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Reference EVRI-reference number

A1
06355-121346
A2
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Author
Co-author 1 Co-author 2
Andersson, sa
Andersson, Thomasshuvud, Johan
Azar, Christian
Holmberg, Johan

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Andersson, Bjrn
Appelblad, Hkan
Alberini, A.
Boj, Jan
Bostedt, Gran
Bostedt, Gran
Mattson, Leif
Bostedt, Gran
Mattson, Leif
Boman, Mattias
Bostedt, Gran
Boonstra, Froukje
Bickel, Peter
Schmid, StephFriedrich, Rainer
Boman, Mattias
Bystrm, Olof
Barker, T.
R. Knut
Brander, L.M.
R.J.G.M. Flor J.E. Vermaat
Bystrm, Olof
Bostedt, G.
L. Mattsson
Cravener, Martin
Carlsson, Fredrik Frykblom, PetLiljenstolpe, Carolina
Carlsson, Fredrik Johansson-Stenman, Olof
Carlsson, Fredrik Martinsson, Peter
Carlsson, Fredrik Martinsson, Peter
Carlsson, Fredrik Johansson-Stenman, Olof
Carlsson, Fredrik Lampi, E.
Martinsson, P.
Carlsson, Fredrik Frykblom, PetLagerkvist, C. J.
Carlsson, F.
Kataria, M.
COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS
Costanza, R.
R. d'Arge
R. de Groot
Drake, Lars
Drake, Lars
Drake, Lars
Drake, Lars
Kumm, Karl-IAndersson, Marie
Dalin, Per-Eric
Drake, Lars
Eliasson, Peter
Ek, Kristina
Eggert, Hkan
Olsson, Bjrn
Ekstrm, Clas
Kierkegaard, Borgstrm, Truls
Eggert, Hkan
Olsson, Bjrn
Eggert, Hkan
Olsson, Bjrn
Entec UK Limited

06299-103238
05214-135345

06188-53244

04328-13591
05214-142116
05226-173634
06211-16580
04323-92539
06186-9617
06299-94916
05128-10720
06306-51327
06353-8458
06354-41430
0688-23453
98269-13322

9896-17812
0657-152531
06228-201623
06298-4659
0660-31450

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06229-45412
06185-112349

06278-5313
03110-10452
06355-114657

97300-143458
02325-14339
04273-124614

064-154426
05195-184213
06354-7348

Fredman, Peter
Folke, Carl
Frykblom, Peter
Fredman, Peter
Emmelin, Lars
Fredman, Peter
Emmelin, Lars
Fredman, Peter
Fahlgren, Louise Knutsson, Helena
Fredman, Peter
Fankhauser S.
Gren, Ing-Marie
Gren, Ing-Marie
Gren, Ing-Marie
Gren, Ing-Marie
Sderqvist, Tore
Gren, Ing-Marie
Sderqvist, ToWulff, Fredrik
Grudemo, Stefan
Grudemo, Stefan
Grudemo, Stefan
Grudemo, Stefan
Grudemo, Stefan
Grudemo, Stefan Ivehammar, PeSandstrm, Jessica
Grudemo, Stefan Ivehammar, PeSandstrm, Jessica
Grudemo, Stefan Ivehammar, PeSandstrm, Jessica
Grudemo, Stefan Ivehammar, PeSandstrm, Jessica
Grudemo, Stefan
Groth, Charlotta
Granberg, M.
Wikland, M. Nilsson, L.
Gren, I.M.
Gren, Ing-Marie. C. Folke
K. Turner
Hammar, Thomas
Hansson, Lars
Hansson, Lars
Hasund, Knut Per Hedvg, LennaPleijel, Hkan
Hanemann, W. MichJohansson, Pe Kristrm, Ben
Hrnsten, Lisa
Fredman, Peter
Heiter, Carsten
Hkby, Stina
Sderqvist, Tore
Hasund, Knut Per
Hougner, Cajsa
Heldt, Tobias
Hjalte, Krister
Hjalte, Krister
Lidgren, Karl Thelander, An
Hultkrantz, Lars
Hahn, Gunnela
Holgn, P.
Mattson, L. Li, C.-Z.

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06278-4615
04297-154210

06282-34730

97240-185313
97240-204456
97301-165112
9872-104652

98171-125829

02281-135441
0443-123218
05214-145231

Hougner, Cajsa
Colding, J. Sderqvist, T.
Hkansson, Cecilia
Holland, M.
D. Forster
K. King
Inregia AB
Ivehammar, Pernilla
Ivehammar, Pernilla
Ivehammar, Pernilla
Israelsson, Torun
Israelsson, Torun Kristrm, Bengt
Idar, Elisabet
Jernelv, Arne
Jernelv, Arne
Jernelv, Arne
Jernelv, Arne
Kgeson, Per
Johansson, Per-Olo Kristrm, Bengt
Jansson, Jan Owen Nilsson, Jan-Eric
Johansson, Per-Olo Zavisic, Stojan
Johansson, Per-Olov
Johansson, Olof
Jmttjrn, Joachim
Johansson, Per-Olo Kristrm, BenMattsson, Leif
Johansson, Per-Olo Kristrm, BenNyquist, Hans
Johansson, Per-Olov
Johannesson, M. Johansson, P.
Johannesson, M. Johansson, P. Lfgren, K.
Johannesson, M. Johansson, P. Kristrm, B.
Johannesson, M. Johansson, P.
Katz, Katarina
Sterner, Thomas
Katz, Katarina
Sterner, Thomas
Kristrm, Bengt
Kgesson, Per
Kgesson, Per
Kristrm, Bengt
Konjunkturinstitutet
Konjunkturinstitutet
Kihlman, Tor
Wibe, Sren Johansson, Siv
Kristrm, Bengt
Kristrm, Bengt
Kataria, Mitesh
Kvendokk S.
K. E. Rosendahl
Kristofersson, D. S. Navrud
Landell, Elin
Smith, Stefan
Landell, Elin
Smith, Stefan
Leksell, Ingemar

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06300-5634

06184-105719

05175-135348
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06353-52211
06355-41944
06355-95231
04322-101341
06272-74748
06354-53554

98102-151827
05261-201257

03107-12115
06173-10341
06298-102653
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05173-214435

0337-135541
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Leksell, Ingemar
Leksell, Ingemar Lfgren, Lars
Li, Chuan-Zhong Fredman, Peter
Lindvall, Jan
Lfgren, Tora
Hjerpe, Mattias
Latitila, Thomas
Paulrud, Anton
Lindberg, Kreg
Denstadli, JonFredman, Pete
Leksell, Ingemar
Lundstrm, Susanna
Leksell, Ingemar
Lwgren, Marianne
Lindberg, Kreg
Andersson, T Dellaert, Benedict
Lindqvist Dilln, J Eliasson, JonaWidell, Jenny
Lind, Gunnar
Lindqvist Dill Eliasson, Jonas
Lindberg, K.
Fredman, P.
Laitila, Thomas
Paulrud, Anton
Laitila, Thomas
Paulrud, Anton
Lagerkvist, C. J. Carlsson, F. D. Viske
Lindberg, K.,
Heldt, T.
Fredman, P.
Leksell, I.
A. Rabl
Lindhjem, H.
Malmberg, Johan
Mattsson, Leif
Mattsson, Leif
Kristrm, Bengt
Mattsson, Leif
Li, Chuan-Zhong
Mattsson, Leif
Li, Chuan-Zhong
Magnell, Mats
Ljungdahl, Fr Parker, Thomas
Markowska, A.
T. Zylicx
Nilsson, Mns
Gullberg, Monica
Nerhagen, Lena
Johansson, Hkan
Nunes, P.A.L.D.
J.C.J.M. van den Bergh
Navrud,S.
Y. Trdal
A.Hunt
Olsson, Christina
Olsson, B.
Olsthoorn, X.
M. Amann A. Bartonova
Paulrud, Anton
Paulrud, Anton
Paulrud, Anton
Dalin, Per-Eric
Paulrud, Anton
Laitila, Thomas
Paulrud, Anton
Paulrud, Anton
Persson, U.
Cedervall, M.
RIVM, EFTEC, NTUA and IIASA in association with TME a
Sandstrm, Mikael

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06187-95425

0079-15141

06278-94843
04190-234323
05330-1581
06228-5421

0614-112456
0181-11255

04274-192024
05165-04546
05126-14359
06279-7385
06355-611

05165-3811

Silvander, Ulf
Silvander, Ulf
Svedrup, H
Warfvinge, P Nihlgrd, Bengt
Sderqvist, Tore
Sderqvist, Tore
Sderqvist, Tore
Sderqvist, Tore
Sderqvist, Tore
Schele, Siv
Sorsa, Riitta
Skneberg, Kristian
Soutukorva, sa
Sderqvist, Tore
Sderqvist, Tore
Sderqvist, Tore Scharin, Henrik
Svedster, Henrik
Sundqvist, Thomas
Sundqvist, Thomas
SIKA
SIKA
Silvander, Ulf
Drake, Lars
Sundberg, Sara
Sderqvist, Tore
SOU
SIKA
SIKA
Sterner, T.
Bartelings, H
Svedsater, H.
Soutukorva, sa Sderqvist, Tore
Sderqvist, T.
Eggert, H.
Olsson, B.
Trouv, Johan
Jansson, Jan Owen
Toivonen, Anna-Lii Appelblad, H Bengtsson, B
Transek AB
Transek AB
Transek AB
Thrnqvist, Stig
Norlin, Joel Ulmestrand,
Turner, R.K.
S. Georgiou I-M. Gren
Toivonen, A.L.
E. Roth
S. Navrud
Vredin, Maria
Werneman, Peter
Wilhelmsson, Mats
Wilhelmsson, Mats
Wilhelmsson, Mats
Widlert, Staffan
Lind, Gunnar Lindqvist, Es
Wilkstrom, D.

W7
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1
2

06349-51338
9868-12726
063-203846
98132-104036

Winslott Hiselius, L.
Zethraeus, N.
Johansson, P.
Zandersen, M
R. Tol
kerman, Jeanette Johnson, F. R Bergman, Lars
kerman, Jeanette

Co-author 3 Year
1994
1984
1995

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Arbetsrapport 335,Primary
Marginal ValuReport
Arbetsrapport 333,Primary
Recreational Report
Arbetsrapport 334,Primary
The Value of Working paper
Swedish Institute Primary
Technical RepReport (governme RIVM report 4815Meta/synthesis analysis
Recreational bReport
Working Paper No Primary

1991
1991
hlgrd, Bengt
1994
1995
1995
1995
1995
1996
1996
1994
2001
2000
1987
2000
1996
2002
2002
1999
2002
1991
2003
1996
1992
2003
2003
1999
2000
2005
Soutukorva, 2005
1987
Geertz-Hansen2000
2001
2001
2001
Loo, Lars-Ove2009
F. Wulff, S. B 1999
G. Gudbergsso2004
1997
1997
2000
2000
2000
Lindqvist, Jo 1993
2003

