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BIOFUELS FOR TRANSPORT (TKMJ31)

PROJECT ASSIGNMENT
1. INTRODUCTION
This assignment will provide you with a holistic view of the sustainability of biofuel production for different
regions in the world. You will work in your assigned project groups for the entire assignment. The assignment
includes a report and presentation, but also seminars and supervision meetings have been scheduled to help
guide your work.
Your company (name which you can decide), a new bioenergy company, is interested in developing more
biofuels for transportation in order to broaden their portfolio. There are many possibilities to choose from
throughout the world and many suppliers of equipment to choose from. Of utmost concern for your company
is the sustainability of the project, in terms of environmental impacts, economy and social aspects that this
project may produce.
Your group will have the task of working as the companies sustainability experts to conduct environmental,
economic and social assessments of your chosen project using information that your group will find in addition
to the information provided for the quantitative assessments. If information has not been provided, you must
find it using reports, scientific literature or interviews with relevant actors/companies.
A collection of possible projects are available for your company to choose among (see section
4. Project Topics). Each project may only be investigated by two groups to account for similar projects in
different areas of the world (e.g. two groups may not choose Oil Palm Biodiesel in South America, but one
group can choose South America and the other Malaysia).
For projects abroad, you are to assess both the production and distribution domestically and compare with the
possibility of exporting the biofuel back to Sweden.

2. TIMELINE
The following dates include the deadlines for the project.

Sept 2nd: Introduction to Project Assignment


Sept 10th: LCA practical exercise (Groups A1-A6 and Groups B1-B6)
Sept 22nd: Supervision Meetings (Groups A1-A6)
Sept 23rd: Supervision Meetings (Groups B1-B6)
Oct 1st: Project Report Drafts Due at 13.00
Oct 8th: Supervision Meetings (Groups A1-A6 and Groups B1-B6)
Oct 13th: Presentations (Groups A1-A6)
Oct 14th: Presentations (Groups B1-B6)
Oct 23rd: Project Reports Due

3. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT PARAMETERS


Your report will include different sustainability parameters that you will assess both quantitatively and
qualitatively. Quantitative assessments include an LCA of your production system and an economic cost-benefit
assessment. Thereafter, a qualitative assessment of the social aspects and effects on surrounding regions will
be performed.
[AUTHOR NAME]

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT S
Based on information you have learned in previous courses and from lectures on environmental impacts of
biofuel systems, you will assess the environmental impacts of the biofuel production project. This is to be done
in order to assess whether the biofuel produced meets emissions limits for sustainable transportation fuels set
by the European Union in the Renewable Energy Directive.
Your results will relate to the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of the project per MJ of energy
produced (Lower Heating Value). This will then be compared with the emissions to produce an equivalent
amount of fossil fuel as a reference.
On September 22nd and 23rd (for Groups A and B respectively) you will have a meeting with your supervisors.
During this meeting you should review the inputs-outputs of the system and ask questions related to the LCA
background and economic assessment for your specific project.
You will use the Practical Exercise on September 10th to develop your economic and environmental assessment
of your projects together with the supervisors. Examples may be provided to aid your work in the course
through lectures and other documents on LISAM.
You will document your calculations in Microsoft Excel. Some general data will be provided for your group to
use for the calculations, though you must also find your own data where data is missing.

All calculations should be based on production inputs-outputs and end at the production gate, i.e. all activities
up to the distribution of the fuel. Your analysis will not review the direct use of the fuel in vehicles. Therefore,
your analyses will be based on a well-to-tank perspective or also known as cradle-to-gate where you analyze
impacts up to the final production and distribution.
SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS
You should review how the production process can affect the surrounding communities both negatively and
positively. Some important aspects to consider for the social implications of the project include:

Displacement of Groups of People


Employment Potential
Infrastructural Changes
Economic Development
Land use/De-forestation
[AUTHOR NAME]

