You are on page 1of 23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:
GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad
PostedinBridgeEngineering,ResearchPapers|

EmailThisPost|

Megusta

By
D.Ishihara,H.Yamada,H.Katsuchi,andE.Sasaki
YokohamaNationalUniversity
Abstract
ThereareplansofconstructingbridgeslongerspanlikeMessinastraitbridge.Thistrendcausesthenecessityofdiscussingontheproblemsofinstability
analysissuchaslateraltorsionalbuckling.However,lateraltorsionalbucklinganalysisoflongspanbridgeisnotsufficientlytakenyet.Forthatreason,we
applytheAbaqus/Standardtosolvethehighnonlinearproblem.TheanalysisobjectisAkashikaikyoBridgewhichisthelongestbridgeintheworld.This
paperpresentshowtoanalyzethelateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspanbridgeapplyingwindload.
Keywords
LateralTorsionalBuckling,SuspensionBridge,Aerodynamics
Introduction
Bynow,alotoflongspansuspensionbridgeshavebuiltandtheirlengthskeepgrowing.Asaresult,theirgirderstiffnessisrelativelyreducedandtheir
strengthsforwindforcearealsodecreasing.Therefore,numerousfutteranalysisandexperimentswereexecuted.Ontheotherhand,itisaswellasimportantto
investigatethelateraltorsionalbucklingstrengthsofsuspensionbridges,buttheinvestigationshaveneverbeenmadefordecades.Certainly,wejustuseHirai
Okauchiformulationthatwasproposedaround60stoconfirmthestabilityagainsttheproblem.Itcontainsatheoreticalequationandidealboundaryconditions
sotheapplicationoftheformulationislimited.Therefore,theneedofmodernexaminationoflateraltorsionalbucklingofsuspensionbridgeisincreasing.A
longspansuspensionbridgeshowsquitenonlinearbehaviorandshowsnonlinearitywhenitsinitialconditionandwindloadareapplied.Thereforeitneeds
sometechniques.Wepresentthewayofmodelingbridgesusingthestructuralelementsandmakinginitialconditionsundergravity.Afterthiswepresenthowto
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

1/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

analyzethelateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspanbridgeapplyingwindload.Thewindloadiscalculatedbythestaticcoefficientofwindforce.Finally,the
resultisshowedandtheconclusionispresented.
Themainbackgroundofthisproblemandtheprocedureoftheanalysisareintroducedinthischapter.Themaintopicofthisanalysisisalateraltorsional
bucklingandlargedeformationanalysisofsuspensionbridge.
HiraiOkauchiformulation
Lateraltorsionalbucklingiscriticalforstructuresandcanleadsuddenlycollapseofthem.PreviousresearchwasconductedbyHirai(Hirai1942)andOkauchi
(Okauchi1967).Themaintheoryoftheirtheoryisshowedasfollows.

displacements,respectively.EI,GK,ECwarebendingstiffness,torsionalstiffnessandbendingtorsionalstiffness,respectively.Hwistensionforceofmaincable
applyingthedeadloadandMisthemomentofhorizontalcomponentoccurredbydragforce.CDisacoefficientofdrag,SandStrepresentthegradientoflift
forceandgradientofpitchingmoment.h1h2indicatetheincrementofcabletensioncausedbythedeformationoflateraltorsionalbucklingandeachofthem
canbecalculatedbythefollowingequations.

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

2/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Where,EcAcisthecablesstiffness,andrightsideofintegrationisappliedforwholelengthofthesuspensionbridge.yistheverticalcoordinateofcablebefore
deformation.HiraiaddedtheinertiaterminEquation1andinvestigatedonthestabilitycriteriaofstructuresbyarrangingthemulticoordinatevibration
equation.Intheseinvestigations,itwasfoundthatthecriteriaisthesameoftheoneoflateraltorsionalbuckling.Theimportanceoftheproblemoflateral
torsionalbucklingwasemphasizedatthattime.Thecriticalwindloadequationis