BetalningsvillLicentiate thesis Dissertations 2, D Primary


BetalningsvillLicentiate thesis Dissertations 2, D Primary
Assessment ofJournal
Water, Air and SoilSecondary
Property valueJournal
Scandinavian HousPrimary
Estimating th Report
Beijer Discussion Primary
Benefit Estim Report
Beijer Discussion Secondary
The Value of SReport
Beijer Discussion Secondary
Contingent ValReport
Beijer Discussion Primary
StockholmarnaReport
Inregia AB (InstituPrimary
En berkning Report
Appendix to The National Institute of Economic Research a
The value of i Report
Beijer Discussion Primary
Natural ResouJournal
Environmental andPrimary
Miljavgifter Thesis
Master thesis in e Primary
The regional wReport
Beijer Discussion Primary
Willingness toThesis
Master Thesis 199 Primary
Quantifying h Doctoral thesis In Power Generation
Primary
Choice in the Presence of Environmen
Quantifying n Doctoral thesis In Power GeneratioPrimary
versyn av saReport
SIKA report 1999: Secondary
versyn av saReport
SIKA report 2002:4Secondary
Nitrate Pollut Chapter in book In Nick Hanley (ed.),
Primary
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Master Thesis in e Primary
Ekonomisk vrReport
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Review frn Skattevxlingskommittn
Frjor och far Report
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Trafikens exteReport
SIKA report 2003:1Secondary
Internaliserin
Report
reportMunicipality:
2003:6Secondary
Household
Waste
Management inSIKA
a Swedish
Determinants of
Journal
Waste Disposal Recycling
Environmental
and Composting
andPrimary
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Journal of EconomPrimary
Gone fishing tReport
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Economic ValuJournal
Ambio Vol. 34, No. 2, March 2005
Vrdering av Report
VTI Notat T07, ThePrimary
Economic value
Report
TemaNord 2000:604
Primary
TrafiksystemenReport
Transek AB, SolnaPrimary
TrafiksystemenReport
Transek AB, SolnaPrimary
TrafiksystemenReport
Transek AB, SolnaPrimary
Fem studier avReport
Finfo 2009:1
Primary
Managing Nutri
Journal
Ecological EconomSecondary/benefits transfers
The EconomicJournal
Fisheries Manageme
Primary
Valuing a Per Licentiate thesis In Maria Vredin, The
Primary
African Elephant Existence Value an
Vad r det ek Report
Report 107, SwedisPrimary
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Property Values
Valuation of Doctoral thesis In Traffic Noise andPrimary
Property Values
Trafikbuller o Doctoral thesis In Traffic Noise and Property Values
Vrdering av Report
Transek, Solna
Primary
Willingness t Dissertation/thesisMaster's Thesis, L Primary

ergman, Lars

2005
1997
2005
1991
1988

Using Choice Journal


Willingness t Working paper
A Meta-analysWorking paper
Paying for Sa Journal
Economic valua
Report

Risk Analysis 25, nPrimary


Working Paper SerPrimary
Working Paper no. Meta/synthesis analysis
Land Economics, 67, nr 4, 435-446
Research Report, Primary

Relation to other studies Valuation method Specification of the valuation method


RC
The cost of sewage treatment plants as a

a/synthesis analysis

REC

The Swedish generational environmental

DE
CVM
CVM
CVM, TCM

Mail questionnaire, PC, OE


The author examined the robustness of val
Personal interviews, BG

CVM
CVM
CVM
TCM

Questionnaire distributed on-site, OE


Questionnaire distributed on-site, OE
Mail questionnaire, DC, OE
Data from the tourism and travel database

See B4, B5
See also B2, B5
See also B2, B4

See B5
* See also B12
a/synthesis analysis
a/synthesis analysis
See also B9
ndary/benefits transfers

RC
Count data models This study uses an econometric model to e
The
authors undertook
a thorough
review of
Agricultural
Research provided
funding.

CVM
CE
CVM
CE

This study used data from existing studies


Mail questionnaire, OE, PC
Mail questionnaire, 4 sets * 3 alternatives
Telephone/personal interview and mail qu
Questionnaire distributed on site, 16 sets

See C3

a/synthesis analysis
a/synthesis analysis
See D6

financially supported by the Swedish Agency for Innovation Sys


(VINNOVA) and the Swedish Aviation Administration.
CE
CE
This choice experiment study was conducted in the fall
CE
This choice experiment study was conducte
Actual expenditure/ This methodological study used a review of
The study was based on a literature revie

See also D1, D2

CVM
TCM
CVM

Personal interview and mail questionnair


Mail questionnaire, zonal method
Personal interview, PC

CE
CE

Mail questionnaire, 6 sets * 2 alternatives

* See also E5, E6, S29

See also E3, E6, S29


See also E3, E5, S29
ndary/benefits transfers

CE
CE

Sustainable Coastal Zone Management Programme, which is fun


Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (MISTRA).
Mail questionnaire
The benefits transfer study uses data deri

See also L5

CVM
RC
CVM
See F5 for the questionnaireCVM
See F4
See H6, F4
HP /(CVM)
CVM
ndary/benefits transfers
See also G4

Council for Forestry ad Agricultural Research (SJFR).


This study has attempted to assess the da

REC, political WTPA comparison of the cost of two alternativ

CVM
CVM
LT1, L1, G12, G6 and G7
Follow up of previous CVMCVM
CVM
CVM
CVM
CVM
CVM
See also G8
CVM

ndary/benefits transfers
ndary/benefits transfers

Mail questionnaire, DC, OE (See L5)


The cost of providing substitutes for the
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, OE

Mail questionnaire, OE, PC


Mail questionnaire, OE, PC
Mail questionnaire, OE and DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Personal interviews, OE

A sample of 47 couples was drawn from 765 couples who started


CVM
A total of 40 surveys were returned and all were useable. The re
Actual expenditure This study is based on a model used to pro
CVM
For the Broadland study, contingent valua
HP
Market prices
Political WTP
Based on emission charges for the fiscal
PF

Market prices, domestic price level

CVM
CVM

Mail questionnaire, OE
Pilot study

CVM
RC
CVM

Mail questionnaire, OE
Cost of planting oaks as a substitute for
Personal interviews, double-bounded DC

TCM

Partly fictitious data

*
*

RC
CVM

ndary/benefits transfers
See also K6

CVM
CVM
CVM
CVM
CE
CE, CVM

A total of 407 interviews were conducted in the UK and Italy du


???????
Mail questionnaire
AEA Technology, under sub-contract to IIA
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, 3 sets * 3 alternatives

See J2 and J3 for a case stu REC


The Swedish envrionmental debt
See J1
See J1
*
DE, political WTP
CVM
Mail questionnaire, DC
CVM
CVM

Mail questionnaire, OE
Mail questionnaire, OE

CVM

Mail questionnaire

CVM
CVM
CVM
CVM

Mail questionnaire, OE
The survey was conduced by a professional
The survey was conducted by a survey fir
The National Corporation of Swedish Pharma
Telephone interviews were administered t

CVM
CVM

Mail questionnaire, OE
Mail questionnaire, OE, DC

CVM

Mail questionnaire, DC

CVM

Mail questionnaire, DC

CVM
CE

A sample of 900 Swedes were sent a questio


Mail questionnaire
The report provides a survey of top-down
The authors used data collected from a stu
Mail questionnaire, OE, PC
Mail questionnaire, OE

*
See also M3
See K6

See K2
See K1

See also J12 and S23


*
*

a/synthesis analysis
ndary/benefits transfers
See also G8
See also G8

CVM
CVM
CVM

See also L2
See also F1

a/synthesis analysis

See also J11

*
ndary/benefits transfers

*
a/synthesis analysis

Political WTP
Political WTP
CVM
CVM
CVM
SP and CVM
CVM, CM
Political WTP

Valuation based on Swedish emission cha


Mail questionnaire, OE, DC
Personal interviews and questionnaires,
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, SP method was a com
Mail questionnaire, DC. CM: 4 sets * 2 alt
Valuation based on European and Swedish

REC, PF
CM
SP

Market prices (p*q), extraction costs, avo


Mail questionnaires 4 sets * 2 alternatives
Mail questionnaires 8 sets * 3 alternatives

CE
CE
CE
CE
CE

A survey was administered to local residents and visit


This choice experiment study was conducte
This combined contingent valuation (CVM)
This choice experiment survey was conducted in the au
This
choice experiment
studyinwas
The research
was supported
partconducte
by the ExternE Project of the

CVM
CVM
CVM
CVM
CVM
CVM

The paper reviews the contingent valuatio


Mail questionnaire, OE
Mail questionnaire, PC
Mail questionnaire, OE
Mail questionnaire, DC, OE
Mail questionnaire, DC, OE

CVM
CVM
REC
Averting behavior
CVM
CVM
CVM

The authors used five contingent valuation


Mail questionnaire/personal interviews,

SP
TCM
CE
CVM
TCM
CVM

Mail questionnaire
Mail questionnaire, zonal method
Mail questionnaire, 20 sets * 2 alternative
Mail questionnaire, DC
Mail questionnaire, zonal method
The study was conducted in Autumn 1986 an
The Benefit Assessment section of the rep
Data from the tourism and travel databa

The study reviewed a total of 61 representative biodiversity valu


countries mainly the United States. These studies were published
All together more than 5500 respondents were interviewed in the
Questionnaire
distributed
on-site,
OE
programme, which
is funded
by the
Foundation for Strategic Env
Research
(MISTRA).
using NUTSIII areas.

ndary/benefits transfers
See P6

See also P1 and P6


See also P1 and P5

a/synthesis analysis
See G5 for a CBA

TCM

S2b
S2a

See G5 for a CBA


Follow up of study I1
*

See also S2

CVM
CVM

Mail questionnaire, OE
Mail questionnaire, OE

HP
CVM

Mail questionnaire, DC

CVM
CVM

Mail questionnaire, DC, OE


Mail questionnaire, DC

TCM
PF
HCM/Political WT
CVM
CVM
CE
CE

Mail questionnaire, RUM


Loss in producer surplus encountered in r
(a) Cost of health care and value of prod
Mail questionnaire, OE
Mail questionnaire, OE and DC
Mail questionnaire, 6 sets * 2 alternatives
Mail questionnaire, 6 sets * 2 alternatives

PF
RC

Market prices, economic losses in the dome


The cost of restoring the watercourse as s

See K6

See also S21, E3, E5, E6

CVM
CVM
TCM
TCM
CVM
CVM
HP
SP
Political WTP/DE
CVM, costs

ndary/benefits transfers
*

CVM
CVM
CVM
HP
HP

The Swedish Waste Research Council provided funding.


A pre-test of 42 interviews were conducted in two prior sessions
Mail questionnaire
Mail questionnaire
Mail questionnaire, OE
Mail questionnaire, OE, MBDC
Personal interviews
Personal interviews, political decisions
Mail questionnaire
The objective of the study is to study th
An identical contingent valuation mail su
Mail questionnaire, DC, PC
Repeated-sales method

See W2
SP
CE

Mail questionnaire, 4 environmental goods


The information used in this study was acquired using a

a/synthesis analysis
See 2
See also 1

CE
CVM
TCM

This choice experiment was conducted some


A pilot study of 12 hormone replacement
This study used a meta-analysis approach

DE

Market prices

Study area Study population Environmental goods/services Extent of environmental change


The Baltic S n/r
Nitrogen retention performed by n/r
Sweden

The Swedish populCarbon dioxide emissions

The environmental debt of CO2 emiss

Corrosion caused by sulphur emissions


The River BySwedish anglers whRecreational fishing (salmon anglCurrent situation and an improveme
Sweden
Adult residents of human health
The authors valued decreasing the
Vldalen, a Visitors of the stud Forest recreation
Preserve the study area
Risebo in S Swedish tourists Forest recreation
(A) HarasjmVisiting householdsForest recreation
Sweden
Swedish citizens a Swedish wolf population
Sweden
Swedish populationSki recreation

Preservation
n/r
Preserving the wolf in Sweden
n/r

Nitrogen abatement performed by wetlands


Austria, Belgium, Denmark, F built environment, ecological fu This study examines the ancillary b
Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, ecological functions, extractive uses,
nonwas
extractive
uses
estimate
based on
abatement targets set by
Sweden
ecological functions
by the Helsinki Commission.
Sweden
extractive uses, non extractive uChange in forest management from re
A constructeResidents in Oxel Wetland
Preservation of the wetland in Oxe
Staffanstorp The population of SWetland attributes: total cost, sur Total cost (SEK 200, 400, 700, 850)
Sweden
The Swedish populAir quality
50 % reduction of harmful substanc
Sweden
Swedish students i Donations for environmental projThe amount of money the respondent

