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21

20 40
Highway Capacity
Manual HCM50 65 85 85 94 85 97 2000
HCM


2003 6

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ii

2002
175.8 2.52
2020

1-1

1-1


1
15min

1h

Veh/h
/pcu/h/ pcu/h/ln//

2
3

5
6

6
7

1-1

1-1


pcu/h/lnkm/h

V/C

pcu/h/lnV/C

pcu/hV/C
pcu/h/lnkm/h

V/C
%km/h
V/C

s/

s/

s/

km/h

//hpcu/h

m 2 /

36

1- 1- 1

120km/h


pcu/km/ln

1-

(km/h)

100km/h

(pcu/h/ln)

(km/h)

(pcu/h/ln)

109

0.34

750

92

0.30

650

18

90

0.74

1600

79

0.64

1400

25

78

0.88

1950

71

0.82

1800

42

53

42

53

1.00

2200

1.00

2200

52

80km/h


pcu/km/ln

52

(km/h)

60km/h

(pcu/h/ln)

(km/h)

(pcu/h/ln)

74

0.25

500

56

0.22

400

18

66

0.58

1150

51

0.50

900

25

60

0.75

1500

47

0.67

1200

42

48

42

48

1.00

2000

1.00

1800

43
43

pcu/km

/ln

(km/

(km/h)

60km/h

(pcu/h
/ln)

92

0.38

650

74

18

78

0.67

1400

65

25

70

0.83

1750

60

42

50
1.00

2100

1.00

1950

42

50

80km/h

(pcu/h
/ln)

h)

100km/h

1-

(km/h)

500

56

0.27

0.60

1150

50

0.63

900

0.76

1500

47

0.80

1150

1.00

1650

0.26

46
46

39

30
60
80

<100

(km/h)
78
67
59
48
48

0.15
0.40
0.64
1.00

2500

1-

(pcu/h
/ln)
400
1000
1600

(km/h)
65
56
48
40
40

400

39

(pcu/h
/ln)

0.15
0.38
0.58

(pcu/h
/ln)
350
900
1350

1.00

2300

(km/h)
55
48
42
37
37

0.14
0.37
0.54

(pcu/h
/ln)
300
800
1150

1.00

2100

1. 1-2 1-3 1-4


2. 1-2 1-3 1-4 V

3 11 6
2
6

5%

11 6 1-5

5
6

2
2.2m
2
2.2-2.95m
2
2.95-4.6m
2 4.6m
3
4
3

1-5


1L

1.5t 12
1.5 ~ 5t 12

5 ~ 14t >50

14t
10

1-6 1-7 1-8

1-6

2
2.95m

1.5t 12

2
>2.95m

1.5 ~ 10t 12

10t

1
2

2.2m
2.22.95 m

2.95m

1-7


1
1.5t 12
1.5 ~ 10t 12

10t
50
10
7

LV

MHV

LHV

TC

1-8

1m

2m

1.6 ~ 2.39

2
3
2
2
3
3
3,4,5,6
4

2.4 ~ 2.99
1.7 ~ 3.0
3.0 ~ 4.49
4.5 ~ 7.0
4.6 ~ 7.0
3.0 ~ 7.0
3.0 ~ 7.0

>1.8

>5
<1.8
<1.8 >3.0

20 80
20 7080
10

31%
6.6%
WTO

PCE
1965 HCM

2 PCE

PCE
PCE PCE
PCE PCE
1-2

PCE

1-2

PCE
9

PCE

PCE
-

PCE

PCE

PCE

PCE

1-91-10

1-9

<14m

V/C (veh/h)
<0.2
0.45
0.7
>0.7
<0.2
0.45
0.7
>0.7
<0.2
0.45
0.7
>0.7
<650
1400
1750
>1750
<500
1150
1500
>1500
<400
900
1150
>1650
10

1.0
1.2
1.4
1.1
1.0
1.2
1.5
1.2
1.3
1.5
2.5
1.3
1.2
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.7
1.8
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.0
1.8

1.2
1.6
1.5
1.3
2.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
1.5
4.0
3.5
1.6
1.4
1.7
1.6
1.2
1.6
2.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
4.0
3.5
2.5

1.5
2.0
2.0
1.5
3.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
6.0
5.0
3.0
1.6
2.0
2.0
1.4
2.5
4.0
3.0
1.8
3.0
7.0
5.0
4.0

2.0
4.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
6.0
5.0
5.0


veh/h/ln
1000
1000
1500
1000
1000
1500

0
1.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
7.0
6.0

1
1.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
9.0
8.0

2
1.5
3.4
3.0
2.0
10.0
8.0

%
3
4
2.0
2.0
3.8
4.5
3.3
4.0
2.5
2.5
11.0
13.0
9.0
11.0

1-10
5
2.5
5.5
4.8
3.0
14.0
12.0

6
2.5
6.5
5.5
3.0
15.0
14.0

1-11


1.0

1.7

1-11

3.0

20 40

1950
(Highway Capacity Manual, HCM)

FHWA
1965 1985

1994 HCM HCM2000

20 80
90

20 80

( 70%)
1983
4 8

11

1996

HCM 1994
HCM ARRB SIDRA
CAPCAL
PTDESGN

AADT

12

40 1-12

1-12

4
4
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
3
3
40

13

14

5s

35km/h 1.5m

35km/h

15

JTJ001-97
2-1
2

2-1

(m)
80km/h
40km/h
60km/h
30km/h
40 20km/h()
40 20km/h()

12.0
8.5
8.5
7.5
7.0
6.5


1.5
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
1.5


9.0
7.0
7.0
6.0
6.0
3.5

16

2
3

5
2-1

(,
,,)

2-1

Transportation Research Board


17

Highway Capacity Manual HCM




5min




7
123
123
123
10%130%250%3
0%130%260%3
123
123
2-2 2-3

2-2

<3

<3

<3

<3

>700

>400

>200

>100

<4

<5

<6

<6

>400

>250

>125

>60

>4

>5

>6

>6

<400

<250

<125

<60

18

2-3

2-4

2km

7~15m
0~3m

2-4

125

10
10
8

2-1
N(SK/E) 2

2-1

N
S 5km/h~10km/h
K=95%K=1.96
E=2km/h
95% 2km/h 10km/h
96 5min 8h 5km/h
24
6 8h


19


2-2

2-4

a
b
c
d
e 200m

2km

2-3

2-3

20

W
2-5
km/h

2-5

W=7m

44.8

56.4

49.5

47.9

W=9m

51.1

64.2

55.3

54.9

W=12m

58.6

75.1

60.8

60.4

W=14m

61.4

83.9

67.2

64.7

FV=FV O +FV CW +FV TER +FV FRIC +FV REDEV


FVkm/h
FVO km/h
FV CW km/h
FV TER km/h
FV FRIC km/h
FV REDEV km/h
1FV O
21

2-2

FVCAR = a + FCW CW + FTER TERRAIN + FSW + FRIC FRIC

(2-3)

FV CAR km/h
a
CW(m)
SW(m)
TERRAIN
FRIC 1 5

FCW FTER F SW F FRIC

FV O
FV O = FV
CAR + F CW CW -CW + FTER

TERRAIN

-TERRAIN
+ F SW SW -SW+ FFRIC FRIC -FRIC

2-4




1 5km/h

10km/h
9m 7m
85km/h 73km/h
2

2-6
12m

FV CW 2-4
22

[H1]:

2-4

m
6
7
8
9
10
11
12-15

2-6

km/h
-20.0
-15.0
-8.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0

2-5
5km/h
5km/h 10km/hFV TER 2-7

2-5

km/h
0.0
-5.0
-10.0
23

2-7


2-6
1 5 30%
FV FRIC 2-8

2-6

1
2
3
4
5

2-8

km/h
-4.0
-8.0
-12.0
-15.0
-20.0


FV REDEV

%
20
40
60
80
100

2-9

km/h
-3.0
-5.0
-8.0
-10.0
-13.0

1
2-10 C 0
2500veh/h

24

2-10

9m
80km/h
1.5m
>250m

0
50/50

C
C= C 0 f CW f DIR f FRIC f HV

2-5

Cpcu/h
C 0 pcu/h
f CW 2-11
f DIR 2-12
f FRIC 2-13
f HV

(m)
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 ~ 15

2-11

0.52
0.56
0.84
1.00
1.16
1.32
1.48

%
50/50
55/45
60/40
65/35
70/30

2-12

1.00
0.97
0.94
0.91
0.88

25

2-13


1
2
3
4
5


0.91
0.83
0.74
0.65
0.57

f HV
f HV =

1
1 + Pi ( E i 1)

2-6

P i i
E i i 2-14

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.5

2.5

2-14

1.7

3.5

0.2

K( 0.09)
AADT= /K

2-7

26

1-4
4

1h C D

1 AADT K( 0.09)
D 50/50 1-4 DDHV

6 i V/C i
7V/C i
8
2-7

27

V/C

(,
,,)

2-7

i
V/C i

MSVi

MSVi = C 0 (V / C ) i

2-8

MSVi i pcu/h 2-14

C0 pcu/h 2500 pcu/h


(V / C) i i

28

2-15

i (V/C)

0.15
0.15
0.14
0.40
0.38
0.37
0.64
0.58
0.54
1.00

1.00

2
C D
C D = MSVi f CW f DIR f FRIC f HV

2-9

C D pcu/h
f CW f DIR f FRIC f HV

2-1
48.8km/h85% 54.5km/h 7s 27% 10s
54.5% 9m

430

1120

518

582

252

178

500

6900

2-14

Q = 430 0.8 +11201.0 + 5181.5 + 582 2.5 + 2521.7 +178 3.5 + 500 0.6 + 6900 0.2 = 6428
pcu/d
2-112-122-13

C= C 0 f CW f DIR f FRIC f HV =2500 0.8 1.00 1.00 0.65 0.6= 780pcu/d


K=0.1
AADT=780/0.1=7800pcu/d
6428 pcu/d

29

2-2

AADTveh/d

A-B
C-D
E-F
G-H

A-B
C-D
E-F
G-H

3199
3904
3927
2771

4510
3440
2371
6175

2785
3816
1744
1990

1959
2874
2020
1230

veh/d

13021
15451
14024
12462
13740

17646
24036
19492
15337
19128

270
220
30
84

298
1197
932
212

71
66
65
75
69

2-14 69%
C-D 24036 pcu/d 19128 pcu/d 1196pcu/h

PHF 0.90 K 0.12


D 0.55
DDHV=AADTKD=240360.120.55=1586 pcu/h

70%

1050 pcu/h/ln

N=DDHV/(1050PHF)=1586/10500.9=1.7
2 4

1
2
3
4

1 10m 1m

32% 26% 41% 1%


30


2 1.5m AADT
1000pcu/d 0.09,
9m 36.3% 29.3% 29.7%
4.7%

31


1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

32


3-1

3-1

km/h

100

60

2*7.5

2*7.0

25.50

22.50

24.00

20.00

400

125

160

75

20 80 19701980

3 4

33

v = L /( Ti / N )

3-1

i =1

v
L
T i i
N

v s = vt t2 / vt

3-2

v s
v t

3%

8s

85% 90km/h
15% 65km/h 50% 85km/h

3-1 107
6

1/5

34

140

120

(veh)

100

80
60
40
20

3-1

30

28

26

24

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

0
(s)

107


1h

9:35

9:20

9:05

8:50

8:35

8:20

8:05

7:50

7:35

(veh/h)

1500
1000
500
0

(a) ()

3:45

3:30

3:15

3:00

2:45

2:30

2:15

2:00

1500
1000
500
0
1:45

(veh/h)

(b)()

3-2

3-2 5min 1182veh/h 15min 1016veh/h


802 veh/h 5min

35


15min
15min PHF
PHF=/4 15min
HCM 0.80~0.98
0.95

EEV
PSV
PED
SMV

FRIC = A EEV + B PSV + C PED + D SMV

3-3

FVPC = a + b RAC + c TRAF + d SW + e LU + f CW

3-4

FVPC
RAC=1=2=3
TRAF=1=2=3
CW
SW
LU

FVPC
FV

FV = a + ( A EEV + B PSV + C PED + D SMV )

3-5

A=4.346678

B=2.776435

C=0.543876

D=0.523576

,
,
36

EEV=1.0

PSV=0.8

PED=0.6

SMV=0.4

18%14%20%

3-3 2km
0 7 86km/h 48km/h
40%
90

80

(km/h)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

3-3

3-2

1
2
3
4

0.95
0.90
0.85
0.75

3-2

4 6 3-3

85.6km/h, 76.6km/h, 10%

37

3-3

km/h

SVQ007
3/6D

54.5
47.2
40.2

SVQ008
2/4UD

78.9

59.1

SVQ009
2/4D

83.5

66.0

SVQ010
3/6D

81.4
72.8
71.5

SVQ011
3/6D

96.5
87.2
81.9

SVQ012
2/4UD

82.6

82.2

SVQ013
3/6D

79.9
69.8
50.7

SVQ017
3/6D

81.1
70.7
54.0

SVQ018
2/4D

63.3

54.4

SVQ021
2/4UD

52.5

49.2

SVQ022
3/6D

66.2
61.9
58.4

SVQ023
2/4UD

68.3

66.5

SVQ025
3/6D

76.4
72.2
69.0

SVQ007 7
3/6D
2/4UD

3-4
20%

SVQ008
SVQ009
SVQ010
SVQ011
SVQ013
SVQ017
SVQ018
SVQ021
SVQ022
SVQ023
SVQ025

(%)

12.5
8.0
3.7
7.0
1.4
6.0
3.1
7.3
2.5
5.0
2.9
10.0
4.7
9.0
7.8
7.7
16.5

km/h

78.9
83.5
81.4
72.8
96.5
87.2
79.9
69.8
81.1
70.7
72.4
52.5
66.2
61.9
68.3
76.4
72.2