Becauseoftheassumedboundarycondition,theapplicationofthisequationisrestrictedtothesinglespansuspensionbridges.Theapplicationtothemulti
spansbridgeandthedifferentboundaryconditionsshouldhaveaproblem.AndalsointheEquation3,thetransitionofwindloadtocableisnotconsidered.As
thepitchingmomentisthemaincomponentoflateraltorsionalbuckling,thetransitionofwindloadmusthadbeenconsideredinordertoincreasetheaccuracy
oftheequation.
Theseassumptionsandignoranceshouldberemovedinthemodernanalysis,becausecivilengineershouldnotrelyonsucharestrictionofoldtheorybutrely
oncomprehensivedesignmethodlikeFiniteElementMethod.Inthisstudy,thecomplicateFEMmodelwasbuildandtheaboveassumptionandignoranceare
eliminated.Thereforeourstudymustbeimportanttodesignthefuturebridges.
Targetstructure
Theapplicationoflargedeformationandlateraltorsionalbucklinganalysestolongspansuspensionbridgesarefollowed.OneobjectoftheanalysisisAkashi
KaikyoBridgeitscenterspanis1991mandisthelongestintheworld.ThemodelisshowninFigure2.Inaddition,weassembledthemodelofmorelateral
torsionalbucklingsensitivesuspensionbridgetheverticalbracemadewidertwicethantheoriginalAkashiKaikyoBridge.Thetwomodelsaretheobjectsof
thischapterandwedescribethedetailsofthemandtheprocedureofanalysis.
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

3/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

AkashiKaikyobridge
AkashiKaikyobridgewascompletedin1998andistheworldslongestbridge.Themainspanis1991metersandthebridgehasthestiffeningtrussgirder.The
outlinesandsomesectionsareshowedinFigure2.

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

4/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Themaingirderandtowerareassignedbeamelement(B31H).Themaincableandhangercableareassignedtrusselement(T3D2H).Theboundaryconditions
areshowedinFigure3.Thetowersandcableendarefixed,thegirderendsarefreeinbridgedirection(U1)butotherdegreesoffreedomarefixed.

Simulatedmodelofsuspensionbridgestiffenedhorizontally
Ananotheranalysiswasperformedinthisstudy.Themainpointofthisanalysisistoinvestigatehowwillactthesimulatedmodelofsuspensionbridge
stiffenedhorizontallyagainstwindforce.Thesuspensionbridgemodelwasmodifedbyincreasingthestiffnessofupperandlowerchordsbywideningthe
widthofelements.TheupperandlowerchordswidthwasmadetwiceaswideasAkashiKaikyomodel.ThedrawingofmodelisshowninFigure3.

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

5/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Exceptforthewidthofupperandlowerchordsmodification,otherparametersareallthesamesuchasmaterial,coordinates,andwindload.
Analysisprocedure
Theanalysisprocedurecanbedescribedasbridgeswereappliedthegravityatafirststep,andbridgeswereappliedthewindloadatasecondstep.Eachsteps
havehighnonlinearity,whichrequiredthestabilizationofdampingfactor.Thesedetailswillbedescribedafterward.
Gravityequilibrium
Atafrststep,suspensionbridgesshouldbeinequilibriumundergravity.Whilethisstepthemodelsareappliedwithgravityload,anddeformsasthenumberof
incrementisincreasing.Thedeformationissolargethatthenormalstaticanalysiscannotcompletesolvingthestep.Therefore,inthisstep,thedampingfactor
wasaddedtoaccomplishtheanalysis.Thisoptioncanbewritten,
*Static,stabilize=4e09
01,1.,1e40,1.0.
Ofcourse,ifthedampingfactorwasadded,theadditionalenergywillactasfactorwhichmakeanalysislessaccurate.Consequently,thecomparisonofALLIE
(totalinternalenergyofstructure)andALLSD(totalenergybydampingfactor)mustbedone.Thecomparisonisdoneinchapter5.
ApplyingWindload
Inthesecondstep,thewindloadisappliedtothemodel.Thethreecomponentsofwindfocepitchingmoment,dragforce,andliftforceareappliedtoelements.
EachcomponentisshowninFigure7.Thecomponentsofwindforcesperunitspanactiononthedeformeddeckcanbewritten,
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

6/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Theaerodynamicforceappliedtothewindprojectedelements,whichreflectthesituationthatthewindflowsfromonesidehorizontally.Themagnitudesof
windforcesarecalculatedbytheEquation4andareappliedafterstaticanalysisundergravity.