The targeted population is individuals in the 18-64 year


afternoon:
age group
4,8living
(8,12),inevening: 0,7,14 (14,21,28
of Stockholm.
Swedish kronor: 10,25,50,75,125 (10,25,50,75,
The county the Bromma districtBuilt
environment
was conducted in the fallThe population conExtractive uses
The attributes in the choice experim
The county The population is pNon extractive uses, passive use The
attributes
used in the
ex
Results
are calculated
for choice
three different
types o
Austria, Belgium, Czech Repubecological functions, human heal
Egypt, Erit
ecological functions, extractive

Rottnedalen,House-owners in thAgricultural landscape


Preservation
The public ohunters using daily Small game hunting on public own/r
Sweden
Swedish citizens b Agricultural landscape
Preserving
Sweden

Swedish house ownEnvironmental attributes associat Noise (dB 30, 40), Location (mounta
Coastal water quality

the university level. 11% are members in an environmental


balancenon-governmental
of the marine ecosystems: low, medium
by the coast
caught
trawlecosystems:
hour with research
vess
The Swedishorganization, 25% live
Extractive
uses, etc.
non extractive u as
balance ofcod
the per
marine
low, medium
The countiesA random sample ofCoastal water quality
as caught cod per trawl hour with research vess
Austria, Be 15 EU Member Stateecological functions, extractive Potential air quality limit values f

Sweden
Swedish citizens a The white-backed woodpecker, anIncrease in population density (thre
Martebomiren/r
Ecosystem services provided by Ecosystem services lost due to explo
Laholm Bay Residents of Bsta Water quality
50 % reduction of the nutrient emi
Femundsmarka
Swedish visitors in Trip/visit to the study area (mounn/r

Gta(SJFR).
kanal 160,800
n/r
Gta Kronor),
kanal age 43 years and 51Distance
to the
Gta
kanal
ultural Research
(1992 Swedish
percent of
sample,
and the Swedish population
as a whole, were females.Increase in population density (thre
Passive uses
Australia, Japan, New Zealand,Built environment
The optimal degree of sea level rise
The Stockhon/r

Wetlands

50% reduction of nitrogen to the ar

The motorway
Households in selecEnvironmental encroachment in aThe alternative of construing the ro
The road, SResidents in MlnlyEnvironmental encroachment in aThe alternative of construing the ro
Ljungskile, Residents of LjungsEnvironmental effects of a moto An alternative location of the moto
Malm, the TIndividual between Traffic
Reduction in traffic congestion
Huskvarna Residents in the st Encroachment of a physical barrieReplacing the road/railway with a t
Hllviken Residents in the st Encroachment of a physical barrieReplacing the road/railway with a t
Rttvik
Residents in the st Encroachment of a physical barrieReplacing the road/railway with a t
Ulricehamn Residents in the st Encroachment of a physical barrieReplacing the road/railway with a t
The motorwaHouseholds nearby Encroachment from a road
Replacing the road E66 with the alt
Gteborg
Human health
Six, four, and three in-vitro fertili
Gotland
The study populatioecological functions, extractive Information provided on baseline con
Sweden, UnVisitors and non-vi ecological functions, non extractive uses
Roslags Nsbn/r
Traffic noise
Different noise levels relative to th
Sweden
n/r
Carbon dioxide emissions and othn/r
Sweden

n/r

Yield loss caused by ozone in the Actual ozone concentrations in 1986

Sweden
Swedish citizens Distance to recreational forests An increase in the distance to the re
The national city park Ulriksdal-Haga-Brunnsviken-Djurgrden
Sweden
Swedes aged 16-74Agricultural landscape
Preservation of landscape elements: (
The nationaln/r
The ecosystem service provided bn/r
Grvelsjn, Skiers visiting Gr The negative externality of snow Separation of trails
Recreational benefits of lake restoration
Lake Vombsj
n/r
The effect of water quality on re Three scenarios: (1) decrease in the
Forests, the non-timber value

The number of seed-dispersed oaks in the park


The county of Stockholm
Ecological functions
order to determine the cost of replacing this ser
Sweden
The swedish populaFish population
Increase the fish population, loss in
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, F built environment, ecological f The stricter of current reduction pl
Stockholm Households in Sto Environmental encroachment cauRelocation of the commercial fligh
Linkping Residents in Link Replacing the road with a road in n/r
The road UggResidents of PartillEnvironmental effects of a road Construction of a road in a tunnel o
Centralbron Inhabitants in Sto Replacing the bridge, Centralbronn/r
The road E65Residents in three Encroachment of a road in a Natura
Biology, landscape and recreation (i
Environmental preservation compared to other items of the Swedish government
Sweden

n/r

Climate, acidification, cadmium inThe envrionmental debt in 1990 and

Sweden

Swedes

Biodiversity, forests and agricultural landscape


Sulphur emissions
Elimination of the discharge of sul

Sweden
Sweden

Swedish householdEnvironmental action programmen/r


Adults in Sweden 300 endangered species
Three programmes: (A) save 100%,
External costs of traffic: noise and emissions

The county oMoose-hunters in t Moose hunting

(1) 50% reduction in the stock of m

The county oMoosehunters in thMoose hunting


Human health
Human health
Linkoping
Human health
Human health

The unknown outcome of the forthc


The baseline level of provision is a
The baseline level of provision is th
The baseline level of provision was
The baseline level of provision was l

Gothenburg Motorists in Gothe Air quality


Sweden
Swedish populatio Fragile forests

Installation of vapour recovery sys


Preservation

Stockholm aThose living or ownEnvironmental damage caused byAlternative


p
route for the ferries

8 housing areHouseholds in the Traffic noise

(A) Installation of soundproof windo

Various
Non extractive uses, passive use No change
Sweden
Swedish householdEnvironmental attributes affectedThe attributes in this choice-exper
Ireland, Norway, Sweden, U built environment, human health
Iceland, No The authors used daecological functions, extractive uses, non extractive uses, passive
The proposedHouseholds in the aEncroachment in a green area / barLocating the road in a tunnel
The road SrHouseholds in the aEncroachment in a green area / barLocating the road in a tunnel

Sweden
n/r
Motor vehicle exhaust emissions
Gothenburg n/r
Effects of exhaust emissions in u n/r
Sweden
Swedish citizens a The white-backed woodpecker, anIncrease in population density (thre
Gta kanal Tourists visiting th Gta Kanal
n/r
Gta Kanal Two target populatiGta Kanal
Preservation of Gta Kanal
Jmtland Anglers
Angling site
CVM: a doubling of average catch
Jmtland moLocal population, sSki recreation
Separation of trails
Sweden
n/r
Effects of exhaust emissions, damn/r

Emn River n/r


Emn
n/r
re
Residents and touriSki recreation
Increase in the number of ski slopes
Vsters an Residents in the st Attributes of encroachment of a r Distance to road/railway (50-1400 m

local residents and visit The population exam


Non extractive uses
The extent of change valued in this
The SwedishThe population consExtractive uses
Different levels of expected catch p
The SwedishThe population is aExtractive uses
Twice the catch that the respondents
y was conducted in the auThe population conExtractive uses
Different levels of the following att
County of J The studied populatNon extractive uses
Different levels of the following at
China, Fran The study focused ohuman health
An increase in air pollution levels o
Finland, N The study is a meta ecological functions, extractive This is a meta analysis, so the envi
Sweden
Swedish citizens inReduced use of biocides in the Sw(1) A complete cessation, (2) 50%-re
Sweden
Swedish hunters (1) Moose hunting and (2) huntinPreservation of the opportunity of
The county oHunters in the stud Moose hunting
Preservation of the opportunity of
The county oInhabitants in the Forests, the non-timber value
Preservation of the forest environm
The county oInhabitants in the Forests, the non-timber value
Forest produced by four different si

Lithuania, Poland, Sweden


ecological functions, passive us The authors sought to optimally allo
Vojmn
Local population, SExternal cost of Klippen hydro p Preservation of Vojmn in its curren
Air pollution
Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, ecological functions, non extractive uses, passive uses
Germany, H% with univerersity built
degree
environment
- sample: (UK - 13), (Sweden
For both
- 14),
road
(Norway
and rail- noise,
13), (Hungary
the st - 12), (Ge
The ropewayTourists
visiting
t Forest
recreation
n/r non-governmental
the university
level.
11% are
members in an environmental
The Swedishorganization, 25% live
Extractive
by the coast
uses, etc.
non extractive u An
increase in
the stationary
coastal codsources
stoc is constan
7. emissions
from
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, F human health

Four fishing Swedish anglers thaAttributes of fishing sites: type o Type of water (river), species (trou
Kaitum RiveSwedish anglers thaRecreational fishery in the river n/r
Kaitum RiveAnglers that visite Attributes of angling sites: numb Catch per day of Grayling < 30 cm (
The county Swedish anglers in Fish catch in recreational fishing A doubling of catch compared to the
The county Swedish anglers in Recreational fishery
n/r
8) 50% reduction in own and passenger's annua
Study population isHuman health
Austria, Germany, Hungary, ecological functions, non extractive uses, passive uses
Laholm Bay Si wedes
Eutrophication effects on seaside 50% reduction of the nutrient load

Sweden
Sweden

Swedes in the age Angling


Inhabitants in SwedNitrate in ground water

The county n/r


Residential radon radiation
Sollentuna Households living iResidential radon radiation

Guarantee the survival of a number


Keep the nitrate concentrations in
Reduction of the radon daughter con
Reduction of the radon daughter co

Sweden
Swedes aged betweEutrophication of the Baltic Sea Eutrophication is decreased to a leve
Stockholm Residents of Brom Bromma airport
Total shutdown
Stockholm aInhabitants in the Water quality
1-metre improvement of mean sight
Sweden
n/r
Natural resource damage from then/r
Sweden
n/r
Methyl mercury in fish
n/r
Stockholm aInhabitants in the Water quality
1-metre improvement of mean sight
Swedish car Potential car buyer Environmentally protective enginn/r
Sweden
Swedish house-ownEnvironmental impacts arising froDownstream water level (status quo,
Sweden
Swedish non-resideEnvironmental impacts arising fr Downstream water level (status quo,

Sweden
n/r
The waterco n/r

Eutrophication due to nitrate lea Completely lost fish population caus


Restoration of Sea trout habitats n/r

recycling 90% of their paper, batteries and hazardousfor


waste
having
and effortless environmental waste dispo
Varberg
composting (75% garden
Built environment,
waste and 60%
ecological
kitchen waste).
fu 1)
organization
is involved
recycling
preservation
of 50,000inorsorting,
2 million
hectaresan
-Residents of Sweden
Ecological functions, human heal2) saving of the African elephant or five endang
The countie Members of the Swed
Recreational fisheries
Increased catch
The countie Members of the Swed
Recreational fisheries
Doubling the catch
Ljungskile i Residents in LjungsEncroachment in the local envir An alternative route of the motorw
The Nordic cThe Swedish populRecreational fisheries
Preservation of current situation and
The county Residents in the st Encroachment in the local enviro n/r
The county Residents in HuddiEncroachment in the local environm
Type of infrastructure (road 50 km/h
The StockhoResidents in the st Encroachment in the local enviro Measures to reduce noise
Sweden
The study was carriRecreational fisheries
CVM: a doubling of the yearly catch,
Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, F ecological functions
Eutrophication is now pronounced in
Denmark, FiThe study populatioecological functions, extractive Willingness to pay for the preservati
Swedes
The African Elaphant
Preservation
The green arThe population of TEncroachment in a green area by Preservation of study area
ngby, a subn/r
Traffic noise
n/r
A suburb no n/r
Traffic noise
Building of noise barriers

Vxj, LinkResidents in Vxj (A) Traffic emissions, (B) Green (A) 50% reduction (B)+(c)+(D) diffe
tudy was acquired using The
a study populatioExtractive uses
The extent of change examined in thi

The SwedishThe population consHuman health


Number of wagons per day transportin
In 1995, the mean Human health
The baseline level of provision is d
Italy, Spain, Sweden, United extractive uses, non extractive uses, passive uses
Sollentuna Households living Radon radiation

n/r

General environmental asset Environmental quality objective Sample size Sampling


Wetland
Thriving wetlands
n/r
n/r
Air quality

Reduced climate impact

Air quality
Fish
human health
Forests

Clean air, natural acidification only


Flourishing lakes and streams

Forests
Forests
Animals/Plants
Mountain

Sustainable forests
180 Non-rando
Sustainable forests
(A) 236 (B) 2 Distributed
Sustainable forests
2500 Random samp
A magnificent mountain landscape 300 trips
TDB respond

Wetland
global
wetlands/constructed wetlands
wetlands/constructed wetlands
trees, woodland
Wetland
Wetland
Air quality
Environment in general

Thriving wetlands, Zero eutrophication


See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
Thriving wetlands
371 Random sa
Thriving wetlands
1200 Random samp
Clean air
3240 Respondents
n/r
35 Voluntary p

Sustainable forests

Other assets, human health


Preservation of agricultural land
Fresh water
global, local, soil, human health
global, local, regional, soil, wetlands/constructed wetlands, drin

n/r

192 Registered
See column NSee column
282 househol Non-rando

See column NSee column


See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column

Agricultural land
Mountain
Agricultural land

A varied agricultural landscape


A magnificent mountain landscape
A varied agricultural landscape
?

