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STRUCTURE

ECTODERMAL DERIVATIVES
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
BRAIN

ANIMAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: The Tadpole (External Gill Stage)


FUNCTIONS
ORIGIN

prosencephalon

Central nervous system

Neural tube [from neural ectoderm]

telencephalon (future
site)

language & communication, movement,


olfactory, memory emotion

Neural tube [from neural ectoderm]

diencephalon (future
site)

receive input from optic nerves

Neural tube [from neural ectoderm]

mesencephalon

Neural tube [from neural ectoderm]

rhombencephalon
OTHER
STRUCTURES

autonomic functions

Neural tube [from neural ectoderm]

divides with the prosencephalon into the


telocoel and diocoel
Relays nerve axons from the frontal lobe and
occipital lobe
Communicates with the lateral ventricles
anteriorly, and with the mesencephalic duct
posteriorly
Releases hormones that play a major role in
seasonal breeding, metabolism, hibernation in
animals, and in sexual development
Carries axons from the magnocellular
neurosecretory of the hypothalamus down to
the posterior pituitary where they release their
hormones into the blood

Neural tube neurocoel (from neural


ectoderm)

prosocoel
telocoel
diocoel

epiphysis

infundibulum

hypophysis

mesocoel
rhombocoel
anterior choroid

Secretes hormones for growth, sex organ


functions, and blood pressure
Relays between ventricles; connects the 3rd
and 4th brain ventricles
Connects central canal of spinal chord to
cerebral aqueduct. Relays nerve axons from
the pons, and the medulla oblongata
Produce cerebrospinal fluid

neurocoel

FATE

telencephalon, diencephalon
(forebrain); also give rise to parts of
brain and eye rudiments
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE
[telencephalon (cerebral cortex,
basal ganglia, corpus stratum,
olfactory bulb)]
thalamus/hypothalamus,
diencephalon
optic lobes, corpora bigemina;
cerebral aqueduct
?

first and second ventricles of cerebral


hemisphere
first and second ventricles of cerebral
hemisphere

Neural tube neurocoel (from neural


ectoderm)

third ventricle of cerebral hemisphere


[3rd brain ventricle]

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

pineal body or gland

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

posterior pituitary gland

Anterior lobe of hypophysis:


stomedeal epithelium (from
epidermal ectoderm); posterior lobe
from the neural tube (from neural
ectoderm)

anterior pituitary gland

neurocoel

optic ventricles, tectum (from the


roof); cerebral aqueduct

neurocoel

fourth brain ventricle, aqueduct of


Sylvius

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

Anterior Choroid Plexus

plexus
Project motor fibers to skeletal muscle and
form the ventral roots of the spinal nerves

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

Gives rise to motor neurons;


myelencephalon

Produce cerebrospinal fluid

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

posterior choroids plexus

spinal cord

Carries sensory signals and motor innervation


to most of the skeletal muscles in the body

central canal

Carries cerebrospinal fluid

caudal portion of neural tube (from


neural ectoderm)
neurocoel; Neural tube (from neural
ectoderm)

basal plates
posterior choroid
plexus
SPINAL CORD

spinal cord
central canal

PERIPHERAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM
ORGANS OF THE
SENSES
EYE
optic cup
pigmented epithelium

retina

optic lens
EAR
otic vesicles
OLFACTORY
ORGANS

Contains lens and other parts of the eye, used


for sight
Help to optimize visual contrast by reducing
Innermost coat of the eye, is a delicate
membrane whose sensory epithelium provides
a sensitive surface. It contains a pigmented
layer lining the choroids and inner retina
propoe consisting of neurosensory cells called
rods and cones.

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

iris, optic cup

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

pigmented epithelium

neural tube (from neural ectoderm)

retina

Focus the light rays onto the retina by


refraction.

EPIDERMAL ECTODERM
epidermal placodes (ectoderm,
neural tube)

optic lens

for hearing and equilibrium; auditory vesicle

epidermal placodes (ectoderm)

INNER EAR sacculus, utriculus

olfactory epithelium

Lines olfactory canal

olfactory canal

For smelling

external nares

Opens to the exterior (sor to the air to come in)

internal nares

It is an extension of the tubular opening from


the external nares to the pharynx

EPIDERMAL ECTODERM
epidermal placodes (ectoderm)
EPIDERMAL ECTODERM
epidermal placodes (ectoderm)
EPIDERMAL ECTODERM
epidermal placodes (ectoderm)
EPIDERMAL ECTODERM
epidermal placodes (ectoderm)

olfactory epithelium
Choanal canal
external nares
internal nares

CRANIAL NERVES
optic nerves (II)