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

7/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Analysisresultsandconsiderations
Gravityanalysis
Inthefirststep,theenergybydampingfactorshouldbemuchlessthantheinternalenergy,aspreviouslymentioned.Thecomparisonsofthesefactorareshown
inFigure6andFigure7.Thesefiguresshowthattheadditionalenergybydampingfactorissufficientlylessthantheinternalenergyofstructure.Wecan
concludethattheeffectofadditionaldampingfactoriswellignorable.

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

8/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Analysisonthebehaviorsunderaerodynamicforces.
Thelargedeformationanalysiswasdoneafterundergravityanalysis.Thedeformationfigureandtherelationshipofrotationaldisplacementandwindspeedare
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

9/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

shownFigure9andFigure10.Figure9showsthegradientincreaseofrotationofcenternode.TheresultrepresentsthefactthattheAkashiKaikyoBridge
doesnthavethepossibilityoflateraltorsionalbucklingbutlargedeformation.Iflateraltorsionalbucklingoccurs,therotationaldisplacementwillincrease
suddenly,butthisanalysisdoesntshowsuchaction.Thereasonofthisisprobablythesuspensionbridgesstiffnessofhorizontalcomponentisnotgreaterthan
otherstiffnesscomponents.Whilethesimplebeamanalysis,thedirectionofapplyingloadisthestrongaxesofthestructure,butthissuspensionbridgeis
appliedwindforcehorizontallyanditshorizontalstiffnessisnotsomuchstrong.
Ontheotherhand,themodifiedmodelsbehaviorwasdifferent.Figure10showstherotationaldisplacementwindspeedrelationship.Itincludesthelateral
torsionalbehaviorcharacterthattherotationaldisplacementincreasesuddenly.

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

10/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Considerations
Intheproblemoflateraltorsionalbuckling,thebalanceofstiffnessisveryimportant.Ifthehorizontalstiffnessissmallcomparedwithotherdirectional
stiffness,thestructureoccursonlylargedeformationandiftheoneislargeoversomepoint,thestructureoccurslateraltorsionalbuckling.
Inadditiontothedescribedanalysis,wecalculatedthecriticalwindspeedbyHiraiOkauchiformulation.TheparametersareshowninTable1.Thistable
representsthegreatreductionofcriticalwindspeed.Thismeanstheprevioustheoryisindangersidejudgment.
Conclusions
InthispaperlateraltorsionalbucklinganalysisbyutilizingtheAbaqusstandardwasdemonstrated.Thebalanceofhorizontalstiffnessisveryimportantantthe
overstiffnessofthatleadsthestructurelateraltorsionalbuckling.However,itshouldbenotedthattheanalysisresultsneedmoreverificationsuchas
experiments:windtunneltest.Forcontinuingresearch,thecriticalbalanceofstiffnessandotherrealsuspensionbridgeanalysisshouldbeclassified.
References
1.MemonBashirAhmed,etal,Arclengthtechniquefornonlinearfniteelementanalysis,JournalofZhejiangUniversitySCIENCEVol.5(5),pp.618628
2.ViroteBoonyapinyo,T.Miyata,H.Yamada,Nonlinearbucklinginstabilityanalysisoflongspancablestayedbridgesunderdisplacementdependentwind
load,Journalofstructuralengineering,Vol.39AP923935,1993.
3.M.A.Crisfeld,AFastIncremental/IterativeSolutionProcedurethatHandlesSnapThrough,Computers&StructuresVol.13,pp5562.
4.M.A.Crisfeld,SnapThroughandSnapBackResponseinConcreteStructuresandtheDangersofUnderIntegration,InternationalJournalforNumerical
MethodsinEngineering,Vol.22pp.751767
5.M.Fafard,B.Massicotte,GeometricalInterpretationoftheArcLengthMethod,Computers&StructuresVol.46,No.4,pp603615.
6.A.Hirai,Thestabilityofsuspensionbridgesagainsttorsionalvibration,JournalofJapanSocietyofCivilEngineerssummeryvol.28pp769786,1942.
7.A.Hirai,Y.FujisawaTheeffectsoffrequencyofwindloadtotheelasticstabilityofsuspensionbridgesJournalofJapanSocietyofCivilEngineers
summeryvol.21pp851,852,1966.
8.A.Hirai,H.Takema,LateraltorsionalbucklingofsuspensionbridgeunderhorizontalwindloadJournalofJapanSocietyofCivilEngineerssummeryvol.13
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