Manmade environment
Water quality, Fish

A good built environment


A balanced marine environment

Salt water, fish


Water quality, Fish
crops, human health

n/r

92 Random sa
270 Random sa
Random sa
1000 Random samp

See column NSee column


800 Random
See column NSee column

Animals/Plants
Wetland
Water quality
Mountain

Sustainable forests
Thriving wetlands
n/r
Zero eutrophication, A balanced m
A magnificent mountain landscape

Water quality
Flourishing lakes and streams
Birds, endangered species
Beach, wetlands/constructed wetlands, flood control/dams

2880 Random sa
n/r
500 Random sa
1016 A selection

n/r
Sales price
See column NSee column
See column NSee column

Wetland

Thriving wetlands, Zero eutrophican/r

n/r

Manmade environment
Manmade environment

A good built environment


A good built environment

(A) 204, (B) 1Random sa


260 Random sa

Manmade environment
Manmade environment
Manmade environment
Manmade environment
Manmade environment
Manmade environment
Manmade environment

A good built environment


A good built environment
A good built environment
A good built environment
A good built environment
A good built environment
A good built environment

Q1: 600 WTPRandom sa


900 Random sa
(A)460 (B)2760
Random samp
(A) 242 (B)12Random sa
(A)899 (B)89 All individu
4:(A)324 (B) Random sa
14 household All househo

Human health
wetlands/constructed wetlands,
wetlands/constructed wetlands,
Manmade environment
Air quality

See column NSee column


drinking water, ground water, hu See column NSee column
ground water
See column NSee column
A good built environment
Sales prices f n/r
Clean air
n/r
n/r

Agricultural land, Air quality

Clean air, A varied agricultural lan n/r

Forests

Sustainable forests

Agricultural land
Animals/Plants
Mountain
Water quality
Water quality
Forests

A varied agricultural landscape


1989: 350, 19Random sa
Sustainable forests
n/r
n/r
A magnificent mountain landscape
100 Every third
Flourishing lakes and streams
Flourishing lakes and streams, zeron/r
n/r
Sustainable forests

n/r
500 Random sa

Birds, trees
Fish
regional, buildings, crops, trees, human health
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Manmade environment
A good built environment
he Swedish government budget

See column NSee column


1192 Random
See column NSee column
1000 Random sa
802 Random sa
QuestionnaireRandom sa
3600 (800 main
Random sa
329 Random samp

Environment in general

Clean air, natural acidification onl n/r

Forests, Agricultural land


Air quality

Sustainable forests, A varied agricultural landscape


Natural acidification only
700 Random sa

Environment in general
Animals/Plants
Air quality

n/r
500 househol Random sa
Sustainable forests
200 Random sa
Clean air, A good built environment

Forests

Sustainable forests

80 Random sa

Forests
Human health
Human health
Human health
Human health

Sustainable forests

200 Random sa
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column

Air quality
Forests

Clean air
Sustainable forests

800 Random sa
1100, divided Random sa

Water quality

A balanced marine environment

Manmade environment

A good built environment

Forest
Fish, birds, river attributes
global, buildings, other assets, human health
fresh water, fish
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Manmade environment
A good built environment

n/r

1000 ?

750 ?
See column NSee column
1500 Random
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
200 householdRandom sa
124 househol Random sa

Air quality
Air quality
Forests
Water quality
Water quality
Fish
Mountain
Air quality

Clean air
n/r
n/r
Clean air
n/r
n/r
Sustainable forests
(A) OE: 480. Random sa
Flourishing lakes and streams
?
Non-rando
Flourishing lakes and streams
3000 Random samp
Flourishing lakes and streams
200 Random samp
A magnificent mountain landscape Snowmobile vis
The residen
Clean air
n/r
n/r

Water quality
Mountain
Manmade environment

Flourishing lakes and streams, Goon/r


n/r
A magnificent mountain landscape Residents: 905Systematic
A good built environment
Stockholm (A)The respond

Landscape, open spaces, woodland


Fish
Fish
Mammals
Open spaces
local, human health
trees, woodland
Agricultural land
A non toxic environment, A varied
Forests
Sustainable forests
Forests
Sustainable forests
Forests
Sustainable forests
Forests
Sustainable forests

See column NSee column


See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
380 househol Random sa
2500 Random sa
400 ?
2000 Random sa
800 Random sa

salt water
Water quality

See column NSee column


locals: 600, S Random sam

Flourishing lakes and streams

beach, open spaces, preservation of agricultural land, soil, wetl


other assets
Forests
Sustainable forests
Fish
local, regional

See column NSee column


See column NSee column
212 All visitor
See column NSee column
See column NSee column

Fish
Flourishing lakes and streams
Fish
Flourishing lakes and streams
Fish
Flourishing lakes and streams
Fish
Flourishing lakes and streams
Fish
Flourishing lakes and streams
Human health
preservation of agricultural land, wetlands/constructed wetlands,
Water quality
Zero eutrophication, A balanced m

200 Choice-bas
106 On-site sam
64 (year 2000?
More than 20 Choice-bas
More than 20 ?
See column NSee column
See column NSee column
3169 trips
TDB respond

Fish
Water quality

Flourishing lakes and streams


Good quality ground water

1000 Random sa
1000 Random sa

Manmade environment, Air qualA good built environment, Clean ai(a) About 300(a) all in
Manmade environment, Air qualA good built environment, Clean ai500 househol Random sa

Water quality
Manmade environment

Zero eutrophication, A balanced m


A good built environment

696 Random sa
1000 Random sa

Water quality
Forests, Agricultural land
Water quality, Fish
Water quality
Air quality
Water quality
Water quality

Zero eutrophication, A balanced m 1998: 4000; 1Random sa


A safe radiation environment
n/r
n/r
A non toxic environment, Flourishin/r
n/r
Zero eutrophication, A balanced m
4000 Random sa
Clean air
(A) 624 potentRandom sa
Flourishing lakes and streams
1000 Random sa
Flourishing lakes and streams
845 Random sa

Water quality
Water quality, Fish

Zero eutrophication, A balanced m n/r


Flourishing lakes and streams
n/r

n/r
n/r

Other assets
Global, endangered species, rain forest, human health
Fish
Fish
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Fish
Flourishing lakes and streams
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Manmade environment
A good built environment
Fish
salt water
fish

See column NSee column


See column NSee column
Four questionRandomly se
Four questionRandomly se
500 househol Random sa
7500 Random samp
Sales prices n/r
2064 A household
205 interview n/r
10 000 in the Non-rando
See column NSee column
See column NSee column

Manmade environment
Manmade environment
Manmade environment

620 (DC: 372 Random sa


Sales prices f n/r
129 repeated Houses that

A good built environment


A good built environment
A good built environment

Manmade environment, Air qualA good built environment, Clean ai


2000 Random sa
Crops
See column NSee column

Human health
Human health
trees, woodland

See column NSee column


See column NSee column
See column NSee column

Manmade environment, Air qualA good built environment, Clean ai317 househol Non-random,

Response rate Year of data Payment vehicle Economic measure Estimated values
n/r
1994 n/r
RC
RC in total 1200-6
n/r

1994 n/r

71%
See column N "Sp
96%

1997 Fishing licence


WTP, CS
Current condition:
1996
WTP
See Table 1 for estimated mean and med
1985 A daily fee for vis WTP mean, total, CS CVM: mean WTP 27 per day and visitor

30%
1991
(A) 33% (B) 31
1992
61% 1993/1994
n/r
1992

Other

60 billion US dolla

One-time payment WTP mean, standard dMean WTP 5689 per h


?
WTP mean
WTP per household f
A contribution to aWTP mean, median DC: Mean WTP 700
n/r
CS
Average CS 312 per

See column N "Sp


2000
Cost of injury/replac In this analysis there were several scen
See column N "Specification of the valuation method"
The
authors
found an
over-all
transferlev
er
the total
abatement
costs
for different
See column N "Sp
1992
Other
prices are all in 1992 prices.
See column N "Specification of the valuation met Price, WTP
The recreational value (2005 Swedish kr
56%
1994 One-time payment WTP mean, median, co
Mean WTP 171-374.
39%
2001 ?
WTP marginal, standalogit model: high biodiversity 673.22; m
96%
1996 A charge related t WTP mean, median, stMean WTP: 156 pe
n/r
1999 Donation
WTP marginal
?

See column N "Sp


2003
See column N "Sp
2003
See column N "Sp
2005
See column N "Specification of the valuation met
See column N "Sp
1994

65%
85%
1089 interviews
56%

See column N "Sp


43%
See column N "Sp

WTP
WTP
WTP
Price, cost of injur
Price, CS

during weekdays and about 20 kronor in


Moreover the willingness to pay is even
In general the marg
The estimated margi
Table 1 reports the externality costs for in
Table 1 presents the total annual value o

1991 An increase in locaWTP mean


Mean WTP 540 per
2000 n/r
CS
Total CS: 186 325
1986 Income tax
WTP mean, median, Mean WTP: 468 per
2002 Electricity price

WTP/WTA mean, confi


Mean WTP/WTA expre

2002
WTP
2002 The project is fina WTP marginal
2000
WTP

The estimated average marginal willingn


(2003 Swedish kronor) per person for the
The estimated avera
Estimated valuations of reduction in carc

60%
n/r
67.4%
74.4%

1993
1989
1996
1999

?
WTP mean, median Median WTP 466.
n/r
RC
Annual RC: 2.5-7 m
A monthly tax on t WTP mean, median, co
Mean annual WTP:
Payment for the tri WTP, CS
Maximum WTP for the

n/r
January 1996 n/r
See column N "Sp
1993
See column N "Sp
1990

WTP (marginal hedoniKronor),


20-33 permean
meterwillingness to pay 10,650
willingness to pay 406 kronor.
WTP
Price
The results with respect to the optimal d

n/r

1993 n/r

Other

(A)71%, (B)69%
68%

1987 (A) one-time paymeWTP mean, median (A) mean WTP: 464
1988 Annual increase in WTP mean, median OE: Mean WTP 371

32 per reduced kg o

Q1: 74.2% Q2: Q1: 1997 Q2:Q1: increase in co WTP/WTA


Annual mean WTP:
69.6%
1997 Annual payment forWTP
Annual mean WTP 71
(A)78% (B)65%
1999 Increase in tax/fix WTP mean
Mean annual WTP: (
(A)69.5% (B)7
2000 Increase in municipWTP mean
Mean annual WTP:
(A)63.5% (B)59
2000 Increase in municipWTP mean
Mean annual WTP:
(A)76% (B)71.
2001 Increase in municipWTP mean
Mean annual WTP:
10 households w
1987 one-time payment WTP/WTA mean, medWTP mean 23300 pe
See column N "Sp1993, 1992
See column N "Sp
1990
See column N "Sp1991, 1990
n/r
1970-1973 n/r
n/r
1992/1993
n/r

WTP
Other
Cost of injury/repla
WTP
WTP aggregate

The direct and indir


The results presented in the table are in
The results of the Broadland study are de
A noise level of 71
Carbon dioxide: In

n/r

Other

Loss of 520 per hec

1988 n/r
48%

1998 Amount added to thWTP, EV

Monthly mean WTP:

1989: 59%, 19911989, 1991, 1 Annual tax increas WTP mean


Mean annual WTP inc
n/r
2003 n/r
RC
RC range between S
?
2000 Daily fee (dagkort)WTP mean, confidence
Mean WTP single-bo
n/r

1982 n/r

WTP

Increase in WTP: SE

area the average replacement cost for nat


See column N "Sp
2003
Cost of injury/replac 2,100-9,400 US Dollars per hectare, resp
59% 2003, 2004
WTP mean
WTP for at least in
See column N "Sp
1990
WTP
The results of the benefits assessment are
72%
1993 A yearly contributi WTP mean
Whole sample Mean
73.5%
1996 Increase in municipWTP mean
Mean WTP: 202 per
Questionnaire 1
2000 Increase in the locaWTP mean (Q1: in terQ1: 25 minutes ext
69%
1997 Increase in municipWTP mean, total
Main questionnaire
34.3%
2000 Non-recurrent tax WTP marginal
Mean WTP as a once-

n/r

1990 n/r

Other

The total envrionm

67%

1987 Annual payment toWTP, CV, Jobs lost Mean annual WTP: 4500. Number of job

61%

1989 ?
WTP mean, median Mean WTP: 1200 per
1988 Contribution to pr WTP mean, CV
Mean WTP: (A) 1275

46.4%

1986 ?

