na2SO4?
Answer
24.8 grams

Normality (N)
The normality of a solution is the gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of solution. A
gram equivalent weight or equivalent is a measure of the reactive capacity of a given chemical
species (ion, molecule, etc.). Normality is the only concentration unit that is reaction
dependent.
Here's an example of how to calculate the normality of a solution.
Normality Example #1
1 M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is 2 N for acid-base reactions because each mole of sulfuric acid
provides 2 moles of H+ ions.
1 M sulfuric acid is 1 N for sulfate precipitation, since 1 mole of sulfuric acid provides 1
mole of sulfate ions.

Molarity vs Normality (N)

The difference is that molarity is way to provide information


about the number of molecules in a liter of solution and
normality provides information about the number of reactive
units in a liter of solution

Molality (m @ b)
As is clear from its name, molality involves moles!!!
A molality is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent.

Question:
A 4 g sugar cube (Sucrose: C12H22O11) is dissolved in a 350 ml teacup of 80 C water. What is
the molality of the sugar solution?
Given: Density of water at 80 = 0.975 g/ml
Definition

Molality is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.


Step 1 - Determine number of moles of sucrose in 4 g
Solute is 4 g of C12H22O11
C12H22O11 = (12)(12) + (1)(22) + (16)(11)
C12H22O11 = 144 + 22+ 176
C12H22O11 = 342 g/mol
divide this amount into the size of the sample
4 g /(342 g/mol) = 0.0117 mol

Step 2 - Determine mass of solvent in kg.


density = mass/volume
mass = density x volume
mass = 0.975 g/ml x 350 ml
mass = 341.25 g
mass = 0.341 kg

Step 3 - Determine molality of the sugar solution.


molality = molsolute / msolvent
molality = 0.0117 mol / 0.341 kg
molality = 0.034 mol/kg

Answer:
The molality of the sugar solution is 0.034 mol/kg.

Mole fraction (X)


The mole fraction, X, of a component in a solution is the ratio of the
number of moles of that component to the total number of moles
of all components in the solution.
To calculate mole fraction, we need to know:
>> The number of moles of each component present in the solution.

The mole fraction of A, XA, in a solution consisting of A, B, C, ...


is calculated using the equation:

To calculate the mole fraction of B, XB, use: