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Glass,

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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT

"The dexterous hand and the thoughtful mind

find their strength in union alone"

ROGERS' '^

Drawing and Design


An Educational Treatise
RELATING TO
LINEAR DRAWING; MACHINE DESIGN; WORKING DRAWINGS; TRANSMISSION

METHODS; STEAM, ELECTRICAL AND METAL WORKING MACHINES AND PARTS;


LATHES; BOILER AND PARTS; INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE; TABLES,

THEO. AUDEL &

CO.,

72 FIFTH AVENUE,
PUBLISHERS

Etc.

NEW YORK

35 3

-COPYRIGHTED

THEi.

BY

AUllL
NEW YORK,

1913

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

^0.

(M3

_CI,A85128 5

^"2^


iiniiiiiiiiiiiiiitt

"

One

peculiar feature of the draftsman's opportunity

of all the mechanical occupations,


It is not in the least

is

that

and of one almost as much as

monopolized by the machinist, and

of his

shop more than of the others.

much

to

The

pattern

do with working drawings, and why not

it is

maker

the young

immense advantage

man

a most presumptive

to read drawings, but to

of the

make them."

of the other.

certainly has quite as

also the molder, the blackall

workers in any of these

means

takes hold

not the necessity

smith, the boiler maker, the carpenter, the coppersmith and


will be to the

it

the rest?
lines,

It

and to

of advancement, to be not only able

American Machinist.

PREFACE
made

In a report to the Bridge Commissioners, as to the progress being


steel cables

in

the construction of the

designed to support the immense weight of the (N. Y.) East River Suspension Bridge,

Chas. G. Roebling, C. E., used these impressive words, quoted, as printed in The

Sun :

" Further, Mr. Roebling said the work of placing four cables nineteen inches in diameter across the river, was one that
REQUIRED A CERTAIN DELIBERATION. No ERROR OP ANY KIND MUST BE MADE. Although all the men that could be utilized
in the work have been employed, yet the progress made appears to be slow.
Laymen might, from this, infer that the work is
lagging, but the Commissioners should know that this was not the case. The work will proceed, Mr. Roebling says, and be
finished to the perfect satisfaction of the Commissioners."

These emphasized words have been frequently


drawing and design.

in the

mind

During the long months required by

been taken to avoid error of any

sort,

of the author of this work, relating to

its

preparation the greatest of care has

and the utmost deliberation has been given

to the careful

presentation of each subject.

This has been called "the age of


from the daily

illustrated

of whatever nature
linear
its

illustration ;"

newspaper to the blue print

we come back

drawing as the foundation of

to the L. B.
all

&

the truth of the saying


in

is

evident on every side

the hand of the iron worker.

T. elements

In illustrations

length, breadth and thickness and

drawing whether industrial or

artistic

for linear

to

drawing has for

object the accurate delineation of surfaces and the construction of figures obtained by the studied

combination of

lines.

back to the hand of the


upward.

We

must come back

skillful

to first principles in all

thrower, so that on the next attempt

it

knowledge, as the

may be

projected

ball
still

comes
further


PREFACE.
The

draw

ability to

engineers and others


part with
"

its

An

knowledge

powers
in

memoranda

which they would

of a contemplative brain often forms the nucleus of. a

idea thus preserved at the

moment

of

its

birth

may become

of incalculable

the desultory train of fancy and treated as the sober offspring of reason."

a written thought at midnight will

its

" Thou hast not

lost

an hour whereof

redeem the livelong day."

closing page the main idea of the author has been to instruct, to impart

his

aim has been to educate, or to draw

to train to a certain result the various processes


mind

the student's

corn appears

for

those

drawing and design with special reference to a considerable degree of method and

of

completeness

would name the sum of money

if

for

inception to

its

art,

from the one who wrote also the noble sentence

is

a record

From

an added sense whose value could be somewhat determined,

are skilled in the

when rescued from

is

like

sketch the jotted

chance

This quotation
there

who

knowledge

splendid invention.

value

is

"

of a noble

and ancient

out,

and develop harmoniously the mental

described and to nurture an abiding interest

"First, the blade, then the ears, then the ripened

art.

expresses what has been the attempted order of instruction.

The power

to

draw

is

akin to that, and, to the engineer and mechanic, second only to the power to

read ; one needs not only to read the printed page but also to read a blueprint or a rightly drawn and
porportioned sketch
before there

is

there should be

many thousand good draughtsmen

one professor or regular instructor

looked upon as a help

in his daily

the art

for to the

scattered about and around

average

man drawing should be

avocation rather than as a staff to lean upon for life-long employment.

PREFACE.
There
States

the

home

draughting room
in

Opportunity

of

is

but a stage

than

sees an old draughtsman."

older countries

in

its

This

meaning

more

is

true in the United

that the position in the

is

the development of the Engineer, the Superintendent, the

in

Manager

engineering works.

good knowledge

working knowledge of
attainment
to

"one never

a current saying,

is

in

remember

of draughting
tJie

is

a round on the ladder of preferment

mathematics and theory of mechanism, for the foundation of

drawing and design are

laid in these

two fundamental

this

may be added

was not created


helped

drawing

is

may be

It

accurate

well always

to

do

his

;
;

that makes a lumber room of it


and no man is educated unless

but in learning how


his brain is a factory,

that the helpful value of a teacher or instructor cannot be overestimated

appointed work alone, he needs

the universal law of progress, and especially

afterwards the student

sciences.

all

a fair

is

that

" Education does not consist merely in storing the head with materials
that makes a factory of it
to turn those materials into useful products
^vith storeroom, machinery and material complete."

To

a second round

may be supposed

all

is

assistance

and aid possible

this true in the first

man

to help and be

beginnings

in the art of

to have acquired a real interest in his stimulating

and useful endeavors.


It is

written

an odd thing that the preface, which

last,

book ere

most excellent and

With

always understood as something going before,

is

often

hence these few long paragraphs are prepared to close the long and rather pleasant task

of the author of the


its

is

it is

delivered

iyt

toto to the Printer,

Binder and to the management of

reliable Publishers for its introduction to those for

whom

it is

designed.

these views and to further such ends this book has been prepared, and with such aims

or less successfully attained, the

volume

is

now committed

to the kind favor of its patrons.

more

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGES

PAGES

Plan of the

Work

Physics and Mechanics

212-228

25-26

Material Used

27-40

Screws, Bolts and Nuts

41-51

Rivets and Riveted Joints

Lettering

52-64

Power Transmission

253-255

Shade Lines

65-77

Shafts and Bearings

256-266

77-8

Belts and Pulleys,

Abbreviations and Conventional Signs

Useful Terms and Definitions

Drawing Board, T-Square and Triangles

Section Lining

Geometrical Drawing

83-110

in

Machine Construction
-

Cabinet Projection

121-127

Dies and Presses

128-161

Drilling AND Milling Machines

162-179

The Lathe

181-187

Engines and Boilers

Development of Surfaces

Working Drawings

"

Tints and Colors

188

Tracing and Blue Printing

Reading of Working Drawings

Machine Design

243-251

266-277

278-304

Metal Working Machines

Gear Wheels

111-120

-----

Isometric Projection

Orthographic Projection

228-242

214-215

305-332

308-314

31S-319

320-332
-

Electrical Machines

189-195

Drawing Instruments

196-198

Logarithms

199-228

Tables and Index

333-389

....

391-407

408-426
435-460

461-486

THE SCOPE AND PLAN OF THE WORK,


The special mission of this book can almost be gathered from its title page and the preface. It
intended to furnish gradually developed lessons in linear drawing applied to the various branches of
the mechanic arts.
is

The work

comprised within some twelve divisions or general subjects the first of which consists
of Abbreviations and Conventional Signs, Useful Terms and Definitions with illustrations.
The second section relates to the Drawing Board, T-square and Triangles and their use, lettering,
shade and section lining, etc.
The third division is devoted to Geometrical Drawing the subject is preceded by many valuable
definitions, axioms and examples of postulates and followed by many illustrations, largely based upon
the problems solved by Euclid more than twenty-two centuries ago.
The fourth division relates to the Development of Surfaces and Isometric, Cabinet and Orthographic
projections.
The fifth section relates to Working Drawings embracing Tracing, Blue Printing,
Dimensioning, Reading of Drawings, etc.
The foregoing portions comprise "Part One" of the work and relate almost exclusively to
Drawing and Definitions. "Part Two" is devoted to Machine Design, Transmission Methods,
Metal Working Machinery, Engines and Boilers, Electrical Machines, etc., which embrace the subis

divisions six to ten.

Each one

of these sections

is

preceded by explanatory matter, and accompanied by illustrations of

the different machines, with working directions for proportioning and designing.

"Part Three,"

in addition to Drawing Instruments and their U^^e and the Index, contains
utmost value, for use in connection with the preceding sections, especially so, as the
basis of the work is planned to be largely mathematical.

tables,

of the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The making

any considerable scope and value is either as in olden times the life
work of a single author, or as, at the present, the combined efforts of several individuals, whose
united efforts produce it in a much shorter time, and it must be hoped, in greater perfection.
Although no more than a year has elapsed from the opening subject of "Abbreviations and
Conventional Signs" to the closing reference Index pages, in no sense should the work be
considered as being hasty or superficial, for the outcome of the combined efforts of those named below,
is worthy of praise for having produced a thoroughly scientific and helpful book.
First of all, to Mr. John Weichsel, M. E., instructor in drawing and design in one of the foremost
technical institutes of New York City, is due the credit of furnishing most of the drawings and
diagrams used throughout the work, with the text accompanying each the book itself is the highest
testimonial to the admirable and thoroughly technical character of Prof. Weichsel's work.
Mr. Henry E. Raabe, M. E., has been the technical editor throughout the period of the preparaMany of the
tion of the text and the arrangement of the illustrations in their appropriate places.
drawings, explanatory notes, and "cuts" are also his own production.
Messrs. Sutherland & Graham, Engravers, and George Byron Kirkham, Artist, are entitled to
thanks for many designs and illustrations, as well as for professional advice and suggestions in several
details of the "lay-out" of the volume.
Mr. P. Hetto, of the U. S. Navy, an accomplished draughtsman and scholar, has read the "proof" of each separate page with critical care, and to him should be
accorded praise for the almost perfect freedom from errors of any kind which marks the completed
of a

book

of

volume.

Mr. H. Harrison, of the L. Middleditch Press, has used his wide experience in the typographical
arrangement of the work; in this he has been aided by Mr. Henry J. Harms in overseeing the final

and printing of the book the excellence of their work is evident on every printed page.
It may be added that the kind and experienced editor-in-chief has combined and added to, and in
some cases, taken from, the "matter" submitted by the foregoing named persons and others and the
result of the whole, is now ofTered with confidence to the patronage of the Mechanical World, by

issue

The

Publishers.

ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONAL

In

order to simplify the language or expression of arithmetical and geometrical opera-

tions the following conventional signs are used

The

sign

-f-

The

sign

signifies

minus or

Example

The

sign

4
less

sign

by

or (as

it

is

3, is

3,

that

4 added to

is,

4 minus, that

3, is 5

letters,

x b

indifferently,

The

\ plus

3,

is,

taken from

and placed between two terms, indicates

quantities are expressed

placed between two or more terms to indicate

3, is

-|-

signifies multiplied by

is

or

7.

and indicates subtraction.

Example

When

plus or more and

signifies

Example:

addition.

two

SIGNS*

multiplied
sign

the

by

may be

3,

or

4,

or

i.

multiplication.

15.

suppressed, thus

we

write

or ab.

more commonly used)

-4-

signifies divided by, and, placed

between

quantities, indicates division.

Example
The

sign

cate their equality.

signifies equals or

Example

12

or 12

4,

equal
6

to,

and
2

12 divided

by

-7-

4 or

is

placed between two expressions to indi-

8,

meaning that 6 plus

is

4.

2 is

equal to

8.

ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONAL SIGNS.

The union

of these signs

Example

The

sign

/^Z

::

of the root.

The

6,

meaning that

indicates the extraction of a root

interposition of a numeral

Thus:
signs

-y/

The

indicates geometrical proportion.

3,

3.

meaning that the square root

3^4 =

and

pi.,

plate.

to 6.

this sign,

of 9

is

equal to

smaller than 4 and, reciprocally, 4


3.

3.

V, indicates the degree


is

equal to

and greater than.

greater than

Fig. signifies figure

is

expresses that the cube root of 27

indicate respectively, smaller than

as,

between the opening of

^^27

< and >

Example

2 is to 3 as

>

=4

3.

AND

USEFUL TERMS
Lines, Angles, Surfaces

LINES

surface

and breadth

is

and

Solids constitute the different kinds of quantity called geometrical magnitudes.

AND ANGLES.

line

An an^le

tude

it

is

is

Fig.

the difference in the direction of

ture being- the

said to have position without magni-

irreo^tilar

line

curved

its

entire leng-th

line has not the

same

an

degfree of

-waved line, shown

in Fig. 3,

may be

either

considered as length without breadth

is

or thickness
points.

same throuo-hout

curvature throughout, but varies at different points.

small dot

2.

of the circumference of a circle, the degree of curva-

generally represented to the eye by a

is

a portion

in length,

proceeding from the same point.

A point

2, is

only.

solid is that which has extension


breadth and thickness.

lines

often called simply a line, and a curved line

is

a curve, a regular curved line, as Fig.

that which has extension in length

two

DEFINITIONS.

it

denotes the direction between two

Lines are principally of three kinds

right lines, (2) curved lines, (3)

FiQ.

(i)

regular or

mixed lines.

irregular;

the

3.

illustrat.on

shows the

former, the inflections on either side of the dotted


line

FiG.l.

right line, or as

a straight line

is

the

it is

shortest

drawn between two given

curved line

ever small,

is

is

more commonly
line

points, as

that

above

called,

can
in Fig.

Note.

it is

straight line connecting the

There

are other lines used in

be

i.

same

usually representing a visible


wide as the ordinary full line.

a straight
27

line

therefore longer than a


points

common drawing-room

defini-

tions, viz.: Broken, etc.


Bi oketi One composed of different successive straight lines. Center
Conshuction
line used to indicate the center of an object.
working line used to obtain required lines. DoUed A line composed
Dot and
Dash
line composed of long dashes.
of short dashes.
line composed of dots and dashes alternating. Dimension
Dash

one of which no portion, how-

straight

being equal.

upon which a dimension

placed. Full An unbroken line,


edge. Shade A line about twice as
is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

28

Mixed lines

are

composed

of straight

and curved

across the paper

a vertical line

FiQ.

a drawing

is

drawn up and down

the paper

or at right angles to a horizontal line, as

in Fig. 7.

represented by a line

lines, as Fig. 4.

in

4.

Parallel lines are those which have no inclination to each other


Figs. 5 and 6 being everywhere
equidistant consequently they never meet though
produced to infinity. If the parallel lines shown in
Fig. 6 were produced they would form two circles
having a common center.

HORIZONTAL
Fig.

7.

or oblique lines occupy an intermediate between -horizontal and vertical lines as


shown in Fig. 7 two lines which converge towards
each other and which, if produced, would meet or

Inclined

Fig.

5.

intersect are said to incline towards each other.

Fig.

Horizontal lines
zon, as in Fig.

6.

are lines parallel with the hori-

7.

Vertical lines are often called plumb lines as


they are parallel to a plumb line suspended freely
in a still

ing

is

atmosphere.

shown by a

line

horizontal line in a draw-

drawn from

left

to

right

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Perpendicular lines. Lines
when the angles on

to each other

point of meeting are equal.

to each other, but perpendicular lines are


they may be
always vertical and horizontal
at any inclination to the horizon, provided that the

dicular

not

angles on either side of the point of intersection

XY

and Z

in Fig, 8.

right

angle

formed when two straight


formed are equal,

is

lines intersect so that all angles

as

Vertical and horizontal lines are always perpen-

are equal, as

are perpendicular
either side of the

29

shown

in Fig. 10.

An obtuse angle

is

greater than a right angle,

\,^o^'"^'^f^

Fig. II.

An

actite

angle

is

smaller than a right angle,

Fig. U.

Fig. 12.

Obtuse and acute angles

s.

oblique angles ;
-9

1
i

i
f
/

r
-7

^*-> e-^
Fig.

a.

<>

10.

is

the point

in

Angles. Two straight lines drawn from the


same point, diverging from each other form an
the angle is the differangle, as shown in Fig. 9
:

the

in

the direction of two lines proceeding from

same

Note.

point.

Mechanics' squares,

including lines meet.

angle

is

commonly

true, are

always right-angled.

desig-

Fig.

12.

nated by three letters and the letter designating


is

always placed

in

middle.

The magnitude
does
length
their

if

parallel

other

which the

the point of divergence

ence

which are neither

each

The vertex or apex of an


angle

An
Fig.

lines

called

also

are called oblique lines.

and

nor perpendicular to

are

other.

not
of

of

upon

depend
the

sides

divergence

an angle
the

but upon

from

each
Fig.

13.

the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

30

STRAIGHT SIDED FIGURES.

surface

is

plane

a surface such that

a magnitude that has length and


breadth without thickness; as a plane surface, or,
the imaginary envelope of a body.
is

if

any two of

When
is shown in Fig. 13.
bounded by three straight lines they

triangle

faces are

sur-

are

called triangles.

its

points be joined by a straight line, such line will be


Every surface which is not
wholly in the surface.

a plane, or composed of plane surfaces,

is

a curved

surface.

Fig.

ir.

An

equilateral triangle has all its sides of


equal length, and all its angles equal, as appears
in
Fig.

Fig.

14.

Fig.

15.

A plane figure is a portion of


on

all

sides

by

the illustration. Fig.

13.

18.

a plane terminated

lines either straight f)r curved.

rectilinear figure

is

a surface

bounded by

straight lines.

Polygon

is

the

rectilinear figures but

name applied to all


commonly applied to those

general
is

having more than four sides. A regular polygon


one in which the sides are equal.

is

Fig.

An
two

of

18.

isosceles triangle has two of


its

angles equal, as illustrated

its

sides

and

in Fig. 14.


ROGERS- DRAWING AND DESIGN.

right-angled triangle has one

Fig. 15

right angle,

the side opposite the right angle

the hypothenuse

called

the other sides are called respec-

and perpendictilar.

tively the base

The altitude of a triangle


perpendicular

is

let fall

from

its

31

A parallelogram, in which the four sides are equal,


and form right angles with each other, is called a
square. Fig. 16.

There are three kinds


is

the length of a

vertex to

its

of

quadrilaterals

The

trapezium, the trapezoid, and the parallelogram


as above.

base.

The trapezium has no two

of

its

sides parallel,

its

sides parallel,

Fig. 17.

The trapezoid

has only two of

Fig. 18.

There are four


iTia.

n.

Fig.

rhomboid, the

varieties of parallelograms

rhombus, the

rectangle

The

and

the

20.

square.

The square

an equilateral rectangle,

is

Fig.

16.

A rhombus
19,

one

in

is

a parallelogram as

shown

in Fig.

which the four sides are equal, but none

of the angles are right angles.


Fio.

Fio.

21.

quadrilateral

straight lines.
rilateral

If

is

a figure

bounded by four

the opposite sides

are paralleled

it

22.

quadis* called a parallelogram.

Note. The superficial conlents of a triangle


multiplying the altitude by one half the base.

rectangle

is

a parallelogram which has

posite sides parallel, and

all its

its

op-

angles right angles,

Fig. 20.

of a

may

be obtained

A rhomboid

is

a parallelogram in

which the

adjacent sides are unequal, and none of the angles


b}'

are right angles, Fig. 21.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

32

diagonal

is

a straight line, which joins two

opposite angles of a polygon, Figs.