WTP, EV

(1) a reduction of

75%
See column N "Sp
See column N "Sp
See column N "Sp
See column N "Sp

1986 Hunting permit


1995
1996
1991
1995

WTP mean, EV
WTP
CS, WTP
WTP
EV, WTP

Mean WTP: 2700 pe


Values are presented
All values are pres
Survey respondents
Mean willingness to

74%
67%

1987 Increase in gasolin WTP mean


An extra 11.9 re p
1987 One-time payment WTP mean, median, stOE: mean WTP 1023 , median WTP 200

73%

1992 An annual charge fWTP mean, median Mean WTP 1500, Median WTP 0

42%

1993 Increased rent

WTP mean

WTP per household and month.

See column N "Sp


1987
WTP
The estimated willi
43%
2006 Additional annual cWTP, marginal, CS MWTP for the fish a
See column N "Specification of the valuation method"
Table 1 provides a summary of the estim
See column N "Sp
1999
WTP
Percent error from benefits transfer betw
54%
1988 One-time payment WTP mean
OE: mean WTP 355
71%
1988 One-time payment WTP, WTA mean, meMean WTP 7536 per

n/r
n/r
(A) 45%, (B) 6
Personal intervi
53.2 % in the fi
67%
Snowmobiles: 63
n/r

1987
1995
1993
1999
1999
1998
2001
1999

n/r
Other
15-25 SEK/kg NOx,
n/r
Other
1 SEK/kg CO2, 40-4
?
WTP mean, median OE: Mean WTP 765
For the group cycliWTP mean, median, stTourist mean WTP:
Annual payment foWTP mean, median, t1:st sub-sample: Mean WTP of 100-225
Licence fee
WTP mean, confidence
Mean WTP in CVM
Daily fee (dagkort)WTP mean
CVM: mean WTP 33, C
n/r
Other
20 SEK/kg CO2, 60

n/r
Residents: 61% V
(A) 49%, (B) 46

n/r
Total economic value230-240 million
1999 Visitors: increase i WTP/WTA mean
"for" residents' m
2002 Monthly housing cWTP mean
Mean WTP per month

See column N "Sp


2001
WTP
All values in this
See column N "Sp
2004
WTP
The 95% likelihood
See column N "Sp
1998
WTP
The estimated mean
See column N "Sp
2005
WTP
The estimated mean
See column N "Sp
2001
WTP
Willingness to pay
See column N "Specification of the valuation met Cost of injury/replac Unfortunately, the value of a year of lost
See column N "Sp
2006
WTP
The model results are promising with reg
46%
1994 Increase in prices WTP mean, median, t(1) mean annual WT
67%
1987 Increase of seasonaWTP mean, total, CS (1) Mean WTP: for h
68%
1986 Annual payment WTP mean, WTA meaMean WTP 2931-3358
62.3%
1991 Annual payment WTP , EV, mean, totaMean annual WTP: (
54.5%
1992 Annual payment WTP mean
Mean annual WTP:
See column N "Specification of the valuation met WTP
Locals: 50%, Sw
1995 Annual contributioWTP mean

Table 1 shows the mean per capita willin


Table 2 shows the payment scheme into n
Swedes: 700, Locals

See column N "Specification of the valuation met WTP


See column N "Sp
2005
WTP
94.3%
1993 One-time payment WTP mean, median
See column N "Sp
2002
WTP
See column N "Sp
1990
WTP

Tables 1 to 6 present the biodiversity val


x
Mean
kronorWTP:
where2068,
the higher value comes fro
dichotomous
choice
data. studies inclu
to pay studies from research
EPA 1993 and Metroeconomica 1996.

67%
1998
72%
1999
2000: 75%, 20012001/2002
70%
1998
70%
1998
See column N "Sp1987, 1986
See column N "Sp
87, 1986, 1985
n/r
1990-1994

Licence fee
n/r
Extra fee per day
A extra fee
n/r

n/r

WTP marginal
MWTP for an extra f
CS
CS 166 per fishing
WTP, marginal, confiWTP of an extra sma
WTP marginal
Marginal WTP for an
CS, per angling day, pCS per fishing day
WTP
Table 1 provides est
WTP
Table 1 summarizes the results of an exte
CS
CS: (A) 12-32 mill

65.3%
67.5%
n/r

1989 Tax
1989 Tax

WTP mean, total


WTP mean, total

1981-1987, in One-time payment WTP mean


55%
1991 One-time payment WTP mean

60.4%
67%

1995 An extra environmeWTP mean, total


1996 Yearly contributionWTP mean

1998: 47.2%, 19
1998
n/r
1995
n/r
1987
47.2%
1998
Potential car bu 1994/1995
40%
2002
29%
2002

n/r
n/r

Mean WTP: 332 per y


Mean WTP 326 per y
Mean WTP 21300 p
Mean WTP (A) 8700

Mean annual WTP: f


Mean WTP including

n/r
CS aggregate
Time is not valued:
n/r
PS
Total damage 736 mi
n/r
HCM: 2.46-27.06 mi
Higher prices of ta WTP mean, median, stMean monthly WTP:
(A) Extra payment WTP
a
mean, median (A) mean WTP 6856
Increase in electri WTP marginal
MWTP, re per kWh:
Increase in electri WTP marginal
MWTP, re per kWh:

1991 n/r
1995 n/r

Other
RC

318 million SEK pe


In total about 305,

those who would be less willing to partic


See column N "Sp
1994
WTP
required individual effort.
See column N "Sp
1997
WTP
Table 1 presents me
The response rate 2002, 2003
WTP
WTP for catching an
The response rate 2002, 2003
WTP
WTP for doubling th
66.4%
1986 One-time payment WTP, WTA
Mean WTP: 18000
46.69 %
1999 Annual rent / increWTP mean, confidence
WTP for present fis
n/r
1994-1997, in n/r
WTP
WTP for a house clo
205 interviews
2000 House prices
WTP
WTP for earth berms
n/r
2000 n/r
WTP
Mean WTP for measur
68.6 % in the fi
2006
WTP, CS, costs
The gross CS for th
See column N "Specification of the valuation met Other, WTP
Table 1 shows estimates of aggregate ben
See column N "Sp
1999
CS, WTP
Table 1 reports aggregate values for ann
DC: 73.9%, PC:
1996 Increase in communWTP, mean, aggregat(DC) Mean annual
n/r
January 1986 -n/r
WTP
annual WTP: 8000 p
n/r
1986-1999 n/r
CS, total
25,500 per meter of
54%
See column N "Sp

1993 (A)+(D) increase inWTP mean


2003
WTP

(A) Mean annual WTP


All values are repo

See column N "Sp


2000
See column N "Sp1996, 1995
See column N "Sp
81, 1980, 1979

WTA/WTP
WTP
CS

The willingness to
Table 1 presents me
The estimated consumer surplus per trip

n/r

WTP median

Annual median WTP:

1986 n/r

Valuation function Spec. of valuation Used in CBA/policy Remarks


No

Adjusted values

No

No
54.23 SEK per additional fishing day
le 1 for estimated mean and media
Mean and median willingness to pay values were a function of the results of the dichotomou
CVM: WTP as a function
Yes
Yes of household income per capita or household income, environmen
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Dependent variable: WTP. Independent variables: travel distance, number of persons in the
Regression analysis with increase in WTP for the tourist trip as dependent variable. Explana
Dependent variable: DC bid. Independent variables: attitudes toward the importance of natu
Dependent variable: TC. Independent variables: number of household members who made a

analysis there were several scen The model used in this analysis is entitled E3ME. This is an econometric, dynamic, simulati
The
per
hectare
of
wetlands
1995
US Dollars
is a to
function
of three
groups
of indepe
found an
over-all
transferlevels
error
of
74%,
where
low
values
werein
systematically
over-estimated,
the value
of high
valu
lhors
abatement
costs
for different
model
ofvalue
abatement.
description.
The
Shadow
prices
are
calculated
and
used
test and
re all in 1992 prices.
the influence of the defined restrictions.
reational value (2005 Swedish kron
Recreation values of the forest landscapes weighted by the four different management chara
Yes
Dependent variable: WTP Independent variables: age, education, income
Yes
Conditional logit and random parameter logit models. Variables: high biodiversity, medium
Yes
Dependent variable: WTP. Independent variables: individual income, partner income, house
Test differences in preferences between a hypoth

and "fly often from Bromma", female and lives in detached house. Model
coefficients are estimated using a mixed logit model.
Yes
Yes
The marginal willingness to pay is estimated for the following attributes in the choice exper
Yes
The willingness to pay for having the weed cut is estimated as a function of the following in
reports the externality costs for incineration of waste for three different types of facilities. Table 2 reports the externality cos
presents the total annual value o Estimated values reported in the study are per unit area of each ecosystem service for each e

Yes
Yes
Yes

Regression analysis of WTP with income, age, sex, born in the area, permanent resident and
Dependent variable: travel frequency. Independent variables: cost per hunting day, supply of
A regression model of WTP was estimated. Independent variables: household income, age, l

Yes

Random effects binary Probit model with the following variables: noise, location: mountain

biodiversity). Model coefficients are estimated using the mixed multinomial


logit model.
Yes
Yes
The dependent variable is marginal willingness to pay. Independent variables are: FISH (the
ed valuations of reduction in carcinogenic effects from compliance with heavy metal limit values are shown in the table below

Yes
No
Yes
Yes

Regression analysis with the following indeIn addition 480 individuals received a OE-questi

Regression analysis of WTP. Explanatory variables: sex,Mean WTP for reducing one kilo of
Dependent variable: maximum WTP for a visit in the study area. Independent variables: dist

See F4 and H6
Yes
Four different
models
estimated,
lineaModel
Only the
hedonic study
income
per person
andwere
population
density.
coefficients
wereis summarized here
estimated using a probit model.
Yes
ults with respect to the optimal d A cost function for the damage from sea level rise is calculated as a function of the cost-min
No

No
No

Summary of environmental encroachment valuat


No
No
No
No
No
No
No

The report G11 also contains a general calculatio


(A)adjacent area (B) the municipality
WTP for (A) both road and railway in a tunnel (B
(A)adjacent area (B) the municipality

Yes
Couples were asked to state the number of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) / embryo transfer (ET)
ults presented in the table are in
ults of the Broadland study are detailed in Table 1. The estimate of the monetary replacement costs indicates that the annual (
Yes
Regression analysis was estimated with house prices as dependent variable. Independent var
No
No
Yes

Regression analysis of the probability of giving a positive WTP bid to avoid an increase in t

Yes
No
Yes

Regression models of WTP. Independent variables: gender, resident in northern counties, res

Yes

Dependent variable: WTP, Independent variables: value of the first bid, education, protest an

average replacement cost for natural oak regeneration by jays is


,400 US Dollars per hectare, respectively.
Not reported
No
Yes
ults of the benefits assessment are shown in Table 1, for morbidity, Tables 2-5 for mortality, Table 6 for benefits to agriculture
No
No
Yes
A model of the probability of prefering to Questionnaire 1: the respondent stated their WTP
No
Yes
The influence on theYes
Three actual road alternatives were analysed

No
The environmental debt of Uppsala

nnual WTP: 4500. Number of jobs lost: 150000


No
Yes

WTP as a function of the stated motives for paying for programme A: use values, use values

Yes

WTP as a function of the stock of moose, price of moose meat, tax wage rate, income, numb

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Dependent variable: WTP for the next hunting season. Independent variables: Number of m
A logistic model
form
is used
to model the
probability
of accepting
func
Willingness
to pay
values
are estimated
to reflect
income
and qualitythe
ofbid
lifeamount
attainedasatadiffe

Four willingness to pay equations were estimated. Equation 1: willingness to pay as a funct
The probability of accepting the insurance premium bid was modeled as a function of the in

Yes
Regression of WTP. Independent variables: gender, age, income, annual driving distance, ex
an WTP 1023 , median WTP 200 per household. DC: mean WTP 2500, median WTP 1130 per household.

