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05

CULTURE AND
NATIONALISM
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Unity in
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Diversity
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Nationalism
Sense of Unity
among the People
of a Country
without
Religion
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Region

Freedom Movement

Caste

Creed

2 Types of Protests
Against
Indian

Inequality
Violation of Rights
Social Evils

Against
British

Economic
Exploitation

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Social
Life

Art

National
Unity

Literature
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Press

Education
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British Understood that study


about India was Essential. So
Learned Indian Society
Translated Sanskrit Works
Established Institutions

To Study about India


To Interfere Indian Education
To Train their Officers

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William
Jones

Asiatic Society of
Bengal
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Warren
Hastings

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Banaras Sanskrit College


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Jonathan Duncan

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Activity 1

Complete the Following Table

Institution
Asiatic Society
of Bengal
Calcutta
Madrasah

Founder

Jonathan Duncan

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English Education in India


To Ensure Commercial Growth
Intervention in Indian Society
To get Popular Support
Introduced in 1835

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Impact of English Education in India

Resistance of Cultural Invasion


Adopted Concepts like Democracy,
Liberty, Rationalism, Equality.
Attempted to Reform the Social
Customs and Rituals
Tried to Reform the Society, Language,
Art, Literature
Against Inequality & Violation of Rights
Sense of Unity
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Activity 2

Prepare the list of major social Reform Movements that


took place in India Before Independence

Movements

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Reformer

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Ideas

What Led the Emergence of Social


Reform Movements in India?
Liberal Outlook
Modernization
Rationalism

Objectives

Equal Civil Rights to


Education
Travel
Dress Code
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Eradicate
Evils &
Superstitions

Indian Society Needs

Fundamental Changes

Eradicate Cast System


Protect the Rights of All
Eliminate Discrimination on Women
Provide Education to All
Promote Widow Remarriage
Abolish Child Marriage
Eliminate Supremacy of the Clergy
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Raja Rammohun Roy

Brahma Samaj
Worked for the
Modernisation of India
Opposed Caste System,
Sati & Social Evils
Unified Indian Society
Idea of Patriotism
Women to Own Property
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Sati

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Ishwar Chandra
Vidyasagar

Widow Remarriage
Hindu Widow
Remarriage Act
(1856) by British
Educational
Institutions for
Women
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Pandita Ramabai

Educational Institution for


Women Sarada Sadan
Ramabai at Sharada Sadan

Ramabai and European Workers


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Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Arya Samaj
Against Child Marriage & Idol Worship

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Arya Samaj Workers Inmates


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Child Marriage

Polygamy

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Swami Vivekananda
Ramakrishna Mission

Opposed
Caste System
Social Evils
Supported
Liberty
Equality
Freedom of Thought
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Sri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa

one of the greatest saints of modern India. He was born in Bengal.


He showed a religious bent of mind from his childhood.
He had no formal education but his discourses were full
of wisdom. He was the chief priest of the Kali temple at
Dakshineswar near Calcutta.

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Sir Syed Ahmad Khan


Aligarh Movement

Social & Educational Uplift


of Indian Muslims

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Atmaram
Pandurang

Prarthana Samaj

Inter Dining
Inter Caste
Marriage
Widow Remarriage
Uplift of Women &
Backward Classes
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Annie Besant
Theosophical
Society

Renaissance of
Hindu Religion

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Viresalingam

Hitakarini Samaj

Widow Remarriage
Women Education
Kandukuri Veeresalingam was born on

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16 April 1848. He was a social reformer who


first brought about a renaissance in .He was
influenced by the ideals of Brahmo Samaj. In
1876 he started au journal and wrote the
first prose for women. He encouraged
education for women, and started a school
in Dowlaishwaram in 1874. He started a
social
organisation
called
Hitakarini
(Benefactor). He died on 27 May 1919.
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Jyotiba Phule

Satya Shodak Samaj

Opposed
Social Evils
Domination of
Priests
Started Educational
Institutions for
Backward
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Jyotirao Govindrao Phule prominent role in reforms in Maharashtra. He


fought for improving the condition of women, the poor and the
untouchables. He started a school for the education of girls of the lower
castes and founded an association called the Satyasodhak Samaj.
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E.V. Ramaswami Naicker (Periyar)


Self Respect
Movement

Opposed
Caste System
Brahmanical
Supremacy
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Periyar E. V. Ramasamy
Thanthai Periyar was a
businessman, politician,
Indian independence and
social activist

