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STYLES

NATIONAL 3

NATIONAL 4

Blues
Jazz
Rock
Pop
Rock n roll
Musical
Scottish
Latin American

Baroque
Ragtime
Romantic
Swing
Concerto
Opera
Scots ballad
Mouth music
Reggae
African Music
Rapping

MELODY/HARM
ONY

Ascending
Descending
Step (stepwise)
Leap (leaping)
Repetition
Sequence
Question and answer
Improvisation
Chord
Discord
Chord change

Major/minor (tonality)
Drone
Broken
chord/arpeggio
Chord progression (I,
IV, V)
Change of key
Pedal
Scale
Pentatonic scale
Octave
Vamp
Scat singing
Ornament

RHYTHM/TEMP
O

Accent/ accented
Beat/ pulse
Bar: 2, 3 or 4 beats in
a bar
On/ Off the beat
Repetition
Slower
Faster
Pause
March
Reel
Waltz
Drum fill
Adagio
Allegro
Unison/ octave
Harmony/ chord
Solo
Accompanied/ Un
accompanied
Repetition
Riff/ ostinato
Round

Syncopation
Scotch snap
Strathspey
Jig
Simple time (2/4, ,
4/4)
Compound time
Anacrusis
Andante
Accelerando
Rallentando
A tempo
Dotted rhythms

Striking (hitting),
blowing,
Bowing, strumming,
plucking
Orchestra, strings,
brass, woodwind,
percussion (tuned and
un-tuned)
Accordion, fiddls,
bagpipes,

Brass band, wind


band
Violin, cello, double
bass, harp
Flute, clarinet,
saxophone, pan pipes,
recorder
Trumpet, trombone
Timpani, snare drum,
bass drum, cymbals,

TEXTURE/STRUC
TURE/FORM

TIMBRE/DYNA
MICS

Canon
Ternary (ABA)
Verse and Chorus
Middle 8
Theme and variation
Cadenza
Imitation

NATIONAL 5

HIGHER

Symphony
Gospel
Classical
Pibroch
Celtic rock
Bothy ballad
Waulking song
Gaelic psalm
Aria
Chorus
Minimalist
Indian
Atonal, cluster
Chord progression
(chord Vi, major)
Imperfect/perfect
cadences
Inverted pedal
Chromatic
Whole tone scale
Grace note
Glissando
Modulation
Contrary motion
Trill
Syllabic
Melismatic
Countermelody
Descant
Ptich bend
Tone/semitone
Rubato
Ritardando
Moderato
Cross rhythms
Compound time (6/8,
9/8, 12/8)

Sonata
Oratorio
Impressionist
Musique Concrete
Plainchant
Mass
String Quartets
Recitative
Chamber Music
Jazz Funk
Soul

Strophic
Binary (AB)
Rondo (ABACA...)
Episode
Alberti bass
Walking bass
Ground Bass
Homophonic
Polyphonic
Contrapuntal
Coda
Piccolo, oboe, bassoon
French horn, tuba
Viola
Castanets, hi-hat,
cymbals, bongo drums
Clarsach, bodhran
Sitar, tabla
Arco, pizzicato
Con sordino
Flutter tonguing

Through-composed
Da capo aria
Lied
Passacaglia
Concerto Grosso
Sonata Form
Exposition
Subject
Basso continuo
Ritornello

Mode/modal
Relative major/ minor
Interval
Obbligato
Acciaccatura
Mordent
Plagal Cadence
Interrupted Cadence
Tierce de Picardie
Dominant 7th
Diminished 7th
Added 6th
Harmonic minor scale
Melodic minor scale

3 against 2
Time changes
Irregular time
signatures
Augmentation
Diminution

Tremolando
Harmonics
Coloratura
Ripieno
Concertino
String quartet

Acoustic guitar,
electric guitar, piano,
organ, drum kit
Steel band, Scottish
dance band, folk
group
Voice/ choir
Staccato, legato

triangle, tambourine,
guiro, xylophone,
glockenspiel
Harpsichord
Bass guitar
Distortion
Muted
Soprano, alto, tenor,
bass
Backing vocals

Rolls
Reverb
Mezzo soprano,
baritone
A cappella