WTP 1500, Median WTP 0

No

Pilot study

Yes
Yes
A conditional logit model and a random parameter logit are estimated with the parameters: a
provides a summary of the estimated ancillary benefits of carbon taxes due to reduced air pollution and traffic externalities b
error from benefits transfer betwThe authors formed a probability density function for willingness to pay, and estimated mea
No
No
Valuation of air pollution from air, railway and m

No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No

No
Yes
No

Lower limit of the true value


The valuation of local health effects was based o
Regression analysis of WTP. Explanatory var
See F1 for result derived from the DC-question

WTP as a function of: sex, age, children in the household, level of education, environmental
WTP as a function of the following variables: number of household members, number of fis
CVM: Dependent variable: probability of "yes" answer. Independent variables: daily fee, da
The valuation of local health effects was based o

Dependent variable: the probability of choosing scenario. Independent variables: number of

Yes
In this study two functions were estimated one for skiers and one for snowmobilers. The tra
Yes
The willingness to pay is estimated as a funciton of expected catch per day of Grayling and
Yes
The willingness to pay was modeled as a funciton of the64.23 SEK per extra fish
Yes
The coefficients of the attributes in the choice experiment (different levels of type of housin
Yes
The dependent variable in the conditional logit model is "ski visits". The independent variab
nately, the value of a year of lost The cost of pollution is modeled as a function of the value of a year of lost life, the duration
del results are promising with rega
To analyse the impact on WTP of the explanatory variables above, the following standard m
Yes
Regression model of WTP was estimated. Explanatory variables: number of household mem
No
Total hunting value was also divided into meat v
Yes
Regression analysis of WTP/WTA. Explanato
Total moose hunting value was also divided into
Yes
Regression analyses were made between the
The
r non-timber value was also decomposed into
Yes
The non-timber value is a function of the type of forest landscape (4 different) and the share

shows the mean per capita willingness to pay for nutrient abatement in each of the Baltic Countries.
shows the payment scheme into nutrient
Mean willingness
abatement to
forpay
thefor
Baltic
nutrient
Sea countries.
abatement among the Baltic countries was a function o
No

1 to 6 present the biodiversity values obtained from 61 representative biodiversity valuation studies under various categories.
After experimenting with different distributional assumptions F for WTP, the study settled f
No
The questionnaire
was also handed out to foreign
respondent supports a non-governmental organization).
The coefficients
were
using
maximum
likelihoodwas
techniques.
tudies from Yes
research studies including
max) estimated
ExternE
the required
1995a,
reduction
of emissions
calculated.
93 and Metroeconomica 1996.

Yes
Valuation function with the following independent varia22.05 per extra fish
Yes
Dependent variable: travel frequency. Independent varia228.77 SEK per additional fishing d
Yes
ML-model was estimated with the following
Four potenti127.01 SEK per extra fish
Yes
A model with a bid variable and 5 variables for the cat Five types of angling were analyzed
Yes
Dependent variable:
frequency.
Independent
Five
types oftoangling
were
Double-log
ordinary travel
least square
(OLS)
regressionsvaria
were
estimated
examine
theanalyzed
effect of
Yes
summarizes the results of an exteThe per person per year value for each of the habitats were derived by selecting only compa
Yes
Dependent variable: indirect utility from visiting a sit stersjn: Mean WTP for reducing o

Yes
Yes

A regression analysis of WTP. Explanatory variables: age, income, capital, sex, owner of fis
A regression analysis of WTP. Explanatory variables: age, income, capital, sex, number of h

Yes
Yes

Market price of houses as a function of 19 housing characteristics: standard of house, age of


WTP. Explanatory variables: average age of household members, children under the age of 7

Yes
No

Probability to vote Yes, see G5

Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Dependent variable: the choice probability that a site i Mean WTP for reducing one kilo of
The estimate of the damage suffered by Swedish
Yes of a deposit system for collection and recycling of batteries
Regression analysis with WTP as dependent variable. Ex
1998: Mean WTP for reducing one k
Dependent variable: WTP bid. Independent variables in groups: attitudes of respondents, pe
A model of the choice experiment attributes and following socio-economic and attitudinal v
A model of the choice experiment attributes and the following attitudinal and firm-specific v

OE: Mean WTP for reducing one kil

No
No

and income. Gender (positive for female), age (negative) and


education (negative) were the only significant variables.
Willingness to pay for the four issues - global warming, rain forests, animals and air pollutio
A conditional logit model is estimated with the independ29.13 SEK per extra kilo
A conditional logit model is estimated with the independe
78.97 SEK per extra kilo, 15.79 SEK

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Only the Swedish part of the study is summarized
Yes
A base hedonic price model with 69 or 86 variables of house characteristics. This base mode
No
No
No
40 SEK per extra kilo and 55 SEK p
shows estimates of aggregate benefits for the total economic value of a Baltic Sea nutrient reduction strategy. Data from the P
reports aggregate values for ann Fishing expenditures, extra willingness to pay (WTP) for the same fishing experience and W
No
Yes
Yes

Dependent variable: hedonic price. Independent variables: structural, location, environment


Dependent variable: Yes. CBA of building of noise barrier

No
Yes

In addition the questionnaire was also given to a


The probability of answering yes to the second alternative was measured as a function of pri

Yes
The willingness to pay and willingness to accept compensation for changed transports of ha
Yes
The probability of being willing to pay the specified bid amount to continue hormone replac
mated consumer surplus per trip Two meta analysis models based on different dependent variables were estimated: the natura
Yes

Dependent variable: probability of household to take mitigating measures. Independent vari

K per additional fishing day


he results of the dichotomous choice data from the contingent valuation study, as well as the statistical model that the author a

, number of persons in the household, part of experience derived form Risebo area, part of experience of Risebo derived from
ependent variable. Explanatory variables (all are dummy variables): stand density more and less, proportion of broad leaved
ward the importance of nature conservation in general and the existence of wolves in Sweden, gender and presented wolf pop
ehold members who made a skiing trip, average age of household, number of persons under 12 years old in household, house

nometric, dynamic, simulation model estimated using econometric panel-data techniques on cross-section and annual time-ser
on of three groups of independent variables: study characteristics (such as valuation technique and marginal value); wetland p

different management characteristics were compared for reference and alternative cases. The difference in value was determi

high biodiversity, medium biodiversity, fish, fenced waterline, crayfish, walking facilities, intercept, surrounding vegetation m
ome, partner income, household wealth, number of children, education, serious disease, pollution knowledge, retired, membe
eferences between a hypothetical and an actual choice experiment

tributes in the choice experiment: 1. Chicken - a) growth, b) genetically modified producs in fodder (banned or not given info
function of the following independent variables: housing area nearby the lake, bathing place, canoe track, boat place, control
2 reports the externality costs for landfilling wastes for two different types of facilities. For incineration, total external costs r
cosystem service for each ecosystem type. Estimated unit values were either the sum of consumer and producer surplus for th

rea, permanent resident and level of education as independent variables


t per hunting day, supply of small game hunting, substitutes for Villhelmina community in zone i.
s: household income, age, level of education, respondents ranking of profitability and other values in the agricultural produc

s: noise, location: mountain or off-shore, height, small group, large group, large group located offshore, small group located in

multinomial

ent variables are: FISH (the level of cod in the sea), WATER (improvement of bathing water quality from the worst to the bes
are shown in the table below.

duals received a OE-question (total sample 3360). The data derived from the OE-question was not analysed in this study. See

TP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 35.28 SEK per kg, mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 1751.23 SEK per kg.
Independent variables: distance to home, days in the study area, household income, prior visits, wilderness experience, puris

dy
ereis summarized here

s a function of the cost-minimizing combination of protection cost and damage per se (dry and wetland loss). Analytically, a c

mental encroachment valuation studies.

ontains a general calculation model for encroachment costs of infrastructure investments. (A)adjacent area (B) the municip
he municipality
d and railway in a tunnel (B) only the road in a tunnel and (c)only the railway in a tunnel.
he municipality

IVF) / embryo transfer (ET) treatments they would undergo at various prices. Willingness to pay (WTP) for treatment was de

s indicates that the annual (undiscounted) cost of replacing the Martebo mire's lost life support functions is about 2.5-7 millio
nt variable. Independent variables were: noise (dB), experienced noise, housing attributes (15 attributes), house located in Ro

bid to avoid an increase in the distance to the forest. Independent variables: present distance to forest, age, household income

ent in northern counties, resident in southern counties, income inflated into 1994-values, farmer, city, long education, age and

rst bid, education, protest answers, experienced skier, accommodation, household income.

6 for benefits to agriculture, Table 7 for benefits to materials, Table 8 for benefits to forests and Table 9 for benefits to visibil

espondent stated their WTP in terms of time. Questionnaire 2: the respondents stated their WTP in SEK

rnatives were analysed

ebt of Uppsala

me A: use values, use values+benevolence and use values+benevolence+sympathy for animals.

ax wage rate, income, number of kilos of meat the hunter obtains, number of days used for hunting and the hunter's motive fo

ent variables: Number of moose the hunter expects to kill and the variance of that variable, expected value of the moose meat
ng the
function ages.
of theThe
bid,quality
age, income,
gender. to
The
data were
analyzed
in accordance
with
th
ality
ofbid
lifeamount
attainedasatadifferent
of life education,
is measuredand
according
a ranking
scale
administered
to survey
resp

willingness to pay as a function of the bid amount (estimated including observations in which respondents answered the contin
deled as a function of the insurance premium bid, perceived quality of life, age, income, education, and gender. The equation
annual driving distance, experience of recovery systems, children, dependent on having a car, holds account with a gasoline

mated with the parameters: alternative specific constant (not choosing opt out), male, age, label, member of environmental org
n and traffic externalities based on a number of studies conducted in Norway, Sweden, and the UK. The estimated values ran
s to pay, and estimated mean willingness to pay by multiplying the integral of the probability density function by the percent o

tion from air, railway and martime traffic based on value estimates derived in L3

l health effects was based on secondary data derived from contingent valuation studies.
ved from the DC-question

of education, environmental interest, number of canal visits and planned future canal visits.
old members, number of fishing days last year, part of total household income, accessibility to site from car-road, bag limit p
dent variables: daily fee, days spent in the study area within the past three years and reported disturbance by snowmobiles.
l health effects was based on secondary data.

ndent variables: number of slopes, tax, income, dependence of household income on tourism, general statement for/against to

e for snowmobilers. The trail chosen to ski or snowmobile was modeled as a function of distance to the trail, the cost of trial
ch per day of Grayling and Brown Trout, bag-limit per day of each species, whether or not the dam at Storsj is removed and
K per extra fish
ent levels of type of housing, castration, tailing docking, fixation and cost) are estimated using a binary heteroskedastic mode
ts". The independent variables are: distance, travel + time cost, fee cost, shelter, scenery and different levels of snowmobile p
ear of lost life, the duration of exposure, and the concentration of exposure. 38 equations in all are used to detail the dose res
e, the following standard meta-regression model is applied. A number of m (m = 1,...,Ms) WTP estimates are identified from
number of household members, household income, place of residence, and attitudes towards the use of biocides.
as also divided into meat value and recreation value
value was also divided into meat value and recreational value
was also decomposed into on-site consumptive use, on-site non-consumptive use and off-site experience.
e (4 different) and the shares of the tree species pine, spruce, birch and other broadleaves

c countries was a function of the results of contingent valuation surveys performed in three of the ten countries (Poland, Swed

s under various categories. Table 1 present the market value of bioprospecting contracts signed between pharmaceutical and a
for WTP, the study settled for a two-parameter Weibull distribution.
sficients
also handed out to foreigner visitors, but data about Swedish visitors are only reported here.