He started the SelfRespect Movement or


the Dravidian Movement
and
proposed
the
creation
of
an

independent
state
called
Dravidasthan
comprising South India.
He is also the founder
of the socio-cultural
Organisation
called
Dravidar Kazhagam.
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Sree Narayana Guru

Sree Narayana Dharma


Pariplana Yogam

Opposed
Caste System
Evil Practices
Supported
Social & Economic
Progress of Backward
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The Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam


(SNDP) was founded in 1903 with the guidance
and blessings of Sree Narayana Guru. The
SNDP is a charitable society working for the
spiritual and educational upliftment of the
Ezhava community for the past 102 .Yogam is
the first organisation which envizaged Kerala
as a whole.
During the 1890s the caste system in Kerala
was very rigid, with untouchablility. Dr. Palpu
started works towards getting the rights of
Ezhava community. With the 1891 Malayali
Memorial Revolt, he came forward by taking
the leadership of the community. He tried to
make an organization called Ezhava Sabha. In
1896, he created the bye-law of it and
published the same in Malayali, a newspaper
published from Thankussery.
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Activity 3
Prepare a list of the Legislations against Social Evils by the
British Government as a Result of the Social Reform
Activities in India.

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Prevented below
12 year marriage
of Girls
Banned
Female
Infanticide

Permitted
Widow
Remarriage
Legislations

Abolished
Sati

Abolished
Slavery

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Prevented Child
Marriage &
Polygamy
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Ideologies put forward by Indian


Reform Movements Created
Nationalism among Indians

Opposition to Caste System


Equal Rights for All
Defending Foreign Ideas & Culture
Protest against Social Evils
Educational Development
Eliminate Supremacy of the Clergy
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Activity 4
Compare the Functions of News Papers.
1. Todays News Papers
2. News Papers during Freedom Struggle

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Functions of News Papers Today

Covering News all Over the World


Educate the People
Enlighten the People
Stand for

Truth
Human Rights
Equality
Justice
Democratic Values

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National Unity
Criticism
Social Issues

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Functions of Press During Freedom

To create Public Awareness of Social


Issues
To Motivate People to Participate in
the National Movement
To Treat the Problem anywhere in the
Country as a National Problem

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Activity 5

Prepare a list of the Major Newspapers during the freedom


struggle and their Leaders

Newspapers

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Leaders

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The Hindu, Swadeshi Mitram

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Article from
Amrita Bazar
Patrika, Jan 1930
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Bombay Samachar
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Voice of India
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New India,
Common Wheel

Shome
Prakash
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Al Hilal

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Nation

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Indian Leaders depended on


News Papers

To Propagate the Nationalistic Ideas


Considered Journalism as a Service
Criticized British Policies
Motivated National Movement

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Raja Rammohun Roy was the 1st


to Start Newspaper
Sambath Kaumudi
(Bengali)

Democracy
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Mirat-ul-Akbar
(Persian)

Vernacular Press Act

By Lord Lytton in 1878


It Limited Freedom of Press
in Regional Language
People Violated this Act as
a part of Freedom Struggle
British Withdrew this Act
after a Massive Protest
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To Bring
Changes
in the
Society

To Maintain
Unity

Role of
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To Fight
against
Education British
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2 Types of Interests in the

th
19

Cent.

Indian

To Free the Country from


Political, Economical &
Cultural Domination of
British

British

To Gain Political,
Economical & Cultural
Hegemony over India

Role of Education was Important


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Indian Leaders Used Education


as a Tool for Unity..

By National Educational Institutions


By Secular Education to All
For Socio-Economic-Cultural Progress

To Promote Nationalism

To Oppose Social Evils


To Oppose Western Education
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The Deccan Educational Society - 1884


Education
was
Inevitable
For the
Nationalism
& Progress
of the
Country
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D.K. Karve

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1st Indian Women


University in
Maharashtra (1916)
Great Role in
Women Empowerment
Following this many
Educational Institutions
were Founded.

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Visva Bharati Tagore


o Universal Brotherhood
o To bridge Western &
Eastern Cultures

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To Strengthen
National
Movement by
Secular
Education

Mohamed Ali
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Shoukath Ali
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Zakir Husain

Ansari

Kerala Kalamandalam Cheruthuruthy

To Defend the
Cultural Invasion
To Promote
Traditional Art
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Gandhi Introduced
1937
Vocational
Education was
the Aim
Help to build
up a Good
Future
To Defend the
British
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Activity 6

Following are some ideas envisioned in National Education.