A heptagon
straight

17, 22.

a polygon

is

bounded by seven

Fig. 26 illustrates a regular hep-

lines.

4agon.

A pentagon
straight

Fig.

lines,

formed by them
tilar

is

a
23.

polygon bounded by five


If the sides and angles

are equal the figure

is

called a

reo--

pentagon. Fig. 24.

An octagon
straight

a a polygon

In

lines.

Fig.

decagon

lines.

Fig.

23.

24.

Fig.

is

Fig. 28 illustrates a regular decagon.

2.-).

A dodecagon
straight lines.

A hexagon
lines.

Fig.

26.

is

is

a polygon bounded by ten straight

Fig.

Fig.

27

bounded by eight
shown a regular

octagon.

Fig.

is

Fig.

27.

a polygon

bounded by

is

29.

a polygon bounded by twelve

In Fig. 29

is

shown a regular

dodec-

agon.
2/i.

six straight

Fig. 25 illustrates a regular hexagon.

Note.

Polygons of more

chanical drawing.

than eight sides are rarely used in meTheir most frequent application occurs in laying

out of the hubs of large sectional wheels.

ROGERS"

DRAWING AND DESIGN.

A convex surface
without

is

is one that when viewed from


curved outward by rising or swelHng into

a rounded form, Fig. 30.

diameter
are also

the radii

the circle

is

any straight

of the circumference

CONVEX.

Fig.

the diameters of a circle are equal, as

all

all

33

drawn
line,

is

any portion
which
about
the fixed point

an arc of a
;

circle is

called the center

drawn within the

of the circle ;

circle,

connect-

30-

double convex stirface

regularly protuberant

is

or bulging on both sides.

Fig.

31.

Concave means hollow

or curved inward

said

of an interior of an arched surface or curved line in

opposition to convex, Fig. 31.

CIRCLES

AND THEIR PROPERTIES.

ing any two points

circle is a plane figure bounded by one uniformly curved line, all of the points in which are at
the same distance from a certain point within, called
the center

the circumference of a circle

is

the

curved line that bounds it the diameter of a circle


is a line passing through its center, and terminating
at both ends in the circumference
the raditis of a
circle is a line extending from its center to any
point in the circumference
it is one-half of the
;

the circumference without


is

called a chord.

semicircle is the half of a circle and is


bounded by half the circumference and a diameter
a segment of a circle is any part of its surface cut off
a sector of a circle is a space
by a straight line
included between two radii and the arc they intersect.
See Fig. 32.
;

in

passing through the center,

Note.
vergent

Radius

line,

plural term

is

is

derived from the Latin word ray, meaning a diis radii ; the English word for the

the plural in Latin


radiuses.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

34

quadrant

the circle

is

a sector equal to one-fourth of

the two radii bounding a quadrant are at

tangent

to a circle or other curve

is

a straight

which touches it at only one point. Every


tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius
line

drawn

to the

equal to

always the same, a degree being

part of

-jiirth

a circle

the semicircle

is

The sine of an arc is a straight line drawn from


one extremity perpendicular to a radius drawn to
the other extremity of the arc, Fig. .32
of an arc

point of tangency.

shown

as

degree. The circumference of a circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees
and marked (). Each degree is divided into 60
minutes, or 60'; and for the sake of still further minuteness of measurement, each minute is divided into
60 seconds, or 60".
In a whole circle there are,
therefore,

is

equal to 180 and the quadrant to 90.

right angles.

of the division

360X60X60^1,296,000

annexed diagram, Fig.

32,

seconds.

The

exemplifies the relative

is

in

the co-sine

the sine of the complement of that arc,


the same figure.

The tangent of an arc

is

the arc at one extremity and

is

a line which touches

terminated by a line

passing from the center of the circle through the


the co-tangent
other extremity of the arc, Fig. 32
of an arc is the tangent of the complement.
;

For the sake


contracted thus

we

write

cos.;

of brevity, these technical terms are


:

for

we write sin.; for co-sine,


tangent, we write tan., etc.

for sine,

positions of the

Tangent,

Sine,

and

Co-Sine,
of an angle

simply

The

the co-

number

co-sine

Co-Tangent
and co-tangent

is

an abbreviation of the word, complement.

circumferences of

greater

all circles

contain the

same

of degrees, but the greater the radius the


is

the absolute measures of a degree, and

every circumference

same

in

is

the measure of precisely the

angle.

Thus

if

the circle be large or small, the

number

Fig.

33.

Concentric circles are those which


scribed about the same center, Fig. 33.

are de-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Mccentric circles

are those which are described

about different centers, Fig.

35

other's circumference, while the former circle

of the latter, as in Figs. 38

Fig.

may

be either wholly or partly within the circumference

34.

Fig.

34.

and

39.

Sj.

Eccentric circles are two or more circles whose


of one or
do not form a common
center about which they could all be described.

centers lay

more

within the

circumference

Fig.

Fig.

38.

39.

of these circles, but

Figs. 34, 35- 36.

In another instance the center of one circle


lay

Fig.

The

Fio.

36.

centers of eccentric circles

side of each

may

may

in Fig. 40.

37.

may

other's circumference,

or the center of one circle

on the circumference of the other, as

Fig.

40.

also lay out-

as in

Fig. 37,

lay outside of the

The

distance between the centers of eccentric

circles is called the

radius of eccentricity.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

36

If

two

circles

lay in a position as indicated in

Fig. 41, they are not regarded

as eccentric circles,

Parabola

moving

is

so, that its

point

is

called the Directrix,

and the

called the Focus of the parabola

is

line

fixed

a straight

drawn at right angles to the directrix, and


ing through the focus, is called the Axis.

but are treated as two independent figures.

Fig.

Straight line

pass-

41.

a curve, described by a point,


distances from a straight line,

and a fixed point are always equal, Fig. 42

the

A Hyperbola

is

a curve from any point of which,

be drawn to two fixed points,


their difference shall always be the same.
See
if

two straight

Fig- 43-

lines

Fig.

An Mllipse
ing

so,

points
Fig.

42.

that the
is

is

sum

by a point, movfrom two fixed

of its distances

always constant

called.- the Foci,

44.

a curve, described

Fig. 44.

the two fixed points are

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

A hexagonal prism

SOLIDS.

37

solid has the parts constituting

its

substance

is

a prism with hexagonal

bases. Fig. 48.

so compact or firmly adhering as to resist the im-

pression or penetration of other

it is

bodies

is

hard, firm

conic section

is

intersection of a cone

a curved line formed by the

a term used to de-

is

scribe the condition of solids virhich are


fitted to

liquid

and a plane.

Intersection of solids

and

has a

it

and unHke a fluid or


not hollow, hence sometimes heavy.

fixed form,

so joined

each other as to appear as though one

passes through the other

By the envelope

of a solid

which encases or surrounds

A prism

is

is

meant the surface

Fiu.

45.

cube'is a quadrangular prism

sides ar

'

all

whose

4T.

b;ises

and

equal and form perfect squares, Fig. 49.

a solid body whose ends or bases are

are parallelograms.

The shape

expressed by the form of

of a prism

is

sidt s

always

bases.

its

triangular prism is a prism with the


gular bases, as shown in Fig. 45.

quadrangular prism

is

trian-

a prism with quad-

rangular bases. Fig. 46.

Fli:.

Fic;. 4S.

cylinder

is

pentagonal prism

tagonal bases, Fig. 47.

is

a prism

with pen-

surface, Fig. 50.

41),

Flti.

.ill.

bounded by two equal


and one continuous curved

a solid,

circular surfaces or bases,

Fio.

4U.

it.

equal and parallel plane figures, and whose

Fig.

All cross sections of a cylinder

are equal to the bases.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

38

cone

a solid bounded by a circular base,


surface, extending from the circular

is

and one curved

base to a point opposite

it,

If

of

a cone

its

is

PiQ.

51.

Aright cone.

Fig.

52.

If

by a

the cutting plane, as

Fig. 51.

of the section

Fig.

cut

is

2.

shown

in Fig. 56, the outline

parabola. Fig. 57.

53.

droppedfrom

a perpendicular,

plane, parallel to the outline

surface, vertically opposite the center line of

Fig.

54.

Fig. M.

the apex of the cone to its base, meets the center


of the base circle, the cone is called a right cone,

The

Fig. 52.

the

Axis

perpendicular

in

this

case

is

called

of the cone.

An oblique

cone.

If

the perpendicular

alongside the center of the base


outside of

its

circle,

circumference, the cone

falls

or entirely
is

called an

oblique cone. Fig. 53.

A truncated

cone.

cone, cut off in the

man-

ner shown

in Fig. 54, is called a truncated cone,


an oblique cone is cut in the above manner, it is
called an oblique truncated cone. Fig. 55.
If

Fio.

57.

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.


If

the cutting plane forms a smaller angle than

the parabola, with the outline of the side on which

the cone
s?ction

is

is

39

cut in the

an

manner shown

60, the

in Fig.

ellipse, Fig. 61.

pyramid

whose base is a polygon,


and whose sides are formed by triangles.
t^

The

is

a solid,

point in which

sides meet,

is

all

called the

the lines of the triangular

apex of the pyramid.


APEX

Fig.
it is

cut, as

shown

in Fig. 58,

the section

59.

is

a hyperFig.

Fig.

62.

Pyramids are
lar,

63.

Fig.

Fig.

64.

65.

quadrangupyramids, depend-

classified as triangular,

pentagonal, hexagonal,

etc.,

ing upon the shape of their base, Figs. 62, 63, 64.
If the base of a pyramid forms a regular polygon,

and a perpendicular dropped from the apex, to the


base, passes through the center of the base, it is
called a right pyramid. Fig. 65.

The altitude

FiG.

bola. Fig. 59.

Fig.

60.

If the

61.

cutting plane forms a greater

angle than the parabola, with the surface, so that

pyramid or a cone, is the perfrom


pendicular distance
the apex to the base. Figs.
66, 67.

The

of a

altitude of a prism or a cylinder

is

the per-

pendicular distance between the bases, Figs. 68, 69.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

40

truncated pyramid

after the apex

truncated

cone

is

is

the part remaining,

cut away, Figs. 54 and 70.


or pyramid is also called

A
the

frustrtim of the cone or pyramid.

A polyhedron
There are

five regular

tetrahedron

lateral triangles,

is

the

bounded by polygons.

polyhedrons

as follows

a solid, bounded by four equi-

Fig. 72.

A hexahedron
squares

a solid,

is

is

solid,

common name

bounded by

for this solid

is

six

cube,

Fig. 49.

An octahedron

is

a solid, bounded by eight

equilateral triangles. Fig. y^-

Fig.

Fig. 67

tj6.

Fig.

Fig.

68.

Fig.

Fig.

Fig.

70.

71.

Fig.

72.

dodecahedron

is

73.

a solid, bounded by twelve

regular pentagons.

sphere

is

a solid,

bounded by a uniformly

curved surface, any point of which


from the center, Fig. 71.

is

equidistant

An icosahedron
equilateral triangles.

is

a solid,

bounded by twenty

DRAWING BOARD, T-SQUARE AND TRIANGLES.


The problems

explained

in

the following para-

instruments described hereafter

graphs are but a small part of the great number of


problems that may be executed with the aid of
the tee-square and triangles.

need to be em-

ployed.

The paper on which


drawing,

is

intended to

is

it

make

generally fastened, by means of thumb-

tacks, to a specially

made board

called a drawing

board, Fig. 74.

The drawing board should be made about


inches longer and

should be

made

free

from

pine,

inches wider than the paper.

It

of well-seasoned, straight-grained
all

knots

the grain should run

lengthwise of the board.

The edges

board should be square to each


other and perfectly smooth in order to provide a
good working edge for the head of the tee-square
of the

to slide against.

A
Fio.

pair of hard-wood cleats

quarter inch
In

fact, all

drawings, embracing straight lines only,

may be drawn

with the aid of

for greater accuracy

straight ones.

in

thickness.

is

The

cleats,

the back of the board, at right angles to

the above instru-

est

ments, provided the nature of the drawing does not


call

screwed to the back


The board should be about three-

of the board.

74.

side,

may be about two

fitted
its

at

long-

inches wide and one

inch thick.
Such cleats will keep the board from
warping through changes of temperature and moist-

or for lines other than

In the latter case, the mathematical

ure.

4i

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

42

All lines parallel to the longer edges


of

the board are called horizontal

For drawing such

lines

lines.

an instrument

is

used, called a tee-square, Fig. 75.


A teesquare consists of two parts, the head
and the blade, which should be square to

each other.

The
Fig.

blade should be as long as the

'

drawing board.

It

should be made of
hard wood,

fine-grained

well-seasoned,

and as light as its proper use will permit.


The head may be made of any kind of
well-seasoned wood.
The blade should
be laid on the face of the head and there
fastened to

The

it

with four or five screws.

tee-square should be used with

its

head held firmly against the left hand


edge of the board. Any number of horizontal lines may be drawn by sliding the
tee-square up or down, Fig. 76.

Another kind
in Fig.
is

'J 'J.

The

of a tee-square

blade

blade of this tee-square

may be

fly-nut.

square

is

The

so adjusted as to form any

desired angle with the head.


76.

shown

fastened to the head by means of a

square-necked bolt and a

Fig.

is

This

tee-

called the adjustable tee-square.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

43

After setting the blade at the desired angle


to the head,

we

can draw any number of

parallel lines at that angle,

by

sliding the

tee-square up or down. Fig. 78.

For drawing

Fig.

ones,

set

They

are

cut

lines other than horizontal

squares

made

in

or

triangles

various styles,

are

used.

some being

out of a single piece of wood, while

77.

others are framed together of three or

more

pieces.

Two

be required for ordiOne should have one angle

triangles will

nary purposes.

90 degrees, that is a square angle or a


right angle, and two angles of 45 degrees

of

each,

Fig.

78.

that

Fig.

is

79.

equal to one-half of a right

Fig.

80.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

44
angle

the two short sides of the triangle are of

equal length, Fig.

The

first

triangle

called the 45-degree triangle,

is

the second, the 30-degree triangle or the 60 degree

79.

The other triangle should contain one angle of


90 degrees, one angle of 30 degrees (that is equal

These triangles may be made of wood,


hard rubber, or celluloid, of which materials it is

triangle.

also preferable

for

many

to

reasons.

make

the

Triangles

tee-square

made of
wood

straight-grained well-seasoned hard


will

be found most satisfactory.

By placing the

tee-square in position on

the drawing board, with

its

head against

the left-hand edge of the board, and placing either triangle with

its

short side to the

edge of the tee-square, we may draw lines


parallel to the short side of the drawing
board, which we will call vertical lines. Fig.
81.
Any number of vertical lines may be
drawn by sliding the triangle in this position along the edge of the tee-square.

The manner
square
its
Fig.

square
to one-third of a right angle)

and one angle

degrees

(that

angle.)

In this triangle the shortest side

to just

is

equal to two-thirds

one half the longest

side, Fig. 80.

of

a
is

is

adaptability or otherwise to the use

made

81.

which the head of a teeunited to the blade determines

of

it

blade mortised into

right

tailed

equal

let into

in

some the head

of a tee-

rectangular in section, and the

is

of 60

and

in

it

in

others the blade

is

dove-

the head of a tee-square for the

whole of its thickness the method spoken of on


page 42 is, however, the most approved.
;

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Keeping the tee-square
against

its

45

position and placing

with

a horizontal line, or simply a

blade one edge of the 45-degree angle,

Fig.

83,

we may draw

a line

with a horizontal

in

making an angle of 45 degrees


Such a line is called

line, Fig. 82.

30-degree

line,

may be drawn in a similar manner a


line may be drawn with the 60-degree
;

60-degree

angle of the triangle.

By combining the two

triangles as in

Figs. 84, 85, a 15-degree line

degree

We

line

and a

75-

may be drawn.

may draw

a line or lines parallel

any given line in our drawing, by the


use of the two triangles in the following

to

manner
Place one of the triangles with one of

edges exactly on the given line place


the longest edge of the second triangle
against the longer one of the two remaining edges of the first triangle; then hold
the second triangle in place and slide
its

upon

Fig.

a 45-degree

line,

or

we may

small circle at the top,

82.

write

it

45

placed after the

line,

the

number

meaning degree.

By

angle to

angle

triangle
triangle.

on the board, a

line

the 30-degree

making an angle

of 30 degrees

first

triangle. Fig. 86.

Place one edge of either triangle exactly on the

against the blade of the tee-square, held in position

of

the

Using the triangles in a similar manner


we may draw a line or lines at a right
anv triven line, thus

given line

placing one edge

it

turn the

place the longest edge of the second

exactly

to

the longest edge of the

Hold the second


first

triangle so that

triangle in

one edge

first

place and
will

form a

ROGERS' DRAWING

46

right angle with the given line, as

in

By

Fig. 87.

placing one edge of the right angle of either

angle on the given


first

line,

as the

first

tri-

operation, the

AND
By

DESIGN.

sliding the

any number of

first

lines

upon the second one,


will

be

at

right angles to the given line.

With a knowledge

trianele will not have to be turned.

triangle

may be drawn which

of the preceding rules a great

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


variety of figures

may be drawn.

In the following

GIVEN

47
LINZ

show how a square, an equilateral triangle,


a hexagon and an octagon may be drawn by these

we

will

simple means.

Flu.

86.

Fio.

87.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Let

it

be required to draw a four-sided plane


which are equal and all its angles

figure, all sides of

right angles.
If

Such a

figure

is

called a square.

the sides of the required square should be

edges of the drawing board, we then


draw a horizontal line by means of the tee-square.
Fig. 88.
On this line we mark two points, the distance between them being equal to the side of the
required square.
By means of either triangle draw
vertical lines through the two points on the first
parallel to the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND


line

make one

first line,

that

of the vertical lines equal to

equal to a side of the square, by

is

drawing a 45-degree

from the foot of one of


to meet theother vertical line, and

the vertical lines,

move

the

line

49

DESIGN.

the tee-square held in place, draw two lines through


the ends of the given diagonal with the other short

the square.

These

form two sides of


Bring the triangle back to its first posi-

edcre of the triano-le.

will

the tee-square to the point of intersection of

these two lines, where a horizontal line

meeting the other vertical

line

is

drawn,

and forming the con-

cluding side of the required square.

be drawn on any given line,


which is neither horizontal nor vertical (such lines
are called oblique lines) we will proceed as follows
Fig. 89, on the given line mark two points, the distance between them being equal to a side of the required square.
Through these two points draw
Make one of
lines at rig-ht angfles to the first line.
these sides equal to a side of the required square
If

a square

is

to

and draw through the end of


the

first

line.

This

line will

it

a line parallel to

form the concluding

line of the square.

Let

it

length of

be required to draw a square, when the


its

diagonal only

is

FlG.

given, Fig. 90.


tion

Place the longest edge of the 45-degree triangle


exactly on the given diagonal.

with an edge of

its

Place the tee-square

blade against one of the short

sides of the triangle.

By

90.

sliding the triangle

upon

upon the diagonal, hold

now

it

in place

and remove

against the other short

the tee-square, placing

it

edge of the

triangle.

Sliding the triangle upon the

tee-square,

draw

two remaining sides of the

square, as before.

the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

50

To draw an equilateral triangle upon a given


The angles in an equilateral triangle are 60line.
degree angles, Fig.

91.

Fig.

91.

parallel lines

Place the edge of the blade of the tee-square exactly

on the given

line.

Place one edge

of

60-de-

the tee-square, and draw lines making an

angle of
60 degrees with the tee-square, through both ends
of the given line.
These lines, with the given line,
will form the required triangle.

Draw

a regular hexagfon
line,

AB,

Fig.

set

off

from any

O, on the line AB, two distances, AO


and OB, each equal to a side of the required hexagon.
Through the points A, O and B draw six
point,

three lines,

To draw
the given

BE

AE,

and the other

DOC

three,

a hexagon on a given
line.