A large nerve; curves around to the ventral side


and emerges from an X-shaped structure
called optic chiasma; It supplies retina of the
eye

NEURAL TUBE (neural ectoderm,


neural tube)

optic(II) nerves

trigeminal ganglion
(V)

Sends branches to the mandibular and


maxillary processes of the first visceral arches
innervates facial muscles, utriculus and
sacculus of inner ear. FACIAL- -it is related to
facial muscles and taste buds;AUDITORY- sense nerve, which is associated with
geniculate ganglion; innervates facial muscles,
utriculus and sacculus of inner ear

neural crest

trigeminal(V) nerve

neural crest

facial (VII) nerve, auditory(VIII) nerve


Nerve VII innervates the facial
muscles; nerve VIII innervated the
utriculus and sacculus of the inner
ear

Sends branches to the first branchial arch

neural crest

glossopharyngeal(IX) nerve

outer protective covering (stratified epithelium)


Contains melanin- -Gives color to the skin

epidermal placodes (ectoderm)


neural crest

skin, epidermis
melanophores/ melanocytes

adhesive glands *(organ of adhesion)


Wide chamber that is exposed upon opening
the mouth; for ingesting prey and for adult frogs
- - passageway of air into the lungs; receives
food

epidermal placodes (ectoderm)

disappears

Rupturing of oral plate epidermal


ectoderm

buccal cavity, mouth

Lines the mouth cavity

epidermal placodes (ectoderm)

Lining of mouth cavity

pharynx

Source of several endocrine glands such as


thyroid and parathyroid

anterior portion of endodermal gut


(endoderm) PRIMITIVE GUT

pharynx

pharyngeal pouch

secretes hormone directly to the bloodstream

PRIMITIVE GUT

middle ear, Eustachian tube,


Parathyroids

external gills

*Carries respiration, which require no gill cleft,


while the larva is still confined to the egg-mass.

Primitive gut (endodermal


evagination)
endoderm

acoustico-facialis
ganglion (VII-VIII)

glossopharyngeal
ganglion (IX)
SKIN
epidermis
melanophores
Additional
structures
oral suckers
oral cavity
stomodeum
depression
ENDODERMAL
DERIVATIVES
FOREGUT
RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM

LUNGS
lung buds
trachea

THYROID GLAND

The single short tubular connection opens into


the foregut
Also known as windpipe, where air passes to
two bronchi, one leading to each lung
(It drains the tail); Endocrine gland that
secretes hormones which stimulates
metabolism and influence development and
maturation in vertebrates and a hormone which
lowers blood calcium levels blood calcium
levels in mammals

disappears
lungs

Primitive gut

lungs

primitive gut/ endodermal gut

trachea

endoderm

thyroid gland

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
esophagus
stomach

liver
gall bladder
MIDGUT

transfers food (bolus) to the stomach; by


peristalsis
Temporary storage and initial digestion of food;
secretes digestive enzymes for the digestion of
food
Produces bile which aids in digestion and
absorption of fats, prepares nitrogenous wastes
for disposal and detoxifies poisonous
chemicals in the blood
stores and releases bile

endodermal gut/primitive gut

esophagus

endodermal gut/primitive gut

stomach

endodermal gut/primitive gut

liver

endodermal gut/primitive gut

gall bladder

(consist of a large yolk cells) Where most of the


intestines are derived from
Nutrients stored in the egg

PRIMITIVE GUT;archenteron
(endoderm)
endoderm

hindgut

Posterior part of alimentary canal

PRIMITIVE GUT ; archenteron


posterior to yolk mass (endoderm)

large intestine

cloaca

Common opening for digestive, urinary and


reproductive tracts in all vertebrates except
most mammals

primitive gut

cloaca

anus

The opening where feces are expelled from


inside the body

midgut
yolk
HINDGUT

NOTOCHORD
MESODERMAL
DERIVATIVES
EPIMERE
SKELETON AND
MUSCLES
dermatome

axial support

Group of tissues which develop into the skin;


dermal layer of skin, intermuscular connective
tissues of both somatic and appendicular
muscles, connective tissue layers of the skin.