3-4


3-5
35%

38

SVQ008
SVQ009
SVQ010
SVQ011
SVQ013
SVQ017
SVQ018
SVQ022
SVQ023
SVQ025

2.9
34.4
1.2
14.4
0
31.8
0
12.9
0
36.7
0
64.1
1.6
26.5

10.9
3.3
29.8
0
31.9

km/h

78.9
59.1
83.5
66.0
81.4
71.5
96.5
81.9
80.0
50.7
81.0
54.0
72.4
64.5

58.4
68.3
66.5
76.4
51.6

3-5

f HV = 1

[1 + p i ( E i 1)]

3-6

p i i

E i i
6

c = c0 f w f HV f e f p

3-7

f W 3.75m
1.00 3.50m 0.96
f HV
f e
f p 1.00
39

c 0 veh/h;
c
f c

f c = f w f HV f e f p

3-8

3-6

3-6

0.9~1

0.8~0.9
0.8~0.9

0.6~0.7
0.6~0.7

0.5~0.6

pcu/h/ln

2000
1500
1300

2000
1300

2000
1100
1000

40

3-7

3-7

V/C
veh/h/ln
km/h
veh/km/ln

12
75
0.50
1000

19
70
0.65
1300

26
60
0.80
1600
42
48
1.00
2000

42
48

C 2000 veh/h/ln

3-8

10%

11
18
24
39

40

15%
SFL

82
1000
11
82
78
1450
18
78
67
1700
24
67
48
1850
39
48

40
30%

SFL

10
80
800
9
16
78
1200
14
22
65
1400
19
35
48
1700
32

35

32
//

3-8

20%
SFL

25%
SFL

SFL

11
82
950
10
80
900
18
78
1300
16
75
1250
24
67
1550
22
65
1500
39
48
1700
35
48
1650
40
35
50%
70%

SFL

SFL
74
650
8
70
550
68
950
13
63
800
60
1150
18
57
1050
46
1500
29
44
1300

29

km/hSFL veh/h
950
1350
1600
1750

41


1. AADTDDHVveh/h/

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.


1. AADT DDHV.

DDHV = AADT K D

3-9

K AADT

D
K D
K D
K D
K

0.070.10

0.100.15

0.150.20
D
42

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

2.

N = DDHV / [ c 0 (v / c ) i f w f HV f p f e

3-10

(v / c) i

DDHV

3. c = c 0 f w f HV f e f p

4.

3.1
0.60m

3.75m 100km/h

3.75 3.75

3.75 3.75

100km/h

2000veh/h/ln 15%
0.91?
43

3-5 0.6
c 0 =2000/0.91=2198veh/h

N =2
f c =0.6
3-7 c = 2198 0.6 = 1319 veh/h/ln
3-6
3.2
DDHV 1800veh/h/ln
5% 0.9
0.7 v/c

1 3.75m2
34100km/h
c = 1800 0.9 = 2000 veh/h/ln

v / c = 0.7
c 0 =2000veh/h/ln

3-5 f c =0.8
3-9 N=1.8

0.7

v/c=2000/2000/2/0.8=0.625 0.7

c = 2000 0.8 = 1600


3.5m

f w = 0.96, f HV = 0.95, f e = 0.90


c = 2000 0.96 0.95 0.90 1.00 = 1640 veh/h/ln
3.5m

1
2
3?
44

45

25000~55000veh(pcu/d)
JTJ001
97

1
2

4-1
15min 1h

4-1

45

120km/h

27.5m

0.75m

2.75m

4-1

F=

3600
H av

4-1

Fveh/h/ln veh/h
Havs/veh
4
PP
PT
TP
TT

Fp =

3600
H avpp

Sp = Sp

Dp =

Fp
Sp

4-2

4-3

4-4

Fp(pcu/h/lnpcu/h)
Sp(km/h)
Dp(pcu/km/ln)
75%

46

Fp = PCEi N i

4-5

PCEii
Nii
4-3 4-4

10% 1.0m

2%

,
,
,

4-1 m%

4-1

%
m


3
1000


4
700

pcu/h

47


4
700

DDHV = AADT K D

4-6

DDHVpcu/h
AADTpcu/d
K 0.09
D %
4-2


veh/h/ln
0
1000
1500
0
1000
1500

0%
1.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
7.0
6.0

1%
1.5
2.8
2.5
2.0
9.0
8.0

2%
1.5
3.4
3.0
2.0
10.0
8.0

4-2

3%
2.0
3.8
3.3
2.5
11.0
9.0

4%
2.0
4.5
4.0
2.5
13.0
11.0

5%
2.5
5.5
4.8
3.0
14.0
12.0

6%
2.5
6.5
5.5
3.0
15.0
14.0

2 4-4 4-5 fHVfSWfCW

3 2
4

48

2km

4-2

200m

800m

800m

200m

200m

800m

4-2

49

3
,

K
n =

4-7

n
=8.5km/h=6.8km/h
=5.2km/h
K 4-1
E 1.5~2km/h

K
n

r2
1 +
2

4-8

n K E
r 0.0015% 85% 1.045% 95%
1.64
() 10km/h 95%
4-3 K 1.96E 2km/h 96
961560=24h 5min
96560=8h 24h15min
8h5min

86.6
95.0
99.0
99.7

4-3
K
1.50
1.96
2.58
3.00

4-10 4-11
VtVs
8s
Vt =

1
N

i =1

50

4-9

Vs =

1
1
N

i =1

4-10
1
Vi

Vt (km/h)
Vs (km/h)
N

Vi (km/h)

0~200km/h 5km/h 40

1
15min 1h

CB =

3600
t

4-11

C B pcu/h

t s
1201008060(km/h) C B 22002200
2000 1800pcu/h/ln
2

C = C 0 f CW f SW f HV

4-12

Cveh/h

C0pcu/h
fCW
fSW
fHV
3

fCW

51

fCW

4-4

km/h

3.75m

3.5m

120

1.0

0.98

100

1.0

0.97

80

1.0

0.97

60

1.0

0.97

fSW

fSW

(m)

4-5

(m)

0.25

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.98

0.99

0.98

0.99

1.00

fHV

f HV =

1 + PLHV (PCELHV

1
1) + PTC (PCETC 1)

4-13

PLHV

PTC

PCELHV
PCETC

1
Q

2
4-4
QX
52

X Y

pcu/h/ln

2500

2000

1500
1000
500
0

18

25

pcu/km/ln

4-3
-

140

km/h

120
100
80
60
40

Sf=120km/h
Sf=100km/h
Sf=80km/h
Sf=60km/h

20
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200 1400

1600 1800

2000

2200

pcu/h/ln

4-4

53

V / C


4-3 4-4 1-2

AADT


1

AADT

V / C

2
DDHV

DDHV = AADT K D
4-14
AADT
K AADT
D
K D

N = DDHV / SFL PHF


DDHV = AADT K D
N
DDHV
SFL
PHF
AADT
K
54

4-15
4-16

N
N

C = C 0 f CW f SW f HV
Cpcu/h
C0pcu/h
fCW
fSW
fHV

O=

1
L K
1000

4-17

L m / veh
Kveh/km
Greenshields Q v
K

v = aK + b

55

4-18

Q = Kv = K (aK + b) = aK 2 + bK

4-19

4-18 4-19

Q=

1000 2 a
1000b
O2 +
O
2
L
L

4-20

ab Q v K veh/hkm/h veh/km/ln
4-18
a=-1.26b=105.17 6.0m 4-19 4-20
4-21

v =1.0871.26 O
Q =-3500 O 2 +17528 O

4-22

4-5

4-5

4-22
O=17528/235000=0.2504
2

Capa.=Qmax=-350000.254 +175280.2504=2195veh/h/ln
2

56


4-6

4-6
3 3

SVQ006GF
SVQ006FG
SVQ030GF
SVQ030FG
SVQ004GH
SVQ004HG
SVQ001FK
SVQ005GS
SVQ002FK
SVQ002KF
SVQ003FK
SVQ027HP
SVQ027PH
SVQ028SG
SVQ029GS
SVQ029SG

%
78
79
70
77
71
60
83
76
80
78
79
72
75
76
74
73

4-6

% km/h %
83.8
81.0
76
80
76.5
79.9
104.9
102.0
104.9
103.1
75
106
108.5
109.9
104.7
108.9
112.6
121.9
74
122
118.6
125.1

4-6 4-7

8veh/km/ln 4-6
8
78.8 78.8km/h
8
8 4-8

78.8
v=
1.022 K + 86.98
57

K [0,8]
K (8, K j ]

4-23

Q = K v

78.8K
Q=
2
85.11v 0.98v

K [0,8]
K [0,78.8]

4-24

78.8 K
Q=
2
86.98K 1.022 K

K [0,8]
K [8, K j ]

4-25

v
K
4-8 4-9

5min 1000veh/h

4-20 4-10~4-15
120
Y=0.575X+70.8
R2=0.0015

km/h

100
80
60
40

20
0
1

km/h

4-6

6
4
5
veh/km/ln

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Y=-1.022X+86.98
R2=0.4162

4-7

10

20
25
15
30
veh/km/ln

35

40

45

58

120

km/h

100

80
60
40
20
0
0

400

200

600

800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200


pcu/h/ln

4-8

2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400

200
0
0

10

25
20
15
pcu/km/ln

35

30

40

4-9

140

120
100

km/h

pcu/h

2200

80
60
40
20
0
0

100

200

4-10

300

400
600 700
500
pcu/h/ln

800

59

900

1000

140
Y=0.2344X+98.4
R2=0.012

120

km/h

100
80
60
40
20
0
0

100

200

300

400
500
600
pcu/h/ln

700

800

900

1000

4-11

1400

pcu/h/ln

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

4-12

6
8
pcu/km/ln

10

12

14

16

3.5

4.0

160
140

km/h

120
100
Y=-0.2591X+115.1
R2=-0.0342

80
60
40
20
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

4-13

1.5

2.0
2.5
pcu/km/ln

3.0

60

160
140

km/h

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

200

400

4-14

600
pcu/h

800

1000

1200

1200

pcu/h

1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

4
5
6
pcu/km/ln

10

4-15

98.4
v=
1.34 K + 104.85

K [0,4.8]
K (4.8, K j ]

4-26

98.4 K
Q=
2
78.01v 0.744v

K [0,4.8]
K (0,98.4]

4-27

98.4 K
Q=
2
104.85K 1.344 K

61

K [0,4.8]
K (4.8, K j ]

4-28

K [0,3.8]
K (3.8, K j ]

115.5
v=
1.733K + 122.086

4-29

115.5K
Q=
2
70.45v 0.577v

K [0,3.8]
K (3.8, K j ]

4-30

K [0,3.8]
K (3.8, K j ]

4-31

115.5 K
Q=
2
122.08K 1.733K

4-16
130
Sf=115.5km/h

100
90
80

Sf=98.4km/h

km/h

120
110

Sf=78.8km/h

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

200

400

600

800 1000 1200


pcu/h/ln

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

4-16

78.8km/h98.4km/h 115.5km/h

4-17~4-19
1000

100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
60

Y = 0.3985 X + 116.74
R 2 = 0.9967

70

90
100 110
80
km/h

4-17

62

120

130

4-17
0.9968
4-18~19

-0.2
Y = 0 .1105 X 1 . 8348

-0.4

R = 0 .9958
2

-0.6

-0.8
-1.0
-1.2

60

70

90 100 110
80
km/h

0
-200
Y = 0.0593X 2 + 22.429X 2377.8

-400

R2 = 1

-600
-800
-1000
-1200
60

120 130

70

90 100 110
80
km/h

120 130

4-18
4-19
4-7
4-20
4-8

4-7

4-8


km/h


(km/h)(veh/h/ln)veh/kmkm/h

120

-0.54

68.9

120

2200

34

64

100

-0.72

76.9

100

2100

40

53

80

-0.96

84.8

80

1900

43

44

140

km/h

120

Sf=120km/h

1 0 0 S f= 1 0 0 k m / h
80 Sf=80km/h
60
40
20
0
0

200

400

600

800 1000

1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

pcu/h/ln

4-20

63

Greenshields Underwood Drew


May


Thom 1972
Catastrophe Theory

5

Maxwell

Maxwell

4-21

64

120

km/h

100
80
60
40
20
0
0

500

1000
1500
veh/h

4-21

2000

2500

4-21

Bimodality 4-21

Catastrophe

Inaccessible
behavior

DivergenceHysteresis
Maxwell

Hall

W ( X ) = aX 4 + bYX 2 + cZX

4-32

4aX 3 + 2bX + cZ = 0
8b 3Y 3 + 27 ac 2 Z 2 = 0

4-33

4-34

X YZ
X Y Z a b c
Maxwell
X 0 =Y 0 =Z 0 =

65


X1

X0 Vm

4-35

Y1

Y0 Qm

4-36

Z1

Z0 Om

4-37

V m
Q m
O m

YZ Y Maxwell
Y
Y
Y Z
X2

X1

4-38

Y2

Y 1 cos mZ 1 sin

4-39

Z2

Z 1 sin mZ 1 sin

4-40

m=Q m /O m

X 23 + aY2 X 2 + bZ2 = 0

4-41

4 a 3 Y 2 + 27 b 2 Z 2 = 0
3

4-42

a,b
X 2

Vp =

X2 Vm

4-43

R2 =

[ (vio v o )(vip v p )]2


i =1

(v
i =1

io

v o ) (vip v p )