Complete the List of Institutions that worked for these
ideas
Ideas of National
Education

Institutions

Secularism
Nationalism
Women Empowerment
Internationalism
Revival of Traditional Arts
Vocational Education
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Ideas of National
Education

Institutions

Secularism

Jamia Millia Islamia

Nationalism

Deccan Edu. Society

Women Empowerment

Women University

Internationalism

Visva Bharati

Revival of

Traditional Arts

Vocational Education
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Kerala Kalamandalam

Wardha System

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Literary Works were Against

British Rule
Social Evils in our Society
The Agonies & Atrocities of People
Writers shared their Dislikes with
the People through
Poetry, Novel, Drama, etc..

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Result of Literary Works

Treated Sorrows of others as theirs


Came forward Collectively to Fight
Sense of Patriotism
Dissent Towards Foreign Rule
Patriotic Songs in Regional
Language bridged the gap between
the Upper class Literates &
Illiterate mass

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Sisir Kumar
Ghosh

Satyendranath
Tagore

Concept of Bharat Mata


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Bengali Novel Anandamath


based on Sanyasi Revolt of
Bengal Peasants
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Agonies of
Bengali
Farmers
Disparity
between
Rich & Poor

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Dinabandhu Mitra
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Bengali Writer
Depicted the Sufferings
of Indigo Farmers in
Bengal
Indian
Association
was formed by
S. Banerjee
based on it.
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Praised
the
Beauty of
Indias
Nature &
Unity of
People
Allama Muhammad Iqbal
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Activity 7

Complete the Table


Concepts
Bharath Matha

Anandamath
Sanyasi Revolt
Agonies of Bengali Peasants
Bandematharam

Nil Darpan
Sufferings of Indigo Farmers in Bengal

Indian Association
Sare Jahan Se Accha
Praised the Beauty of Indias Nature & Unity of People
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Creator/
Author

Concepts

Creator/ Author

Bharath Matha

Sisir Kumar Ghosh


Satyendranath Tagore

Anandamath
Sanyasi Revolt
Agonies of Bengali Peasants
Bandematharam
Nil Darpan
Sufferings of Indigo Farmers in
Bengal

Bankim Chandra Chatterji

Indian Association

Surendranath Banerjee

Sare Jahan Se Accha


Praised the Beauty of Indias
Nature & Unity of People

Allama Muhammad Iqbal

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Dinabandhu Mitra

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Activity 8

Complete the Table / Prepare a Match the following Table


Authors

Works

Tagore
Prem Chand
S. Bharathi
A.H. Hali
V.K. Chiplunkar
Vallathol

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Languages

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Bengali
o Ghora
o Gitanjali

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With Gandhi

At Visva Bharati

With Albert Einstein


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Hindi
o Sevasadan
o Premasram
o Rangabhumi
o Godan

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Tamil
o Panchalisapad
ham
o Kali paattu
o Kannan paattu
o Kuyil paattu

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Urdu
o Hayat-e-Sahi
o Hayar-e-Javeed

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Marathi
o Nibandha Mala

Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar


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Malayalam
o Ente Gurunathan
o Bappuji
o Indiayude Karachil

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Abanindranath
Tagore
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Abanindranath Tagore
Bharat Matha

Patriotism in Indian Minds


Many Artists were Influenced
Freed Indian Painting from Western
Promote Oriental Painting based on
Indian Culture & Tradition
Started Indian Society of Oriental
Arts in Culcutta

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Raja Ravi Varma

Various
Scenes
from Indian
Epics and
Literature
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Nandalal Bose

Various
Scenes
from Indian
Literature
& History
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Village Drummer
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Sati

Sufferings of
Indian
Villagers
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Amrita
Sher-Gil

Activity 9

Complete the Table

Paintings

Bharath Matha
Sati
Village Drummer
Village Life

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Artist

Paintings

Artist

Bharath Matha

Abanindranath
Tagore

Sati
Village Drummer Nandalal Bose
Village Life

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Amrita Sher-Gil

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Gandhi Designed the National Flag with Charkha


Self Dependence of Indians
Defiance to Colonial Rule
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Additional Activities

1. Painters played a vital role in the emergence of Indian


Nationalism. Explain
2. How did Literature in Various Languages motivate Indian
Nationalism?
3. How did the Advancement of Education help nurture Indian
Nationalism?
4. What was the role of Press in fostering National Unity and
Social Reformation in India?
5. How did the ideologies put forward by the Indian Social
Reform Movements create National Feeling among Indians?
6. How can you say that the British rule led the growth of
Nationalism in India?

7.
8.
9.
10.
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Michael Angelo M.A. MA (Phi., His.)


HSA (Social Science)
mamichaelma@gmail.com
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9746953695
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