Although some projects may not include as many implications on society as shown above, others may be more
important than others in the region your project is to exist. It is therefore important to highlight the most
important social implications for the project (both negative and positive).
ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT
Your task will be to find the costs for material inputs, outputs, production costs and conduct a cost-benefit
analysis of the project to understand the investments and potential for income of the project.
Important costs and income to include in the C/B analysis:

Investment costs for production equipment (assume everything is included in one production unit, e.g.
1 biodiesel production machine)
Raw material inputs (e.g. oil, grains, substrates, chemicals, etc.)
Energy inputs (electricity, fuels, heat, etc.)
Income from selling products (biofuels and also by-products)
Assume that the loan and payback have a period of 10 years, no inflation and a 2% interest rate

Some assumptions/prices will be provided for you in the Economic Assessment Assumptions sheet on LISAM.
You may use these figures for your calculations, though if you find more realistic data from your research it is
advised to use that data.

4. PROJECT TOPICS
Each group will work on one of the following topics. Please select the topic of your group and sign-up.
BIODIESEL FROM OIL P ALM IN SOUTH AMERICA/M ALAYSIA
Your company would like to invest into making biodiesel from their own oil palm plantations in South
America/Malaysia.
BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA IN EAST AFRICA/INDIA
Jatropha has been marketed as a miracle plant to produce oil to be used for biodiesel production. Your
company would like to invest into making biodiesel regional Jatropha plantations in east Africa (or India).
BIOFUELS FROM FOREST RESIDUES IN SWEDEN
As second generation biofuels are becoming more interesting to explore, your company would like to begin
investment in gasification of forest residues for biofuel production in Sweden. The fuel choice is up to your
group to conclude. This can e.g. include Fischer-Tropsch Diesel, Methane, Ethanol or other fuels.
ETHANOL FROM SUGAR CROPS IN EAST AFRICA/BRAZIL
As the ethanol market continues to grow there is a need for increased supplies. Your company is looking to
produce ethanol from sugarcane, sugar beets or sweet sorghum in East Africa/Brazil.
BIOGAS PRODUCTION FR OM WASTES IN THE USA/SWEDEN
Despite large potential for natural gas in the USA, biogas development continues to grow. Your company is
looking to expand their market in the USA by offering possibilities to produce biogas from municipal wastes and
other industrial wastes to produce vehicle fuel.

[AUTHOR NAME]

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FR OM FARM RESIDUES IN SWEDEN/DENMARK


Residues from the agricultural/farm sector have a large potential for biogas production. These include e.g.
straw from cereal, tops from potato and sugar beet cultivation, or manure. Your company is considering to
build a new biogas plant based on agricultural residues.
BIOGAS PRODUCTION FR OM CROPS IN SWEDEN/G ERMANY
Biogas production from crops is widely used in e.g. Germany to supply the electricity market with green
electricity. As substrate prices from by-products and wastes are becoming increasingly expensive in Sweden,
many see a possible future for energy crops being used for biogas production. Your company is looking into
using e.g. sugar beets, corn(maize) or cereals for biogas production.
BIOFUELS FROM MACROA LGAE IN SWEDEN/NORWA Y
Macroalgae (seaweed) based biofuel production is being explored in many parts of the world to produce
biofuels such as ethanol or biogas. Your company is considering to grow sugar kelp (Laminaria saccharina) in
the west coast of Sweden/Norway as feedstock for biofuel production. You may choose which biofuel(s) to
produce for your analysis.
BIODIESEL FROM RAPESEED IN SWEDEN/FRANCE
Biodiesel from rapeseed is common in Sweden and France. Your group will review the environmental impacts
of biodiesel production from rapeseed in either Sweden or France.
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE VEGETABLE OIL IN SWEDEN/ITALY
There is an abundance of waste vegetable oils available from restaurants, e.g. McDonalds and other fast food
chains. Assuming that you can collect a large share of oil, you will investigate producing biodiesel from this
waste vegetable oil.
HVO (RENEWABLE DIESEL) PRODUCTION FROM T ALL OIL IN SWEDEN
HVO (Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil) is a renewable diesel fuel which can be produced from many kinds of
vegetable oils and fats. Your company is considering to produce HVO from tall oil (a co-product from the pulp
and paper industry) in Sweden.