Draw

Fig. 93.

and

CB,

EF

line.

AB be
AC and

Let

the lines

an angle of 60 degrees to the given line, in


one direction, and the lines AF and BD, at the

92

of 60 degrees with the

FB in one
and AD in
the other direction.
Join the points E and C and
D and F. A E C B F D is the hexagon required.

line

direction,

gree angle of the 60-degree triangle to the edge of

To draw

AB

making angles

at

same

angle, in the other direction.

and B on the given

angles to this

and AF,

at

line,

line,

draw two

At the
lines

these lines cutting the

the points

E and

F.

Join

at

points
right

lines,

EB

E and F

ROGERS' DRAWING
and through the points E and F draw the Hnes
and FD at 6o-degree angles to the given Hne,
cutting the line AC at C and FD cutting the

BD

at D.

Then

AC E F D

is

EC
EC
line

the required

AND

DESIGN.

51

AB. Through C draw the line CF parallel to


and through H the line EH parallel to AC.
Draw lines through C and through H at right angles

the line

BH

to the given line

CD

the line

cutting the line

BD

hexagon.

Fig.

To draw
Let

AB

an octagon on a given line


be the given line, Fig. 94. At the points
:

and B draw

criven

line,

lines at angles of 45

AC,

other direction.

in

degrees to the

one direction, and BH in the


AC and BH each equal to

Make

94.

and the line HG cutting the line AG at G.


Through D draw the line DE parallel to CF and
then draw through G the line
cutting EH at E
GF parallel to EH and cutting CF at F. Join EF
the required octagon.
and

at

ACDEFGHBis

52

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

ALPHA BETA ANTiqVA

2rasE5?;Siso

Fig. 95.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

LETTERING.

simple and others

be said that lettering is intended to convey


to the mind of the observer a simple but attractive
impression of what the drawing is to express.
When the information necessary to the reading
of a drawing cannot be expressed by lines and
scale dimensions, it must be indicated in the form

Let

53

difficult, especially in

an ornamental heading

is

cases where

required, but

it

must be

it

remembered that a drawing is primarily made


idea, and not for an ornament.

to

convey an

The

character and size of the letters on

of printed explanations, remarks, etc., as explained

working drawings should be in harmony with the drawing on which they appear.
It is desirable to have
all lettering on a drawing made in the same style,

and

only differing

illustrated in the following pages.

Whole volumes have been

When

most fascinating subject.

mode

universal

of expression, that

vention of printing
the

fine

whose
scarlet,

the art of

writing was the


is,

before the

lettering

was one

in-

of

Many

manuscripts are now extant


are made upon vellum in inks of gold,

arts.

titles

published upon this

blue and other gaudy colors

these have

books and aided in


their preservation through the long centuries. The
illustration upon the opposite page is given as a
specimen of one of these ancient {^'antique")

added vastly

to the value of the

To do good

lettering

is

not an easy task, and

is already experienced he should


devote much time to practicing the art, working
slowly and bearing in mind that much time is

unless the student

required to

make

Lettering of various styles are

in use,

letters

some quite

should

always

ings

is

usually of the simplest character, the letters

being composed of heavy and light strokes only


for headings, titles of large drawings, where comparatively large lettering is required, it will be most
;

appropriate to use large

so

letters.

should be conspicuous, but not too much


sub-titles should be made smaller than the

The

title

main-title.
"

and general remarks placed in the


margin of the drawing or near the title should
come next in size. All explanations and remarks
"

Scale

on the views should not be larger than one-eighth


inch.

The examples

well-finished letters.

or finish of details.

be sketched in
pencil, especially by the beginner, and inked in
afterwards the lettering used on mechanical drawCapital

The

alphabets.

in size

all

of lettering given as illustrations

are briefly explained on page 63.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

54

"

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:[?3i:- ::3i::::i:
-I 3t-iC
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::::: ::ii:::2::i5
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;^

U1

!SI

IS

^~^

tzt
Fig.

:s^:f3:::::::::::

TTUn^

III

::
::

zz-l-Az S.i:i:: i:::^:::: :::ii

::::

>-

FW ?
s

IS

Ia
I

iii

90.

ZuS
Fig.

97.

SB

z
E

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

98.

55

(See page 63.)

a
Fig. 99 shows one of the devices in use for facilitating the laying out
this instrument is known as the lettering triangle and may be

of letters

made of metal, hard rubber, celluloid, etc.


The broken line a a contains lines of

different inclinations

the slanting parts of those letters, shown on the triangle,

The
letter

the inclined

line,

laid out.

may

be used for the slanting strokes of the


situated next to the highest is intended to be

highest inclined line


;

may be

by which

used for the letters N, X and Y; the next inclined line is to be used for
and V and the lowest inclined line is
the drawing of the letters A,

used for the letter W.


Other triangles and templates have been made for laying out lettering
of different character, of which the example given is one of several in com-

^
Fig.

99.

mon

use.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

56

motion of the pen

a b produces a fine line


are

made by means

the direction of the line

in
;

all

of the

only one edge of the pen

strokes, light or heavy,

whole width and not by


heavy strokes are made

with the pen moving in the direction c

move smoothly over

d,

Fig. lOo,

The pen should

with the whole width of the pen.

the paper without any special

pressure being brought to bear on

it.

by a downward motion
not be quite so wide as the line c d.

Vertical strokes produced

pen

of the
Fig.

The above

100.

will

All strokes should be executed with an unaltered

shows a pen made specially for round writing- upon drawings


while nearly
all lettering is executed by a common writing pen
figure, loo,

position of the
to

allel

pen "nibs," which must remain

par-

the direction of the line ad and inclined

about

Letters containing circular curves are

this device deserves a description.

The

" nibs " of

the pen are

short, straight line at the point

point

is

cut
;

off,

leaving a

the width of this

equal to the greatest thickness of a line

which may be desired for the letters these pens


are manufactured in various widths and numbers
No. I is made for a stroke of about ys" in thick;

ness

the highest numbers are

made with

a point

nearly like the ordinary writing pen point.

The No.

45.

the pen

in

the same position

should not

be made by one continuous motion of the pen

'

It is

well for the beginner to lay out a

it

number

of

squares in pencil and to practice the circular strokes


within the squares

contained within

the completed circle should be

the

square.

The

will

at 45, Fig. loo.

the lettering will entirely depend

made with

should be formed of two semicircles, taking care to


smoothly join the two semicircles.

pen may be used for capital letters,


about one inch high and for small letters about }4"
high the pen is always held parallel to the line ad
I

circle

be

parallel

light

strokes

to the diagonal of the square, the

vertical stroke should

sides of the square.

be parallel to the vertical


attractive appearance of

The

upon the

correct-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


ness

connecting the semicircles and straight

of

lines of

The

57

which the

letters are

composed.

A 3 CDEF'GMlJ^LJyrjVOP QRSTU VWXYZ

and thickness of the writing depend on


the width of the pens and cannot be arbitrarily executed by means of the same pen, without distortsize

/S3436?'890
abcdey^hiJklrrirLopqrst-uvzoacyJZ

ing the regular form of the characters.

The pen must

at all times

be kept clean, as other-

wise no clean-cut line can be obtained.

The

ink

COJ^J^ECTJJVGROD.

should be kept only on the outside or upper side


of the pen, and its bottom side should be kept

As soon

draughtsman notices
that the bottom of the pen becomes wet he should
cease writing with it, as it will produce an uneven
perfectly dry.

Fig.

101.

(See page

e,3.)

as the

Letters should be so placed as not to interfere

with the lines of the drawing and should clearly

line.

When

point out the part intended to be described.

The

letters

clear-cut lines,

should be made with plain, even,


well proportioned in all parts and

single letters are used, they should be inked in before the shade or section lines are drawn it is a
good plan to start with the middle letter of the inscription and work in both directions.
;

especially well spaced.

special device, called an

" inkholder," is

used in order to keep a sufficient


quantity of ink on the upper side of the pen.

The
Free hand lettering should only be taken up after
the student is proficient in mechanical lettering
pencil guide-lines for letters and words should be
drawn larger letters may first be penciled in very
lightly, and an ordinary writing pen may be used

use of both the writing and drawing pen

enables the lettering to be done in a

time

when

the ruling pen

is

much

employed

it is

shorter
in con-

nection with the tee-square and the set square.

for inking

them

in.

The appearance of
by a border put on

in

a drawing will often be helped

connection with the lettering.

ROGERS' DRAWING

58

The
ical

four principal styles of letters used in mechan-

drawing are Block, Roman, Old English and


each of which will be found illustrated under

Script,

AND

DESIGN.

tendency
letters,

is

in

legibility

of simply designed
being considered of vital impor-

the direction

tance.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
QRST UVWXYZa.
s^B Cn:rGHI.JKLM
O P

NOPQRS TUVWXYZ
abcdefghi/klmnopgrs t

uvwxyz
J234567a90i 1234567890^
Fig.

this section of the

vestigation

that

work

most

it

will

letters

102.

be found upon inuse to-day are

in

founded upon one of these four styles

the

modern

(See page

es.)

It will

familiarize the student with the standard

alphabets in
to

Roman,

Block,

Old English and Script

copy the several specimens given.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

The space between the nearest parts of all letters

reasonable space (never less than one-third the

height of the letters used), should be

should be exactly alike ; this rule also applies to the


space between each word ; between the words, of

lines of words.

course, should be wider than the letter spaces.

Fig.

103.

59

(See paae os.)

left

between

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

60

the bottom and then the letters should be


sketched with the utniost care the outlines may be
ruled with a ruling pen, if desired, and the curved
lines drawn with a compass ruling pen.

Mathematical accuracy should be aimed at as


a rule in all lettering executed for mechanical

drawings.

capitalization

for

knowledge of punctuation, spelling,


and paragraphing is essential in

Fig.

104.

(See

page

r,s.)

i.n.ffl.iv:y.vi.vn.Yni.K.x.ix.isx.xL.L.xc.c.D.M.
r
^

-5v.

Fia.

this

work

student

if

unfamiliar with these

should acquire

a.

subjects

the

thorough knowledge of

them.
Perfectly horizontal ruled lines

drawn, one for the top of a line of

The heavy

letters,

be
another

first

so

^oc

JHo.

-fcee-

or shaded stems of letters should

be of the same width


carefully

should

J'^

105.

penned

''brushed"

in

after the outlines

all

have been
may be

unfilled spaces

in, the
with either liquid India ink or very

black water color.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

4
3

JBCDEFGHIJFCULrOPQRSTUF

ffXYZ &.
abcdef'gh ijklmnojjq rfstuvwxyz.
Fig.

lOB.

at 34
Fig.

107.

61

6
7
S

62

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

''Mlf^
Fig. 108

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Figures 96 and 97 are examples of block
letters and numerals.
In

distinct

The squares

are laid off in fine pencil lines and

the desired letters


in pencil

when

can be

This

is

in with pen and triangle


completed all the pencil lines are
a rudimentary form of letter that

In the lower part of the figure (102)

Italic letters

angle for their slant

and numerals; the proper

is 23.

In Fig. 104 are shown ornamental letters based

is

made with

shown

be sketched on the drawing

and then inked

the inking

erased.

may

and readily executed by the aid of the

drawing pen.
are

63

the aid of cross section paper.

upon the Roman

the

Roman

square
taken as the basis of construction;
takes the
whole square, its height and width being equal I
is one-quarter as wide
A five-sixths, etc.
;

in

is

letters the

In Figs. 98 and 103 are shown two styles of freelettering.


The vertical letters are more diffi-

hand

draw than the slanting ones. When making


these letters two fine pencil lines should always be
drawn, one at the top and one at the bottom of the
letters and sometimes it is very convenient to rule
a third guide line midway between the two others.
cult to

shown the form and proportions


of the Roman numerals and their value in the Arabic
method of expressing numbers.
In Fig. 105 are

In

Fig.

letters

These examples exhibit a form of lettering known


round writing ; the easy way to master it and
its artistic appearance, combined with the rapidity

In Figs.

as

with which

it

can be written,

are

its

principal

106

is

given another example of

Italic

and numerals.

107 and 108 are given illustrations of

script letters

the student

and

still

Figs. 109 and


other forms.

10 will suggest to

merits.

The

In the upper part of Fig. 102, page 58, is shown


another example of the block letter this is very
;

letters shown in Fig. loi are constructed


simple form convenient for remarks, etc.,
needed to be placed in the margin of the drawing.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

64

ffl

i i

^^

1^

C^

<

s
I

5
Fro.

[F

\P

(S)

[^

109.

d
T
gj

OD

q]

It

Da

J)

[L

Od

DD

1
IG- 110.

Ds

\w

S)

^
(D

DQQ

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

SHADE

LINES.

65

the plane of the paper, and also with

In instrumental drawings shade lines are used for


making the reading of a drawing

the

easier than

direction of the light being indicated

lines

were of the same thickness.

edge of the 45 triangle as shown

By means

draughtsman knows without referring to any other view of the object whether
the part looked at is above or below the plane
1

for instance, the rectangles in Fig.

represent square projecting pieces, whereas the

Fio.

m rt^ig.

II 2 reprcisent sc

uare

h(ales

In ore ler th;it the shadingy on diawlngs

uniform, and

such a

w ay

13.

in parallel lines.

t(3

Fio.

an gle of

I15

112.

lines.

may be

COl ne in a single invaria Die dire ction, in

mak 2 an

edges of such surfaces as

the

avoid confus ion the rays of light are

as to

lines are the

111.

made appan;nt by t he sha de

differenc e bein y

assumed to

All the rays of light are not supposed to be


emanating from one and the same point, but from
a large and distant source of light and are thrown

The shade

rectangle s

in Fig.

of these, the

of the surface
1

and

come from

upper left-hand corner of the drawing


the
by the slanting

the purpose of

if all

all vertical

horizontal lines of the drawing, and to

deg rees with

" relief "

and aid the reader or the student

standing the true character of the

in

object

underwith

greater facility than could be done on drawings with


all lines

of one

and the same thickness.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

66

The

following rules should be strictly adhered to

by the student
(fl).

The

in

shading drawings

block or

rays of light are assumed to

make an

angle of 45 degrees with the plane of the paper and


to come from the upper left-hand corner, at an

angle of 45 with

all

horizontal and vertical lines as

abed,

of the subject should be consid-

ered as a top view for the purpose of shading

top part will thus be exposed to the

prism.

In

the

top view,

upon the rear side of


the object, b c, upon the top, abed, and upon the
left side, a b
the light does not reach the front and
right sides, a d, and, d c
hence they are dark surfaces the edges a d and d c, separating the light
fall

surface,

Each view

rectangular

the rays of light

previously mentioned.
(b).

114 and 115 show two views of a square

Figs.

its

light.

Lines representing edges which cast shadows


are to be drawn in heavy lines.
(c).

abed,

from the dark surfaces are there-

fore shade lines.

The

explanations given in regard to the top view

can also be applied to the other view of the same


object and the lines e h and h

tained as shade lines.

edges formed by the intersection of


a light and dark surface or two dark surfaces, are to
be shaded.
(d). All the

Fig.

113.

will

thuS be ob-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

c,

and 117 represent a hollow squaretop view shows the shade lines a d and

ii6

Figs.

prism

67

its

that

is,

the right and bottom sides of the view

upon which the rays

of light

do not

fall

the lines

a
Fig. U4.

a
Fui.

116.

9
i

^
8

n
Fiu.

e
Fig.

115.

and

g are

lines.

r p,

iir.

also shade lines for the

the vertical section

and bottom

m
M

p shows the

same reason
right side

also the vertical line k

1,

p
as shade

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

68

Another example
ii8 and

of shade lines

is

given

in Figs.

119; in this case the top view shows a

hexagonal hole, offering a good opportunity to consider the shading of objects with inclined planes.
It will be plainly seen that the lines c d and b c
must be shade lines and the lines a f and f e, situ-

ated directly

in

the

way

of the rays of light, are

light lines.

The two remaining

and d e of the
hexagonal hole cannot readily be put down as
shade or light

sides b a

In order to find out^ their

lines.

nature draw a number of 45" parallel lines oVer the


figure in question

and those faces

of the hexagonal

hole reached by the rays of light, represented by the


45 lines.

be seen that the edge b a intersects the arrows of light the face a b will therefore be a dark
surface, and consequently must be shaded.
It will
also be noticed that the rays of light fall directly
upon the face, an edge of which is the line e d, thus
making this latter a light line.
In order to illustrate more clearly the shading of
lines belonging to planes, which are inclined in vaIt will

Fig.

118.

Fig.

119.

rious degrees to the direction of the light, the top

view of a cube placed

shown

in three different positions is

in Figs. 120, 121

and

edge a b makes an angle

122.

of

In Fig.

120 the

more than 45 with a

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


horizontal line

drawn

parallel lines

at an angle of

than 45 degrees with a horizontal


observed that the side of which a b

It will be
an edge cannot receive any direct light, as the rays are broken
by the edge of which b is the highest point; hence

45 representing the rays of the light will strike the


side of which a b

is

an edge

this side

must there-

and the line will be a light one.


thelineab forms an angle of 45 degrees
with a horizontal line showing that the side of the
cube of which a b is an edge is placed in a position
fore be a light surface

In Fig. 12

the edge b a

Fio.

is

a shade

line.
is

line.

shown the front and bottom views


the shade lines on the front are easily

In Fig. 123 are


of a cylinder

Fig.

120.

69

Fig.

121.

122.

every case in which

a similar manner to foregoing cases


where a drawing has been made of a rectangle.
Many draughtsmen, however, will only shade the

the line in question forms an angle of 45 degrees


with a horizontal line.
The same is true for the

plane sides of the cylinder, claiming that shade


lines are intended to represent edges only; ac-

parallel to the direction of the light

said side
is

is

a light

line c d,

considered a

line.

which

This

is

is

ligrht

done

for this reason

surface and the line a b


in

parallel to a b.

In Fig. 122 the edge a b forms an angle of less

determined,

in

cording to this view the bottom line of the elevation of the cylinder should only be shaded.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,

70

At times

a tendency has been noticed to give the

As shade
shade lines a more general application.
found on all right and bottom sides
of those parts situated in front of the surrounding

circle,

and

being careful not to run over the

to stop

when

first

one

the two lines coincide.

lines are always

very easy to recognize this condition


every similar case, whether the part in question

surface,
in

it is

be bounded by plane or by cylindrical surfaces.


It is

drawn

therefore

recommended

that shade lines be

each case, independently of the character


very few exceptions, when a rigid
adherence to this rule will tend to produce a bad
in

of surface, with

effect.

The shaded

portion in the bottom view of the

shows the manner in which circles


when they represent projections of

cylinder, Fig. 123,

are to be shaded

cylinders or circular holes.

shows that the circle is shaded between


the points of tangency of the two 45-degree lines
a b and f g the heaviest part of the shaded circle
is near the 45-degree line c d e, passing through the
Fig. 124

center of the

circle.

The

thickness of

the

lines

should gradually decrease from e toward b and toto obtain the best result with neatness is

ward g

to shift the center point of the

compasses along the


Fig.

line c

e,

123.

a distance equal to the thickness of the de-

sired line.

With the same

the original circle describe

radius used to describe

now

part

of

another

The shade

line

drawn too heavy

made

in

this

way must

not be

to assure the success of this

op-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


eration

it

is

necessary to have a very sharp needle

point in the compass in order not to cause too large

a hole
shifting

in

of

the

drawing the shade

When

The
may be avoided when

the center of the original


center
line

the

in

the original circle

FlG.

is

circle.

circular hole.