4-44

i =1

M = (v io vip ) / n

D=

_
1 n
(vip v p ) 2

n 1 i =1

vio
_

v o
66

4-45

4-46

vip
_

v p

1998
5min
4-9
4-9
0.90

2150 /h/ 58km/h

4-9

177pcu/ln/h
20.5%

ab

2.12415.28
0.90

58km/h

58km/h

8.63
-43

2150 pcu/ln/h

2100~2200pcu/h/ln
HCM
2000pcu/h/ln

2000 pcu/h/ln 200~300 pcu/h

HCM
1400pcu/h1985 2000pcu/h1994 2200/2300
pcu/h/ln

4.1
100km/h
2km 0% 23.75m 0.75m
2.7m 34% 1%V p =568veh/h

67


1 4-4 4-5

f CW =1.0 f SW =1.0 f HV =

1
=0.85
1 + [0.34 (1.5 1) + 0.01 (2.0 1)]

C = C 0 f CW f SW f HV
= 22001.01.00.85
= 1870 veh/h
3 V/C
V/C = V p / C 0 f CW f SW f HV
= 568/1870 = 0.3
4 1-2
5
V= 1870-568 = 1320 veh/h

1 AADT =45000veh/h
30%

=0.6 k =0.12

2 120km/h
DDHV =2400veh/h 30%
N

68

a
5-1

0.6m
3.6m 5-2

69

0.6m

3.6m

5-2

A B C

1A
A 5-3
A

(a)

5-3

(b)
A

(a)

(b)(b)

(a)(b)

70

2B
B
B
1
2 5-4 B

(a)

D
(b)

D
(c)

5-4

(a)(b) B C
A D (a)

(c)

3C
C B C
B


5-5 C (a) B C
A D

(b)

71

C
B

D
B

(a)
5-5

(b)
C

5-1

a
b

5-1

b
1
2

1.4
B 3.5

C
3.0

A
B C A

72

73


5-7

5-2


L
N
NW
N nw
V
VW
V w1
V W2
V nw
VR
R
SW
S nw

5-2

(m)
()
()
()
(pcu/h)
(pcu/h)
(pcu/h)
(pcu/h)
(pcu/h)
V W /V
V W2 /V W
(km/h)
(km/h)

74

N w N w(max)
N w N w(max)
N w N w(max)
N w

N w(max)
N w N w(max) 5-3
N w N w(max)

N w
A
N w =1.21N VR 0.571 L 0.234 /S w 0.438
B
N w =N [0.085+0.703VR+(71.57/L)-0.011
(S nw - S w )]
C
N w =N
[0.761 0.00036L 0.0031
( S nw - S w )+0.047VR

5-3
N w(max)
1.4
3.5
3.0

1
S W S nw
S W S nw =24.1+80.47/[1+a(0.3048) d (1+VR) b (V/N) c /L d ]

5-1

abcd 5-4
abcd

a
0.226
0.280
0.100
0.160
0.100
0.100

S W
b
c
2.2
1.00
2.2
1.00
1.2
0.77
1.2
0.77
1.8
0.85
2.0
0.85

d
0.90
0.90
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50

5-4

S nw
a
b
c
0.020
4.0
1.30
0.020
4.0
0.88
0.020
2.0
1.42
0.015
2.0
1.30
0.015
1.8
1.10
0.013
1.6
1.00

d
1.00
0.60
0.95
0.90
0.50
0.50

S W S nw 5-8 N W N w(max)
S W S nw

C W =C 0 r s r N r L r VR
C W pcu/h
75

5-2

C 0 pcu/h
r s 0.95 1.0
r N 2345 1.8
2.63.4 4
r L 0.128L n (L)+0.181
r VR 5-5

VR
r VR

0
1.000

0.05
0.980

0.10
0.971

0.15
0.966

0.20
0.959

0.25
0.942

5-5
0.30
0.909

0.35
0.853

0.40
0.768

0.45
0.647

NL
5-6
S w S nw
5-4 abcdS w
S nw VV
5-3 N w N w
N w max
3 V
5-3 N w N w max
S w AS nw - S w BC 5
A 4 S w 5-1 5-4
abcdV 3 V

BC 2 S w 4 S nw - S w S nw
5-1 5-4 abcdVV

B B A
C
C

VR A B
B
76

A
A B C
A BC
ABC A

B
C
A B C
A B C
A A B
C

5-6

5-6

km/h
km/h

80
86

72
77

64
67

54 a, b
56 a, b
A 056
B56km/h

77

15min
4
5

v=V/(PHF f hv

f w f p)

(5-3)

v 15 pcu/h
V veh/h
PHF
PHF t =/[t 60/t]
f hv
f w
f p

/h


5-4 S W S nw

78

5-3
N w N w(max)
N w N w(max) 4
N w >N w(max) S W S nw 5-1


5-7

VR R 5-1

V W

V/N

VR

1800(pcu/h)

1900(pcu/h/)

B
C

3000(pcu/h)
3000(pcu/h)

1900(pcu/h/ln)
1900(pcu/h/ln)

N
2
3
4
5

VR
1.00
0.45
0.35
0.22
0.80
0.50

5-7

0.5

610(m)

0.50
0.40

760(m)
760(m)


S W S nw 5-6

5.1
3.75m 1.75m
30%
L=300m

3000

480
250
B

5-6

79

1000


5-6 A

f w f hv f p E hv

f w =1.00,f p =1.0,E HV =1.7


f hv =1/ [1+P HV (E HV -1)]
=1/[1+0.3(1.7-1)]
=0.83

V w1 =480/[f w f hv f p ]=480/[1.000.831.0]=578pcu/h
V w2 =250/[1.000.831.0]=301pcu/h
V w =V W1 +V W2 =578+301=879pcu/h
V nw =(3000+100)/[1.000.831.0]=3735pcu/h
V = V w +V nw= 879+3735=4614pcu/h

5-6
VR=V w /V=879/4614=0.191
R=V w2 /V w =301/879=0.342
L=300m
S w S nw
S w S nw =24.1+

80.47
1 + a (0.3048) (1 + VR) b (V / N ) c / Ld
d

A
a

Sw

0.226

2.2

1.0

0.9

S nw

0.020

4.0

1.3

1.0

S w =69.4km/h

S nw =81.9km/h

S w S nw N w
5-3
N W =1.21N VR 0.571 L 0.234 /S w 0.438

=1.21 4 0.191 0.571 300 0.234 /69.4 0.438


=1.12

5-3AN w(max) =1.4N w N w(max)


4 S w S nw

V w 1800

V/N1900

VR0.35


80

R0.5

L610m

5-6
5.2
5-7
A-x=900pcu/h

B-x=400pcu/h

A-y=1000pcu/h

5-7 5-7
BA-y B-x
A-y B-x C-x

L2=450m

L1=300m

1
900

900+400
400
100
0

300
100
0

200

1000

5-7

+20

R=400/1400=0.286, VR=1400/2500=0.560.

R=300/1500=0.200, VR=1500/2900=0.517

S w S nw
S w =24.1+80.47/[1+0.1(0.3048) 0.5 (1+0.56) 1..2 (2500/3) 0.77 /300 0.5 ]
=65.1km/h
S nw =24.1+80.47/[1+0.02(0.3048) 0.95 (1+0.56) 2.0 (2500/3) 1.42 /300 0.95 ]
=64.7km/h

N w
N w =N [0.085+0.703VR+(71.57/L)+0.011(S nw -S w )]

=3 [0.085+0.703 0.56+(71.57/300)-0.011(64.7-65.1)]=2.2

5-3N w(max) =3.5N w N wmax0 S w S nw

5-7
81

5-6 S w =65.1km/hS nw =64.7km/h

S w S nw
S w =24.1+80.47/[1+0.1(0.3048) 0.5 (1+0.517) 1..2 (2900/3) 0.77 /450 0.5 ]
=67.5km/h
S nw =24.1+80.47/[1+0.02(0.3048) 0.95 (1+0.517) 2.0 (2900/3) 1.42 /450 0.95 ]
=69.3km/h

N w
N w =3 [0.085+0.703 0.517+(71.57/450)-0.011(69.3-67.5)]=1.76

5-3N w(max) =3.5 N w N w(max) S w S nw

5-7

5-6 S w S nw

1
2
3
4

1 3.75m

pcu/h
L=300m
C

1500

A
700

C
1000

1000

2AC =975veh/hAD =650 veh/h


BC =620 veh/hBD=0 veh/h 10%
PHF 0.85 3.75m
82

L=300m
C

83

84



6-1a

(a)

(b)

6-1


6-1(b)
270
270


6-2
6-2(a)

6-2(b)(c)


6-3
85

6-3


6-4

6-2

6-3

6-4

86

2
(Fv)

(C)
()

87

6-1

FV=(FV0+FFVW+FFVV+FFVSL+FFVUD)FFVS
FVkm/h
FV0km/h
FFVWkm/h
FFVVkm/h
FFVSLkm/h
FFVS
FFVUDkm/h
FV0
FV0
FV0=127R(i+)

6-2

FV0km/h
Rm
i

6-1

km/h

(m)

80
280
230

60
150
120

50
100
80

6-1
40
60
45

35
40
35

30
30
25

0.05-0.20

<0.10
=0.15
88

=0.20
=0.35
>0.40
0.12
FFVW

FFVW

FFVW 6-2

6-2

<6.00
6.50
7.00

-8
-3
0
*

7.50
2

>8.00
5

FFVV

6-3 :

(km/h)
80
60
(m)
110(135)
75(100)
*

6-3

50
65(70)

40
45(45)

35
35

30
30

FFVV
6-4
()
Sm
S135
75S135
S75

6-4

km/h
0
-3
-5

2 6-5

()
Sm
S270
150S270

km/h
0
-3

89

6-5

S150

-5

FFVSL

FFVSL 6-6

(km/h)
(m)
500
500-1000
1000

<3
0
0
0

%
3
4
5
0
-2.3
-5.4
-0.3
-3.7
-7.7
-0.4
-4.6
-9.1

6
-8.5
-12.0
-13.7

<3
0
0
0

6-6
%
3
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
-0.3
0
0
-0.4

6
-0.3
-3.7
-4.6

FFVS

FFVS

FFVS 1.00

FFVS 6-7

6-7
FFVS
1
0.9

FFVUD

FFVUD
FFVUD
FFVUD 3km/h 5km/hFFVUD 5km/h

90

3km/h

6-8
FFVUDkm/h

5
3

C=

3600
hmin

6-3

C h

hmin
hmin = t + 3.6

S + L0 + Lveh
v

6-4

t 1.2s

v (km/h)
L0 (m) 5~10m

Lveh (m) 5m()


S
S=

v12
254( + )

6-5

v (km/h);

;
= f + i f i
6-5 6-9

(km/h)
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

+9
720
923
1059
1147
1200
1230
1242
1242

+6
719
920
1054
1139
1189
1217
1227
1225

+3
717
917
1048
1130
1179
1203
1211
1208
91

%
0
716
913
1041
1120
1166
1188
1194
1188

-3
714
909
1034
1110
1154
1165
1176
1168

pcu/h
-6
712
905
1027
110
1140
1156
1157
1147

6-9
-9
710
900
1018
1087
1124
1138
1136
1124

/h

C C C W f HV

6-6

C
C
C W
f HV

f HV f HV

f HV =

[1 + PHV ( E HV

1
1) + PMHV ( E MHV 1)]

6-7

P HV
E HV
P MHV
E MHV
f HV 6-10
f HV
(%)
f HV

10
0.88

20
0.81

30
0.77

40
0.74

50
0.72

6-10
60
0.71

70
0.704

80
0.70

Cw 6-11

(m)
5.50

92

6-11

0.79

6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00

0.88
0.95
1.00
1.03
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.12
1.20

(
)

(/h)
0
750
1500
0
1500
3000

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

6-12

1.00
1.20
1.50
1.05
1.15
1.40

1.00
1.30
2.00
1.05
1.20
1.80



50km/h 1200(pcu/h)
60km/h 1500(pcu/h

km

(DS)

93


DS=Q/C

6-8

DS
Q(pcu/h)
C(pcu/h)

6-13

DS(Q/C)
<0.20
0.20~0.50
0.50~0.80
0.80~1.00

6-13
C(pcu/h)
6-12

94

1 1 N

980m 610m

1800m

1800m

95

2

1

1
1
1
(m)
1
(%)

6-14

1200

1050

900

750

600

450

300

150

10

16

29

46

63

79

95

100

100

6-14
1

1 6-15
1
1

96

1
(m)
1
(%)

6-15

150

300

450

600

750

900

1050

1200

100

100

60

30

19

14

11

10

10

3
1 1

1 1

Vr
Vf
DuDd
VuVd

1

4
Vm
1
Vd
1
Vf

6-5

97

Vm = V

+ V

Vf

V1

Vr

(a)

Vf
Vd = V

V 1 - Vr

V m = V 1A

VA

Vf

Vd

= V 1B

(c)

6-5

V rB

V rA

+ VrA

Vr

(b)