11/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

pp1920,1958.
9.JapansocietyofcivilengineeringandHonsyushikokubridgestechnologicalworkshop,Reportofhonsyushikokubridgetechnologicalsurvey
appendix.1,,1967.
10.J.H.Kweon,C.S.Hong,AnImprovedArcLengthMethodforPostbucklingAnalysisofCompositeCylindricalPanels,Computers&StructuresVol.53,
No.3,pp541549.
11.W.F.Lam,C.T.Morley,ArclengthMethodforPassingLimitPointsinStructuralCalculationJournalofstructuralengineeringVol.118No.1P169185.
12.Longpillarworkshop,Handbookofelasticstability,CoronaPublishing,1960.
13.MarkJ.Silver,etal,ModelingofSnapBackBendingResponseofDoublySlitCylindricalShells,StructuralDynamics&MaterialsConference,
AIAA20041820.
14.K.Okauchi,K.Nemoto,Lateraltorsionalbucklingofsuspensionbridgesunderwindpressure,JournalofJapanSocietyofCivilEngineerssummeryvol.22
pp1361,1364,1967.
15.G.Powell,J.Simons,ImprovedIterationStrategyforNonlinearStructures,InternationalJournalforNumericalMethodsinEngineering,Vol17PP1455
1467.
16.E.RAMM,StrategiesforTracingNonlinearResponseNearLimitPointsNonlinearfiniteelementanalysisinstructuralmechanics,SpringerVerlag,New
York.
17.E.Riks,TheApplicationofNewtonsMethodtotheProblemofElasticStability,JournalofAppliedMechanics,Vol39PP10601065.
18.E.Riks,AnIncrementalApproachtotheSolutionofSnappingandBucklingProblem,InternationalJournalifSolidsStructures,Vol.15,pp529551.
19.H.Takema,K.Okauchi,Lateraltorsionalbucklingofsuspensionbridgesunderwindpressure,Conferenceofbridgeandstructureworkshopvol.11ppp26
39,1964.
20.Timocshenko,Gere,Theoryofelasticstability,McGrawHill,1961.
WearethankfultoSirMatthewLadzinskiforsubmittingthisreporttoengineeringcivil.comandalsograntingusrightstopublishitonweb.Thisreportwill
helpallcivilengineersstudytheLateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge.

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

12/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

MoreEntries:
Inwindtunneltest,whyaresimilarityofReynoldsNumberbetweenrealbridgeandmodelisoftenneglected?
Whenwouldtorsionalstiffnessofmembersbeconsideredinanalyzingabridge?
Whataretheadvantagesofcablestayedbridgesoversuspensionbridgesforspanlessthan1,000m?
Whenissingleplaneormultipleplaneusedincablestayedbridges?
Whatarethefunctionsofdiaphragmsinbridges?
AkashiKaikyoBridge
Howdoestheshapeofbridgedeckaffecttheaerodynamicbehaviour?
ShaftSettlement

More Useful Measurement


Units

What is the purpose of


reinforcement in concret...

Cross Bars at Column

What is the purpose of


pedestals?

Bridge Engineering

Concrete Mix Design M 20


Grade Of Concrete

What are the functions of


diaphragms in bridges?

What are the differences


between shear slump an...