The

71

directions for this operation are

the same as for shading the projections of a cylinder


base, except that the opposite half of the circle is

following manner:

drawn keep the

center-

121.

point in the center and without changing the radius

put the pen point

in

motion

in

the direction of the

part of the circumference to be shaded.

sure

upon the pen

is

The

gradually increased as

proa'ches the heaviest part of the shade

pres-

it

ap-

line

and

then gradually diminished.


Figs. 125

and 126 show the manner of shading a

FiQS. 125

shaded, which

is

AND

126.

done by shifting the center

opposite direction.

in

the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

72

In order to
in

shade

make

the conventional

way

of putting

more easily understood, a few illusadded for the benefit of the student.
127, the position of the shade lines in the

lines

trations are

In Fig.

top view

is

quite plain

in

throws a shadow upori the corresponding part of the


front face of the larger block and the line a b is
therefore a shade line.
Similar cases are given in
Figs. 133 to 138.

the front view, Fig. 128,

the bottom line a b of the smaller block placed in

In the front view. Fig. 136, a portion a c of the

bottom

line a

is

shaded and

in Fig.

138 the whole

Ui^J
1

a
Figs. 127

and

Figs. 139

128.

the middle of the top face of the larger block

is

light line.

In Figs. 129 and 130, the small block placed on

top of the larger one so that the front faces of both


are in one plane shows a light line a

b.

In Figs. 131 and 132, the smaller block is moved


forward so that its lower face a b is the front edge.

and

Figs. 131

130.

and

132.

bottom line a b is a shade line.


Fig. 139 shows the front and top views of a prism.
The shading of the top view does not present any
new points. In the front view the face e b c f is
dark
the edge e b separating the light face c^a b c
from the dark one and consequently e b must be a
shade line e f is also a shade line for reasons ex-

of the

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

DESIGN.

73

brings out such surfaces

much

stronger.

various examples given above

it

From

the

be seen that

will

no special rules can be given for shading, that


would cover all cases likely to arise.'

is,

rules that

The conventional practice introduces a great


variety of exceptions to any rules designed for this

7^
FiciS. 133

AND

VU.

Figs.

1.3.5

and

136.

b
plained previously.
a c should also be

The
shaded

this

would make part

the

straight

The
heaV

line

of

a c

heavy and the greater


part light, which would
produce a very odd
effect and therefore the
whole line, in similar
cases, is drawn light.

L_

1.37

}'

f
)'

is

made

many

draughtsmen, as the
surrounding of dark
surfaces by heavy lines

Figs.

line c

and

138.

upper base

line b c of the

e
Fid.

purpose.

139.

The draughtsman

has to keep

in

mind

the true purpose of putting in shade lines and place


such lines where and whenever, in his opinion, they
will

serve as an aid

drawing.

to the

understanding of the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,

74

which does not receive any direct light. The heavy


lines become lighter gradually and are drawn very
fine near the midd'e of the cylinder; after this the
lines are again dra.vn slightly heavier up to the side
of the cylinder, which is nearest to the source of

PARALLEL LINE SHADING.


Plane surfaces are shaded by a number of parrunning parallel to the length of the plane

allel lines

which

is

to be shaded.

sented very

light,

it

with very fine parallel

dark plane

is

shaded

If

left

shown in Fig.
number of heavy

lines, as
iiy

is to be repreblank or coveretl

the plane

may be

140.

the

of the

is

If

the plane

is

140.

parallel to the plane of the paper,

the shading lines should be drawn with equal spaces

between them throughout the full width of the plane.


If the shaded plane is inclined to the plane of the
paper it is shaded by a number of lines, with the
spaces between these lines graciually increasing,
while the thickness of the lines gradually decreases

may be

seen in Fig. 142.


is shaded by a number of parallel lines,
whjch are heaviest near to the side of the cylinder
as

cylinder

The

shadintr lines near the liofhter side

cylinder should never be as heavy as the

heaviest lines on the dark side of the cylinder

parallel

lines, Fig. 141.

Fig.

lis>ht.

Fig.

illustrated in Figs. 143, 144

and

145.

Fio.

141.

near the middle of the cylinder

is

this

The surface

142.

often left blank,

it is difhcult to produce the effect of a light tint


which is desirable at that place.
A hollow cylinder or a concave surface is shaded

as

similar to a cylinder, as

The view

shown

of the sleeve

in Fig. 146.

nut shown in Fig.

147

which conical surfaces are


illustrates the manner
shaded.
Some draughtsmen do this by drawing the
in

shading lines parallel to the outside elements of the


cone.
A somewhat better result is produced, how-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


ever,

the

75

by drawing the
vertex

Wherever

of the

lines slanting

cone,

virhich

is

possible an ordinary pin

and tapering
to

may

l^e

to

shaded.

be put into

the board exactly in the vertex of the cone.

Tlie

Fir.. 146.

ruling

edge of the triangle

is

thus

easily

kept

against the pin, securing the proper direction for


the tapering shading lines.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

76

shown a cylinder placed in


is slightly rounded at
This Is
the end, so as not to have any sharp edge.
also indicated by shading lines drawn at right angles
In Fig. 148 at a b

is

a horizontal position, which

to the

shading lines of the cylinder.

FiQ.

U"

Fig.

Fig.

148.

Fig.

151.

150.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

77

shows how this may be done by the aid


however the time .required for this
method does not recommend it for ordinary working drawings the same figure includes a spherical
surface and shows how such surface may be shaded.
Fig. 149

of curved lines

Fig. 150

shows the shading of a curved

Fig. 151

shows a method

rule,

figure.

be noted that the best effects


produced by the fewest lines draw-

In conclusion
are, as

of

of the inclined lines

being closer near the sides of the

varies,

ings

of representation

The spacing

knurled surfaces.

cylinder.

executed

let

it

to small scale will look best with a

shading that does not include any very heavy lines


larger scale drawings require the use of very heavy
;

shading

In ordinary
rule,

but very

times done to
bolts

Fju.

lines.

as well

working drawings shading is, as a


employed it is, however, someshade the surface of shafts and even
little

as

other cylindrical

parts

diameter by a few conveniently placed

of small

lines.

SECTION LINING.
sometimes necessary to make use of a section in order that certain details, which would
otherwise be hidden, may be shown in a plain.
It is

ir,:;.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

78

The method used

and
the best for most purposes, consists of drawing
parallel lines within the section, which lines are
usually inclined 45 degrees.
By changing the
direction of these lines a clear distinction may be
made between different pieces in the same view,
which may be in contact.
concise manner.

difference in material

of the

and

shown by a variation

is

character of the sectioning, see Figs.

153.

left to

in shops,

The

section lines are best

right or from right to

left,

152

drawn from

usually inclined

45 degrees and about one-sixteenth inch apart. For


large drawings the spaces between them may be as

much

Fig.

154.

Fig.

155.

as one-eighth inch.

Placing the lines too near together makes the

work

of sectioning

not be drawn

much harder

first in pencil,

the lines should

but only

in ink, as

the

neat appearance of the drawing depends largely

upon the uniformity

of the lines in the section

these lines are to be spaced by the eye only.

process consists simply

in

ruling

one

line

and

The
after

another, sliding the triangle along the edge of the


tee-square for an equal distance after drawing each
section line.
Figs. 154-162 inclusive,

lining quite generally used.

are examples of section

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

DESIGN.

79
c

Fig.

Fig.

lot).

157.

Fig.

15s.

Fig.

159.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

80

Cast iron
of

medium

is

indicated by a series of parallel lines

thickness, equally distant apart as

shown

Wrought iron

is

sectioned

in

the same

manner

as cast iron except that every alternate line


line, Fig.

Cast steel

medium

or board

is

represented by lines run-

ning similarly to those of the grain

in

an oak board.

Fig. 160.

in Fig. 154.

heavy

A beam

is

is

Brick and stone


Figs. 161

and

are represented as

shown

in

162.

155.

sectioned by drawing two lines, of

thickness close together, and the third line

Xbin strips of metal Vikc the stct'ion of boiler


plates may be sectioned in the ordinary way by the

about one and one-half times as far from the


second as the second is from the first and so
on as shown in Fig. 156.

Brass is

sectioned by parallel lines similar

to cast iron, except that every other line

broken; see Fig.

Babbit
directions,

is

157.

sectioned like cast iron in both

forming

Wrought

is

steel

little
is

squares, Fig. 158.

sectioned by two light

Fig.

and one single heavy line. The light


lines should be drawn similarly to those in Fig. 156
for cast steel, and the heavy line should be about
one and one-half times as far from the light lines as
the distance between them, as shown in Fig. 159.

160.

lines

Wooden beams
rines

and radiating

are sectioned

by a

series

of

lines in imitation of the natural

appearance of a cross section of an oak

tree. Fig. 160.

usual

section

lines

but as this requires consider-

able

work and produces an

It is

often better to

fill

ill

in the

effect in the drawing,

whole sectional area

with solid black.


In this case a white line must be left between the

adjoining pieces

this

method

is

for small sections, see Figs. 163

recommended only
and

164.

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

DESIGN.

81

w///////////////////mw//.

w//mm//y/M//////////A

%^.^%^^^^^%%^^

^m^^m^^M^MM^
Fig.

Fia.

Fig.

163.

Fio.

164.

161.

162.

s&.

lllllllMllltliiiii

IIMIIIIM^^

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

^^^^^

GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.
Geometry
issue

the science of measurement

is

it

is

from which all mechanical drawings


the fundamental bases of all instruthe shop, where great accuracy is required.
the root

the principles involved in the following problems,

"laying out" of work in


elementary conceptions of geometry relate to the simple properties of straight

mental drawing, as well as

The

make up

all

lines, circles,

bounded by plain surfaces, the sphere, the cylinder and the right cone.
Higher geometry is that part of the science which treats of the relations of these to lines, circles,
Some geometrical terms have already been described, to these are now added a few
surfaces, etc.
relating to the more advanced parts of this oldest and simplest of sciences.
plain surfaces, solids

An axiom

a self-evident truth, not only too simple to require, but too simple to

is

admit of

dem.onstration

A proposition

is

something which

is

either proposed to be done, or to be demonstrated,

and

is

either a problem or a theorem.

A problem is something proposed to be done.


A theorem is something proposed to be demonstrated.
A hypothesis
a supposition made with a view to
is

draw from

it

some consequence which

establishes the truth or falsehood of a proposition, or solves a problem.

A lemma
more

is

something which

is

premised, or demonstrated,

in

order to render what follows

easy.

corollary

is

a consequent truth derived immediately

from some preceding truth or demon-

stration.

A scholium
A postulate

made upon something going before

is

a remark or observation

is

a problem, the solution of which

8.1

is

self-evident.

it.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

86

EXAMPLES OF POSTULATES.
Let

it

be granted

That a straight line can be drawn from any one point to any other point
That a straight line can be produced to any distance, or terminated at any point
That the circumference of a circle can be described about any center, at any

I.

n.
in.

distance from that center.

AXIOMS.
Things which are equal
equals are added

When
When
When
When

n.
in.
IV.

to the

same thing are equal to each other.


two or more wholes are equal.

to equals the

/,

equals are taken from equals the remainders are equal.

equals are added to unequals the wholes are unequal.

equals are taken from unequals the remainders are unequal.


Things which are double of the same thing, or equal things are equal to each other.
Things which are halves of the same thing, or of equal things, are equal to each other.
VII.
VIII. The whole is greater than any of its parts.
IX.
Every whole is equal to all its parts taken together.
Things which coincide, or fill the same space, are identical, or mutually equal in
X.

V.

VI.

all

their parts.

All right angles are equal to one another.

XI.
XII.

XIII.

Two

The

straight line

is

the shortest distance between two points.

straight lines cannot enclose a space.

tools used in geometrical

pen, straight edge and scales

in

drawing are the compass, with pencil and pen points, the ruling

the following pages will be found a series of exercises which have

been selected with a view to their importance

in their

application in problems of accurate drawing.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

EXERQSES IN GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.


a given straight line; that
into two equal parts.
Let AB be the given line, Fig. 165.

To

it

bisect

is,

to

line

1C2 and

it

87

divide the line

will

AB

two

into

equal parts at the point C.

divide

To

bisect

a given angle ; that

is,

to

divide a given

angle into two equal angles.

/
/

/
/

;c
Fig.

From

as a center with

one-half of
2,

]&5.

From B

the given line


as a center,

Let

a radius g-reater than

AB,

describe the arc

and with the same

radius,

and 2
then through the points of intersection draw the

describe an arc,

cutting the former at

ACB

With
;

be the given angle. Fig.

the vertex

as a center,

166.

and any

radius,

describe an arc cutting both sides of the given angle


at

and

radius,

2.

From

describe

arcs

and

cutting

as centers, with

each

other

at

any
3.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

88

Through
and

it

this point of intersection

will bisect the

draw the

line

3C

angle as required.

To divide a given angle into four equal parts.


Let

ACB

be the given angle, Fig.

To

trisect

a right angle ; that

is,

to divide it into

three equal parts.

167.

Bisect

ABC

be a right angle, Fig. 168, that is, an


angle with the sides perpendicular to each other.
From B as a center with any radius, describe an arc
cutting the sides of the angle at i and 4.

Let

B
With

the

Fig.

16S.

'4

same radius and with 4

describe an arc cutting the former at

*^

as a center,
2.

From

the given angle as described in Problem 2 by the


line 3C.
Bisect the angles 3CB and 3CA by the
lines C4 and C5 and these lines divide the angle

as a center with the same radius, cut the arc at


Through the points 2 and 3 draw the lines

into four equal angles as required.

equal parts as required.

and 3B and they

will

3.

2B

divide the angle into three

ROGERS' DRAWING
To draw a

line

perpendicular

to

a given straight

line from

AND

DESIGN.

89

To draw a perpendicular

a given point in that line ; that is, to erect a


perpendicular to the given line at a given point in that

from a given point without

line.

out

Let

AB

be the given line and

in that line, Fig.

the given point

a perpendicular

to

line to a straight

that line ; that

a given line

from a

is,

to

line,

drop

point with-

it.

Let

AB

be the given

line

and C the given

point,

Fig. 170.

169.

3.

/
1

B
C
FUi.

radius set off on each side of the point

Ci and C2. From the points


with any radius greater than Ci

C, equal distances, as
I

and

or

2 as centers,

C2,

describe

Through
which

will

arcs

cutting

Fig.

IfiH.

From C
With any

^^.

each

other at

3.

the point of intersection draw the line 3C,

be perpendicular to the line AB.

170.

as a center with any radius extending

below the line AB describe an arc


2, cutting AB
at I and 2.
From i and 2 as centers, with the same
or any other equal radii, describe arcs cutting each
other at 3.
Through the point C and the point of
intersection 3 draw the line 3DC
then the line CD
will be perpendicular to AB.
i

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

90

To drop a perpendicular to a given linefront a point


which is nearly over the end of the line, Fig. i-ji.
Let

From

AB

be the given line and C the given point.


any point i on the line AB as a center, with

Let
Fig.

AB

arc

to

draw a

straight line

line.

be the given line and

the given point,

17:2.

From C

CE.

the radius iC describe the arc

Through a given point


parallel to a given straight

I, 2,

as a center with any radius describe the

cutting the line

AB

at

2.

II

7^

y'

z'
\

V\

>

\:i

\
Fig.

172.

/
Fig.

171.

With the same


on the line AB as a
former arc at C
and E. Draw a line through the points C and E
and the line CE will be the perpendicular required.

From any

other point

center, describe arcs cutting the

the arc C3.

On

radius and

the arc

2,

chord of the arc 3C, cutting

as a center, describe
set off

i,
it

at

C and i draw a straight


be parallel to AB.

points
will

i.

line

from

the

Through the

DiCE

and

it

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To divide a straight
of equal parts

(^say

line into

any required number

y equal parts\

AB be the given line, Fig. 173.


From A draw a straight line AC forming
angle with AB and being of any length.
Set

any
the

convenient distance and set off


seven equal divisions on the line AC beginning at
to the point

AB into

three

and a half

AB

be the given line, Fig. 174.


Draw a line AC forming any angle with the
Let

dividers to any

up

line

equal parts.

Let

To divide a given

91

given line AB.

ginning at

Upon
up

AC

set off 7 equal parts, be-

to the point

7.

7.

Jf
/

>
^

'

U
I

.^

X
Fig.

Join the points

draw
5,

6,

parallels to

and these

into the required

7
it

1T3.

and B by a straight line and


through the points i, 2, 3, 4,

lines will divide the given line

number

of parts.

AB

Join the points 7 and B and through the alternate points, 5, 3, I, draw lines parallel to 7B.

These

lines will divide the given line

equal parts, as required.

AB

into

3^

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

92

To draw upon a straight


be

equal

to

line

an angle which shall

To construct an equilateral

triangle, the length

of

a side being given.

a given angle.

Let 1E2 be the given angle and AB the line


upon which we intend to draw an angle equal to the
given one, Fig. 175.

Let the straight

line

AB

be the given

side, Fig.

176.

B
Fig.

175.

Fio.

176.

From E as a center describe an arc i, 2, with any


convenient radius. From any point on the line
AB, say from

C, as a center, and with the

radius describe the arc

with a radius equal to

i,

3,
2,

4.

From

same

4 as a center,

intersect the arc

4, 3,

A line drawn through the points 3 and


3.
form with the line AB the required angle.

at

will

From

AB

the points

and B with a radius equal to

describe arcs cutting each other at C.

the lines AC and BC


then will the triangle
be the required equilateral triangle.
;

Draw

ABC

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To

cojisiruci

an equilateral

height or altittide being given.

Let

AB

to

be the given vertical height, Fig. 177.


the point B draw a straight Hne CD

Through

perpendicular to

To construct an

triangle, the vertical

AB.

93

with a base equal


and each of the two angles

isosceles triangle,

a given straight

line,

at the base equal to a given angle.

Let

be the given line and

the given angle,

Fig. 178.

Through the point


EF, parallel to CD.

draw another

From B

straight line,

as center with any

convenient radius describe a semicircle cutting-

CD

Fig.

178.

at I and 4.
From
and 4 as centers, with the
same radius, cut the semicircle at 2 and 3. From
B and through the points 2 and 3 draw the lines
BG and BH then GBH will be the required

and B construct angles equal to the


the points
Continue the sides of the angles
given angle E.
then ABC will be the reuntil they meet at C

triangle.

quired triangle.

Draw

a line,

AB, equal

to the given line D.

At

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

94

Two

sides

and

the angle between them being given

to construct the triangle.

Let

and

spectively to two

and

Two
given

be the two given lines equal


sides of

the given angle, Fig.

the
i

required

re-

triangle,

79.

Let

sides

to

and the

(Lngle opposite one

of them being

construct a required triangle.

and

be the two given sides and let E be


is to be formed

the side opposite which the angle

equal to F, Fig. 180.

Fig. 181.

Fig.

Draw

179.

and at the point A


construct an angle equal to F and make AC equal
to E.
Join the points C and B by a straight line,
and ABC will then be the required triangle.
a

line,

AB, equal

to D,

Draw a line, AB, equal to D. At the point A


form an angle equal to F. With the point B as a
center and a radius equal to the given line E describe an arc cutting AC at C.
Join the points C
and B. ABC is the required triangle.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To conslruct a square, the
equal

to

a given

AB

Let

line.

of which shall
(See definition, page 31.)

be the given

At the point
page 89) equal

A
in

sides

line, Fig.

To construct a square
Let

181.

BD

its

diagonal being given.

be the given length of a diagonal, Fig.

182.

erect a perpendicular

length to

be

95

AD

(see

AB.

Bisect the diagonal


straight line

BD

at

the point P by the

AC.
1

c_

k"

\
\

\
N

^'

\
\
\

y-

/P\

\
\

'\B

^AV

Fu;.

1S2.

Fig.

From

the

points

radius equal to

AB,

11.