duodenum, ileum, small intestine


disappears
large intestine and rectum of the
adult frog

in the region of
blastopore/blastoporal lip
(proctodeum)
chordamesoderm

disappears

epimere (mesenchyme)

appendicular musculature, dermis

myotome

Group of tissues that develop into the body wall


muscle

epimere (mesenchyme)

sclerotome

Group of tissues that develop into the vertebrae

epimere (mesenchyme)

branchiomeric
muscles
SKULL

For closing the mouth, aids in swallowing,


movement of the shoulder

epimere (mesenchyme)

anus

axial musculature; gives rise to most


skeletal muscles of trunk, striated
muscles, appendicular skeleton,
muscles of the appendages
vertebral column; sclerotomal sheath,
axial skeleton
become the muscles operating the
mouth

parachordal cartilage
prechordal/trabecular
cartilage

visceral arches

hypobranchial
cartilage
MESOMERE
EXCRETORY
SYSTEM

Fuse to form the basal plate which is pierced


with openings for the exit of cranial nerves
Forms ethmoid plate which separates the nasal
cavity from the brain
[For breathing, support of tongue and larynx]
*Visceral skeleton that supports pharynx.
Transmit the aortic arches from the ventral
aorta to the dorsal aortic roots. Support the gills
and the blood vessels associated with the gills.
Moves and stabilizes larynx and hyoid

NEURAL CREST [epimere


(mesenchyme)]
NEURAL CREST [epimere
(mesenchyme)]

visceral skeleton that supports


pharynx, forms the jaw

neural crest

part of visceral skeleton

Filters urine from the pericardium

mesomere (intermediate mesoderm)

pronephric duct

Where wates and water are swept into to be


secreted through the cloaca

mesomere (intermediate mesoderm)

pericardial cavity

Encloses the heart

parietal pericardium

Lines the wall of pericardial cavity

visceral pericardium

Surface epithelium of the heart

peritoneal cavity
parietal peritoneum

Surrounds the gut


Surface epithelium of the gut

hypomere
cavity formed when hypomere
separates into splabchnic and
somatic (coelom, splanchnic
mesomere)
somatic hypomere/ somatic
mesomere
splanchnic hypomere/ splanchnic
mesomere
coelom/ splanchnic mesomere
SOMATIC MESODERM

visceral peritoneum

Lines the wall of visceral organs

splanchnic mesoderm

AORTIC ARCH
efferent branchial
vessels
afferent branchial
vessels
dorsal aorta (paired,
unpaired)

splanchnic mesoderm
It supplies blood to the brain; the deep head
sutures and arm
It supplies blood to the tongue, the arm, and
the floor of the mouth
sends branches (arteries) to the various organs

floor of ethnoid plate/intranasal plate

epimere (mesenchyme), ectoderm,


mesoderm, endoderm

pronephros kidney

COELOM

floor of chondrocranium, floor of


ethnoid plate / intranasal plate

most disappear replaced by


mesonephric kidney (duct), small
portion becomes mesonephron
(functional mesonephros)
stimulates the development of
mesonephric tubules, disappears and
replaced by mesonephric duct
body cavities
body cavity, pericardial cavity

parietal pericardium
visceral pericardium
pleuroperitoneal cavity
parietal peritoneum
visceral pericardium also, smooth
muscle of the gut
I & II never develop; III external and
internal carotids; IV systematic arch;
V- disapears; VI pulmocutaneousartery

splanchnic mesoderm
splanchnic mesoderm
splanchnic mesoderm

dorsal aorta

HEART
truncus arteriosus
conus arteriosus
atrium
ventricle
common cardinal vein
sinus venosus
OTHER PARTS
anterior cardinal vein
posterior cardinal
vein
caudal artery
caudal vein
gill capillaries

vitelline veins

Receives low oxygen blood from right ventricle


and oxygen rich blood from left ventricle
Serves as the base for all arteries
Receives blood returning to the vertebrate
heart
Pumps blood out of the heart
Serves as a major return channel to the heart;
receives anterior and posterior cardinal vein
Pacemaker of the heart
Major drainage channel from the cephalic part
of the body
Major drainage channel from the caudal part of
the body
Supplies blood to the tail
It drains the tail
In here, gas exchange occurs between the
blood and the water bathing the gills.
Collects blood from the liver and brings it to the
sinus venosus

splanchnic mesoderm

truncus arteriosus

splanchnic mesoderm

conus arteriosus

splanchnic mesoderm

right and left auricles

splanchnic mesoderm

ventricle

splanchnic mesoderm

anterior vena cava

splanchnic mesoderm

sinus venosus

splanchnic mesoderm

jugular/subclavian vein

splanchnic mesoderm
splanchnic mesoderm

posterior vena cava, some will


degenerate
disappears
disappears

splanchnic mesoderm

disappears

splanchnic mesoderm

posterior vena cava anterior section


of postcaval vein, hepatic system,
(hepatic vein, hepatic portal vein),
most degenerate

splanchnic mesoderm