51
1 V1 1
Vm Vd

Vf
V1

Vr

6-6

V1=136+0.345Vf0.115Vr

98

610m

Vf =3603100veh/h

Vr =501300veh/h
2

Vf
V1

Vr

6-7

V 1 =165+0.345Vf+0.520Vr


980m

Vf =3603800veh/h
Vr =501400veh/h

6-8

V 1 =202+0.362Vf+0.496Vr-0.226Du+0.096Vu

980m

Vf =653800veh/h
Vr =501450veh/h
Vu =50810veh/h

Du =210980m
4

99

6-9

V 1 =123+0.376Vf-0. 142Vr

120610m

Du120m Vu900veh/h

Vf =7203300veh/h
Vr =901400veh/h
Vu =90900veh/h

Du =120610m
5

6-10

V 1 = -121+0.244Vf-0.085Vu+195.1Vd/Dd

800m Vu=45veh/h
1700m Vf 4500veh/h, 195.1
Vd/Dd=5

Vf =21605600veh/h

Vu =451000veh/h

Vd =451200veh/h

Vr =901540veh/h

Du =280800m

Dd =2801700m

100

6-11

V 1 = 94+0.231Vf+0.473Vr+65.5 Vu/Du

1700m 65.5Vu/Du=2

Vf =10005600veh/h
Vr =201620veh/h
Vu =451100veh/h
Du =2801700m

7 6-11

6-12

V 1 =574+0.228Vf-0.194Vr+2.343Du+0.274Vu

Vf =16204900veh/h
Vr =901350veh/h
Vu =901260veh/h
Du =150300m

101

Vf

V1+A

V1
VA
Vr VB
6-13

V 1 =54+0.070Vf+0.049Vr
V 1+A = -205+0.287Vf+0.575Vr

240m

Vf =5402700veh/h
Vr =10002700veh/h

6-14

V 1+A = -158+0.035Vf+0.567Vr
V 1 =18+0.060Vf+0.072Vr

210m

Vf =19005400veh/h
Vr =10002700veh/h

6 1
V1 8
6-15 1
1
1200m

102

6-15

(veh/h)
6500
6000~6499
5500~5999
5000~5499
4500~4999
4000~4499
3500~3999
3000~3499
2500~2999
2000~2499
1500~1999
1499

8
10
10
10
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

6-16

1 %
6
4

18

14

10

6
40
6
35
6
30
6
25
6
20

6-16 B 1

6-16

C 750veh/h
5000veh/h 5000750=4250veh/h
6-16 4250veh/h 8% 1

V1b()=0.084250=340veh/h
B A 300mA 600 /h 6-15(b)
60% 1 300m
V1b(A )=0.60600=360veh/h
103

B 450m C 750veh/h 6-15(a)


79% 1 450m
V1bC =0.79750=593veh/h
B 1
V1b=V1b()+V1b A+V1b C
=340+360+593=1293veh/h

71
1
1

80

60

40

20
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

(veh/h)

6-17

(veh/h)

6-17 1 1

1
V m V d
Vf 6-17
15min

(pcu/h)

(pcu/h)

1000
1450
1750
2000

1050
1500
1800
2000

6-17

(km/h)(pcu/h)
120
4
2200
3200
3800
4000

6
3300
4600
5700
6000

100
4
2000
2600
3400
4000

104

6
3000
4200
5100
6000

80
4

2600
3200
3800

60
6

3900
4800
5700

2300
2900
3600

3450
4350
5400

1800m

veh/hpcu/h
1

VmVm=Vr+V1
VdVd=V1
VfVf=Vf1=VrA

VmVd Vf 6-17

105

6-1
6-18 1800m
120km/h Vf
=2000veh/h 50% Vr=410veh/h 40%

6-18

6-1

1800m

1
V1=136+0.345 Vf-0.115 Vr
=136+0.3452000-0.115410
=779 /h
veh/hpcu/h
3%
EHV
1.5 6-18

Vf
Vr
V1

6-18

(veh/h)

E HV

f HV

2000
410
779

1.5

0.50
0.40
0.82

0.80
0.74
0.71

1.5

(a) Vff HV =1/[1+ PHV(EHV-1)]=1/[1+0.5(1.5-1)]=0.8

106

pcu/h
2500
554
1097

(b) Vrf HV 6-10 f HV 0.74


(c) 6-17 2000veh/h 1
0.641 =2000
0.500.64=640veh/h1 640/779=0.82
(d) V1 f HV =1/[1+ PHV(EHV-1)]=1/[1+0.82(1.5-1)]=0.71
(e) Vf=2000/0.8=2500(pcu/h)
(f) Vr =410/0.74=554(pcu/h)
(g) V1 =779/0.71=1097(pcu/h)
Vm Vf,
Vm=V1+Vr=1097+554=1651(pcu/h)
Vf=Vf+Vr=2500+554=3054(pcu/h)

6-17 Vf=3054(pcu/h)<3200(pcu/h)
Vm =1651(pcu/h)<1750(pcu/h)

6-2 6-19 120km/h


300m 1000m
Vfo 1600veh/h
50% Vro 100veh/h 40% Vri
200veh/h 60%

6-19

6-2

980m 610m

1
980m

1
V1o =165+0.345Vfo+0.520Vro
=165+0.3451600+0.520100

107

=769veh/h
veh/hpcu/h

Vfo
Vro
V1o

6-19

(veh/h)

E HV

f HV

1600
100
769

1.5

0.50
0.40
0.70

0.80
0.74
0.74

1.5

pcu/h
2000
135
1039

(a) Vfof HV =1/[1+ PHV(EHV-1)]=1/[1+0.5(1.5-1)]=0.80


(b) Vrof HV 6-10 f HV 0.74
(c) 6-17 1600veh/h 1
0.671 =16000.50
0.67=536veh/h1 536/769=0.70
(d) V1 f HV =1/[1+ PHV(EHV-1)]=1/[1+0.70(1.5-1)]=0.74
(e) Vf=1600/0.8=2000(pcu/h)
(f) Vr =100/0.74=134(pcu/h)
(g) V1 =769/0.74=1039(pcu/h)
Vm Vf,
Vd=V1o=1039(pcu/h)
Vfo=Vfo=2000(pcu/h)

6-17 ,Vfo=2000(pcu/h)<2200(pcu/h),Vd=1039(pcu/h)<
1050(pcu/h)

2
610m

Vfi
Vfi= Vfo- Vro=1600-100=1500veh/h
=(16000.5-1000.4)/1500=0.51
1
V1i=136+0.345Vfi-0.115Vri
=136+0.3451500+0.115200
=631veh/h
veh/hpcu/h

108

6-20

Vfi
Vri
V1i

(veh/h)

E HV

f HV

1500
200
631

1.5

0.51
0.60
0.84

0.80
0.72
0.70

1.5

pcu/h
2000
135
1039

(a) Vfif HV =1/[1+ PHV(EHV-1)]=1/[1+0.51(1.5-1)]=0.80


(b) Vrif HV 6-10 f HV 0.72
(c) 6-17 1500veh/h 1
0.691 =15000.51
0.69=528veh/h1 528/631=0.84
(d) V1 f HV =1/[1+ PHV(EHV-1)]=1/[1+0.84(1.5-1)]=0.70
(e) Vf=1500/0.8=1875(pcu/h)
(f) Vr =200/0.72=278(pcu/h)
V1 =631/0.70=901(pcu/h)
Vm Vf,
Vm=V1i+ Vri =901+278=1179(pcu/h)
Vfi=Vfi+ Vri =1875+278=2153(pcu/h)

6-17 Vfi= 2153(pcu/h)<2200(pcu/h),
Vm =1179(pcu/h)< 1450(pcu/h),

1
2
3
4

5 1

R=150m 2%
6m>135m 1.9%
450m 250veh/h 100veh/h
20veh/h

109

10 km 25
40

BOT
10

110


30 50

/
/

3
111


Electronic Toll Collection ETC

112

5
10

7-1

1
2
3
4
5

7-1

t
N
m2.5
N19
2.5m7
20N39
7m14
N40
14m39
m40


3.5t
3.5t8.0t
8.0t

7-2

113

0-70-140
1-1-1
1.15-1.10-1.05
1.45-1.30-1.10

0-280-340
1-1-1
1.18-1.13-1.05
1.50-1.33-1.10

7-2

0-1100-1150
1-1-1
1.22-1.17-1.05
1.55-1.38-1.10

1
1)

2)

a.

b.

Pn (t ) =

(t ) n t
e
n!

7-1

Pn (t ) t n


114


M
Poisson

X(t)t[0] E012

X(t)
a t0 X(a+t)-X(a) t

p{ X (a + t ) X (a) = k} =

(t ) k t
e
k!

k = 0127-2

>0 X(t)Poisson

[aa+t]kV k (t)V k ta
tk
2

3 1

V
k =0

(t ) = 1
7-3

4[aa+t] 1 t
t

lim
t 0

(t )
=0
t

7-4

115

D

ER
k
ku k

T 1 T 2 T k kku
k
TT 1 +T 2 ++T k

7-5

f T (t ) =

uk (ukt ) k 1 ukt
e
(k 1)!

t>0

7-6

f T (t ) k

uk k k
k
k
k1
k
k 30 k
k

116


FCFS

LCFS

PR

(RSS)

f (t ) = e t

7-7

f (t )



D

G
3)

/////
M/M/1/K//FCFS ,
1 k

X/Y/Z/ X/Y/Z

X/Y/Z
X
Y Z M/G/C
117

Lq
L
L=Lq+
s Wq
s W
W=Wq+


1/1/

L = W

7-8

L q = W q

7-9

W = Wq +

L = Lq +

7-10

7-11

Little
3M/G/C

M/G/C
M/G/C M/G/1
C
/C j

j =

j123c

7-12

= j =
j =1

118

7-13

M/G/1

2 + 2 D[V ]
2 {( E[V ] ) 2 + D[V ]}
L=+
= E[V ] +
= E[V ] + Lq
2(1 )
2(1 E[V ])

7-14

W = E[V ] +

2 {( E[V ]) 2 + D[V ]}
= E[V ] + Lq
2(1 E[V ])

7-15

Lq =

2 {( E[V ]) 2 + D[V ]}
2(1 E[V ])

7-16

Wq =

{( E[V ]) 2 + D[V ]}
= Lq
2(1 E[V ])

7-17

veh/s
Vs
E[V]s
D[V]s 2
E[V] D[V] V
M/G/1
L E[V]
D[V] D[V]L
E[V] D[V]

7-3

s
22
10
3

s
45
15
6

M/G/1 E[V]
D[V]

119

2 3

120

7-4 7-5
7-4

D35
D35
D35

35D70
35D70
35D70

70D150
70D150
70D150

7-5

veh/h

D150
D150
D150

C60
C290
C1100

60C130
290C325
1100C1150

130C148
325C345
1150C1180

C148
C345
C1180

/h

121

t1 =

v0
3.6a1

7-18

W = E [v ] +

(E [v ])2 + D[v]
2(1 E [v ])

122

7-19

t2 =

v0
3.6a 2

7-20

v0 km/h

a1 m/s 2
a2 m/s 2

veh/s
E[v] s
D[v]s 2

l1 =

1
2
a1t1
2

7-21

2 (E [v ])2 + D[v ]
l 2 = m E [v ] +

2(1 E [v ])

7-22

1
2
a2t 2
2

7-23

l3 =

mm/veh

k 1 k 2 k 3
b 1m/veh
b 2 m/vehb 3 m/veh

m = b1 k1 + b2 k 2 + b3 k 3

123

7-24

d = W + t1 + t 2

3.6(l1 + l 2 + l3 )
v0

1 3.6m
2 (E [v ])2 + D[v ] v0 1 1

=
E [v] + 2(1 E [v]) + 7.2 a + a
v

0
2
1

7-25

1


2

3
7-2
7-25
d 7-4

124

DHV 30
DHV

DHV = AADT * K * D

7-26

K 30 AADT
D

C=

3600
T j + TGj

7-27

Tj j
TGj j
7-5
7-5

K=

Q
C

7-28

Q pcu/h

C

1
125





2 Qpcu/h

4
7-5 C K=Q/C

7.1 3
200veh/h 130veh/h 4m 50veh/h
9m 20veh/h 12m
3m/s 2 2.5m/s 2
120km/h 22s 45s


Q=130*1.0+50*1.05+20*1.10=205veh/h
7-2

=205/368veh/h

=68/36000.0189veh/s
m

m = 4*

130
50
20
6m
+ 9*
+ 12 *
200
200
200

7-25 d

d34s

7-4

126

3 1
1 1350veh/h 70%
19% 5% 6% PHF=0.95
7.7s 11.58s

127

128

4 1-8

2
PCE

PCE

PCE

LV
1.00

MHV
1.56

8-1

LHV
3.05

TC
3.56

PCE

10-25km/h-4%-2%0%2%4%
PCE
PCE
%

8-2

-4%

-2%

0%

2%

4%

0.99
1.58
2.23
3.67
3.36

1.00
1.59
2.25
3.72
3.40

1.00
1.60
2.26
3.76
3.43

1.00
1.61
2.28
3.81
3.47

1.00
1.62
2.30
3.85
3.51

129


2/2
9-15m 9-12m
4/2
15-17m 9-12m



2

2/2
20-40km/h 20-30km/h
4/2
40-50km/h 20-35km/h
4/4
50-70km/h 30-40km/h

350-800 /h 150-400
/h

40%-55% 20-35% 8%-15%
0-10%
3

8-1
T 8-3 8-4 T

130

4.0m)
3.5m)

418m

8-1


3



T veh/h

8-3

550
450

187
160

210
210

97
154

4
6

1117
1112

T veh/h

8-4

40
40

25
31

17
15

0
0

106
112

131

f (t ) = e t

8-1

t t 0= Q / 3600 Q

1
T
e
,

f (t ) = T
0

(8-2)

0T T = 3600 / Q
8-2
8-2=0 8-1

Erlang

f (t ) =

(t ) r 1
(r 1)!

e t , r = 1,2,3

8-3

r / r
8-3 r =1 8-1

1975 Cowan M3
M3 M3

1 M3

e (t ) , t 0
f (t ) =
0, t < 0

8-4

132

Q
3600 Q

8-5

Q
M3

M3
M3
M3 M3

1 ,0 t < 1

f (t ) = 2 , 1 t < 2

( t 2 )
,t 2
3e

8-6

1 [0]
1 [ 1 2 ]

2 2
3 e

(t 2 )

3 = 1 1 1 2 ( 2 1 )
1

1 1
( 1 21 + 2 22 2 21 ) / 2 2

3 q

(8-7)

(8-8)