B and

the required square.

centers,

with a

describe two arcs cutting each

Connect D and
and B and C by a straight
other at C.

as

C by

a straight line

line,

and

ABCD

is

From P
PD,

as a center with a radius equal to

cut the line

the points

AC

AB, BC,

CD

be the required square.

PB, or

and C. Join
and DA, and ABCD will

at the points

ROGERS' DRAWING

96

sides shall be equal

To construct a rectangle whose


to

two given

AB

Let

Draw

and

CD

(See definition, page 31.)

be the given

a straight line

EH

draw

lines.

EF

penpendicular to

EF

DESIGN.

To construct a parallelogram when the

sides

and

one of the angles are given. (See definition, page 31.)

Let

lines, Fig. 183.

equal to

AND

AB, from E

and equal to CD.

AB

and

CD

be the given sides and

given angle, Fig. 184.


Draw a straight line, EF, equal to AB.

draw an angle equal to the given angle O.

HE,

the side,

of this angle equal in length to

the

At E
Make
CD.

B
Fig.

183.

B
Fig.

From
and

and F as centers with

radii equal to

CD describe arcs intersecting


FG and HG; then EFGH

points

rectangle.

at G.
is

AB

Join the

the required

From

the point

and from

with

tersecting at G.

184.

with a radius equal to

CD

AB

as a radius describe arcs in-

Join

HG and

required parallelogram.

FG.

EFGH

is

the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To construct a parallelogram when
one of the diagonals are given.

CD

be the given diagonal and


the lengths of the two sides.

Let

the sides

and

Fig. 185.

AB

To find
given.

and

EF

97

Let

the center of a given arc,


(See definition, page 33.)

AB

be the given arc and

its

radius being

the radius, Fig.

186.

EAFig.

185.

Fig.

Draw a line, GK,


CD. From G and K
length to

AB

and

as centers, with radii equal in

EF

describe arcs intersecting at

KH

and H.

is

the required parallelogram.

Join

186.

equal to the given diagonal

GL, LK,

and HG.

GHKL

From any two

points

and B on the given

arc,

as centers, with a distance equal to the radius

describe arcs intersecting at

required center.

then

will

be the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

98

To find the center and to describe the circle, three


of whose points are given ; that 7S, to describe the
circumference passing through three given points.

With A, B and C as centers and any convenient


radius, draw arcs cutting each other at D and E
and at

and L, and through the points of their intersection draw lines KO and DO the intersection
;

of these lines at
as a center

quired

and

is

OA

the required center.

With

as a radius, describe the re-

circle.

Fig.

188.

To draw a tangent to a circle, passing through a


given point on the circumference.
(See definition,
page

34.)

Let

be the given point on the given circum-

ference, Fig. 188.


Fig.

Let A, B and
187.

C be

187.

the given three points, Fig.

From A to the center O of the circle, draw the


radius AO.
Through A draw the line BC perpendicular to AO. The line BC is the required tangent.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To draw a tangent

to

a circle from a given point

without the circumference.

Let
given

Case

be the given point and

circle.

To draw

the center of the

I.

Fig. 190,

lines tangent to

draw any radius

With

circle.

.scribe

EG

circles.

the circle

OE

on which set

circle,

off

from

equal to the radius of the smaller

and OG as radius deand draw tangents PH and

as a center

GHI

Fio.

Fin.

two given

From O, the center of the larger

E, a distance

Fig. 189.

99

Ifll).

1X9.

PI to this circle from the center P of the other


(See the preceding problem.)
circle.

AC

Join

and bisect

with a radius equal to


circle,

it

From

at O.

OC

or

OA

cutting the given circle at D.

tangent

is

a line passing through

as center,

describe a semi-

The
and D.

required

From

and P draw perpendiculars to these tangents and continue them until they cut the given
circles at AB and CD.
Join the points. The lines
AB and CD are the required tangents.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

100

To draw
Case II.

lines tangent to

two given

To

circles

From O, the center of one of the given

circles, Fig.
it

191,

draw any radius OE and lengthen


making the distance

outside of the circle up to G,

EG

equal to the radius of the other

inscribe a square in

draiv a square within the

a given circle; that is, to


with all the vertices

circle,

of its angles resting on the circumference.


Let

ABCD

be the given

circle. Fig. 192.

circle.

From O

as center

and

OG

as radius, describe

GHI draw tangents PH and PI to this


from the center P of the other circle.
Draw
perpendiculars to these tangents from O and P and
the circle

circle

they cut the given circles at the points

The

lines joining the points

are the required tangents.

A BCD.

and B and C and

Draw two

diameters,

to each other.

DA,

Draw

AC

and BD,

the lines

at right angles

AB, BC, CD, and

joining the points of intersection of these

ameters with the circumference of the

ACBD

is

the required square.

circle

di-

ACBD.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To

describe

Let

a square about a given

EGHF

be the given

Draw two diameters,


to each other.

To inscribe a hexagon in a given


page 32.)

circle.

At the points

Draw
From

at right angles

EGHF,

circle.

(See

definition,

circle, Fig. 193.

FG and EH,

101

where these

a diameter

AB in

the given

circle, Fig. 194.

and B as centers, with a radius equal

the radius of the given circle,

to

describe four arcs

DEF and
ADEBFG

cutting the circumference of the circle at

G.
is

Join these points by straight


the required hexagon.

lines.

F
Fig.

F
Fig.

193.

194.

To divide the circumference of


diameters intersect the circumference of the given
circle draw lines perpendicular to these diameters.

These
which

is

lines will intersect

the required square.

each other at

ABCD.

the circle into six

equal parts.

We

set the dividers to equal the radius of the

and get the required result by stepping the


radius six times around the circle.
circle

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

102

To construct a hexagon upon a given


Let

AB

be the given line and

let

line.
it

equal

in

length a side of the required hexagon, Fig. 195.


From A and B as centers describe arcs cutting

each other at G, the

radii of the arcs

To describe an octagon
page 32.)

in a given square.

(See

definition,

Let

ABCD

Draw

be the given square, Fig.

196.

the diagonals of the square cutting at E.

being equal to

AB.

Fig.

195.

Fig.

From

as

scribe a circle.

center

with

the

With the same

cutting the circumference at

same radius

radius set off arcs

CEF

and D.

19K.

de-

Join

From

ABC

and

as centers, with a radius

describe arcs cutting the sides at

these points by straight lines and they will form the

the points

sides of the required hexagon.

octagon.

so

found

to

GH,

complete

the

AE,

Join
required

etc.

ROGERS'
To

describe

an octagon on a given

litte,

DRAWING AND DESIGN.

one side of

AB

be the given

Lengthen the

side, Fig. 197.

AB both ways.
at A and B.

line

diculars to this line

AE

at E,

and from

with the same radius cut the perpendicular

the octagon being given.

Let

the perpendicular

103

Erect perpen-

as center

BE

at F.

Complete the octagon by joining GEE and D.


To draw a regular polygon of any number of sides
on a given line. (See definition, page 30.)
Let C5 be the given side of the required polygon, Fig. 198.

/p

"n

c
Fig.

19S.

Lengthen the line C5 to O. With C as center


and a radius equal to C5 describe the semicircle
O 2345, and divide this into as many equal parts as
I

there are sides in the required polygon.


Fig. 197

with

by the line AH,


and the external angle at B by the line BC. Make
and CD parand BC equal to AB. Draw
allel to AE and equal to AB.
Bisect the external angle at

HG

AH

From

as center, with a radius equal to

AB,

cut

2,

3,

4,

etc.,

by straight

C5
With

center and a radius equal to


cutting the line

C3

at

D.

lines.

With

Join
2

as a

describe an arc

as center,

and

with the same radius draw an arc cutting the line

C4 at E, and so on. Join the points C2D,


form the required polygon.

etc., to

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

104

To inscribe a regular pentagon in a given circle.


(See definition, page 32.)
Draw two diameters AC and DB at right angles
to each other,

a radius equal to

DB

at

OB
A

at

I.

straight line joining

required

as center

and
di-

and

pentagon.

J is

equal to one

With

arcs

of a

on the circumference the


AJ
points where the sides of the pentagon will terradius equal to

minate.

circle.

J.

199.

the

With

describe an arc cutting the

Fio.

side of

within a given

Fig. 199.

Bisect the radius

ameter

To inscribe a regular polygon of any number of


sides,

Fig.

200.

set off

Draw two

diameters

circle. Fig. 200, at

AC

and

D7 within the given

right angles to each other.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Divide the diameter

D7

into as

many

equal parts

as there are sides in the required polygon.

be seven

Let

it

the points 123456.

in this case, at

Lengthen the diameter

AC

AK

making

equal

to three-fourths of the radius of the given circle.

Through

and

draw a straight

circumference at L
straight line,

and

it

equal

in

on CD lay off the distance


Oi equal to Og and draw hi through the points
and g draw the lines Ri and gR parallel to gh and
hi.
With Cg as a radius and the points g and
as centers, draw the arcs jCm and nDp
with RA

From

the center

line cutting the

and I by a
length to one side

Join the points


is

105

of the required polygon.


this side,

and

set off

Set the dividers to equal


the other sides around the cir-

cumference.

To describe an octagon in a circle.


Draw two diameters at right angles

these diam-

eters divide the circumference into four equal arcs.

Bisect these arcs to complete the octagon.

To drazv an oval by circular arcs.


Let CD be the major axis and

AB

the minor

axis of the oval, Fig. 201.

Find the difference of the semi-axes and set it off


from O to e and f on CD and AB. Bisect ef and
set off one-half of it from e to g and draw gh

jAn and
j

R and h as centers draw the arcs


meeting the small arcs in the points
The figure AnDpBmCj
and n and m and p.

parallel to

is

the required oval.

ef.

as a radius

and

mBp

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

106

y^

^^\

"^

MECHANICAL METHOD.
Draw

^^

% ^^^--'''^
A
/

//

^^

\
\

\\

^^

""x
^^

^^^

^'1

at E.

Make

At

ED

draw a

equal to

line

CD

EC

//

^ r

y^

\.
^^"-^^^

Trace a curve with the point of a pencil H


pressed against the string so as to keep it stretched.

The

curve thus traced will be the required

/
^

AB
AB.

loops.

\
\

""^N

equal to the major axis of the

and
equal to one-half the minor axis.
Set the compass
to a distance equal to AE or EB, and with C or D
as center, describe an arc cutting the major axis at
F and G. F and G are the foci of the ellipse.
Fasten the ends of a string, whose length is equal
to the length of the major axis, AB, at thfe foci F
and G. This may be done by fixing pins at the
foci and by providing the ends of the strings with
perpendicular to

^^

AB

Bisect the line

to

\
\

a line

required ellipse, Fig. 202.

^^^.^

Draw

GEOMETRICAL METHOD.
a rectangle ABCD enclosing the

To draw an ellipse, the major and the minor axes


being given. (See definition, page 36.)

axes of

the ellipse, Fig. 203.

Let
axis.

EF

be the major axis and HJ the minor


Divide AB, DC and EF into a like number

making the number an even one.


The greater the number the more accurate will be
the resultant ellipse.
Let the number in this case
of equal parts

Fir.. 202.

ellipse.

be

8.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

On

107

BC construct the rectangle


with an altitude or height EF, Fig. 204.
From F the middle point in BC erect the perpenthe given line

ABCD
dicular

EF

divide

AB and BF

ber of equal parts, say four.

same nummanner divide


and 6 on AB

into the

In like

DC

and FC. Draw lines from 2, 4


and from corresponding points on DC to E from
5, 3 and I and from corresponding points in FC
draw lines parallel to EF, meeting the lines drawn
to E from 2, 4, 6, etc.
;

Through
and

with

the intersection of
2

curve of the parabola.

From

2, 4, 6, and from corresponding points in


draw lines to H. From tlie points placed on
KB and FC draw lines to J. From J and H draw
lines through 5, 3 and i and through corresponding points on LF to meet those already drawn.

DF

Through the
etc.,

J3,

intersection of

draw the outline

of

carefully in pencil, freehand,

2H

with Ji,

the ellipse.

and then ink

4H

with

Finish
in

with

aid of an irregular curve.

To
tude

describe a parabola, the base

EF being given.

BC and

the alti-

(See definition, page 36.)

and corresponding

with

6, 3

ooints,

with 4

draw the

ROGERS' DRAWING

108

To describe a hyperbola, the transverse axis, the


and the base being given. (See definition,

altitude

page 36.)
Let FI be the axis
tude and BC its base,

EI

its alti-

its

'

i
I

'

'

Fig.

AB

and

equal parts, say

5.

BE

ABCD

into the

Divide

20fi.

To construct a spiral composed of arcs of various

20.5.

construct a rectangle

with EI as

altitude.

Divide

7,

\\ \

1
Fig.

On BC

6 with 5
curve of the

intersection of 8 with

>\\

'

Through the

1\\

/'/111
'

DC

From F draw lines to the points of diviBC. From the points of division on AB
draw lines to I.

hyperbola.

///I

sion on

and corresponding points, draw the

Fig. 205.

////

'

DESIGN.

manner.

and
of the hyperbola,

AND

DC

same number cf
and EC in like

radii.

Let

ABC be

Note

A spiral

makes any number


into itself.

a small equilateral triangle, Fig. 206.


is

a curve described about a fixed point, and which


around that point without returning

of revolutions

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Lengthen the sides AB,

BA

as a center,

meeting the

BC and CA.

as a radius,

line

BC

With B

describe the arc

prolonged

at G.

AG

With C

as

109

2-2' as radius, describe the arc 2-3';

and from

draw the

in

points

I,

arc 3-4'
2,

and so on, taking

3, 4, etc.,

order the

as centers.

CG as radius, describe the arc GE meeting the line AC prolonged at E. With A as center
and AE as radius, describe the arc EF meeting BA
center and

prolonged
points

F,

at

BCA

By using any
ner, that

and so

on, using successively the

for centers.

is,

regular polygon in the same man-

lengthening

its

sides

and taking the

angular points of such figure for centers successively in order, as in the


spiral

may be

above problem, a different

formed.

To draw the

of a snail by circular

outline

arcs.

Let C be the axis or center of rotation upon


which the snail is fixed, Fig. 207. The point B
nearest to the center and the point A most distant
from the center being also given.

From

the center

describe a circle whose diam-

eter shall be equal to one-third of

the circumference into


as

I,

any number

AB

and divide

of equal parts,

3. 4. etc.

Draw through each


Then from

of these points tangents to

the point i as center, lA as


1-2'
radius, draw the arc
and from 2 as center,

this circle.

Note.

The

.<;nail is

a mechanical

movement

of purposes, as in time-pieces, rlrop ii\otions, etc.

u.secl

for a great variety

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

110

To draw the outline of a heart-wheel.

Let C be the axis or center of rotation, upon


which the heart-wheel is fixed, Fig. 208, and let AB
be the required extent of the rectilinear motion,
A being the nearest point to the center and B the
most distant.

From

the center

with a radius equal to

CB

describe a circle.
Divide this circle into
any number of equal parts, say 12, and
through the points of division draw radii Ci,

C2, C3, C4,

etc.

Divide the line AB into half the number of


equal parts, the circle is divided into (in this
case six), as
ter

i,

Then from

2, 3, etc.

with the distance Ci on the line

describe an arc cutting the

point
line

D
AB

first

then take the other divisions on the


in succession with them from

C draw

arcs, cutting their respec-

tive radii Ci, C2, C3, etc., at the points

and H, which are the points


heart-wheel curve,

The
volves

6
No'rE.

The

Fig.

heart-wlieel

is

uniform reciprocating motion.

SOS.

a popular mechanical device producing

its

AB,

radius at the

and

the center

and

the cen-

its

in

DEFG

the required

highest point being

lowest A.

construction of various

many problems

these will be introduced


of mechanical

similar

when

machine parts
to

the

in-

preceding

treating of the design

motion and the construction of parts

of various machines.

AND ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

ISOMETRIC, CABINET

AND

DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES.
The word projection means to throw forward, and in mechanical drawing it is the projecting or
throwing forward of one view from another in drawings the lines in one view or plan may by this
system be used to find those of others of the same object, and also to find their shape or curvature as
they would appear in other representations.
;

Isometric projection is that in which but a single plane of projection is used.


Cabinet projection is somewhat like isometric projection; the cabinet projections
horizontal line
off parallel to

2,

a vertical line and

these axes

3,

a 45-degree line

cabinet projection

Orthographic projection.

is

hence

Drawings made up in this manner will be


the special methods of drawing generally used

Development of surfaces

are

measurements on the drawing must be

i,

laid

one of several systems of oblique projection.

The primary

''of or pertaining to right lines or angles,"

all

all

geometrical meaning of the word orthographic

is

the projecting lines are either horizontal or vertical.

understood by many people unacquainted with


mechanical branches.

easily
in

be defined and illustrated under its own chapter, page 162.


Objects represented as thus described give a clear understanding of all their dimensions, and
approximately show them as they appear to the eye of the observer the method of representing objects
as they really appear to the e\ e is called perspective drawing.
This latter method, however, presents
will

so

many

difficulties of construction,

that

various other

means have been

devised,

all

aiming

the advantages of perspective, and avoiding at the same time the difficulties of construction.

to give

These
and

methods, also called false perspective, are described under the heading of isometric projection,
will be further explained in the following chapter under the title " Cabinet Projection."

113

ROGERS' DRAWING

114

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION.
Figure 209 shows

its

corners

the

ab and ag are called isometric axes ; these


axes form an angle of 20 degrees with each other.

lines ac,

DESIGN.

They may be drawn by

a solid figure, a cube, with

equal sides and resting on one of

AND

the 30 and 60 triangles

horizontal line

ag

is

a vertical

line.

All the lines in this figure are parallel to these


axes, viz.: all the lengths are parallel to ab

the widths are parallel to

Fig. a.

the lines ac and ab forming angles of 30 with a

Fig.

ac.

210.

and

all

DRAWING AND DESIGN.

ROGERS'
The method of

thus representing objects

is

called

; drawings made in this manner


show very clearly, with one view, the object as it
all the sizes of the
appears when looked upon
object are drawn full size, or made to one scale,

isometric projectioti

parall(;l to

the isometric axes.

With these

mind

To draw a rectangular frame made 0/ wood y^'


thick, the outside dimensions being 16" long, 8" wide

and 2"
First

deep, as

shown

in Fig. 211.

draw the isometric axes

line

represented in isometric projection in order to ex-

width.

First
is

4 by 2" by 2" Fig. 210.


,

draw the isometric

and ad

axes, ab, ac

ab

a vertical line whereas ac and ad are lines form-

ing angles of 30 with a horizontal line

make ab

and ac equa
to 2 inches; from c draw cf, parallel and equal to
ab, and from d, draw dh, also parallel and equal
equal to

inches, ad equal to 4 inches

to ab.

Join the points b and

and the

be equal and parallel to ac.


points b and h and the line bh

line bf will

Then

join

the

be equal and
draw the line fg

will

from the point f,


parallel to ad
equal and parallel to bh, then draw the line gh,
which will be equal and parallel to bf from the
;

point of intersection g draw the vertical line gk,


from c and d draw the lines cb and dk, respectively,

and

parallel to

ad and

ac.

make
2",

the

16" or the length desired for the

plain its principles.

block,

ad and ac

ad equal to
and finally the line ac equal to 8' or the

frame,

To draw a square

ab,

the line ab equal to the depth required, or

several objects will be

rules in

115

FlG.I-'ll.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

116

Now

draw the lines cf and de equal and parallel


to ab and then draw the lines fb and eb, equal and
From the point
parallel to ac and ad, respectively.
f draw ft equal and parallel to ad.
Next join the points e and t and the line et will
be parallel and equal to ac.
Now make mb and bn, tq and tr, each

^" for

equal to

To draw a right cylinder in a horizontal position,


as

shown

in Fig. 212.