Comments
srinivasahnOctober13,2011at10:18am
itsnice..
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

13/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

ReplyLinkQuote
ROHITPARMARMay31,2012at6:29am
ITSVERYNICEANDADVANTAGEOUS
ReplyLinkQuote
shaik.MohisinaTayyibaSeptember26,2012at5:46am
pleasesendtheabbrevationsforALLIEandALLSD.Plzsendmeurgent.
ReplyLinkQuote
Postacomment
Name
Email
Website

Postyourcomment

ShareInformation
SubmitContent
AskAnExpert

SponsoredLinks

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

14/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Fabricante
Geosinteticos
ACE Geosynthetics
-geosinteticos
certicados por ISO
y CE.

WhatisCivilEngineering
CivilEngineeringHome
CivilEngineeringDisciplines
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

15/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

CivilEngineeringHistory

JournalsBooks&Softwares
FreeCivilEngineeringMagazinesandWhitePapers
CivilEngineeringBooks
CivilEngineeringJournals
CivilEngineeringSoftwares

CivilEngineeringBranches
Building
BridgeEngineering
ConcreteEngineering
HighwayEngineering
Hydraulics
MarineEngineering
PilesEngineering
PrestressEngineering
SoilEngineering
Steelworks
Surveying
TimberEngineering

CivilEngineeringJobs
CivilEngineeringJobs

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

16/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Engineering
18Klikes

LikePage

Bethefirstofyourfriendstolike
this

KnowledgeCenter
ConstructionEquipments
CivilEngineeringDisasters
CivilEngineeringEvents
CivilEngineeringFacts
CivilEngineeringInformation
CivilEngineeringNotesFromUniversities
CivilEngineeringPresentations
CivilEngineeringQuotes
CivilEngineeringVideos
CivilEngineeringWonders
ConstructionTerms
FamousCivilEngineers
Interviews
MaterialandSiteTesting
MeasurementUnits
MixDesign
ProjectReports
ResearchPapers
StudentCorner
HelpOthers

CivilEngineeringUniversities/Events
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

17/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

CivilEngineeringUniversities

AllCivilEngineeringEvents
AdvertiseYourEventHere

GalleryCivilEngineeringPictures
Bridges
CivilEngineersAndWorkers
ConstructionEquipments
ConstructionSite
RoadsAndHighways
Skyscrapers

Search
Search

CivilEngineeringForum

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

18/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Award

TopContributors
Youcanlistyourselfherebysubmittingcivilengineeringrelatedtopicstous.
Er.Vikrant
Er.RajM.Khan
SreenivasaHassanJayaram
RamaseshIyer
Er.KaushalKishore
VincentT.H.CHU

YahooGroupCivilEngineeringPortal
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

19/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

SubscribetoEngineeringCivil.com Enteremailaddress

Poweredbygroups.yahoo.com

SponsoredLinks

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

20/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

RecentlyAdded
Bridges&HighwaysEngineering&MaintenanceSummit2017
SkyscrapersAsiaSummit2017
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

21/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

11thAirfieldEngineering&MaintenanceSummit2016
SuperDuctileRebarsforEarthquakeProneBuildings
ManufacturinginRCCConstructionPrefabricatedrebars
BridgeDesignPracticeinNorthAmericaAnOverview
DesignAspectsForTerroristResistantBuildings
DifferentFailuresinRCCBuildings
ComparisonBetweenCPCC,FBEC&CRSD
Safety/StabilityofRCCstructureduringearthquakeAchallengetoovercome

CivilEngineeringLinks
GeminiGeek
TheBigger
CivilEngr.SoftwareDatabase
ImpressiveBuildings
CivilEngineeringLinks

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

22/23

24/9/2016

LateralTorsionalBucklingofLongSpanSuspensionBridge:GeometricallyNonlinearAnalysisUnderWindLoad

Engine
18Klikes

LikePage

Bethefirstofyourfriends
tolikethis

AboutUs|ContactUs|Disclaimer|CopyrightPolicy|PrivacyPolicy|Media|Testimonials
AllRightsReserved:20072016|

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/lateraltorsionalbucklingoflongspansuspensionbridgegeometricallynonlinearanalysisunderwindload.html

23/23