M3

F (t ) =

1t
11 + 2 (t 1 ),

0 t < 1
1 t < 2

1 3 e (t 2 ) ,

8-9

t 2

8-9 1 =0 2 = 1 8-98-4M3
M3

M3 M3

M3

2 t f
t f
t cCritical gap
133

t f Following up time
t f

M3
t m Move-up time

t f

80
t c t f

a
b
c
d

8-2
t a t c
Ashworth

t c = t a V p s a2

t c s
134

8-10

t a s
V p veh/s

s a2 s 2

8-2

Ashworth

nf = f

1
r f2

(8-11)

n f

r f
e f

f
a f

S

af

90%
0.4

8-5
95%
0.6

99%
1.0

a f 8-5 0.05 a f =0.4


n f =160

135

0.50-0.60
0.4-0.9 0.5-0.6 8-6

0.19 8-7

0.45
0.41
0.55

0.46
0.47
0.60

0.50
0.39
0.65

0.06
0.14
0.19

0.06
0.13
0.07

0.09
0.10
0.06

8-6

0.60
0.59
0.67

8-7

0.13
0.08
0.10

a
b
c
d
e

8-8 8-9

136

t c 2/2

5.0
5.5
5.0
3.0

2.0
2.5
2.0
1.6

6.0
6.5
6.0
3.5

tr

2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5

7.0
7.5
7.0
4.0

3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5

8-8

7.0
8.0
7.0
4.5

8-9

4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0

20-25km/h 3.5m
1s
8-10

8-9
t c 2/4

6.0
6.5
6.0
4.0

7.0
7.5
7.0
4.5

8.0
8.5
8.0
5.0

8-10

8.0
9.0
8.0
5.5

8-11
tm

2.0

2.5

3.0

8-11

3.0

137

TT 1

TT1 = Lin / Vin + Lout / Vout

(8-12)

Vin Vout

Lin Lout
D1

D1 = TTi TT1

(8-13)

TTi i

TT1

TT2 = Lin / V 'in + Lout / V ' out

(8-14)

V ' in V ' out

Lin Lout
D2

D2 = TTi TT2
138

(8-15)

TTi i

TT2

Kimber




8-3 t1

t 2
d1 d 2
d

w
d1
t1
8-3

d2
t

t2

t c
t1
t1
t1

d dec
d neg d acc

139

d geom = d dec + d neg + d acc

8-16

d geom

d dec
d neg

d acc

v p vn
t c h t c
h t c + t f h t c + nt f
n + 1
g (t ) t f (t )
v p

Cn = v p

t =0

f (t ) g (t )dt

cn

140

(8-17)

t c t f

g (t ) = n p n (t )

(8-18)

n =0

p n (t ) t n

tc + (n 1)t f < t < t c + nt f

1,
pn =
0,

cn = vn

f (t ) g (t )dt

T =0

(8-19)

(8-20)

cn =

v pe

v p tc

1 e

v pt f

(8-21)

cn =

v pe
e

v p (tc t f )

v pt f

(8-22)

g (t ) =

0,

t < t0

t t0
tf

t t0

t0 = tc

cn = v p

t =0

tf
2

8-23

(8-24)

f (t ) g (t )dt

cn =

1 v ptc
e
tc

(8-25)

141


8-4

8-4

1
2 1
3 2 1
4 32 1

1 2356
2 14912
3 811
4 710

8-12

142

8-12

1
V 5 +V 6

V 2 +V 3
4
9
V 2 +0.5V 3

V 5 +0.5V 6
12
8
V 2 +0.5V 3 +V 5 +V 6 +V 1 +V 4

V 5 +0.5V 6 +V 2 +V 3 +V 1 +V 4
11
7
V 2 +0.5V 3 +V 5 +V 1 +V 4 +V 11 +V 12

V 5 +0.5V 6 +V 1 +V 4 +V 2 +V 8 +V 9
10


8-8 8-10

8-25

2 2 8-5

pcu/h

2 4 8-6

pcu/h

8-5

2/2

143

veh/h

veh/h

8-6

2/4
1 2 3


Harders1968Brilon
Grossmann

cc , 2 = c n, 2

(8-26)

cc , 4 = cn , 4

cc ,9 = c n ,9

cc ,9 = c n ,9

c c ,12 = c n ,12

c c ,1 = c n ,1

cc , 4 = cn , 4

(8-27)

(8-28)

144

P0, 2 = 1 x

(8-29)

P0 , 2

x x = v / c n
cn

P0 , 2
P0 , 2
c n , 3 c c , 3

c c ,3 = P0, 2 c n ,3

(8-30)

c c , 7 = P0, 4 c n , 7

(8-31)

c c ,8 = Px c n ,8

(8-32)

c c ,11 = Px c n ,11

(8-33)

Px = P0,1 P0, 4

(8-34)

8-7

p z ,i = 0.65 p y ,i

p y ,i
p y ,i + 3

i = 8 11

p y ,i = p x p 0 ,i

145

+ 0.6 p y ,i

(8-35)

c c , 7 = ( p z ,11 p 0,11 ) c n , 7

(8-36)

c c ,10 = ( p z ,8 p 0,9 ) c n ,10

(8-37)

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

8-7

( A )
( B ) B A
A B A B
T A TB A B
T = TA + TB

T A TB

N A N B TS , TU

146

N A = N SA + N UA

8-38

N B = N SB + N UB

8-39

TA = TSA + TUA

8-40

TB = TSB + TUB

8-41

N A N B A B
A B

Q A = N A 3600 / T = 3600N A /(TA + TB )


QB = 3600 /(TA + TB )

8-42
8-43

Q = Q A + QB = 3600( N A + N B ) /(TA + TB )

8-44

(1)

WebsterHCM

(2)

147

(3)

1Harders
Harders1968

v t v t

1 e p c n f
d=
+tf
cn vn

8-45

x
1

C
1 +
cn 1 + x

8-46

2M/G/1

d=

1 + CW2
C=
2

CW = 0 C = 0.5 M/D/1

CW = 1 C = 1.0 M/M/1
3HCM

d=

1 T
+ ( x 1) +
cn 4

(x 1)2 +

8x

cnT

8-47

148

4
Kyte1991

d = 1 e 2 ( cn vn )

8-48

1 2
1 =55.74, 2 =0.0014
c n -v n veh/h
3

r A =N SA /N A

r B =N SB /N B

N SA N SB AB
N A N B AB

webster

d = 0.9(d 1 + d 2 )

8-49

c(1 )
d1 =
2(1 x )

8-50

x2
d2 =
2q(1 x )

8-51

=1-/c x=y/ y=q/Q S


c
A=T B c=T A +T B q=q a
Q S =Q SA B=T A c=T A +T B q=q B Q S =Q SB
d 1 Mayd 2
M/D/1

149

HCM,1994
8-13

A
B
C
D
E
F

8-13

(s)
5.0
5.1 10.0
10.1 20.0
20.1 30.0
30.1 45.0
45.0

8-14

s
15.0
15.1 30.0
30.1 50.0
50.0

8-14

45s
pcu/h

M/G/1
HCM

200
80
120
100
130

600
420
470
450
480
150

1000
850
870
870
920

8-15
1400
1280
1300
1300
1310

1340pcu/h

8-16
pcu/h

200
100

600
450

1000
900

8-16
1400
1300

8-17
XAB X
4T 3A B
2/2 422T 2/2 322
pcu/h

422
2600

442
3100

322
2000

8-17
342
2500

2
T
8-18

422
442
322
342

1/2
2/3
1/2
2/3
1/2
2/3
1/2
2/3

9-15
9-12
15-17
9-12
9-15
9-12
15-17
9-12

8-18

2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2

Y/N
N
N
N
N

8-19
pcu/h

422
2600
2508

442
3100
3277
151

322
2000
2103

8-19
342
2500
2775

8-20

pcu/h

422
2600

442
3100

8-20

322
2000

342
2500

C 0 C

C = C 0 Fi
i

C0
Fi i
4
1

FEQ x

FEQ = 1 0.32 ln ( x )

8-52

FEQ

8-21

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

FEQ

1.00

0.97

0.94

0.92

0.89

0.87

0.85

0.83

0.81

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

FEQ

0.79

0.78

0.76

0.75

0.73

0.72

0.71

0.69

0.68

2.8

2.9

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

FEQ

0.67

0.66

0.65

0.64

0.63

0.62

0.61

0.60

0.59

FLA x

FLA = 1+ 0.20 x

152

8-53

FLA

8-22

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

FLA

1.01

1.02

1.03

1.04

1.05

1.06

1.07

1.08

1.09

(3)
FLT x

FLT = 1 0.40 x

8-54

FLT

8-23

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

FLT

0.98

0.96

0.94

0.92

0.9

0.88

0.86

0.84

0.82

(4)
FRT x

FRT = 1 + 0.1x

FRT

0.05
1.01

0.1
1.01

FRT
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
1.02
1.02
1.03
1.03

8-55

0.35
1.04

8-24
0.4
0.45
1.04
1.05

(5)

FFR 8-25
FFR

1%

4%

7%

8-25

0.95-1.00
0.80-0.95
0.6-0.80

(6)
C C 0

C = C 0 Fi = C 0 FEQ FLA FLT FRT FFR

8-56

153


0.75

x 0.75 d = 0.36 exp(4.28 x )

x 0.75 d = 0.36 exp(4.28 x ) FD FD


FD =1.7
6

1
2

70009000veh/d

422 2600pcu/h

0.440.56 PCE
13.5

154


F EQ
754

453

1.7

0.83
F EQ
F LT
213

1204

0.18

0.93
F LT

8-26

F LA
252

574

0.44

1.09
F LA
F RT
211

1204

0.18

1.02
F RT
0.90
F RT

C = C 0 FEQ FLA FLT FRT FFR = 2600 0.83 1.09 0.93 1.02 0.90

= 2008 pcu/h

V
1204

C
2008

x=V/C
0.6

d s
5

8-27

5s

155

(1) 8-8
25m

8-8

8-9

(2) 8-9 4-25m

(3) 8-10 4m

8-10

156

wardrop

QM =

e
p
) (1 )
w
3
w
(1 + )
e

354 w (1 +

(8-57)

QM/h
lm
wm
em

e = 12 (e1 + e2 )

e1m
e2m
p
8-11

e1
e2

8-11

a.
b. 4%
c.
w
e/w
w/e
e1/e2
p

=6.1-18.0m
=0.4-1.0
=0.12-0.4
=0.34-1.41
=0.4-1.0

30 0
60 0
95 0
2
1966

157

wardrop

Q=

e
)
w

160w(1 +
1+

w
l

(8-58)

Q 15% 15%
85%

3
1

8-12

8-12

t ms
t m qpcu/s
t m 1- 8-47 t f

t c <h<t c +t f t c +(k-1)t f <h<t c +t f k


t c +(k-1)t f <h<t c +t f P k

p K = p[h t c + ( k 1)t f ] p ( h t c + kt f )

= e

[ tc + ( k 1) t f t m ]

( tc + kt f t m )

8-59

C e

C e = 3600 p k kq = 3600
k =1

qe (t t
c

1 e

t f

m)

8-60

158

C e1

Ce 2
C e = C e1 + C e 2

(8-61)

C e1 C e 2 C
e2

t m t m

q=q 1 +q 2 q 2 q 2

tm

p(t t m ) =

t m

1 1
1
( + )
2 q1 q 2
h =

h h

p(t t m ) + p(t > t m ) = 1

2q1q 2
(0 t t m )
q + q
1
2
f (t ) =
(1 2q1q 2 t )e (t tm )
m

q1 + q 2

= 1 + 2 =

t m < t )

8-62

1 q1
1 t m q1

2 q2
+

1 t m q2

8-61

C e1 = 3600

qe ( tc tm ) (1 2q1 q 2 )
t
q1 + q 2
1 e f

8-63

2 q 2 e ( tc t m )
qe ( tc tm ) (1 2q1 q 2 )
C e = 3600
3600
t
t
q1 + q 2 +
1 e f
1 e 2 f

8-64

159

Q = k ( w + A )

(8-65)

Q 0.8 pcu/h

w m
Am 2 A=

Kpcu/hmK=70K=50K=45

1
FSF
8-28

8-28

1
0.96
0.92

ce1 = 3600

ce = 3600

qe (t e tm )
1 e

qe

t f

(te t m )

1 e

t f

2q1 q 2
q + q2 )
(1- 1

(1

q e 2 ( t e t m )
2q1 q 2
) + 3600 2 2 2t f
q1 + q 2
1 e

8-66

8-67

FLT = 1.14 0.92PLT


PLT
3

160

8-68

FRT

FRT = 0.76 + 1.6 PRT

8-69

PRT
4 FM

FM

FM = 0.88 + 0.11 PM

8-70

FSF FLT FRT FM

8-71

DTDG

8-29
8-29
(m)
(s)

<20
6

>20
8

q(pcu/s)v n (pcu/s)
1

161

DT =

cn
Dmin
=
Dmin
1 x c n cv

vn
x

cn

8-72

Dmin Adams (s)

Dmin =

e ( tc t m )
1 2 2t m + 2t m
t c + tm
q

2(t m + )

8-73

60
50
40
30
20
10
0 0

0.2

8-13

0.4

0.6

0.8

8-728-73
200300400500600700800(pcu/h)
8-13

5s 2s 2s
8-14 800 /h

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

100

8-14

200

300

400

500

2
1
Morse(1962)

162

T>

cn vn

8-74

T(s)c n v n
8-74
8-72
8-72
1h 5min
15min 8-74

D=

x d
i =1
n

i =1

8-75

d i i
xi i
n

D=DT+DG
DT
DG

8-15

422 422
2700pcu/h 660pcu/h 8-72
8-73 8-15

163

80
60
40
20
0
0

0.2

0.4

8-15

0.6

0.8

422

pcu/h

422
442422
444

2000
2400
2700

900
1100
1200

2300
2800
3000

8-30

2700
3300
3600

2700pcu/h
600pcu/h

8-30

1
8-31 F SF

8-31

1.0
0.96
0.92

2
(8-68)
F LT =1.14-0.92P LT

8-76

P LT
3
F RT
F RT =0.76+1.6P RT
P RT
4
164

8-77

P M

FM(8-78)
F M =0.88+0.12P M

8-78

1
Y X
8-16

8-16

2
165

N R = 3600 / t R
t R (s)
R

NR = NI R

8-79

N I veh/h

N 8-16
T TR

TG TY T= TR + TG + TY

N s = 3600 s [ (TG T f ) / Ts + 1

Tf

8-80

(s)

Ts (s)

s 1.0

TL
TS

8-81

166

TL (s)

TS (s).
L

N SL = N S (1 L )

8-82

N SL L

8-15
L L

M = ( Li ) / L

8-83

8-79 8-80

N SL L M

L M N
SL

8-84

n L

n N SL L M

L M / nN SL

8-85

1
3 3

Q = Q =

1
Q
2

N = 4 N = 4 3600 / t

N
t

veh/h

167

8-86

2.5s

=2.5s 8-83

N = 4 N = 4 3600 / 2.5 = 5760(veh/h)


2
3 3
T 100s

T = t + t + t = 50 s + 47 s + 3s

t = 2.3st = 2.44 s

Q = Q = 0.5Q

25% / = 25%

' = 1 / 3

N =

3600 47 2.3
(
+ 1) = 695.5(veh / h)
100
2.44
N = N 1

0.28

N = 695.5(1 0.28 1 / 3) = 630.