Draw a square

length as the diameter


face

Within
square draw a

direction

ac

of

in

mp

diame-

base of the cylinder.

Next draw the diagonals ad


and
g and

h,

the circle at the

be, cutting

points eghf

h and

and extend these

f,

join the points e

and

lines

and

g,

by straight lines
until they meet the
f

sides of the square.

These

the

lines cut off equal lengths of the sides of

the square in
Fig.

212.

four corners, so that

Now

For

objects as represented in figures 210 and 211 an isometric projection is desirable, but when the objects to be drawn contain
curved surface lines the application of the above described method is
limited.

its

ai^a2=d3^

d4, etc.

cutting said line.


Note.

its

ter equal to that of the

line

and

tangent to the

square and

and equal to ab.


From u draw a line
parallel to ad in the
direction of ac and

parallel to

circle

'

efgh,

vertical linesu, parallel

draw from u a

this

der.

also

to

is

of the required cylin-

cutting this latter line

whose surbe the base

of a circle

the thickness required

example

same

the

exactly

draw the lines


mp and gr parallel to eb and
also draw the lines qk
and hn parallel to bf.
The two lines gr and
qk intersect at s from
this point s, draw a
in this

abed,

Fig. 213, with sides of

in

suppose that the required cylinder is placed


a square prism, so as to exactly enclose the cyl-

inder as

shown

in Fig. 214.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


It is

in Fig-.

evident that the prism will have two ends equal to the square shown
213, and that the length of the prism will be equal to that of

the cylinder.

Then draw the prism in isometric projection as explained


on page 115; draw the diagonals
and BC in the end
ABCD of the prism and lay out the isometric projection of the circle which is to form the base
of the required cylinder.
Set off on the

AD

line

AC

a distance

Ai

equal to ai

\
/

/
/h
N

V
/

\f

in

)
\

k
Fio.213.

from the point

D on the line

set off the distance

D4, equal to

Fig. 213;

DB,

ai, in Fig. 213, or

214.

equal to

Ai

in Fig.

C,

117

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

118

draw a line parallel to AB,


cutting the diagonals AD and BC at the points e
and f through the point 4 draw also a line parallel

Through the point

to

CD

intersecting the diagonals at the points

mn

through o, parallel to AB,


draw a line parallel
cutting AC at m and BD at n
to AC through the same point O, cutting the line
CD at 1 and the line AB at k.
h, n and f are points
The points k, e, m, g,
through which the required circle drawn in isometric
The curve thus obtained is
projection will pass.
evidently not a circle, but has the form of an ellipse,
This
its minor axis being eh and its major axis fg.

and h

draw the

line

1,

ellipse

may be drawn by any method

explained in

the section pertaining to Geometrical Drawing.

The

other end of the cylinder, which

scribed in the figure

same manner

GF

KLMN, may

is

to

be drawn
and the

as already explained,

be
in

in-

the

ellipse

be obtained.
In order to complete the isometric projection of
the cylinder draw the lines Gg and Ff, joining both
faces of the cylinder
these lines are to be drawn
through the ends of the major axis of both ellipses
and they are tangent to these two curves.
will

To draw a pattern of a crank, shown in Fig. 21^,


isometric projection.

The

pattern consists of two cylinders joined by a

The

board.
will

fit is

larger cylinder into which the shaft

3" in

diameter and 25^" long; the smaller

be fitted, is 2"
The distance between the

cylinder to which the crank pin


in

diameter and

2
"

long.

center lines of the two cylinders

is

to

is 5".

Proceed as follows
Describe a circle 3" in diameter, as in Fig. 216,
and draw a square around it, and within the square
draw two diagonals and other lines as in Fig. 213
draw the isometric projection of a prism having
Fig. 216 as a base and a length equal to 21^"; said
prism is marked ABCDdab and its hiddqn parts
are not shown.
In this prism lay out the isometric projection of
the larger cylinder, whose front face will be the
ellipse klNcjM.
:

Fig.

218 shows only a small part of the ellipse

forming the rear end of the cylinder and


visible part is represented by mi.

Through the center

MN

line

AD

parallel to

this small

of the first ellipse

CD

and the

line

draw the

kc parallel to

then draw the line eg through the point c and

parallel to

The

Aa and

point

equal to

indicates the place

connecting both cylinders,


cylinder.

t^/^".

The board

ing an additional

is

where the board,

fastened to the

first

intersects the cylinder, form-

ellipse,

or

more

properly, a part

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


of

an

21S by uge this part of the


exactly equal to the part jcN of the ellipse McNk,

ellipse,

ellipse is

represented

119

in Fig.


-f

";"

Fm.

217

/-

.i.._

r^

FlQ.

zi'-

Fio.

216.

215.

and may be constructed by drawing from different points of


the curve, jcN, a number of lines parallel and equal to eg.

Fio.

218.

ROGERS' DRAWING

120

The

line uj is a

From

tangent to both of these curves.

the point g draw the Hne gf parallel to ck and equal to


f draw the line hp parallel to
so that hf is

CD

2^'; through
equal to

fp,

each of these being equal to one inch

hp draw the isometric projection

The base

of the latter

by the

218

Fig.

length of the prism

When
drawn

the

in isometric

shown

in Fig,

The

vfvv.

to be equal to

is

small

is

ellipse

cylinder

2".

has been

projection within this

prism draw the line

vw through

the cen-

vfw and parallel to hp


through the point v, the
distance vr being made equal to one
inch and through the point r draw the
line rm, tangent to the ellipse mi.

ter of the ellipse

draw the

The

line vr

lines

wu and

to the ellipse uge.

ve are both tangent

The hidden

parts of

the object are not indicated in Fig. 218.


Fig. 219 represents a tool chest
in isometric

as an

projection

example

It

is

drawn

given here

of a large class of objects

adapted for representation by


method.
well

from the line


which is

of the prism hpsnto,

to enclose the smaller cylinder.

in

AND

this

DESIGN.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

CABINET PROJECTION.
Cabinet Projection
metric Projection

its

three axes to which

are

drawn

parallel

is

somewhat

similar to

Iso-

difference consists in selecting

all

measurements of the object

see

a, b, c,

Fin.

following

length of the object must be laid off parallel to the


horizontal axis, in their actual sizes.
All vertical measurements, parallel to the
b.
height of the object, must be draAvn parallel to the
vertical axis, in their actual sizes.

Fig.

zontal line

shown

for cabinet projection


2,

in Fig.

a vertica

ime; anc

are

the object must be laid off on lines parallel to the

line, as

45 axis, in sizes of only one-half of the actual cor-

parallel to the

responding measurements.
It is not essential which side of the object should
be considered its length and which side its thickness.

i,

a 45'

above.

be remembered that
All horizontal measurements,

All measurements parallel to the thickness of

a hori-

It is to
a.

221.

-iSS.

c.

The axes

121

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

122

To draw a cube in cabinet projection, as^hown

in

The remaining

Suppose each side of the cube to be 3" long.


the three axes: ab=horizontal axis,

vertical axis,

and bc=axis inclined

45.

On

bd^

the line

from the point b, the distance b]=3"; on


from b, lay off b2^3"; and on the line
A vertical line drawn
be measure off f'^ij^".

ab set

and complete the side b-2-5-4

of the cube.

Fig. 221.

Draw

intersect at the point 5

off,

ner, parallel to

intersecting at

drawn in a similar manthe axis, from the points 3 and 5,


the point 6 and showing the top of
lines are

the cube 3-6-2-5.

the line bd,

Fig.

through point

a horizontal line

222.

parallel to the vertical axis

drawn through point

bd and

2 parallel to

the horizontal axis ab will intersect at point 3 and


thus complete one face of the cube b-2-3-1.

Now, through

the point 4 draw a vertical line


bd and through point 2 draw a line inclined 45 with the horizontal
these two lines
parallel to

Fig.

223.

Next draw through tlie point 4 a horizontal line


and parallel to ab and through the point i a line inclined at 45 and parallel to be
these two lines cut
;

join the points 6 and 7 by a straight


at the point 7
line and cube is complete.
;

\^

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


In Fig. 222

shown

is

frame represented

in

cabinet projection the

in

Fig. 211.

The

length of the

frame, 16 inches in actual measurement,

is

repre-

sented here on the 45 axis by only one-half of


actual size or 8 inches long
all the

its

zontal axis
in

3,

123

parallel to the vertical axis, that

is,

a standing position.

The

first

position of the cylinder being the most

convenient for drawing it in cabinet projection


will be considered here before the others.

it

other measurements are equal to the


actual sizes of the object, as described

on page

122.

m
(e

\
\
\

p(

^
n
Fig.

B
Fio.

224.

To draw a right cylinder in cabinet projectioti, its


base to be the circle shown in Fig. 22^.
The cylinder may be placed in the following positions
I,

Draw

I.

2,

parallel to the hori-

in

prism abcgfedh. Fig. 22j,

cabijiet

projection,

enclosing the cylinder

the

the

face of the prism, abcg, will contain the visible base


of the cylinder;

parallel to the 45 axis;

ExAMPLE

a').

circle kl,

which

is

which

is

equal to

shown
it.

in Fig.

223 by the


ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

124

nm

In the rear end of the prism draw the circle

Through the point

end of the cylinder, and draw the lines


kn and Im tangent to both circles this completes

and

the cabinet projection of the cylinder.

will

for the other

It is

advisable to select this position for

much

as

ders,

drawn

in

as

possible,

when they

the circles repre-

cabinet projection, as

senting the faces of the cylinder


circles

and the dra\/ing of

Example

all cylin-

are to be

ellipses

may be drawn by
is

avoided.

Describe the circle forming the base

II.

ABDG,
AD,

Fig. 22^,

and draw

BG

and

line ehi

and

ihe diagonals

cutting the circle at the points hefg.

Through the points

and h draw the

be one end of the prism from the points a and


draw the lines ah and fg, each equal and parallel to
be then -draw the line gh equal and parallel to af.
;

The

figure afgh thus obtained

to the

square shown

length of which

draw

this

prism

in

Fig.

224 and the

Lay out

eb, set off

be the distance bi

line

Ai in Fig. 224 and


on the same line be, Fig. 225, point off the distance
2c from the point c and equal to bi.
equal to one-half of the distance

Through
will

the points

and

draw

intersect the diagonals eb

vertical lines

and cd

the

points of intersection thus obtained together with


points

4,

are

5,

found

and 6

it

define

cylinder,

curve which

in

cabinet projection as

shown

one face of the cylinder as

the axes ab, bd and be


of the prism, that

length of the required cylinder;

AB

from b on the

equal to that of the

in

the cylinder within

will

represent

is

the

position

the
it

how

evident

circle

appears

in

of

these

the

forming
cabinet

projection.

to the length

AG,

of

is

Fig. 225.

the other end of

In order to do this draw the diagonals dc

bdec.

and

lay out one face

the points

equal

is

the prism.

within a rectangular prism, each end of which

is

d and e by

which

vertical line ce equal

parallel to bd, then join the points

through the points fg the \\n^ fg2 ; the distance Ai


be equal to the distance B2.
Now, assuming that the cylinder is contained

will

draw a

a straicfht line thus forming- the figure bdec, which

Now,

of the required cylinder. Fig. 22^, within the square

Fig. 224,

and be equal

In Fig. 224.

to

is,

make ab equal
equal to the

make bd equal

to

}4 of the distance

The

is to be drawn in a similar
end of the cylinder. Two
horizontal lines, each tangent to
both these
curves, will complete the cabinet projection of

curve within afgh

manner

the

for the other

cylinder.


ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,
Example

III.

From

the

drawing

in this figure

226, it is evident that the construction in this case

exactly the same as in case

From

125

is

2.

the above problems

will

it

\ :---^,<"

be seen that

^=::^^^ ==^ \

^^

\
Fig.

226.

PiG.

objects with circular forms which are to be


in

cabinet projection should be

with

all

or most of

its

drawn

placed preferably

circles as in the cylinder rep-

resented in

Example

previously stated,

all

23T.

in this position, as

circles

in

already

the object will be

represented by their actual sizes in the cabinet pro-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN

126

and

in this

cult curves

may be

jection

manner the construction

of

diffi-

avoided.

Isometric projection does not offer this advan-

tage as
will

in that

method,

appear as ellipses

all circles,
;

without exception,

consequently, cabinet pro-

jection has a distinct advantage,

oftener employed

when a drawing

and

therefore

is

of an object in

false perspective is required.

As an

illustration of the principles explained in

the preceding pages the cabinet projection of the


pattern for a crank,
in Fig. 215, will

At

a glance

it

shown

be given
will

in

be seen that the cabinet pro-

jection of this object can be

time than

its

isometric projection

in Fig. 227.

drawn

isometric projection.

in
It

is,

necessary to bear in mind, that, whereas

urements

in

much

less

however,
all

meas-

isometric projection are equal to the

actual sizes of the object, those in cabinet projection which are parallel to the 45 axis are

equal to y^ of their actual


Figs. 228, 229, 230, 231,

drawn

size.

and 232 represent addidrawn in cabinet pro-

tional illustrations of objects


jection.

Note. The thorough knowledge of cabinet and isometric projections will be of great advantage, both to the student and the mechanic,
as they will thereby be enabled to represent different objects in drawing
in such a manner as to be easily understood by persons who would not
understand a mechanical drawing executed in another, though perhaps
a more generally approved manner.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fia.

187

229.

Fui.

Fig. 230

Fig.

231.

232.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

128

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION.

dently,

Isometric drawing and cabinet projection, while

showing the object as

really appears to the eye

it

of the observer, are neither of

them very convenient

employ where it is necessary to measure


every part of the drawing for the purpose of repromethods
ducing

it

to

placed so that the rays of light from the

is

object will pass through the glass in straight lines,

The

to the eye of the observer.


object,

and

by

its

in this

outline,

manner

front side of the

may be

a figure

traced upon the glass,


drawn on it (in this case

in the shop.

All shop drawings, or working drawings as they

made by

are usually termed, are

as orthographic projection

method known

in isometric or

one view, while

in a

drawing made

in

projection, but one side of the object

cabinet

shown

projections, three sides of the object are

in

orthographic
is

shown

in a

single view.

To

illustrate this, a clear

pane

of glass

may be

placed in front of the object intended to be represented.


is shown on a table
in front
one face (the front face) of the

In Fig. 233 a cube


of

it,

parallel

to

cube, the pane of glass

placed.

is

Now, when the observer looks

Fig.

2:.

directly at the

front of an object from a considerable distance, he


will

see only one side, in this case only the front

from the

side of the cube.

The

upon the cube are rethe observer, and in this

rays of light falling

flected into the eyes of

manner he

a square) which

sees the cube.

The pane

of glass, evi-

front.

is

the view of the object as seen

This view

is

tion.

front

eleva-

One
real

called the

view, however,

form of a solid

is

not sufficient to show the

figure.

In a single view

two

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


dimensions only can be shown, length and height
hence the thickness of an object will have to be
shown by still another view of it, as the top view.

Now,

pane in a horizontal position


above the cube which is resting on the table, Fig.
place

the

129

cube, as seen from above.


is

This square on the glass

the top view of the cube, or


In Fig. 235

is

its

"//aw."

shown the manner

in

which a side

view of the cube may be traced the glass is placed


on the side of the cube, which rests on the table as
;

before,

and the outline

of the cube

on the glass

in

this position, is called its ''side elevation.''

Usually either two of the above mentioned views


will suffice to show all dimensions and forms of the
object.
In complicated pieces of machinery, however,

more

views, three

and even more may be

re-

quired to adequately represent the proportions and

form of the different

parts.

drawing which represents the object as seen


by an observer looking at it from the right side is
called the right side elevation and a drawing showing the object as
at

it

from the

it

appears to the observer looking

left side

is

called the left side eleva-

tion.

Fig.

234,

and looking

at

it

ast.

from above, directly over

the top face of the cube, trace

pane
glass,

its

as a result, a square figure

upon the
drawn upon the

outline

is

which corresponds to the appearance of the

view of the object as seen from the rear is


called the rear view or rear elevation, and a view
from the bottom, the bottom view.
The different views of an object are always arranged on the drawing in a certain fixed and generally adopted manner, thus
The front view is placed in the center the right
side view is placed to the right of the front view,
;

ROGERS' DRAWING

130

AND

DESIGN.

and the left side view to the left the top view is
placed above the front view and the bottom view
below it. The different views are placed directly
opposite each other and are joined by dotted lines

may be

called projection

top view.

lities.

transmitted from the front view to either


one of the side views in like manner the length of
different parts of the object may be transmitted by
the aid of projection lines, to the bottom view and
;

It

often desirable to

is

show

lines

belonging to

an object, although they

may

In Fig. 236 the top view

and the bottom view show

plainly that the

object

is

not be directly visible.

hollow

looking at the

object from the front or from the sides, however,

the observer could not see the inside edges of the

except

object,

were made of some transparent

it

material.

For mechanical drawing, we may assume that all


objects are made of such material, transparent
enough to show all hidden lines, no matter from
It is the genwhich side the object is observed.
eral practice to draw the hidden edges by lines
made of dashes dash lines as in Fig. 236.

In the following articles the student will find a


Fig.

number

23.1.

of exercises

on the application of ortho-

graphic projection.

By

the aid of projection lines, leading from one

Note.

Mechanical

drawing

is

used mainly to represent

solids,

view to the other, measurements of one kind may


be transmitted from one view to the other
for in-

solids are

stance, the height of different

surfaces, according to the principles of orthographic projection.

parts

of

an object

but

bounded by surfaces -whicb in turn are bounded by lines


which by themselves are limited by points ; views of a solid can therefore be found hy drawing the views of its limiting points, lines and

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Tof3 Vi

Lefl 'SideVitu/

ew

Front View

JBoitom View
Fig.

131

236.

HigJii Side

Vteu


133

Draw

ROGERS' DRAWING
the front view, left side view

and

top view

of the rectangtilar prism showji in .Fig. sjj.


Fig. 238 shows the drawing of the prism in the
three required views the lines showing the dimensions are made by long dashes drawn very thin.
;

AND

DESIGN.

open near the middle, where the figure denoting


the measurement is placed.
These figures should
be written very plainly and placed so as to read
along the dimension line for horizontal lines from
;

/v

<

1,

y"

FlO.

outside of a view, short auxiliary dotted lines are


employed to join the part of the object to which the
refers.

237.

It is important to remember that dimension lines


must be drawn parallel to the distances, the size of
which they are intended to show. The dimension
lines terminate in arrow heads drawn with an ordinary writing pen.
If a dimension line is carried

dimension line

The dimension

line

is

left

i^G.

S38.

bottom of the drawing, and for vertical lines


from the right hand side of the drawing.
The inch is marked " the foot
for example
i
foot, 3 inches is represented by i' 3".
More information concerning dimensions will be found in the
chapter treating on working drawings.
the

'

ROGERS' DRAWING

Draw

a front view, top view and right side view


of the wedge showji in Fig. 2^0.

Draw

the front view

first.

Lay

off

a straight

on which mark two points 3" apart through


the point on the right erect a perpendicular, which
make one inch long two sides of the right-angled
line,

AND

DESIGN.

triangle forming the

133

front view of the

239.

are

Join the two ends of these sides by a straight line


and the front view is complete. The student will
draw the side view and the top view in corresponding positions to the right side and above the front
view, as in Fig. 239.

Fig.

Fig.

wedge

thus found.

240.

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

134

Draw

a front view, both side views and top view

will

shown in Fig. 2^1.


shows the required views of the object.
The edge ab which is visible in the right side view

of the

DESIGN.

not

make

object

Whenever

Fig. 242

is

more

is

so complicated that any

would only tend

to obstruct a clear
conception of the object, it is advisable to carry the
dimension lines outside of the view.