5. GROUP SUPERVISION
During the process you will also meet with your supervisors on several occasions. The meetings are scheduled
on:

Sept 22nd Supervision Meeting#1 (Groups A1-A6)


Sept 23rd: Supervision Meeting#1 (Groups B1-B6)
Oct 8th: Supervision Meeting#2 (Groups A1-A6 and B1-B6)

The first occasion (Sept 22nd and 23rd) will be used to discuss your chosen project and help get your group on
the right track for the analyses, with emphasis on inputs-outputs for your LCA system. The meeting on October
8th will be used to discuss and review your report drafts. Throughout the course, especially during the dates
labelled Group or Self-Study you may also drop in or schedule an appointment with the supervisors to discuss
any of your system analyses and clarify any questions you have.

[AUTHOR NAME]

Please see these supervision meetings not as mandatory meetings, but as a chance to get help to clarify your
project, questions you may have and any uncertainties you have about the analyses you will conduct.
Therefore, come to the meetings only if you have information/data to discuss. If no work has been conducted,
the supervisors will not be able to provide a useful supervision.

6. PROJECT REPORT
The project report should be presented in a professional manner for your consulting project in order
to document your sustainability assessments of the biofuel production projects. Your project report
will be graded mainly based on its content and the analysis performed, but also on its overall quality,
including clarity of writing and graphics.
The following subheadings describe the contents and guidelines for the report.
FORMATTING
The project report should include the following formatting:

Maximum 5 pages (excluding bibliography and any appendices)


Size 11 Arial/Calibri font
2.5 cm Margins
Captions for Tables, above Tables
Captions for Figures, below Figures
Written in English

CONTENT
The project should include the following headlines and sections:

Background
Methodology
o Data Collection
o Interviews
o Literature Review
o You do not need to discuss how you did your calculations
LCA Results
Economic Assessment Results
Findings from Social Implications
Conclusions

CITATION AND REFERENCING


References should be provided for your research report for all data, information and other sources you use in
order to document and make your research transparent for the reader.
CITATION TO REFERENCES IN THE TEXT
The following sentences provide examples of how citation to the references should be done in the text.

The environmental performance of ethanol production based on wheat production can be improved by
using renewable energy to fuel heat demand (Martin et al., 2014).
According to Brjesson et al. (2010), life cycle assessments of biofuels do not generally include byproducts.
[AUTHOR NAME]

Electricity consumption for a municipal biogas production plant has been assumed to consume roughly
40 kWh heat/MJ biogas produced (Svensk Biogas, 2013).

If more than one reference is required in the text, the following should be done:

By choosing the energy allocation method, many biofuel production systems may not account for byproduct benefits (Martin et al., 2014; Brjesson et al., 2010; Svensk Biogas, 2013).

BIBLIOGRAPHY
The bibliography section should outline all references you have used in the text and data collection. Please list
these in alphabetical order.
The following examples show how the references should look in the bibliography section.
Reference to Scientific Article:

Martin, M., Svensson, N., Fonseca, J., Eklund, M., 2014. Quantifying the environmental performance
of integrated bioethanol and biogas production. Renewable Energy Volume 61, Issue 1, 109-116.
Reference to Report:

Brjesson, P., Tufvesson, L., Lantz, M., 2010. Livscyckelanalys av svenska biodrivmedel.
Environmental and Energy System Studies, Report No. 70, Lund University. Lund, Sweden.
Reference to Webpage:
Svensk Biogas AB, 2013. Production Figures. Available At: <www.svenskbiogas.se>. Accessed: August
25, 2015.
7. PROJECT PRESENTATIONS
Based on your findings from the assessment areas above, you are to present the findings in a 10 minute
presentation to other class participants on October 14th and 15th. The purpose of this is to develop your own
presenting skills as a consultant and to inform other class participants of the potential impacts and possibilities
of biofuel projects worldwide.
Your limitations include:

Maximum 10 min presentation + 5 min questions


Minimum 2 presenters from each group
Your assigned time for presenting will be posted on the LISAM Page.