6 veh/h

N = 2 N + N = 2 N + N

N =

2 N
1

2 630.6
= 1661.
6 veh / h
1 0.25

N = 4 N = 4 1661.6 = 6726.
3 veh / h
1h

N = N = 1661.6 25% = 415.


4 veh / h
N = 415.4 100 / 3600 = 11.5 12 veh
M 12veh

168

1
2
3
4? ?
5? ?

1TT
7000veh/d 80 0

0.600.40PCE 13.5

2 422 9m
1247veh/h 440veh/h
807veh/h

0.400.300.250.05pcu 1.2

169

170

171

2

8 8
9-1

pcu/h
()


500
350
600
420
600
420
500
350

1
2
2
1

1
1
2
2

9-1
pcu/h
()


150
105
150
105
200
140
200
140

9-2 8

1
2
2
1

1
1
2
2

pcu/h
()


750
525
900
650
900
630
750
525

9-2

pcu/h
()


75
52
75
52
100
70
100
70

172

8
70 9-3

pcu/h

1000

600

9-3

/h
150


5
100
123 80


123
80 80

3
1994 1 GB1488694
9-4
12h

1994

9-4

veh/h
veh/h

12h

12h
750
8000
350
3800
<10
800
9000
270
2100
1200
13000
190
2000

900
10000
390
4100
m
1000
12000
300
2800
>10
1400
15000
210
2200
1800
20000
150
1500
1994-01-29 1994-09-01
13 ~ 5t 2 5t 2.5, 5,
0.2, 0.5,12h 7 19

15m

500

173


500m 750 12h 8000
500

9-1 9-2 9-3

9-5

a) T

b) T

c) T

9-1

a)

9-2

b)

174

a)

b)

9-3

3
3
3
3
0
9

4
8
8
12
4
32

5
15
15
45
5
80

3
21
21
10
0
52

9-5

4
4
4
2
0
10

5
6
6
4
0
16

175

9-6
9-7

AC
DE
F

(s)
<30
30180
>180

(s)
<30
30360
>360

A
B
C
D
E
F

9-6

(s)
<70
70100
>100

9-7

(s)
5
5.115
15.125
25.140
40.160
>60

9-8

V/C
(s)
(s)

0.5
30
50

0.60.9
3040
100

9-8

0.81.0
4050
150

1
50
>150

1
176


T
9-4 a
9-4
b
B

C
A

A
D

a)

b)
9-4

9-5

b)

a)

f)

9-5

c)

e)

d)

g)

a)

b)
177

c)
d)
e)
f)

g)
3.75m

T C s

Y s
G i i

g i i
,s

i =g i /T C i

r i ,s
2%

178

9-6

9-6

9-7

9-7

179


9-7

9-8

9-8

180

1

T

2


3


1 HCM(Highway Capacity Manual)

181


g/c 1.0
1800 veh /

S=S 0 Nf w f HV f g f p f bb f a f RT f LT

9-1

S
S 0 1800veh//ln
N
f w
f HV
f g
f p
f bb
f a
f RT
f LT

C i =S i i

9-2

i =(g/T c ) i

9-3

C i ii
i /
S i ii(/)

X i =(V/C) i =V i /[S i (g/T c ) i ]


=(V i /S i ) / i

9-4

X i i
V i i

V/CX c
X c =(V i /S i )[ T c /( T c L)]

9-5

X c V/C
(V i /S i )
L

1.0
1.0
182


V/C 1.0

d = 0.38TC

(1 g / Tc ) 2
[1 ( g / Tc )( X )]

+ 173X 2 [( X 1) + ( X 1) 2 + 16 X / c

9-6

ds/veh
T c s
g/T c
X v/c
c

9-9

PF

v/c
x
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.8
1.0

2
1.35
1.22
1.18
1.08
0.98
0.94
1.35
1.22
1.18
1.18
1.07
1.04
1.00

1
1.85
1.50
1.40
1.54
1.25
1.16
1.85
1.50
1.40
1.48
1.20
1.12
1.00

9-9

3
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.85
0.85
0.85
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

4
0.72
0.82
0.90
0.62
0.71
0.78
0.72
0.82
0.90
0.86
0.98
1.00
1.00

5
0.53
0.67
0.82
0.40
0.50
0.61
0.42
0.53
0.65
0.70
089
1.00
1.00

183

d A = d i vi / vi
i

9-7

d A As/veh
d i Ais/veh
v i Iveh/h

d l = d Av A / v A
A

9-8

d l s/
v A A/h
2 TRRL
TRRLTransport and Road Research Lab
Webster


TRRL
S=525W

pcu/h

W5.5m

9-9

Wm

t (1 ) 2
t
x2
d= c
+
0.65( c2 ) 3 x ( 2 +5 x )
2(1 x ) 2q (1 x)
q
1

9-10

ds
t c s

q
x

Webster

tc0 =

1.5t CL + 5
1 Y

9-11

t c0 s
t CL s
Y y=q/s

Y = max( y1, y 2,..., yi...)

9-12

t CL =t 1 +(t i -t y )
t 1 s
184

9-13

t i s
t y s

9-23
t C =t c0 t CL

9-14

t C y max
t g
t g0 =t g t y t l

9-15

C=

S tg
= S
tc

9-16

3 ARRB
ARRBAustraslia Road Research Board Akcelik
Webster
Webster x1 d, x
1Akcelik

qt c (1 ) 2
+ x N0
D=
2(1 Y )

9-17

Ds
N 0

tc0 =

(1.4 + k )t CL + 6
1 Y

k=0.4k=0.2k=0

1
1

185

9-18

9-9

CS =

3600 tg t 0
(
+ 1)
Tc
ti

9-19

C s pcu/h;
Tc s
t g s
t 0 s 2.3s
t i s/pcu

0.9
t i

t i =2.5s
t i =3.5s
t i =7.5s
9-10
ti

t i (s)

2 8
2.65

3 7
2.95

4 6
3.12

5 5
3.26

9-10
6 4
3.30

7 3
3.34

8 2
3.42


C S =C S

9-20

C S pcu/h

C sl C S l 2

9-21


slr sl

9-22

slr pcu/h


elr s /(1 r )

9-23

elr pcu/h
186

s pcu/h
l r

l elr l

9-24

r elr r

9-25

el s sr l

9-26

el pcu/h
s pcu/h
sr pcu/h

l el l

9-27

er s sl r

9-28

er pcu/h
s pcu/h
sl pcu/h

r er r

9-29


-pcu

le > le
e e n s le le

9-30

e pcu/h
e pcu/h
n s
le pcu/h
le e l

9-31

le pcu/h
nnn
2
-10

187

A
-10

-11

9-19
B 9-20
9-21
pcu 9-30

9-11

9-19

9-28
pcu
9-30
2

3600 t g t

ti
Tc

(9-32)

pcu/h
Tcs
t g s
t

t =

V
2.3s
2a

Vm/s 13km/h
188

am/s 2
t i s/pcu
2pcu/h

Cr =

3600
tr

(9-33)

C r pcu/h

t r s/pcu
.5s
.s
pcu/h

Cl =

3600

Tc

tl

Vl
2a

t0

9-34

C l pcu/h
t l s
Vl m/s
t 0 s

n 1
n1

3600

Tc

n 2 n 2
s, 3.54s
n 2
189

s Cs

Cs Cs
(pcu/Tc)
2

n2 =

(9-35)

n3 =

t y t
t0

( pcu / Tc )

(9-36)

t =V/2a
t y (s)
t 0
a
:
Cl=

3600
(n 1 +n 2 +n 3 ) (pcu/h)
Tc

(9-37)

45120s
180s
3

g +1

G = t lh + (nl 0 1)h1 + 2 + (n s 1)h1 + (nl 1) + g t st

(9-38)

n s n l
n l0

t lh t st

h 1
h 1
190

h 1

= 1 + 2 1
2
G
g
g

nN =

G g ( 2h1 ) + 2h1 - 2 - t lh + t st )
h1

9-39

2 =h 1

nN =

G g ( 2h1 ) - (t lh t st )
+1
h1

9-40

G = t sh + (n s 1)h1 + (nl 1)h1 + g t st

9-41

t sh

ns =

G g ( 2h1 ) (t sh t st )
+1
h1

9-42

nw =

G g (2 3h1 ) (t lh t st )
+2
h2

191

9-43

nE =

G g (2 3h1 ) (t sh t st )
+2
h2

9-44

h 2
9-40424344

n=

G m
+m
hm

9-45

m
m
m = 1 =g(2h 1 )
m = 2 =g(23h 2 )

=t lh t st
=t sh t st

n N =n S ,

n E =n W

9-44

n = n

+ nS + n E + nW + n

9-46

N=

3600
n
Tc

pcu/h

9-47

T c s

9.1 9-12 TBC


t g =40sAt g =25s 5s 15%t 0 =2.3s =0.9
192

9-12

A
A

3600
[(tg t 0) / ti + 1]
Tc
3600
=
[(25 2.3) / 2.5 + 1] 0.9 = 435 pcu / h
(40 + 25 + 2 5)

Cs =

3600
[(tg t 0) / ti + 1]
Tc
3600
=
[(40 2.3) / 2.5 + 1] 0.9 = 695 pcu / h
(40 + 25 + 2 5)

CS =

C er =C s /(1)=695/(10.15)=818pcu/h
C
C

C B C B

C el =C s /(1 l )=695/(10.15)=818pcu/h
C 3~4pcu B

C le =C el l =8180.15=123 pcu/h
C le =3n=33600/(402525)=144 pcu/h
C le <C le
B
T 435818818=2017pcu/h
9.2 9-13
T C =120st g =52s
28 15%

193

9-13

(1) 9-19

CS =

3600 t g t 0
(
+ 1)
TC
ti

t 0 =2.3s, =0.9
28 9-8t i =2.65

CS =

3600 52 2.3
(
+ 1) 0.9 = 533( pcu / h)
120
2.65

(2) 9-20
C sr =C s =533pcu/h
(3)
9-26
C el =(C s +C sr )/(1 l )
=(533+533)/(10.15) =1254pcu/h
(4) 9-27
C l =C el 1
=12540.15
=188pcu/h
(5)
C le >C le ,
C le 4nn 1

T c =120s

n=3600/120=30

C le =430=120pcu/h

C le =C l =188pcu/h
C le >C le ,9-30
C e =C e n s (C le C le )
194

=1254-2(188120)
=1118 pcu/h
(6)
(7)
9-21
C slr =C sl =C s (1/2)
=533(10.150.5)=493pcu/h
(8)

C l =4930.15=74pcu/h
C l < C le =120pcu/h
9

1118pcu/h
1118pcu/h
493pcu/h

C=11182+4932
=3222pcu/h
9.3
1
(1)
9-14

9-11
m

74.5

65.0

53.1

42.6

195

24.0

9-11

11.8

31.0

23.0

9-14

(2)
1640 pcu/h
541+471=1012

pcu/h , 62%

301+327=628

pcu/h , 38%

- 20% 10%
- 20%- 5% 10%

20%
30%
50%
30%
25%

45%.