EK per additional fishing day


EK per extra fish
s of angling were analyzed in the study. 1. Ordinary angling: 22.74 SEK per extra kilo, 10.89 SEK per extra fish. 2. Put and t
s oftoangling
were
the study.
1. Ordinary
angling:risk
29.22
SEK per extra
kilo, 15.71
SEK
persex,
extra
fish and 73.04
S
ted
examine
theanalyzed
effect of in
different
factors
on respondents'
perceptions.
Variables
included
age,
education,
car own

ed by selecting only compatible studies (i.e., studies using a similar method of estimation) and converting the WTP figures to
n: Mean WTP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 13.01 SEK per kg, mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 675.14 SE

e, capital, sex, owner of fishing-waters, number of fishing days per year, number of household members, number of househo
e, capital, sex, number of household members, level of education and children under the age of 1 years old

s: standard of house, age of house, living area, lot size, local tax rate, travel time by car to Stockholm city, time trend for date
, children under the age of 7 years old, level of education, intention to move from the house during the current year, subjectiv

n WTP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 12.64 SEK per kg, mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 382.39 SEK per

TP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 46.24 SEK per kg and mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 1408.89 SEK per
amage suffered by Swedish moose hunters was based on secondary data, see reference H5
cycling of batteries
ean WTP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 210.74 SEK per kg, mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 6420.49 SEK
attitudes of respondents, personal and household characteristics, ability to pay and car practices.
-economic and attitudinal variables: whether the respondent regularly buys green products, regularly fish for recreation, prefe
titudinal and firm-specific variables: environmental impact of hydropower, the firms environmental concern, interest in buyi

sts, animals and air pollution - was modeled as a function of age, income, gender, if willingness-to-pay estimation was consid
K per extra kilo
K per extra kilo, 15.79 SEK per extra fish and 102.67 SEK per additional fishing day

t of the study is summarized


racteristics. This base model is extended by stages with variables for the municipality, local environment, traffic and number

per extra kilo and 55 SEK per additional fishing day


on strategy. Data from the Polish and Swedish mail surveys were used since they were both concerned with total economic v
me fishing experience and WTP to maintain the current state of fish stocks and quality of recreational fisheries were modeled

ural, location, environmental and macro attributes.

onnaire was also given to a group of experts


measured as a function of price, whether or not it was organically certified, whether or not it was certified as being fairly produ

or changed transports of hazardous materials was estimated as a function of number of wagons, hazardousness, time of transp
to continue hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was modeled as a function of the initial bid amount, the difference in the res
s were estimated: the natural log of consumer surplus and the consumer surplus normalized for size of forest. The consumer

measures. Independent variables: income, radon concentration, perceived cost of mitigation, children, age of adult, neighbour

istical model that the author assumed the willingness to pay data follows. Statistical models included: normal; logistic; weibu

erience of Risebo derived from the forest, household income, part of experience derived from fishing and the probability of re
s, proportion of broad leaved trees more or less, size of clearcuts big/few and small/many, tree age older and younger, and acc
ender and presented wolf population dummy for 100, 700 and 1000 wolves.
years old in household, household income, number of overnight stays, level of education for responding household member, m

ss-section and annual time-series data 1970-1995. It is an integrated E3 model covering 19 regions of Western Europe (the EU
nd marginal value); wetland physical and geographic characteristics (such as wetland type, functions, continent, and latitude)

fference in value was determined to the measure of the additional recreation value of conducting the transformation from the

cept, surrounding vegetation meadow land, cost, male, age and kid.
n knowledge, retired, member of an environmental organisation, big city, house owner, nature knowledge, age and nature imp

dder (banned or not given information about), c) out summer, d) mobile slaughter house. 2. Beef - a) improved labelling, b) g
noe track, boat place, control of weed in remaining parts of the lake and cost for the household. The coefficients were estima
neration, total external costs range from 28 Euros/tonne of waste incinerated for the most modern plant to 77 Euros/tonne for
er and producer surplus for the service, the producer surplus for the service alone, or the service price times the service quan

lues in the agricultural production and attitudes towards preserving the agricultural landscape

ffshore, small group located in mountainous area, visit mountains, price change per kWh, member of an environmental organ

ality from the worst to the best level) and BIODIVERSITY (different levels of biodiversity). Model coefficients are estimated

not analysed in this study. See L5 for further result.

sphorus 1751.23 SEK per kg.


, wilderness experience, purist type of visitor, urbanist type of visitor.

wetland loss). Analytically, a cost function for the damage from sea level rise can be obtained by substituting the optimal valu

djacent area (B) the municipality

y (WTP) for treatment was derived from the median number of treatments at different prices. Maximum WTP to have a child

unctions is about 2.5-7 millions of SEK. The values of investments in wetland, sewage treatment plants and reductions in far
ttributes), house located in Roslags-Nsby or in Lahll and time of house purchase

orest, age, household income and gender

r, city, long education, age and a preference variable for the environment in general.

Table 9 for benefits to visibility.

ing and the hunter's motive for hunting.

ected value of the moose meat and the variance of that variable, a recreational dummy variable
analyzed
in accordance
with
the standardAge-specific
interpretation
of yes responses
anda aparametric
conservative
interpretation
of yes rate
responses.
le administered
to survey
respondents.
willingness
to pay for
reduction
in the hazard
pertaininT

spondents answered the contingent valuation question). Equation 2: willingness to pay as a function of the bid amount (estim
on, and gender. The equation was estimated separately for respondents answering 'yes' and respondents answering 'no' to a qu

holds account with a gasoline company, choice of station dependent on price, considers that only the companies ought to pay,

member of environmental organization, university education, price change, price change* member of environmental organiza
UK. The estimated values ranged from as low as US$2 per ton of carbon reduced to as high as US$3,056. The report noted th
nsity function by the percent of non-zero bids. Using 1000 bootstrap replicates, the authors estimated standard errors for the

ite from car-road, bag limit per day, catch per day, distance to site from residence, congestion, fee per day and no bag-limit a
sturbance by snowmobiles.

eneral statement for/against tourists, preferences for change in the number of tourists in the future, and number of ski days

ce to the trail, the cost of trial use, how well the trials were groomed, whether or not shelters were available, the scenery, and t
am at Storsj is removed and restored. The last independent variable is extra fee per day. The model coefficients are estimate

a binary heteroskedastic model.


ferent levels of snowmobile presence.
are used to detail the dose response model used.
estimates are identified from each study s (s = 1,..,S), and the total number of WTP estimates can then be denoted M=(SUM)
he use of biocides.

e ten countries (Poland, Sweden, and Lithuania), and the GDP of each country. The sharing of abatement cost was calculated

between pharmaceutical and agricultural industries and government agencies. Since these values did not include indirect, exi

EK per extra fish. 2. Put and take: 79.66 SEK per extra kilo, 57.88 SEK per extra fish. 3. River angling: 237.04 SEK per extra
persex,
extra
fish and car
73.04
SEK perand
additional
fishingexperience,
day. 2. Put income
and take:
66.15
SEK willingness
per extra kilo,
61.67
SEK per extra
dEK
age,
education,
ownership
use, accident
and
reported
to pay.
Double-log
OLSfir

converting the WTP figures to 1997 Euro. The unweighted average of the WTP values of the selected studies gives the WTP p
kilo of phosphorus 675.14 SEK per kg. Mean WTP for increasing the Secchi depth one meter during the summer 360.26 SEK

members, number of household members who angle in Swedish salt and brackish water, number of household members who
1 years old

kholm city, time trend for date of house sale, dummy variables for: chain houses, terrace houses, basement, furnished attic, ba
ing the current year, subjective radon risk assessment, interest in the study result, household income, gross rateable value of h

f phosphorus 382.39 SEK per kg. DC: Mean WTP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 82.81 SEK per kg, mean WTP for reduci

phosphorus 1408.89 SEK per kg. Mean WTP for increasing the Secchi depth one meter during the summer 369.13 SEK per p

o of phosphorus 6420.49 SEK per kg. Mean WTP for increasing the Secchi depth one meter during the summer 923.34 SEK p

larly fish for recreation, prefer government provision of green electricity, chose alternative which gave the most value for the
ental concern, interest in buying green electricity, green image, prefer government provision of green electricity, public sector

s-to-pay estimation was considered an easy task; whether the respondent felt confident with stated willingness-to-pay; if non-

ironment, traffic and number of roads in the local environment.

ncerned with total economic value, and they contain the same valuation scenario. Table 2 brings together both the costs of pol
ional fisheries were modeled as a function of a range of fishing behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. General l

certified as being fairly produced, the amount of coffee consumption by the individual, whether or not the individual stated t

hazardousness, time of transportation. Furthermore, the following dummy variables were also included: whether or not the re
mount, the difference in the respondent's quality of life rating with and without the HRT, age, income, household size and educ
size of forest. The consumer surplus was modeled as a function of authorship, site characteristics, methodology used, socioe

ldren, age of adult, neighbour influence and forced-air intake and exhaust ventilation in the house.

cluded: normal; logistic; weibull; and lognormal.

shing and the probability of returning to the area.


ge older and younger, and accessibility of the forest increased/more people and decreased/fewer people.

ponding household member, means of transportation.

ons of Western Europe (the EU plus Norway and Switzerland), with an annual solution 1970-2012 allowing for lagged respon
ctions, continent, and latitude); and socio-economic characteristics of the study population.

g the transformation from the reference to the alternative case. The difference in value was multiplied by the 179000 citizens

knowledge, age and nature important for stated WTP. Three models were estimated.

f - a) improved labelling, b) genetically modified producs in fodder (banned or not given information about), c) out all year, d
The coefficients were estimated using a random bivariat probit model.
rn plant to 77 Euros/tonne for an old plant. However, if coal is the displaced energy source, pollution displacement can bring
e price times the service quantity. Unit values for each ecosystem service were then multipied by global surface area of each e

ber of an environmental organization, windmill near residence, age and choice based on what is best for society.

odel coefficients are estimated using the mixed multinomial logit model.

y substituting the optimal values for the two policy variables - degree of protection and annual increments in height.

