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Abstract

This study is focused on the corrosion processes in oil pipes and maintenance
methods having as comparatives processes already known.
The term corrosion can be defined as the metal reaction with the elements of its
environment in which the metal is converted to a non-metallic state.
The corrosion is a natural process and result from the metals inherent tendency
to revert to its more stable form, typically oxides. Most of the metals are found in nature
as stable compounds such as oxides, sulfides, silicates and other minerals named.
During the extraction and refining process of this material is added a quantity of
energy to the ore to extract the metal or the metals extracted from it, and it is this same
energy which enables the appearing of forces that are able to reverse the metal to its
most primitive form, this phenomenon is the cause of studies related to environmental
and social disasters caused by oil exploration in areas with climatic and atmospheric
changes that lead to corrosion, however this efficiency only amortizes the occurrences
of accidents such as: explosions, leaks, contamination caused by leaks modifying
popular environmental and economic structure compromised by the excessive increase
of the products caused by losses transferred by companies.
Corrosion is a major cause of failures in equipment and piping of oil production
platforms. These failures damage the process, delay the operational production
schedule,generate high maintenance costs, besides they generate risks to health and to
the environment. Contaminations and explosions by fractures and disruptions lead
environmental consequences and deaths around all its process.
All metals and alloys can corrode, there is no material that can be used in all
applications without corrode. The gold is known for its excellent resistance to corrosion
by atmospheric action but it corrodes when in contact with mercury. Most of metal
components deteriorate with their exposure to oxidizing or corrosive environments,
therefore, it can not eliminate corrosion, but it can be created procedures for corrosion
control.
Nowadays, there are several types of corrosion and every day appears more and
more, since it is a natural event,it can not be accurately about its numerous changes,
because nature in its magnitude is ever-changing.