(3)

39 3 42 84
2
(1) 9-12

196




/h

9-12


31 221 49 70 243 14 41 432 68 32 400 39

/ 0.7 5.2 0.1 1.6 5.7 0.3 1 10.1 0.6 0.7 9.3 0.9
/ 0.3 2.4 0.5 0.7 2.6 0.2 0.4 4.7 0.7 0.3 4.3 0.4

90%

/
/
/
/

2
1
1
0

2
1
1
0

3
2
2
0

1
1
1
0

3
2
2
0

2
1
1
0

2
1
1
0

2
1
1
0

(2) h

h 1 =5.8a 1 4.0a 2 2.4a 3


a 1 a 2 a 3

h 1 =5.80.34.00.252.40.45=3.82s
h 1 =5.80.24.00.32.40.5=3.56s
,
h 2 =2.5s ()
(3)

=8.3s,

=8.1s;

(4) g
g=2
g=2
g=1
(5) 9-13
(s)

t sh
t st

18.2
12.8

14.9
11.2

13.9
9.1

13.2
7.3

t lh
t lt

n=

G m
+m
hm

(1) Nn N
9-15
m=1
m = 1 = g(2h 1 ) =28.323.82= 1.32

197

7.7
5.6

9-13

4.1
2.8

8.4
7.2

7.0
5.3

= t lhN t stN = 4.1 12.8 = 8.7


nN =

39 1.32 + 8.7
+ 1 = 13
3.82

n N = 132 =11
(2) Sn s
9-16
N

N
E

9-15 N

9-16 S

m=1 m = 1 = 1.32

= t shN t stN = 14.9 11.2 = 3.7


ns =

39 1.32 3.7
+ 1 = 10
3.82

(3) W n W
9-17
m=2
m = 2 = g(23h 2 ) =28.1-32.5= 8.7

= t lhW t stE = 7.0 9.1 = 2.1


nW =

39 8.7 + 2.1
+ 2 = 15
2 .5

n W =152=13
(4) E n E
9-18

198

W
E

W
E

9-17 W

9-18 E

m=2 m = 2 =8.7

= t shW t stw = 13.2 7.3 = 5.9


nE =

39 8.7 + 5.9
+ 2 = 12
2 .5

(5)
n=n N n s n W n E n
n =2()
n =111013122=48

N=

3600
3600
n=
48 = 2060 pcu / h

Tc
84

1
2
3
4
5

1
Tc=60s, 2 3s 20%
10%=28

2ABCD
AB 40pcu/h 25%CD
250pcu/h 30% 20%
199

G AB =50s,G CD =42s(G ),
2 4s

200

10-1

201

10-1

:(1)(2)
(3)

(
)

m
s

N 0 =3600/h t

N 0 =1000V/L

N 0 veh/h
h t s
202

10-1

Vkm/h
Lm
L
L=L 0 +L 1 +U+IV

10-2

L 0 (m)
L 1 (m)
V(km/h)
I
UmU=VTT=1.2s
I 10-2 I
I
%
I10 3

5
50

4
51

3
52

2
53

1
53

0
54

10-2

-1
55

-2
56

-3
57

-4
58

-5
59

(4%)I 0.054L 0 =2mL 1 =5m


pcu/h 10-3

V(Km/h)
L(m)
N 0 (pcu/h)

20
14.32
1406

30
19.08
1572

35
21.82
1604

10-3

40
24.78
1614

50
31.31
1597

60
38.67
1552

pcu/h 10-4

V(Km/h)
N 0 (pcu/h)

20
1380

30
1550

40
1640

50
1690

10-4
60
1730

10-5 1560Km/h


h t (s)
N 0 (pcu/h)

2.671
1348

3.696
974

10-5

3.371
1068

4.804
749

,, 1500pcu/h

N = nN 0
n
Nn
N 0
203


1.00
0.800.89 0.650.78 0.50
0.65 0.400.52

s
s


10-1

t AB
1=
=
t1 + t2 + t3 + V
a
204

l
V
+

l2
V
+
+
V
b

l
V

1=

l
V

V
2 a

10-3

V
2 b

l m
V m/s,V 1 Km/hV =

V1

3 .6

am/s a=0.600.67m/s
2
2
a=0.420.46m/s a=0.430.49m/s
2
a=0.50m/s
2
2
bm/s ,:b=1.66m/s ,
2
2
b=1.30m/s b=1.5m/s
s=1520s
10-3 10-2 10-6

V(m/s)

V(m/s)
V

l1

l2

l3

l(m)

t1

t2

t3

t(s)

10-1

l 1
m
l 2
m
l 3 m
t 1 l 1 s
t 2 l 2 s
t 3 l 3 s
ll 1 l 2 l 3
tt 1 t 2 t 3

205

1.0

V = 20km / h
V = 30

0.8

V = 40
V = 50

0.6

0.4

0.2

l
V
l
V
V
+
+
+
V
2a
2b

a = 0.5m / s 2 , b = 1.5m / s2 , = 15s

200

400

600

800

1000

lm

10-2

10-3
2

1 a=0.50m/s ,b=1.5m/s ,=15s



V(km/h) V(m/s)
20
5.56
25
6.94
30
8.33
35
9.72
40
11.11
45
12.50
50
13.88

100
0.45
0.37
0.31
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.18

200
0.62
0.54
0.48
0.42
0.38
0.34
0.30

300
0.71
0.64
0.58
0.52
0.48
0.43
0.39

400
0.76
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.46

m m
500
600
700
800
0.80 0.83 0.85 0.87
0.75 0.78 0.81 0.83
0.70 0.73 0.76 0.79
0.65 0.69 0.72 0.75
0.60 0.64 0.68 0.71
0.56 0.60 0.64 0.67
0.52 0.56 0.60 0.63

900
0.88
0.84
0.81
0.77
0.73
0.69
0.66

1000
0.89
0.86
0.82
0.79
0.75
0.72
0.68

10-6
1100
0.90
0.87
0.83
0.80
0.77
0.74
0.70

1200
0.91
0.88
0.85
0.82
0.78
0.75
0.72

Vab
l, N

l=8001000m


10-3

206

V(m/s)

B
V(m/s)
V

V
VA

VB

l1

l2

VB

VA

l(m)

l3

t1 '

t2 '

t(s)

t3 '

10-3

l 1 m
l 2 m
l 3 m

t 1 l 1 s

t 2 l 2 s

t 3 l 3 s
lt

=0
ABV A V B

l
V
2=
=
2
2
t1 '+ t 2 '+ t 3 ' l
V
VA
V
VB
+
1
+
1

V
2a
V
2b
V

t AB

1 = 1 V A
V

2 = 1 V B
V

2=

l
+ 1
V

l
V
V
+
2a

10-4
2

V
2b

10-3 10-4

l
V

l
V
+ 1
+
V
2a

10-5
2

V
+
2b

lm
V(m/s)
2

a(m/s )
2

b(m/s )
207

1 2

V A

1= 1

VA VB

10-7
V
V

V B

2= 1

V A Am/s
V B Bm/s
SV A V B =0
=1520sV A V B 0 =0
1 2
VA VB
V
V

1 2
1 = 1 VA 2 2 = 1 VB 2
V

10-7

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.85

0.25

0.20

0.16

0.12

0.09

0.06

0.04

500 /h =0.63

4
Nb

b min =3.50mb3.50m
b3.50m 3.50m
10-8
b
bm
3.50
3.25
3.00
2.75

10-8


1.00
0.94
0.85
0.77

,:
N =N 0 ( )

(veh/h)

N =N 0 ( )

(veh/h)

208

500veh/h

V/C()

V/C
HCM

HCM A F
A 90%

B
70%
C 50%

D 40-50%

E 1/3

F 1/3

10-9 HCM
HCM

km/h

km/h

10-9

64-56

56-48

56-40

64

52.8

43.2

km/h

56.0

48.0

40.0

44.8

38.4

30.4

35.2

28.8

20.8

27.2

22.4

14.4

20.8

16.0

11.2

20.8

16.0

11.2

209

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. 10-9
:

HCM

10-10

km/h
5672
4856

210

km 1 3
64-72km/h

km 2-5 48-64km/h

5-8 40-56km/h
10-11
HCM

/km

10-11

12.5
6472km/h

2.55
4864km/h

57.5
4056km/h

10-9

20%

Km

kmkm/h
10-12
10-12

211

km/h
72

km
0.08

0.16

0.24

0.32
118.75
0.40
65
0.48
61.875
0.64
58.75
0.80
55
1.60
50

10-12

64

56

56

48

56

48

40

71.875
68.75
63.75
60
58.125
56.25

78.125
74.375
68.75
65.625
64.375
64.375

90.625
84.375
80
75

96.875
88.125
83.75
79.375

103.125
87.5
81.25
76.25

141.875
112.5
93.75
87.5
82.5

165.625
137.5
112.5
103.125
95.625

10-12
1.
64km/h 56km/h 48km/h
2. 1.6km,
km
3. 0.32km a)
b) 0.32km
4. 0.40km

= 1.3( )+

D=1.3d

10-5

D=s/veh
d=s/veh

d=

0.38c 1 g / c )
+ 173 X 2 ( X 1) +

1 (g / c ) X
2

( X 1)2 + 16 X / c

10-6

d(s/veh)
cs
g/c
X Q/C Q C

212

3600
km +

10-7

km/h
km km km s
s3600
km/h

10-9

10-1
0.48km
62.5km/h
10-13 10-14

10-13

s
C
PF
1
70
0.60
0.583
1800

0.53
2
70
0.60
0.611
1800

0.53
3
70
0.60
0.611
1800

0.53
4
70
0.60
0.611
1800

0.53
5
70
0.60
0.597
1800

0.53
6
70
0.60
0.583
1800

0.53
7
70
0.60
0.583
1800

0.53

Q/C

g/c

Q/C
X

213

10-14

km

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.32
0.32
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.64
0.64


km/h
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5




s
s

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

10-11
3.36km 7 =2.1
/km
10-10

1 0.32km 10-12
64km/h km 71.875s 56km/h km 78.125s
62.5km/h 73.125s
0.32km 73.1250.32=23.4s 10-16

10-15
10-15 10-16
10-15

C(s)

g/c

Q/C X

1
70
0.60
0.583
2
70
0.60
0.611
3
70
0.60
0.611
4
70
0.60
0.611
5
70
0.60
0.597
6
70
0.60
0.583
7
70
0.60
0.583
=1.3

s
6.9
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.0
6.9
6.9

PF
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53

3.66
3.80
3.80
3.80
3.76
3.66
3.66

4.76
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.85
4.76
4.76

4 5
= 3600 = 3600 3.36 = 47.8 km/h

253.1

214

10-16

km

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.32
0.32
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.64
0.64

km/h

62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

23.4
23.4
31.1
31.1
31.1
39.5
39.5

4.76
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.85
4.76
4.76

km/h

28.2
28.3
36.0
36.0
35.9
44.3
44.3

0.32
0.32
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.64
0.64

40.8
40.6
48
48
48.2
52
52

C
C
B
B
B
B
B

10-9
10-16

10

215

C =3600/T

(10-8)

C veh/h
Ts

T=t 1 +t 2 +t 3 +t 4
t 1 s t1 =

10-9

2l
,l
b

mb
2

b=1.5m/s
t 2 3-4s;
t 3 s t3 =

kt0
K
nd

K=0.25-0.35t 0
s 2sn d
t 4 t4 =

2l
a
a

a=1.0m/s l
10-8
C=

3600
3600
=
kt0
T
2.57 l +
+4
nd

(10-10)

10-10
C
C =min[C ]

10-11

0.8
10-2 BK661 17m
195 3

C= C =

3600
= 53 veh/h
0.4 2 195
2.67 17 +
+4
3

530.8=42veh/h

=53195=10335 /h
=42195=8190 /h
216

1.
2.
3
4.

1h

3
3

10-17
10-26

2.5m
m
15.5
17.0
18.0

135
165
180

1h
1 min *
2 min
3 min
4 min
8100
4050
2700
2025
9900
4950
3300
2475
10800
5400
3600
2700

217

10-17

8 /m

2.8m 19.0m

4
6
8

956
1450
1944

1h
1.5 min
2 min
2.5 min
38240
28680
22944
58000
43500
34800
77760
58320
46656

10-18

3 min
19120
29000
38880

6 /m 2

3.0m 22.0m

4
6
8

1222
1850
2478

1.5 min
48880
74000
99120

1h
2 min
2.5 min
36660
29328
55500
44400
74340
59472

10-19

3 min
24440
37000
49560

6 /m 2

2.65m 19.4m

2
4
6

380
760
1140

1.5 min
15200
30400
45600

1h
2 min
2.5 min
11400
9120
22800
18240
34200
27360

10-20

3 min
7600
15200
22800

486
1024
1562

1.5 min
19440
40960
62480

1h
2 min
2.5 min
14580
11664
30720
24576
46860
37488

662
1008
1354

1.5 min
26480
40320
54160

1h
2 min
2.5 min
19860
15888
30240
24192
40620
32496

334
694
1054

3 min
6680
13880
21080

1h
4 min
5 min
5010
4008
10410
8328
15810
12648

10-22

3 min
13240
20160
27080

6 min
3340
6940
10540

290
610
930

3 min
5800
12200
18600

1h
4 min
5 min
4350
3480
9150
7320
13950
11168

218

6 min
2900
6100
9300

6 /m 2

10-23

6 /m 2

[ 2.98m 13.7m13.0m]

2
4
6

6 /m 2

[ 2.98m 14.8m 13.9m]

2
4
6

10-21

3 min
9720
20480
31240

2.60m 28.8m

2
3
4

6 /m

2.60m 21.3m

2
4
6

10-24

6 /m 2

[ 2.66m 16.8m 16.5m]

2
4
6

286
600
914

3 min
5720
12000
18280

1h
4 min
5 min
4290
3432
9000
7200
13710
10968

6 min
2860
6000
9140

[ 2.51m 13.3m 13.0m]

2
4
6

206
436
666

3 min
4120
8720
13320

1h
4 min
5 min
3090
2472
6540
5232
9990
7992

6 min
2060
4360
6660

10-25

6 /m 2

10-26

6 /m 2

10800 /h
60 /h min
8000 /h

2min 30 /h 2.9 5.83


/h 3.7 7.43 /h

40000 /h
30 1.1 4.7 /h
8000 /h
40000 /h
10s
3min
550021000 /h
2 /h 5000 /h

45 /h 80s
30 /h 32 /h
5000 /h

1.

2.
3.