Make sure to include:

Background of your project


Findings from Social Implications
Environmental Impacts
Economic Assessment
Conclusions based on the impacts for your company

[AUTHOR NAME]

8. GRADING
The project will account for a total of 20 points. The report will provide 15 points and the remaining 5 points
provided for the presentation.
Together with the home exam the project grade will determine your grade in the course.

9. READING LIST
Depending on the topic of your project, you may find relevant information in the following literature. Use of
these specific references is optional. More info and reference will be provided on the LISAM page later in the
course. In addition, you can use any other references as long as you follow the citation and referencing
instructions.

Bernesson, S., 2004. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels Available
At: <http://publikationer.slu.se/Filer/SLU_BT_R2004_01_LCA_ro_RME_ethanol_Sven_Bernesson.pdf
Accessed 20 Sept 2013.
Bright, R.M., Strmman, A.H., 2009. Life cycle assessment of second generation bioethanols produced from
scandinavian Boreal forest resources a regional analysis for middle Norway. Journal of Industrial Ecology
13, 514531.
Brjesson, P., Berglund, M., 2006. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part I: Fuel-cycle
emissions. Biomass and Bioenergy 30, 469485.
Brjesson, P., Berglund, M., 2007. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part II: The
environmental impact of replacing various reference systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 31, 326344.
Chu, S., Majumdar, A., 2012. Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. Nature 488,
294303.
Cotula, L., 2012. The international political economy of the global land rush: A critical appraisal of trends,
scale, geography and drivers. Journal of Peasant Studies 39, 649680.
Gnansounou, E., Dauriat, A., Villegas, J., Panichelli, L., 2009. Life cycle assessment of biofuels: Energy and
greenhouse gas balances. Bioresource Technology 100, 49194930.
Hill, J., Nelson, E., Tilman, D., Polasky, S., Tiffany, D., 2006. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs
and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America 103, 1120611210.
Kendall, A., Yuan, J., 2013. Comparing life cycle assessments of different biofuel options. Current Opinion in
Chemical Biology, Next generation therapeutics Energy 17, 439443.
Liang, S., Xu, M., Zhang, T., 2013. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China. Bioresource
Technology 129, 7277.
Macrelli, S., Mogensen, J., Zacchi, G., 2012. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol
production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process.
Biotechnol Biofuels 5, 118.
Martin, M., Svensson, N., Fonseca, J., Eklund, M., 2014. Quantifying the environmental performance of
integrated bioethanol and biogas production. Renewable Energy 61, 109116.
Nuffield, 2011. Biofuels: ethical issues. Nuffield Council on Bioethics.
Available At: <https://nuffieldbioethics.org/project/biofuels-0/)> Accessed: 14 Nov 2014.
Obidzinski, K., Andriani, R., Komarudin, H., Andrianto, A., 2012. Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil
Palm Plantations and their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia. Ecology and Society 17.
Rawat, I., Ranjith Kumar, R., Mutanda, T., Bux, F., 2013. Biodiesel from microalgae: A critical evaluation
from laboratory to large scale production. Applied Energy 103, 444467.

[AUTHOR NAME]

Tufvesson, L.M., Lantz, M., Brjesson, P., 2013. Environmental performance of biogas produced from
industrial residues including competition with animal feed life-cycle calculations according to different
methodologies and standards. Journal of Cleaner Production 53, 214223.

[AUTHOR NAME]