Fia.

hidden in the left side view and therefore


represented by the dash line cd.

the view

additional lines

Dimension

is

the understanding of the view

difficult.

lines

must necessarily be of

three

241.

kinds:

i,

parallel to the lengths of

the different

lines within the views,

width of these
2,
The dimension
parts, and 3, parallel to the height.
the
line
parallel
to
or edge whose
must
always
be
line

complicated nature,

length

It

may

often be possible to put in the dimension

when the object is not of a


and when the dimension lines

parts of the object

it

represents.

parallel to the

ROGERS' DRAWING

ANQ

DESIGN.

135

; V

--...^

a
>

P--

--^

Jf-

t
\

Fig.

243.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

136

Draw a front view, side view and top view of the


model shown in Fig. 24J. As the object to be
drawn has the same appearance from either right or
left side, it does not matter which side view is to be

Draw

two elevations {a front view and a side


long
top view of a hexagonal prism
and 2y2" between any tivo parallel sides.
view^

and a

drawn.

X""
V.

Fig.
Fig.

The construction of the views is so obvious that


no explanation need be offered with the drawing
shown in Fig. 244. It will be noticed that this
figure,

as well as

shown with

all

others in this chapter,

are

lines representing the sides of the dif-

ferent parts of the object.

;244.

243.

It is evident that a hexagonal prism has six faces


and of these three are parallel to the remaining
three faces. The distance between any two parallel

the same in this case it is equal


the top view of the prism first
draw
us

faces or sides
to 23^
of

all.

";

let

is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Draw two

lines,

AB

horizontal and

each other at the point O.


intersection, O, of these

view which

is

Make

CD

in

CO

the line

a and

OD

equal to

is

the

very extensive.

and each equal

to 1%", so that the

equal to 2j4", the distance between the parallel sides of the

is

then through the point


the lines

intended, as in this case, that the

should coincide with the center of the

projection drawing

Through C and

prism.

is

it

lines

vertical, Fig. 245, intersecting

to be drawn, then these lines are called center lines

use of center lines


line

If

two

CD

137

eCd and aDb

D
O

draw the lines eCd and aDb parallel to AB


draw two 60-degree lines eb and ad, cutting
;

at the points

e, b,

d.

Through

these

points

draw the

re-

maining sides of the hexagon, parallel to


The hexagon,
the lines eb and ad.
aAedBb shows the top view of the prism.

To draw
lows

the front view proceed as

fol-

Through

Aab and B draw


AE, aH, bj and BF.
horizontal line NGP, make

the points

the vertical lines

Draw

PF

the

equal to

5",

the height of the prism

and through the point


zontal line

FPG

is

KEF

F draw

the hori-

then the figure,

EHJ

the front view of the prism.

be noticed that the front view


shows three faces of the prism HEGS,
and
HSRJ and JRPF, the faces
It will

HEGS

Fig.

245.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

138

JRPF

appear narrower than the face HSRJ, the latter being situated
right in front of the observer and parallel to the plane of the paper is
seen in its true size, while the other two faces seen in the front view
being

in

an inclined position relative to the front face appear narrower

than their true width.

The
tance

side view

KM

is

KNTLM

equal to

marked by the letter


parts, KL and LM.

shows only two faces of the prism. The disthe edge LT corresponding to the edge
the top view, cuts the line
into two equal

CD,
in

KM

To draw the top view, front view and side view of


pyramid 5" high, each side of the hexagonal base being equal to i%".
The top view of
the pyramid must be drawn first.
a hexagonal

The top
246 shows the required views.
view appears as a regular hexagon, in which all
Fig.

diagonals are drawn by lines as heavy as the sides,


as these diagonals

the pyramid.

The

show the edges

of the faces of

center of the hexagon where

the diagonals meet represents the vertex

of

all

the

pyramid.

The

front view and the side view are

drawn

in

the manner explained in the construction of these


views of the hexagonal prism, the edges of the faces
in this case all meeting in the vertex which is
placed 5" above the middle of the line representing
the base.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To draw a top view ajid a front view of an octagLet each side of the octagonal bases
be equal to one inch and let the height of the prism
onal prism.

be

Draw
side of

a,

To complete the front view, intersect these lines by


two horizontal lines 8" apart. The side view of this
figure

is

identical with the front view.

8".

the top view

The

quired views.

is

139

which

is

first.

Fig. 247

top view

is

equal to one inch.

shows the

re-

an octagon, each

The

front view

drawn by projecting vertical lines from the points


b, c, and d of the octagon.
These vertical lines

form the

vertical

edges of the faces of the prism.

Fig. 248 shows three views of a sphere, each of


which appears as a circle.
The lines, AB, CD, EF and GH are center lines.
They are composed of long and short dashes, alternating, and are usually extended indefinitely beyond
the outlines of the views.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

140

Center lines are drawn through the middle of the


view in all cases where such a line will divide the
view into two perfectly equal parts so that one part
will have all its details situated opposite the corresponding details of the other part, so that if the
paper on which the view is drawn is folded along
the center

line, all

cover exactly

all

continued from one view to the other show

lines

that the views belong together, just as projection


lines

would indicate the same.

parts in one half of the view will

corresponding parts

in

the other

half of the view.

We

say then that the view (or object)

is symwith
regard
to
the
center
metrical
line.
In Fig. 245
the top view and the front view are symmetrical

with respect to the center line

CD.

The top view, however, may be folded along the


line AB, and in this case the lines of the hexagon
on one side of the line

AB

lines in the other half of the

that the

hexagon

center line
In

all

spect

to

AB

cases

two

is

will exactly

hexagon

symmetrical

in

we

cover the
see then,

regard to the

also.

where a view
lines,

is

symmetrical

in

re-

both of these lines must be

Wherever the view is symmetrical to one


only, not more than one center line must be

Pig.

248.

drawn.
line

drawn

in Fig. 248 all views are symmetrical to


both horizontal and vertical center lines
center
;

A
line,

line

center line should never be used as a dimension

but such lines may be


on both sides of it.

laid off

from the center

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

141

In Fig. 2^g is shown the top view (or plan) and


front view {or elevation) of a cylinder, j" high and
i%" in diameter. The top view is a circle ij^" in
diameter, the front view a rectangle 3" by i^". All
side views of the cylinder are the same.

As

in all figures

lar shape,

standing on a base of an irregu-

the top should be drawn in this case be-

fore the front.


The width of the front view is
determined by projection lines from the top view
observe that the top view has two center lines, a
horizontal and vertical one
the front view has
only one line of symmetry, the vertical.
;

Draw

the front view and side view of a cylindrical


8"
pipe
long^ outside diameter f, inside diameter j" ;

250 the required views are shown.


The two dash lines in the front view show the
inside walls of the pipe, which are represented in
the top view by the smaller circle.
in Fig.

may also represent two views of a pipe


which a cylinder has been inserted. We have
here an interestinof illustration of a case where two
views of an object, a front view and a top view, do
Fig. 250

into

not define sufficiently the true character of the


object represented.

similar difificulty

with most hollow objects,


Fro.

249.

and

some method must be devised

it

to

is

may

arise

evident that

overcome any

Fig.

230.

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.

142

such misunderstanding as to the true nature of the


object represented.

This

may be done by

of the pipe as

if it

representing the front view

were cut

Fio.

shown

in Fig. 251

in half is

shown

a whole pipe.

2r,i.

a front view of such a pipe cut

in Fig.

The

in half like the cylinder

252

line

the top view

1-2 shows the

is

that of

manner

in

which the cylinder is supposed to be cut, and is


called the line or plane of section.
The front view in Fig. 252 we call the section
view or section on 1-2.
The line of section should
be mads up of dashes alternating with two dots.

cSection on /-%.
Fio.

252.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The

143

inner part of the material of the

posed by cutting,

is

pipe ex-

covered by lines about xVth


I

inch apart and inclined 45 degrees. Fig. 253 shows


the same pipe with only a portion of its upper half
cut

away;

in Fig.

255

is

of the pipe.

Fig.

Fig. au.

2.56.

shown

this partial section

ROGERS' DRAWING

144
In Fig. 254

the pipe, and

is

in

shown

still

another way of cutting

AND

DESIGN,

Draw

two views of a cylindrical ring.

Fig. 256 appears the corresponding

front view, with a similar partial section.

Within

pipe

the

de-

the preceding

scribed in

problem {8" long, ^" outside


and j" inside diameter^ is
placed another pipe 8"
long, j" outside diameter

and 2"

inside diameter.

Draw

the top view and

section

of

pipes.

The

these

top

two
view

shows three cir3"


and 2" in diamcles, 4',
eter the section on the
line AB shows one-half
of one pipe within the half
(Fig. 257)

of the other pipe.

section

lines

pipe run

the other

in

Fig.

257.

from

direction
;

this

The

the one

in

different

those
is

in

done

in

order to show more

dis-

tinctly that there are

two

separate pipes.

Fig.

Fig. 258 shows the plan

258.

and section of such a

ring.

The drawing does not require any special explanation.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Draw two views of the cylinder

with square Jlange

shown in Fig. 2^g.


Let the side of the cylinder be lo" long (entire
outside diameter 4", inside diameter 3",
and the flange 6" by 6" and ^'2" thick.
The flange has four bolt holes, each i/^" in diamleno-th)

eter.

The
in Fig,

top view and section of this figure are shown


60.

Fig.

259.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

146

Fig.

261 shows the top view and two sections of a

bed plate.

a section parallel to the short side of the bed

view,

is

plate

and

is

called a cross section or a lateral section.

^22\

Y^zz

Jiongitudina? <Seci'ion on JiS.


V/VXA/^//-.

Fio.

The
of the

longer section which shows the appearance

bed plate when cut

longest side of

The

it,

is

in a

plane parallel to the

called the longitudinal section.

other section, placed to the right side of the top

2(il.

In Fig. 262 is shown a top and front view, and


lateral section of a hexagonal nut.
The figure shows an arrangement of views which
is frequently adopted in order to economize space.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Fig.

261

is

an illustration of the same principle.

In that figure the advantage of this

ranofement

is

even more striking

considerable, as

dent
line

that,

if

compared

method

of ar-

the breadth beine

to the height,

it

is

evi-

the lateral section had been placed

147

the plane of the paper, or

it

may even

be desirable

to place the object in such a position purposely.

Drawings made in
more difficulties

offer

this

to

manner,

will

as a rule,

the draughtsman, as most

in

with the longitudinal section, the three would

have occupied more space than with the arrangement shown.


which we derive the
different views of an object, we have placed it in
Figs. 233, 234, 235 on a table, and in front of the
object (a cube in this case) we hold a pane of glass
and in all the illustrations, we have placed the pane
of glass parallel to one of the faces of the cube.
In explaining the

way

in

In the exercises in projection so far taken up, we


have placed the object in a similar position that is,
one of the faces of the object was supposed to be
parallel to the table or paper on which the drawing
was to be made, the sides of the object were either
;

horizontal or vertical and the center lines were also


either horizontal or vertical

it

is

always desirable

to select such a position for the object which


be drawn.

is

to

Small parts of machinery, shown in detail drawings, are nearly always drawn in this manner.
It
may happen, however that some parts of a machine
will

appear with their sides

at different angles to

Fig.

:X2.

views will appear more complicated when the object is placed in

ing exercises will

now

an inclined position.

The

show the objects drawn

placed at different angles.

followbefore,

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

148

Draw
do

this,

the top view

(plan)

first

to

ABCD 4"
the line CD

draw the rectangle

long and i wide, so that


forms an angle of 30 degrees with a
horizontal

line, Fig. 263.

To draw

the front view, draw the

EH and KN 2" apart


from the points ABCD in the top view
draw vertical lines cutting the lines EH
and KN at the points E, K, F,and L,
G and M and H and N.
horizontal lines,

The

figure

KEFGHNML

the

is

FL

being the vertical edge of the prism


nearest to the observer, designated in the plan by C,
and the most distant (hidden) edge, corresponding
front view,

to the point

in the plan is

MG

shown

in

dash

lines.

The

side view

is

placed opposite to the top view


the construction of it

in this case, as in this position


is
Fig.

263.

Drazc a front view, top view and right side view


of a prism ^"x ^"x /" standiiig with its face ^"x /" on
a horizontal plane, and the long vertical side of the
prism forming an angle of jo degrees with the lower
edge of the

drawing

board.

much

easier.

The, vertical edges

of the prism will

appear hori-

zontal in this position of the side view.

They

are

drawn from the points ABCD in the top view


and the edges TRO and PSU, being the lower
and the upper faces of the prism, are two inches
apart.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Draw

a front view, side view

and

top view

Draw

of the

first
it is a rectangle 4". long
long side of which forms an angle
of 45 degrees with a horizontal line.
The figure shows plainly how the top view may
be constructed by projecting vertical lines
from the front view. In the same manner

prism described in the last exercise, placed so that the


face forming the base of the prism, f'si. i" is inclined
45 degrees to the paper and the front face, fx 2" remains vertical to
the paper and parallel to

the front view

149

and

'

the lower

2" wide, the

the side view

may be drawn, when

edge of the drazv-

placed opposite the front view, as

ing board.

264.

Fig.

264.

Fig.

264.

it

is

in Fig.

150

riOGERS'

DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Draw

the wedge

shown

in Fig. 26, placed so that

the sides of the square corner

of it form angles of 4^

degrees with the plane of the paper, with both triangular faces vertical to the paper and parallel to

drawing board.
showing the triangular face is
drawn first. The two sides of the triangle, which
form the right angle (the legs) are drawn at- 45
degree angles to a horizontal line.
The construction of the top view and side view is
plainly shown in Fig. 265 and requires no special
explanation, as they are drawn in the same manner
described in the drawing of the top and side views
in the two preceding exercises.

the lower edge of the

The

-\

^-^^

W \j/
FiQ.

L__

265.

front view

ROGERS' DRAWING
The

object

shown

Fig. 266

in

is

placed with

its

base upon a horizontal plane (the plane of our drawing) while the two vertical faces visible to the observ-

and

er,

are placed respectively at angles of 30 degrees

t>o

degrees to the lower edge of the drawing board.

Let

it be

required

to

view of tliis object.


Draw the top view

draw

and

the front view

top

first.

this, draw the rectangle A BCD, AD parand equal to BC, 4" long, and DC equal and
parallel to AB, 2" long
AD is inclined 30 and

To do

allel

DC

60 to a horizontal line. Fig. 266.

To draw

the front view, draw the horizontal line

FM, and through


vertical

F,

H,

On

meeting the
and M.

lines

the side

AF

EG

cutting the line

On

the line

MC

BH

NL,

FM

at

the points

FE

equal to

draw the horizontal

line

at G.

set off the distance

and through the point

line

line

C and D draw

set off the distance

through the point

3";

2"

the points A, B,

MN

equal to

draw the horizontal

cutting the vertical line

DK

at L, join the

G and N. This completes the


view; EF and
are the two
longer vertical edges of the object,
being
hidden.
LK and
are the two shorter vertical
edges of the object, both visible.
points

required

and

L,

GH

front

GH

MN

AND DESIGN

152

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


In Fig. 267

is

shown the

front

view, top view and side view of

the object just drawn.


In this instance the object

placed with

longer vertical

its

edge nearer to
otherwise
object

is

described

the observer

the position
exactly the
in

is

the

of

same

as

the preceding exer-

cise.

_/

The

side view

manner

is

drawn

in

similar to the front view,

by lines projected from

alt

points

(corners) of the top view.

No

doubt the student has noticed that

in

drawing an

object placed at an angle to the lower edge of the drawing

board, but having two faces parallel to the plane of the


paper,

we draw

the top view

first

which being parallel to the board,


outline, with all lines
tion.

drawn

that

will

is,

the view of

appear

it,

in its simplest

in their true length

and

posi-

ROGERS' DRAW1NC3 AND DESIGN.

153

To draiu the front view and

top vieiu

of a hexagonal prism, standing upon a horizontal plane and


having two of its parallel vertical sides, parallel to
the lower edge of the drawing.

Let each side of the hexagon forming the bases


of the prism be equal to one inch and the height of
the prism be 4"; the top view is drawn first it is a
regular hexagon, length of each side being i", Fig.
;

268.

The

drawn by projecting lines from


the corners of the hexagon shown in the top view,
these lines making the vertical edges of the prism,
and then intersecting these lines by two horizontal
lines 4" apart, thus forming the top and the bottom
front view

is

of the prism.

be drawn, placed so that it is


inclined to the plane of the paper, but having its
front face parallel to the lower edge of the drawing
If

an object

is

to

board, the front view

As

is

drawn

first.

be observed that that view is


draivn first, which is drawn easiest, and especially
the view which shows the object in its true form
the other views are drawn by projection from the
different points of the view completed.
a rule

it

will

Fig.

288.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Let

it

be 7^equired to dratv the

and front view of the


same prism as in the same exertop view

but placed so that tivo of its


parallel vertical sides are paralcise,

lel to

the lower edge of the draw-

ing board and tlie base inclined

to

the plane of the paper at an angle

of 30".

Draw the front view agd top


view of the prism, Fig. 269,
showing the prism standing in a
vertical position

front view and

WVZY
TORSU

is
is

this

the

corresponding top view.

To draw

the front view of this

hexagonal prism with its base


inclined at an angle of 30 degrees, draw a line AF making
an angle of 30 degrees with a
horizontal

Upon

line.

this line erect the rect-

angle which

is

exactly equal to

the front view of the

hexagon
shown

in its vertical position, as


in the

same

figure

by

WVZY.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To draw

155

the top view, extend the

horizontal lines of the top view RS,

TU
E;

then draw vertical


through the points B, C, D and

indefinitely

lines

tliese lines intersect

tal lines

RSK

OGNP

center line

LGJINM

and

the horizon-

TULO
in

the

and the
points,

forming the upper face

of

the prism in the required top view.

To

complete the top view draw


through H and F cutting the line JK at the point K, the
line GP at the point P and the line
vertical lines

LO

at the point

O.

To draw a hexagonal pyramid,


having the sizes of the hexagonal
prism in the preceding exercise, and
placed in the same position.

The

construction

exactly the
cise

Fig.

drawing.

same

in

this

case

is

as in the last exer-

270 shows the required


Fig.

270.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

156
S

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To draiv the fop

z>ic-a' and fro)it vieio of a cylinder


axis makes an angle of 60 zvit/i a horizontal
line and u</iic/i lies in a vertical plane parallel to t/ic

and

loiver edge

through the points

7^'/iose

of the board.

In Fig. 271

ABCD

is

top view of the cylinder,

the front view and

when

its

axis

is

EF

the

The

Ik

the line 3'h at 60 to the horizontal and let


this be the center line of the cylinder in the required inclined position, corresponding to the
center line in the front view of this cylinder in

lines passing

through the points d


center line of the top view

c cut the horizontal

the points

in

vertical.

Draw

vertical

157

in

and

the points

i",

The

k.

i',

2',

cut the center line

2", 3", etc.

Through the points E and F draw two horizontal lines

cutting the line 3"3'

Through

the points

IVI

in

and

the points e and

draw two

zontal lines intersecting the line

i"i' at

vertical position.

u and

at

Make abed equal to ABCD for


front view. The top view is drawn in

and

the

its

required

the followino-

manner divide the horizontal diameter KL into


any number of equal parts, say six. Through the
points of division, i, 2, 3, 4 and 5 draw vertical
lines MN, OP, EF, RS and UT.
:

Divide the line dc into the same number of equal

marked by the division points i',


and draw vertical lines through all these
well as through the points c and d.
parts,

2',

3',

drawn

vertical lines

etc.,

3',

and cutting the

line

"5'

hori-

the points

the points

n.