219

0.48km
62.5km/h 10-27
10-28
, 10-29
10-27

s
C
PF
1
70
0.60
0.417
1800

1.35
2
70
0.60
0.417
1800

1.35
3
70
0.60
0.417
1800

1.35
4
70
0.60
0.361
1800

1.35
5
70
0.60
0.361
1800

1.35
6
70
0.60
0.306
1800

1.35
7
70
0.60
0.306
1800

1.35

Q/C

g/c

Q/C
X

10-28

km

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.32
0.32
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.64
0.64

km/h
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5

s
s

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

10-29

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

km
0.32
0.32
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.64
0.64

km/h

62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

s
23.4
23.4
31.1
31.1
31.1
39.5
39.5

s
s
10.1
10.1
10.1
9.6
9.6
9.1
9.1

220

33.5
33.5
41.2
40.7
40.7
48.6
48.6

0.32
0.32
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.64
0.64

km/h
34.4
34.4
41.9
42.4
42.4
47.4
47.4

D
D
C
C
C
B
B

40% 50% 60%

1
221

80~150 120
m


m/sm/minkm/h
0.8~1.8m/s 0.7~1.7m/s


24h
24h
24h 12h7:00-19:00
1~2h 0.5h

1h
2-3h

11-1

222

25
20

19.4
15.9

15

10.6

12.8

10
5
2

11-1

10
12

14

16

18

20

2

V p
/hm
/minm/sm
D p
/m2 Am 2 /

A=1/D p

11-1

S p
m/min m/s

v p =S p D p =V p /A

11-2

V p =a b/A

11-3

AB
a=81~96b=27~32
11-111-211-3

Vp =

Sp =

a
b
aA b
2 =
A
A
A2

a 2 4b
2

11-4

11-5

1
223


m/skm/hm/min

15min min


/ hm/ minm/ sm


/m 2

m 2 /

11-2

m /min

5.0

100

80
60
40
20
10

11-2

20
30
/m2)

40

224

=
V=SD

(11-6)
2

V/minmSm/minD/m

=/
V=S/M

(11-7)

/minm

11-3
12 0

10 0
80
60
40
20
1. 0

2 .0

4. 0
5.0
3 .0
m 2 /

6 .0

7. 0

8. 0

11-3
11-3
0.45~0.81m 2 /

0.45m2 /
0.18~0.36m 2 /

0.45~0.81m 2


11-4

225

m / min

150

120
90
60
30
20

11-4

40

60
80 100 120 140 160
( / m in m )


11-5

m/min

150
120
90
60
30
20

40

11-5

60

80 100 120 140 160

m 2 /

1.35m2 /
3.6m 2 /
32m/min 1.35~3.6m 2 /
3

95%
57.9cm 33cm

11-1

226

m/
m 2

23.05/0.28

45.7/0.66

11-1

53.3/0.93

60.9/1.21

0.67m
0.61m 0.64m

0.48~0.60m

0.37~0.46m 2
0.74~0.84m2

h
1m / hm min 1m / sm
15min
2

227


0.55~1.7m/s 0.9~1.2m/s
1.0m/s

0.9~1.4m/s 1~1.2m/s

0.54~0.94m/s
0.54~0.90m/s
0.52~0.80m/s
4

N bw =

3600 V p
S p bp

(11-8)

N bw 1m/hm
V p 1m/s
S p 1m
b p 0.75m

(11-8)
N bw = 4800 /hm

N bc =

3600V pc
s p bp

t gh

(11-9)

N bc /t gh m
V pc 1~1.2m/s
t gh h
(11-9)
Nbc = 4800~ 5700 /t gh m
5300 /t gh m

N bg =

3600 V bg
sp bp

(11-10)

N bg
V bg 0.54~0.94m/s

(11-10)
228

Nbg = 2000~3800 /hm


3120 /hm

N bs =

3600 V ps
s p bt

(11-11)

N bs /
hm
V ps 0.5~0.8m/s
b t
0.9m
(11-11)
Nbs = 2000~3200 /hm
2600 /hm
5

0.5~0.7
0.7 0.5

=
6

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.90

11-2

229

0.75

0.80

0.85

11-2
0.90

1800
1900
2000
2100
/hm

2000
2100
2300
2400
/t gh m

(1400)
(1540)
(1640)
/hm
1800
1900
2000

1400
/hm
1 0.9m 0.75m
2

230


A
A 3.7 1971 1985

11-3

11-3

m 2 /

m/s

/hm

>3.0

1.0

3.0

1.2

1400

2~3

0.9

2.4

1.1

1830

1.2~2

0.8

1.8

1.0

2500

0.5~1
.2

0.7

1.4

0.8

2940

<0.5

0.6

1.0

0.6

3600

C=

3600 V
V b l
bl

95%

231

20
/h 32.18km/h 7% 30 /h 48km/h
3% 15 /h 24 km/h
7.0km/h

30km/h 30km/h
10km/h

16.28km/h 14.21km/h
4.06km/h 3.57km/h
5~40km/h
5~25km/h
2

1.9m 0.6m 2.5m


2

4-10m
0.63 /m 2 11-4

11-4
2

km/h
10
12
15
20

m
5.2
6.2
10.3
12.1

712
3

7%-8%
12% 25%
5% 1% 2%
2.5%
232

1% 10-15km/h 2%
7-12km/h 3% 5km/h
4

L=

2
2
vt
v
vt
+
+ l + l 0 =
+ v + l + l 0
3 .6
254 ( i )
3 .6

(11-12)

L
v 10~20km/h

t s 0.5~1.0s 0.7s vt/3.6=0.194v

0.3~0.6 0.5
i 0
l 1.9m
l 0 0~1m
=

1
=0.0079
254 ( i )

N =

1000 v
l 0 + 1 .9 + 0 .194 v + 0 .0079 v

x=1000 v y=l 0 +1.9+0.194 v +0.0079 v 2


11-13 v
233

1000 v
L

(11-13)

y(

dN

dv

dx
dv

) x(
y

dy
dv

1000 y x ( 0 . 194 + 0 . 0158 v )


y2

dN/d v =0 v
1000y x(0.194+0.0158 v )=l0+1.9+0.194 v +0.0079 v 2 =0
1

2 .4
(
)2
l 0 =0.5 v = 0 . 0079
=17.43km/h
N=2119 /h
1

2 .9
)2
l 0 =1.0 v = 0 . 0079
=19.16km/h
(

N=2012 /h
1

1 .9
(
)2
l 0 =0 v = 0 . 0079
=15.15km/h
N=2280 /h
11-5

vkm/h

vt
3 .6

11-5

=
1
254 0.5

N=

L=l 0 +1.9+0.194+0.0079 v 2

1000v
L

l 0 =0

l 0 =0.5

l 0 =1

l 0 =0

l 0 =0.5

l 0 =1

0.97

0.0079

0.20

3.07

3.57

4.07

1629

1400

1229

10

1.94

0.0079

0.79

4.63

5.13

5.63

2160

1949

1776

15

2.91

0.0079

1.78

6.59

7.09

7.59

2276

2116

1976

20

3.88

0.0079

3.16

8.94

9.44

9.94

2237

2119

2012

25

4.85

0.0079

4.93

11.68

12.18

12.68

2140

2052

1972

30

5.82

0.0079

7.11

14.83

15.33

15.83

2023

1957

1895

i=0
t=0.7

=0.5
l =1.9

t i
N=3600/t i

(11-14)

t i s
t i 1.24s 1.2s
2.41s 2.37s, 1.8st i
11-14N=1500~3000 /h 2000 /h

234

2.2~2.5m
0.2~0.5m
0.54 /m 2
2

N max =

N t'
3600
'
B 0 .5
t

11-15

N max /h
B

t ' s
N t' t

1m
0.25m B-0.5m

N =

Nt
3600

B 0 .5
t

11-16

N m 1h 1h
/h
B
t
N t t


N =

N C 1

(11-17)

N 5km m
(/h)
C 1
C 1 0.8
235

C 1 0.9
2
N t 11-6
N t 0.51 /sm N t
0.58 /sm
N t

(m)

km/h

5s

9.85
17.91
9.39
14.50
10.52

3.9
12433
14.23

5.5
8678
16.28

3.3
1551
14.28

6.5
3096
13.44

3.2
2975
12.05

12433
14.23

16300
14.01
1 N =0.513600=1836 /hm 1800 /hm
2 N =0.583600=2088 /hm 2100 /hm
3B-0.5mB

11-6

[ /
s m ]
0.51
0.65
0.57
0.45
0.66
0.51
0.58

C 2 0.55

N = C1 C 2 N = C1 C 2

3600
Nt

B 0 .5
t

11-18

C 1 C 2

800 /hm

N =0.80.550.513600=808

900 /hm

N =0.90.550.513600=908

900 /hm

N =0.80.550.583600=919

1000 /hm

N =0.90.550.583600=1034

5sQ 1
Q 2 20s Q 3
5s 11-7

236

m
8.00
3.75
6.50
5.00
6.00
4.50
3.20
3.80

Q 1 [ /(5sm)]
2.214
2.006
2.282
1.907
2.990
2.332
2.264
2.796
2.336

11-7

Q 2 [ /(5sm)]
3.285
3.210
2.880
2.780
3.360
2.803
3.037
3.138
3.066

Q 3 [ /(5sm)]
3.630
3.400
3.150
3.270
3.730
3.330
3.800
3.320
0.459

Q 1 20s
5sQ 3

20s
117 8
Q 2 2.8~3.3 3.066 /(5s m)

3.066 3600
=2208 /hm 2200 /hm
5
60s 30s
2200 30/60=1100 / hm 25/60 2200 25/60=917 / hm

11-8

1
2
3
1
2
3
4

/h
1700~2530
2000~5000
3500~5000
850~1000
500~2000
1700~5000
4000~10000

11-8

237

(11-19)

X=N/C

N/h
C/h
X

0.5 1.0 0.5


1.0
Y
v
v max

Y=v / v max

(11-20)

v km/h
v max km/h

0.3~0.8
0.2~0.6
q
q q max

q =q /q max

(11-21)
2

q /m

q max /m 2
0 1

11-9
238

km/h

m 2 /

11-9

>25

25~20

20~15

15~10

10~5

>9.0

9~7

7~5

5~3

<3

<0.4

0.4~0.55

0.55~0.7

0.7~0.85

>0.85

11-10

11-10

km/h

m 2 /

>16

16~13

13~9

9~6

6~4

<30

30~40

40~60

60~90

>90

<0.5

0.5~0.7

0.7~0.8

0.8~0.9

0.9~1.0

<20

20~30

30~40

40~50

>50

8~6

6~4

4~2

>2

239

11-11

1000 /d
1000 /d
2200 /d
2

3000 /d

11-11

1 500 /d
2 170 /d 400 /d 6m
1 300 /d
2 500 /d 300 /d
1 700 /d
2 400~700 50
3 500
1 800 /d
2 300 /d 500 /d
1 2000 200
2 100
1 17~18km 500~700 50km

2 2000 700
1 500 /d
2 1000 /d 85% 65km
5%

1
2
3?
4

240

5
6?
7?

241

1P2Veh/h veh/h
2P192-1K C
3P26 K HTF2-7

4P27 K HTF
5P29 2-1 K HTF
6P30 2-2 veh/d

veh/dpcu/d
7P30 2-2 K
HTF DDHV=AADT K D
DDHV=AADTHTFD
8P36
PHF=/4 15min PHF=
/4 15min
9P393-7cc0CC0

10P40cc0CC0
11P40
c0veh/hC0

12P41 3-7 veh/km/lnpcu/km/ln


veh/h/lnpcu/h/ln
13P42
DDHVveh/h/
DDHVveh/h/ln
14P42K HTF
15P43cc0CC0 (v / c) i (V / C ) i
16P43 3-1 veh/h/lnveh/hpcu/h/lnpcu/h
1

cc0CC0 (v / c) i (V / C ) i
17 P 45 25000~55000veh (pcu/d)
25000~55000pcu/d
18P484-63-94-14
K HTF
19P504-74-8 K C
20P464-3Sp=Sp
21P544-16
K HTF
22P55
Q v K Q
v K
23P58 4-64-74-114-13 R2 R2
24P59 4-10

4-10

25P68 k HTF
26P785-3 v RF veh/h pcu/h
27P78/hpcu/h
28P82 2 veh/h pcu/h
29P916-3h pcu/h
30P98V1=136+0.345Vf0.115VrV1=136+0.345Vf0.115Vr
31P99P102VfVf
32P103600 /h 600veh/h
33P114 7-2

34P121 7-5 veh/h pcu/h


/h
pcu/h

35P124 d D
36P125{
2

DHV
30 DHV

DHV = AADT * K * D

7-26

K 30 AADT
D}

{
DDHV
30 DDHV

DDHV = AADT * HTF * D

7-26

HTF 30 AADT
D}
37P125TGjTGj
38P126 7.1 veh pcud D
39P127

40P130/hveh/h
41P140 P141cnCn
42P144 8-6 veh/h pcu/h
43P144P146 c C
44P148 P149cnCn
45P157QMQM

46P1608-65 Q C
47P160cece1CeCe1
3

48P161
vn(pcu/s)
qn(pcu/s)
49P1628-72cvqncnCnvnqn
50P1638-74cnCnvnqn
51NN0CC0
52P22311-2vp=SpDp=Vp/AVp=SpDp=Sp/A
53P223AB ab
54P228P229 N C

55 N C
56NCP235P236 C1C2f1f2

1995

2000

2002

2000

1999

2002

( 209 )1991

2000

2000

10

1987

11

2000

12

2000

13

1998

14

2001

15

2001

16

2000

17

1990

18

1996

19

2000

20

1999

21

1998

22

2001

23

2000

24

1998

25

1998

26

1998

27

1995

28

1999

29

1997

30

1997

31

1999

32

2001

33

(JTJ00197)1998

34

1994

242