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Modelling Intumescent Coatings

under Different Fire Conditions


Dr Yong Zhang
Prof. Yong.C. Wang
20-09-11

Background
Current assessing method (EN 133818:2010) is based on the standard fire test.
Graphical approach
Curve fitting

Differential Equation Analysis


Average thermal conductivity

Different fire exposures lead to different


results.
Complex chemical reactions and phase
transition undergo when heated.
=
Different expansion ratio

Q
d * T

Background
A model to predict the performance of
intumescent coatings under different fire
scenarios.
Steel temperature-time relationship
Expansion ratio

Proposing a new practical test method


enabling performance based design.
Modelling parameters come from readily
available routine lab tests

Introduction
Modelling
Chemical reaction sub model
Expansion sub model
Thermal conductivity sub model
Heat and mass transfer
Finite Difference Method

Experiments
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)
Cone calorimeter test
Furnace test
Two paint products

Theory and Assumptions


Expansion
Expansion starts when intumescent coating starts to melt.

Tstart Tmelt
Expansion stops when bubble bursts .

F 2m2

m2 T @ F , T = T
,
max
stop
t t

Gas trapped ratio

Tstart
=

Ctrap

m2T
m2 , 0T0

Theory and Assumptions


Thermal conductivity
Expanded char is treated as a porous foam formed by
bubbles.
Effective gas conductivity is a function of mean bubble size
d.
2
4 0.717

=
4deT 3
cond = 4.815 10 T
rad
3
Bubble growth mechanism
Bubble size is proportional to gas produced by blow agent and
inverse proportional to depletion of charring materials.

d = d 0 + (d max d 0 )(1

Y2 Y3 + YC
)
Y2, 0 Y3, 0

Cone Calorimeter Tests

Cone Tests
3mm

50 kw 0.4 mm D.F.T

3mm

65 kw 1.2 mm D.F.T

Cone Calorimeter Tests


Heat Flux /
Kw/m2

Steel thickness /
mm

3 steel thicknesses
3 coat thicknesses
2 heat fluxes

50

65

10

20

Dry Film Thickness


(DFT) / mm

Qty

0.4

0.8

1.2

0.4

0.8

1.2

0.4

0.8

1.2

Cone Calorimeter Resuts


600

Steel thickness 5mm


Coat thickness 0.4mm
Heat flux: 50kw

35
30
25

400
20
300

Test
modelling
Test
Modelling

200

15
10

100

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

Time /s

2500

3000

3500

Thickness /mm

Temperature /oC

500

Steel Thickness: 10mm


Coat Thickness: 0.8 mm
Heat Flux: 50KW

600

35
30

500
400
20
300

Test
modelling
Test
Modelling

200
100

15
10
5

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

Time /s

2500

3000

3500

Thickness /mm

Temperature /oC

25

700

Steel thickness 5mm


Coating thickness 0.8 mm
Heat Flux: 65 KW

35

600
30

Temperature /oC

25
400

20

300

15

Test
Modelling
Test
Modelling

200
100

10
5

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

Time

2500

3000

3500

Thickness /mm

500

35

600

30

500

25

400

20

300

15

Test
Modelling
Test
Modelling

200
100

10
5
0

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

time /s

2500

3000

3500

Thickness /mm

Temperature /oC

700

Steel thickness 20mm


Coating thickness 1.2 mm
Heat Flux : 65 KW

Overall Expansion Prediction

Predicted Expansion Ratio

80

Color : Coating thickness


0.4 mm
0.8 mm
1.2 mm
Shape : Steel thickness
5 mm
10 mm
20 mm
Interior : Heat flux
65 KW
50 KW

60

40

20

+20%
-20%

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Measured Expansion Ratio

60

70

80

Furnace Fire
1200

Fast
1000

ISO

Temperature /oC

800

Slow

600

Design Curve
Furnace Temperature

400
200
0
0

1000

2000

3000

Time /s

4000

5000

Furnace arrangement

ISO Fire Thickness Results


Sample ID Steel thickness/ mm

DFT / m

M.E.R

P.E.R

Error /%

A04ISO

374

34.2

37.1

8.2

A08ISO

1094

36.6

35.3

-3.6

A12ISO

957

28.2

30.3

7.4

B04ISO

10

446

29.9

33.1

10.8

B08ISO

10

867

23.0

25.7

12.0

B12ISO

10

798

21.0

25.7

22.7

C04ISO

20

443

26.2

29.6

12.8

C08ISO

20

971

18.5

23.3

26.1

C12ISO

20

1172

21.3

20.9

-2.2

M.E.R. Measured expansion ratio


P.E.R. Predicted expansion ratio

DFT Dry Film Thickness

Samples after ISO fire

a)

b)

5mm

Temperature Prediction Results


1000

Temperature /oC

800

ISO Fire
steel thickness: 6mm

600

A04ISO Test
A04ISO Modelling
A08ISO Test
A08ISO Modelling
A12ISO Test
A12ISO Modelling