Maximum WTP to have a child was also asked.

nt plants and reductions in farmers' use of nitrogen are shown in Table 2.

rpretation
of yes rate
responses.
Thethroughout
standard interpretation
included
responsesThe
to the
original
question,
while the
conservativ
on
in the hazard
pertaining
one's remaining
life areyes
estimated.
implied
value
of a statistical
life
of an ave

ction of the bid amount (estimated including observations in which respondents answered all of the survey questions). Equat
ondents answering 'no' to a question following the dichotomous choice contingent valuation question asking whether respond

y the companies ought to pay, given less information in the questionnaire, Prajs customer, considers motoring a serious proble

ber of environmental organization, price change*university education, fish, fish*fisherman, bird, bird*bird-watcher, benthic i
US$3,056. The report noted that although the size of these benefits varies a lot, they usually are at least on the same order as t
mated standard errors for the mean willingness to pay values. The authors examined if the intervals for mean willingness to p

ee per day and no bag-limit and residents in the south of Sweden as dummy variables.

ure, and number of ski days

re available, the scenery, and the presence of snowmobiles (for skiers function only). Both functions were estimated using a c
odel coefficients are estimated using maximum likelihood techniques.

an then be denoted M=(SUM)Ms, from s=1 to S. The set of k (k = k,..,K) explanatory variables or regressors are further deno

abatement cost was calculated using the Chander-Tulkens model and the mean willingness to pay from each country.

s did not include indirect, existence and moral values of genetic diversity, these values were interpreted as lower bounds of th

angling: 237.04 SEK per extra kilo, 731.79 SEK per extra fish. 4. Coastal angling 15.85 SEK per extra kilo, 6.89 SEK per ex
a kilo,
61.67
SEK per extra
and 114.38
SEK
per additional
fishing
3. River
angling:
206.72
per extra
kilo, 358
ness
to pay.
Double-log
OLSfish
regressions
were
undertaken
to examine
theday.
effect
of different
factors
onSEK
reported
willingness
to

ected studies gives the WTP pp/py for the specific habitat/species. These values were adjusted by the ratio of average EU inc
uring the summer 360.26 SEK per visit. Laholmsbukten: Mean WTP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 11.07 SEK per kg, me

r of household members who angle in Swedish fresh water, household income and level of education.

basement, furnished attic, basement and furnished attic, special conditions likely to increase market price, special conditions
ome, gross rateable value of house, reduction of rateable value due to presence of radon radiation

per kg, mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 2505.94 SEK per kg.

the summer 369.13 SEK per person and year 61.78 SEK per visit.

ing the summer 923.34 SEK per person and year 154.66 SEK per visit. 1999: Mean WTP for reducing one kilo of nitrogen 18

ch gave the most value for the money, could not afford to pay more for green electricity, would rather spend money to make o
green electricity, public sector and electricity cost share

ed willingness-to-pay; if non-human interest is an important motive for willingness-to-pay; if payment is a yearly tax rather th

together both the costs of pollution abatement and related economic benefit estimates in a cost-benefit analysis framework.
hic characteristics. General linear multiple regression models were used, and non-linear relationships were fitted to the mode

r or not the individual stated they were not willing to change their coffee habits, and whether or not they belonged to a non-pr

ncluded: whether or not the respondent owns his or her residence, receives substantial information in the questionnaire, does
come, household size and education. The model was estimated using two different measures of the quality of life, a rating sca
cs, methodology used, socioeconomic characteristics and study characteristics. The natural log of the consumer surplus was

12 allowing for lagged responses and a calibration of the solution using recent data and short-term forecasts 1996-2000.

iplied by the 179000 citizens (between 17 and 74 years) in Vasterbotten. The present value, assuming 100 year period, was a

mation about), c) out all year, d) mobile slaughter house. The coefficients were estimated with a random parameter logit mode

lution displacement can bring the net external costs for the most modern plant down to -43 Euros/tonne (for oil the same plan
y global surface area of each ecosystem type to yield an estimate of global economic totals. All estimated values from the liter

best for society.

ncrements in height.

uestion,
while the
conservative
interpretation
includedisonly
those yes
responses
to a follow-up
question that asked if respond
e of a statistical
life
of an average
remaining duration
calculated
using
this parameter
and age.

the survey questions). Equation 3: willingness to pay as a function of the bid amount and respondent's perceived change in h
estion asking whether respondents were absolutely certain that they would pay the bid amount.

ders motoring a serious problem and disapproves of restrictions on motoring.

d, bird*bird-watcher, benthic invertebrates; moderate species richness, benthic invertebrates; high species richness, river-marg
at least on the same order as the gross mitigation costs of climate change.
rvals for mean willingness to pay from the three countries were significantly different from each other. Transfer error was the

tions were estimated using a conditional logit model.

or regressors are further denoted xk,ms. Measurements from the same SP study may share many of the same values (for exam

ay from each country.

erpreted as lower bounds of the economic value of genetic diversity changes. Tables 2 and 3 present the mean WTP values fo

er extra kilo, 6.89 SEK per extra fish. 5. Guided coastal angling 19.98 SEK per extra kilo, 10.47 SEK per extra fish.
06.72
per extra
kilo, 358.31
per extra
fish and
175.02
SEK per additional
fishing
Coastal experience,
angling 12.40
SEK
ors onSEK
reported
willingness
to pay.SEK
Variables
included
age,
sex, education,
car ownership
andday.
use,4.accident
incom

by the ratio of average EU income per capita to the income levels in the countries where the studies were carried out to get a W
itrogen 11.07 SEK per kg, mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 549.20 SEK per kg.

arket price, special conditions likely to decrease market price, high radon daughter concentration, lots with special conditions

ducing one kilo of nitrogen 183.60 SEK per kg, mean WTP for reducing one kilo of phosphorus 5593.68 SEK per kg. Mean

ather spend money to make other power sources more environmentally benign, weighted all attributes against each other, gen

ayment is a yearly tax rather than a voluntary payment; if willing to reduce WYP in follow-up question; if WTP is asked only

benefit analysis framework.


nships were fitted to the models using logarithmic transformations.

not they belonged to a non-profit organization. The model was estimated using the random effects binary probit model.

ion in the questionnaire, does not live next to the railway. The model is estimated using both the multinomial logit model and
he quality of life, a rating scale (RS), and a time trade-off (TTO). The RS method asked respondents to indicate their health s
g of the consumer surplus was found to be a superior model in terms of explanatory power.

rm forecasts 1996-2000.

uming 100 year period, was also calculated.

random parameter logit model (maximum likelihood technique).

os/tonne (for oil the same plant's net external costs are -9 Euros per tonne). For incineration facilities, damage from air pollut
estimated values from the literature were converted to 1994 U.S. dollars per hectare per year.

question that asked if respondents were totally sure whether they would pay.

ondent's perceived change in health status from therapy (estimated including observations in which respondents answered all

gh species richness, river-margin vegetation and erosion; broad beach with somewhat reduced amount of plant species and bio

h other. Transfer error was the percent difference between the estimated value using benefits transfer, and the true value from

y of the same values (for example year, geographical area, payment vehicle etc) while varying along other dimensions (for ex

esent the mean WTP values for the preservation of single and multiple species, respectively obtained from contingent valuatio

7 SEK per extra fish.


Coastal experience,
angling 12.40
SEK per
kilo, 9.65perceived
SEK per relative
extra fish
and
SEK
per(their
additional
fishing
day. 5. Guided
co
e,4.accident
income,
andextra
respondents'
risk
of 77.18
driving
a car
reported
risk divided
by the av

dies were carried out to get a WTP adjusted to EU average. The total benefit of preservation of habitats/species may be derive

n, lots with special conditions likely to increase the market price, lots with special conditions likely to decrease the market pr

s 5593.68 SEK per kg. Mean WTP for increasing the Secchi depth one meter during the summer 804.44 SEK per person and

ributes against each other, gender, monthly household income, children, education and electricity heated house.

uestion; if WTP is asked only for one issue (global warming); if the sample is drawn from the Swedish sample, and if the scen

ects binary probit model.

e multinomial logit model and the random parameter logit model.


dents to indicate their health status on a scale between 0 (dead) and 100 (full health) with and without the HRT. The differenc

ilities, damage from air pollution is the largest contributor to external costs. Total external costs for landfills range from 15 to

ich respondents answered all of the survey questions). Equation 4: willingness to pay as a function of the bid amount and res

mount of plant species and biomass growth, river-margin vegetation and erosion; broad beach with high amount of plant spec

nsfer, and the true value from an original study.

long other dimensions (for example WTP question format).

ined from contingent valuation (CV) studies. Table 4 links the value of biodiversity to the value of natural habitat conservatio

onal fishing
day. 5. Guided
coastal angling
22.05 by
SEK
per extra
13.78 SEK
percar
extra
fishMarginal
and 158.48
per additiona
eported
risk divided
by the average
risk, adjusted
reported
carkilo,
use versus
average
use).
ratesSEK
of substitution
w

habitats/species may be derived by multiplying the adjusted WTP pp/py with the 365 millions (total EU-15 population).

kely to decrease the market price and built before 1910

r 804.44 SEK per person and year 134.68 SEK per visit.

y heated house.

wedish sample, and if the scenario comprised a larger scope of the environmental good. The model specification was semi-log

ithout the HRT. The difference between the two numbers was then divided by 100. The TTO method asked respondents state

s for landfills range from 15 to 20 Euros per tonne (for a modern versus an old site), with pollution displacement negligible.

tion of the bid amount and respondent's perceived change in health status from therapy, gender, age, income, education, and h

with high amount of plant species and biomass growth. The dependent variable is binary indicating the choice of the responde

e of natural habitat conservation obtained using CV method. Table 5 links biodiversity value to the value of protection of natu

and
158.48
per additional
fishing
day. via a two-stage procedure. First, reported risk and income were regressed on age.
arginal
ratesSEK
of substitution
were
examined

otal EU-15 population).

del specification was semi-log.

ethod asked respondents state how many years of full health would be equivalent to 30 years of life with menopausal symptom

ion displacement negligible.

age, income, education, and household size (estimated including observations in which respondents answered all of the surve

ng the choice of the respondent.

he value of protection of natural areas with high tourism and outdoor recreational demand obtained using CV and other altern

ncome were regressed on age. Then, estimated values of risk and income were included in a log-log regression of willingness

life with menopausal symptoms. The full health years was then divided by 30 years to calculate the measure used.

ents answered all of the survey questions). These models were run including and excluding uncertain responses, for a total o

ned using CV and other alternative valuation methods including travel cost and tourism revenues. Table 6 present the biodive

-log regression of willingness to pay, along with age.

the measure used.

certain responses, for a total of eight estimated equations.

es. Table 6 present the biodiversity values linked to ecosystem functions and ecological services, particularly those relating to

, particularly those relating to soil and wind erosion, water quality, and wetland ecosystem's functions. These values were bas

nctions. These values were based on CV and other methods such as averting behavior, replacement costs, production function

ent costs, production function, and hedonic price. Table 7 presents the range of monetary estimates of biodiversity values. Th

tes of biodiversity values. The range of values depended on the level of life diversity, the biodiversity value type, and the valu

versity value type, and the valuation method used.

List of acronyms and abbreviations


BG
Bidding game
CBA
Cost benefit analysis
CE
Choice experiment
CM
Choice modelling
CS
Consumer surplus
CV
Compensating variation
CVM Contingent valuation method
DC
Discrete choice
DE
Defensive expenditure method
EV
Equivalent variation
HCM Human capital method
HP
Hedonic price method
MBDC Multiple bounded discrete choice
MCS
Marginal consumer surplus
MWTP Marginal willingness to pay
OE
Open-ended
PC
Payment card
PF
Production function method
RC
Replacement costs
REC
Restoration costs
RP
Revealed preference methods
RUM Random utility model
SEK
Swedish kronor
SP
Stated preference methods
TCM
Travel cost method
TDB
Tourism and travel database
WTA
Willingness to accept
WTP
Willingness to pay

r
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

GDP per capita fixed prices, index


Consumer price index
100.0
100.0
99.7
112.1
100.8
121.7
102.6
132.6
106.9
143.2
109.0
153.8
111.9
160.3
115.4
167.0
117.9
176.7
120.4
188.1
120.6
207.8
118.5
227.2
116.4
232.4
113.3
243.2
116.9
248.5
120.8
254.8
122.3
256.0
125.0
257.3
129.6
257.0
135.3
258.1
141.0
260.7
142.1
267.1
144.4
272.8
146.3
278.1
151.8
279.2
155.6
280.4
161.5
284.22