400
200
0

a)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

Temperature Prediction Results


1000

Temperature /oC

800

ISO Fire
steel thickness: 10 mm

600

B04ISO Test
B04ISO Modelling
B08ISO Test
B08ISO Modelling
B012ISO TEST
B12ISO Modelling

400
200
0
0

b)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

Temperature Prediction Results


1000

Temperature /oC

800

ISO Fire
Steel Thickness: 20 mm

600
400

C04ISO Test
C04ISO Modelling
C08ISO Test
C08ISO Modelling
C12ISO1 Test
C12ISO1 Modelling

200
0
0

C)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

Overall Temperature Accuracy


800

ISO Fire

Predicted Temperature /oC

700
600
500
400
300

+10%
200

-10%

100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Measured Temperaure /oC

700

800

Slow Fire Thickness Results


Sample ID
A04SL
A08SL
A12SL
B04SL
B08SL
B12SL
C04SL
C08SL
C12SL

Steel thickness /mm


6
6
6
10
10
10
20
20
20

DFT / m
419
1035
872
410
903
797
432
903
1060

M.E.R. Measured expansion ratio


P.E.R. Predicted expansion ratio

M.E.R
39.2
40.5
48.6
42.9
39.3
37.5
42.3
20.2
16.4

P.E.R
40.8
30.1
31.4
37.7
30.5
32.6
28.3
24.2
26.4

Error /%
4.0
-25.6
-35.4
-12.1
-22.3
-13.1
-33.1
19.6
61.2

DFT Dry Film Thickness

Temperature /oC

800

Slow Fire
Steel Thickness: 6 mm

600
400

A04SL Test
A04SL Modelling
A08SL Test
A08SL Modelling
A12SL Test
A12SL Modelling

200
0

a)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

Slow Fire
Steel Thickness: 10 mm

Temperature /oC

800
600
400

B04SL Test
B04SL Modelling
B08SL Test
B08SL Modelling
B12SL Test
B12SL Modelling

200
0
0

b)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

C04SL Test
C04SL Modelling
C08SL Test
C08SL Modelling
C12SL Test
C12SL Modelling

Temperature /oC

800
600

Slow Fire
Steel Thickness: 20 mm

400
200
0
0

c)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

Slow Fire Samples

a)

b)

5mm

b)

a)

d)

c)

Fast Fire Thickness Results

Sample ID

Steel thickness /mm

DFT/ m

M.E.R

P.E.R

Error /%

A04FA
A08FA
A12FA
B04FA
B08FA
B12FA
C04FA
C08FA
C12FA

6
6
6
10
10
10
20
20
20

407
1035
892
436
971
786
445
969
1038

24.8
21.8
28.8
31.5
23.7
20.7
32.2
19.7
20.5

30.8
25.5
25.2
31.5
25.8
26.1
27.6
23.4
22.6

24.4
17.0
-12.3
-0.1
8.8
25.7
-14.3
18.6
10.4

M.E.R. Measured expansion ratio


P.E.R. Predicted expansion ratio

DFT Dry Film Thickness

Fast Fire
Fast Fire
Steel Thickness: 6 mm

1200

Temperature /oC

1000
800

A04FA Test
A04FA Modelling
A08FA Test
A08FA Modelling
A12FA Test
A12FA Modelling

600
400
200
0

a)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

Fast Fire
Fast Fire
Steel Thickness: 10 mm

1200

Temperature /oC

1000
800

B04FA Test
B04FA Modelling
B08FA Test
B08FA Modelling
B12FA Test
B12FA Modelling

600
400
200
0
0

b)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

Fast Fire
C04FA Test
C04FA Modelling
C08FA Test
C08FA Modelling
C12FA Test
C12FA Modelling

1200

Temperature /oC

1000
800

Fast Fire
Steel Thickness: 20 mm

600
400
200
0
0

c)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Time /s

a)

5mm

b)

5mm

Overall Temperature Accuracy


800

Predicted Temperature /oC

700
600
500
400
300

ISO Fire
Fast Fire
Slow Fire

+10%
200

-10%

100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

Measured Temperaure /oC

600

700

800

Overall Thickness Accuracy


Predicted expansion ratio

60

+20%

50
40

-20%
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Measured Expansion Ratio

60

The second product


Extract modelling parameter values from
experimental data.
Kinetic parameters from TGA
Determine bubble size
Determine gas trapped ratio

Compare modelling results with


experimental results.

Overall Expansion Prediction


Edge Color----Coating thickness
0.4 mm
0.8 mm
1.2 mm
Shape ----- Steel thickness
5 mm
10 mm
20 mm
Interior ----- Heat Flux
65 kw
50 kw

Modelling Expansion Ratio

80

60

40

+20%
20

-20%
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Measured Expansion Ratio

70

80

90

Summary
The expansion of the intumescent coating
was significantly different for different
experimental conditions.
The model was able to produce accurate
results.
10% for temperature predication
20% for thickness prediction
Some sub-model need to be refined.