Through the

points

O and

P draw two horizontal

lines cutting the vertical lines 2"2'

points

s,

r,

o and

and \

/(

at the

p.

A
k,

f.

curve traced through the points


u, s, e, p, n,
m, o, f, r, t will be the required projection of the
I.

upper base of the cylinder.

etc.,

points, as

The lower
the

base

same manner.

may be

constructed

in

exactly

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

158

^\

^^.^<7

/\

/
//

""v
X

\
/

\
".

v.

-X

i.X.^>.-.-.
V

>

^T

^.

''

_^^ -^-

s2l

^v

/\
/

^-J<-^

>

"

:::/
^

/^

7<
f-x\ --M^---v-Y-v
y^
\ ^
\

^\^

^^

*^^
1

\.

\
T^~"\"
1

**^\"

made by an

^-x

V-

V\

^'^<

^-''
\

'

'^'
'

y
'^

\\

section of a cylinder

--'

^^"\-''''

^.

>?

"-

^'^N
X

^\

!5c

To draiv the
dined filane.

^v'^

^^^

y'

^/K^
'yTy^'^

\^^_j__,><x
"^

Fig.

273.

Jb

tn-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The
Fig.

2"]

front view of such

2 by abc6', where the line

clination of

Above

c6'

is

makes the

the plane which

the front view

shown in
shows the in-

a cylinder

section.

shown the top view

is

Lay

To draiv the form of the section, divide the hoi'izontal diameter d6 into any number of equal parts.
In Fig. 272 this diameter is divided into 6 equal
parts.

Through each one


draw vertical

at the points

and n

and

of the division points thus ob-

which intersect the circle


g and h, i and j, k and 1, m

lines,
e,

the same vertical lines will cut the inclined

line c6' at the points

i',

2',

3',

etc.,

which points

will

divide the line c6' into six equal parts.

Through

the points

c,

perpendicular to the line

i',

2',

c6';

4', 5', 6' draw lines


any convenient dis-

3',

at

tance from this line draw the line 6"A parallel to

and

this line will

the points

i",

six equal parts

Bi" equal to i"C each equal to if;


the same distances set off from the point 5", making
KL equal to BC.
set off

of the

cylinder as the circle dgmne.

tained,

Now

159

it,

be cut by the perpendiculars at


thus being divided into

2", 3", 4", 5",

the same as the parts of the line

c6".

2"E equal to 2"D and each equal to 2g,


and the same distances set off from the point 4",
making JH equal to ED then make 3"G equal to
3"F and each equal to 3i so that ii is equal to FG.
This line FG is the minor axis and the line A6" is
the major axis of an ellipse, which may be traced
through the points ACEGJL6"KHFD and B and
which forms the required section.
off

be noticed that the section of a cylinder


made by a plane which does not intersect any of the
bases of the cylinder, and which is not parallel to
the bases (that is, perpendicular to the center line),
is

It

will

an

ellipse ;

when

the cutting plane

the bases the section produced

the bases

when

the cylinder.

parallel to

circle, just like

the cutting plane passes through

is a rectangle, two oppowhich are equal each to the height of

the center line the section


site sides of

is

is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

160

An ellipse may be produced also by cutting a


cone by a plane which does not intersect the base
of the cone, as in Fig. 273, where the line ab indicates the cutting plane.

Fig.

273.

When

the cutting plane, ab, Fig. 274, is parallel


to the line cd, then the figure produced in section
is

a curve

shown

known

as the parabola.

in Fig. 275.

Such a curve

is
Fia.

275.

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND
Any

DESIGN.

161

point, P, of the parabola

from the

line

DD

its

is

plane.

plane intersects the base of the

produced

in

a section

is

called

In Fig. 276 ab indicates the cutting

hyperbola

is

shown

Fia.

The

F, so that

not parallel to any one of the lines on

surface, the curve

a hyperbola.

equally distant

and from the focus

FP is equal to PA.
When the cutting
cone and

is

in Fig. 277.

2T7.

distance between the distance PF' of any

point in the hyperbola from one of the

foci,

and the

distance, PF, the distance of this point to the other

must always be equal to a given line.


In the chapter on geometrical drawing several
methods have been explained in which an ellipse
may be drawn the way to draw a hyperbola has
Of these curves the ellipse is
also been shown.

focus,

ofttimes encountered in mechanical drawing.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,

163

ABCDEFGHIH'G
Fig.

Figs. 279
278.

and

280.

F'

E'

D'

B'

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES.
The

principles of projection just explained

Now,

may

be readily applied to the very important problem


of development of surfaces.

to

163

draw the development

ceed as follows

of a cylinder, pro-

Divide the circumference of the cylinder into any


of equal parts, and through the points of

number

draw

Whenever it is necessary to make an object of


some thin material like sheet metal, as in the case

division

of boiler connections, etc., the surface of the desired

On these parallel lines mark the points which belong to the curve of intersection with another cylinder, or any other figure as happens to be the case,
and then roll out the surface of the cylinder into a

object
pieces

is

laid out

on sheet metal,

in

one or

in several

these are called the patterns of the object

the pattern being

first

and then cut out

when

laid

out on the sheet metal

this

is

done the separate

lines parallel to the center line of the

cylinder.

flat

plate.

The

rolled-out surface will be equal in

pieces are ready to be fitted together to form the

length to the circumference of the cylinder, and

required object.

will contain all parallel lines,

The method by which


laid

out on a plane

object.

the surface of an object

is

called the development of the


few exercises will sufficiently acquaint the
is

student with the methods used in problems of this


character.

To draw the development of a right

elboiv,

Fig.

^78.

A right elbow is made by joining two pieces of


pipe for the purpose of forming a right angle.
It
an

of two cylinders of equal diameters ; the center lines of the two cylinders meeting at one point, and as the joint is to be a right
elbow, the center lines must be perpendicular to
is reall)-

each other.

intersection

it

which were drawn upon


the cylinder, with spaces between them just equal
to the actual space between the parallel lines which
were drawn upon the surface of the cylinder.
By marking the points of intersection on the parallel lines in the rolled surface, the development of
the cylinder or

In Fig. 278
is obtained.
circumference
of
the pipe is
the circle showing the
its

part

divided into any number of equal parts by the


sions

I,

2,

3, etc.

divi-

Lines are drawn through these

divisions parallel to the center line of the vertical

These

portion of the joint.

lines are ak, bl, cm,

dn, etc.

The
allel

points k,

lines

1,

m,

n,

o are the points on the par-

designating the curve

of

intersection.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

164

The development

two branches of the right


Figs. 279 and 280; the length

elbow are shown in


of the development,

VW

all

AA')

(or

circumference of the figure


obtain this length

shown

spaces,

i,

is

equal to the

2, 3, 4, etc.,

circle in Fig.

278 are set

points

laid

The

out

off

through the points A, B, C, etc. The perpendicular


and K'A' in Fig. 280 are each equal to ak in
The second lines on each side of the
Fig. 278.
development, the lines BL and B'L' are equal to bl,

AK

required

curve

the development

is

traced

AA'K'K

the part aksi of the right elbow

To

in Fig. 278.

upon a straight
line
these spaces are marked in Fig. 2S0 by A, B,
C, etc., perpendiculars AK, BL, CM, etc., are drawn
upon the

The

of the

279.

other part of the elbow

It will

is

through these
the pattern for

shown
is

in

Fig. 278.

developed

be readily seen that the figure

in Fig.

TVWU

laid out in the manner in which the first development was obtained in this figure the shortest paris

above the longest parallels in the


first development.
This arrangement gives the advantage of cutting out both branches of the right
elbow from one square piece of sheet metal wij;hout
any waste of material.
allels are laid off

Fig. 278.

The

the lines

CM

CM'

and

are equal to the third line

cm, Fig. 278.

The

fourth

lines in

the development are

made

equal to the fourth parallel in the elevation. Fig.

and in the same manner all other lines in the


development are made equal to the corresponding
278,

parallels in the elevation of the pipe in Fig. 278.

The middle
equal
the

SI

line,

to the line

KLMSM'L'K',
of

be noticed that the patterns shown in Figs.


279 and 280 do not provide for the lap by which
the two branches are held together.
A lap of any
desired width may be added to the pattern, after it
is constructed by drawing" an additional curve, parallel to the curve of the above pattern, the distance
between the two curves being equal to the width of
It will

third lines on each side of the development,

si

etc.,

in

in the

the elevation

is

made

the points

thus found, define the position

curve of intersection

of the cylinder.

development

in

the

development

the desired lap.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


To draw the pattern of a
branches are of cqtial diameter.

of

The

which all

is

two cylinders of equal diameters; the section

tal lines

view

of

Fid.

the cylinders

is

represented

in

the front view by

two 45-degree lines, ad and dg.


To develop the pipes divide the circle in the end
view, Fig. 282, into any number of equal parts, in
this case let it be twelve parts.

greater the

number

more accurate will be the


Through the divisions

shown the front view and the side


It is made by the intersection
a tee-pipe.

In Fie. 281

view of

tee-pipe in

165

in

of these divisions the

resultant pattern.
i,

2, 3, etc.,

draw horizon-

cutting the horizontal cylinder in the side

the points

i"i', 2"2',

^i'

t>\

4',

5"5', 6"6', 7"/'

2H1.

the line 4"4' just meets the lines of the section in


The line 5"5' cuts the lines of the
the point d.
section in the points e and
section lines in the points

c,

the line 6"6' cuts the

and b and the

cuts the lines of the section in the points

line

g and

""7'
a.

ROGERS' DRAWING

166

Draw
e,

all

vertical lines

through the points

After

these lines are drawn

and

g.

that

is

all

AND

DESIGN.

the opening, into which the vertical cylinder will

a, b, c, d,

we have

fit.

The

necessary to complete the development

rectangle

ABCD

has one side

2-

3"

6^

N.

!J

;k

1;

cylinder

inder surface.

The

C-

m|

ABCD is
curve ODGL

the rectangle for the joint which

equal to the
is

is

-H
9/

/\

\6
^"^
trr^J.

1
!

shows the development of the horizontal

the rectangle

ia\

Fig.

Fig. 283

^---.^^

-\^

>; g

the

ii\

6'

/I

5'

b/

....

^^
/^

c/

5"

equal to

the length of the horizontal cylinder, Fig. 282

of the cylindrical surfaces.

AB

cyl-

cut out within

the outline of

282.

other side

AD

is

equal to the circumference of the

showing the end view of the horizontal pipe,


Fig. 282.
The twelve divisions marked on the circle are set off on the straight line AD (Fig. 283) so
circle,

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


cl

167

et

^^

ot

Fig.

283.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

168

There

that together they are equal to the circumference of

remains to be drawn the development

still

outline of the opening for the intersection

this is found
of the vertical branch of the tee-pipe
in the same manner as the horizontal part, i. e., by

the horizontal pipe with the vertical branch is


in
laid out in the middle of the rectangle

laying out the surface of the vertical cylinder that


circumferis, by making it equal in length to the

the circle.

The

of

ABCD

the following

manner

set off the distances

On

aj

l[

6G

6'0 and

cylinder.

each equal to g;'


6l

5|

4|

showing the end view of the


The development is shown in Fig. 284.

ence of the

the middle line 6'6 are

circle

7|

to

12
1

~-^

/n

D\

'^ J

"~^

^1

K\

X^

/g

E\

""E*

l"

.
Fig.

(or a;") in Fig. 282, on the lines 5'5 and ;'; are set
off the distances 5'P, 5F, 7'N and 7H each equal to

the distance
4'R, 4E,

6'f,

Fig.

8K and 8'M

m\

-^4.

ry

282 (or b6").

The

distances

are set of? on the lines 8'8 and

44, to equal the distance es' (or C5") of Fig. 282.


The lines 3'3 and 99 are touched by the curve of
intersection in their center at points

and L.

On

the line

AB

are set off the twelve parts of the

circumference and in each one of these divisions is


erected a perpendicular to the line AB; on these
perpendiculars are laid off successively the length
lines

of the vertical
vertical

and 6J

branch
in

Fig.

drawn on the surface of the

the lines
284,

AC, iD, 2E,

3F, G4,

5H

are equal correspondingly to

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


the lines ah,

Thus

bi, cj,

fm and gn in Fig. 282.


the development ACJ6 is con-

dk,

one-half of

structed

the other 6JP12

is

exactly equal to the

first part.

The method employed


plied to nearly

faces

it

all

in these cases

is

then developed and

is

be ap-

developments of cylindrical surdrawing on the surface of the


to be developed, any number

The

of equidistant parallel lines.

face

may

consists in

which

cylinder,

cylindrical

all parallel lines

sur-

drawn

By

setting off the exact lengths of the parallel


lines a number ofpoints are obtained, through loliich
in

it.

may
It

has been noted in Fig. 282 that the intersec-

two cylinders of equal diameters

intersecting each other

their arcs

If

one cylinder

always appear

in

the

the other then the intersection will be a curve.

Now,

let it be

required

to

two cxUndrical surfaces when

of

such

The

the smaller cylinder

and end view


cylinders is shown in

front view, top view

two intersecting

Fig. 285.

The
all

larger cylinder

is

marked by the

views, the smaller one

t,

u, v,

Divisions exactly like those

of

points

w,

x,

y and

made by

z.

these points

be set off now on the small cylinder in the end


view by the points a, b, c, d, etc., through which

will

drawn cutting the larger cylinder in


Extend the line u 12 downg, h, etc.
Ward until it meets a horizontal line drawn through
These lines give the point k at their intersection.
g.
vertical lines are

the points

The

e,

f,

point

downward

is

until

it

obtained by drawing the line v

intersects with a horizontal line

drawn through the point f the point m is obtained


by cutting the line 10 w, extended downward, by a
horizontal line drawn through the point e.

bv the

letter

letter A.

Thus
as

find the intersection of

passes through the larger one, their axes intersecting


each other.

Through these

lines cutting the small cylinder in the

side view in the points

of a smaller diameter than

is

marking the divisions

2, 3, 4, etc.

i,

will

side view as straight lines at right angles to each


other.

numbers
draw vertical
tlie

view into any number

circle in the top

of equal parts, say twelve,

of the desired development.

be traced the outline

tion of

Divide the

el,

169

in

it

points

p
in

is

one-half of the required line of intersection,

appears
s,

k,

I,

m
m,

exactly the

the side
is

view, indicated

by the

obtained, the other half, m,

same

as the first

n, o,

and may be drawn

a similar way.

Note. Such a line of intersection is one which is frequently


encountered in mechanical drawing and it is advisable to retain a good
In drawing joints or intersections of this kind, it will
idea of its form.
not be required, as a rule, to lay out the section in the above accurate
manner. Keeping in mind the true section of two cylindrical surfaces
of different diameters, the student should be ready to sketch the
required section freehand, approximately true to suffice for practical
purposes. This is done first in pencil and then in ink.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

170

The

intersection

this

in

case, as well as in similar cases,

where

the

precise

form

is

required,
should be traced
through the obtained points
carefully and then inked in
with the aid of an irregular
curve for ordinary purposes
the section may be represented
by an arc of a circle, somewhat approaching the curve
;

laid out in pencil.

The development

the

of

upper branch of the smaller


cylinder

The

is

line

shown

AC

in

Fig. 287.

contains twelve

equal divisions, each equal to

one division

in

the circle in

top view, Fig. 285 the


length of the line AC is therethe

fore equal to the circumference


of the circle,

which represents

the top view

of the smaller

cylinder.

Through these
the line
diculars

AC are

divisions on
drawn perpen-

which are made suc-

Fiu.

285.

ROGERS' DRAWING
cessively equal to the lines

and pz

in this

manner

development

desired

of

st,

ku,

one-half,

ment
in

is

the second half

the rectangle

ADEB

of the

of the cylinder

cylinder

an exact duplicate of the

The development of the larger


Fig. 286.
The surface of this

first half.

shown
represented by

cylinder
is

is

equal to the length

VW

and
to its circumference. It may
be divided into two equal parts, one for the upper

is

of the develop-

171

VWUT, VU being

nx, oy,

the smaller

BEFC

DESIGN.

mw,

Iv,

Fig.

obtained

AND

286.

Ub

b]

one opening for the


upper branch of the smaller pipe, and the otherhalf
an exact duplicate of the first one, containing an
opening for the lower branch of the smaller cylinder.
half of the cylinder, containing

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

172

To

draw the cen-

find ihe outline of the opening,

ter line

C M'

at right angles to

for

HD

both halves, and the line


in the middle of the first half

CM

On

the line

hg, gf,

HG,

and

VW

below the point

GF" and

FE

set off the

equal to the distances

fe in Fig. 285; the

same distances are

above the point H, on the same line, so that


HG'=HG, G'F=GF and F'E'=FE.
through the point E, F,
Draw lines parallel to
G, G', F', and E' and on these lines set forth the
distance H S equal to h's (in Fig. 285) GK and
G'K' each equal to g'k in Fig. 285 FL and F'L'
each equal to f'l in Fig. 285 and the distances
and E'M' each equal to e'm in Fig. 285. Thus onehalf, MLKSK'L'M' of the opening is obtained.

laid off

HD

EM

other half of the opening


first,

and

is

laid

PRDQO

is

same

exactly the same


same way on the

The

the complete

branch of the smaller cylinder.


of the

is

the

off in

other side of the line M'M.

L'M

of the cylinder.

distances

The
as the

figure, a similar

curve

MLKSK'

opening

for

one

In the other half

NN'

opening

is

laid

with the

two

out for the other branch of the smaller pipe.

The

rectangular

openings.

MM'

piece,

and NN',

VWTU,

the required pattern of

is

the larger cylinder.

To draiu the development of a four-part elbow.


A four-part elbow is a pipe joint made up of four
parts,

the

such as

four

is

parts

KXTS, XYZT

used for stove-pipes


forming the elbow

and YZfd

in Fig. 288,

are

AKSI,

of these four parts the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


two larger parts, AKSI and YZfd are equal.
same is true of the two remaining smaller
KXTS and XYZT.

A
-^y

173

To

lay out these parts in the elevation a right

^\

angle abc

y\_
sy/^

It

is

drawn, the sides of which intersect at

two largest branches of the

right angles, the

/\U^<J=

The
parts,

joint.

evident that the point b must be equidistant

is

from both pipes.

The

right angle abc

is

divided

first

into three

equal parts and then each one of these parts


divided in turn into two

angle

Kba

is

is

equal

parts

is

the right

thus divided into six equal parts, of which

one

part,

KbX

equals two parts,

XbY

equals

two parts and Ybc one part. It will be noticed


that this construction does not depend on the
diameter of the pipe.

The problem

hTI

of developing the four-part

resolves itself into developing two only of

its

elbow
parts,

one large branch and one smaller part of the elbow,


the remaining parts being correspondingly equal to
these.

The

circumference of the pipe.

Fig.

288,

vided into sixteen equal parts by the points

is dii,

2,

3. 4, 5. etc.

Through these

points are drawn lines parallel to

the center line of the pipe which


Fig.

288.

is

to

be developed.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

174

lu-

In Fig. 289 the vertical branch of


AKSI, will be taken up

the elbow,

The

parallels

upon

the surface of this branch are

AK,

for the purpose.

HR

BL, CM, DN, EO, FP, GQ,


and IS. Through the points K, L,
M, N, O, P, Q, R and S draw parallels for the part KXTS, which will
be next developed some of these
parallels are ST, RU, OV, PW.
;

To

develop the vertical branch of


off,

upon a

289,

sixteen

the four-part elbow set


straight

equal

line

parts,

Fig.

aa',

which

altogether are

equal to the circumference of the


*'

cylinder,

S
J'

e,

which

is

to

be developed.

Let the division points, a, b, c, d,


f, etc., correspond
to the division

points,

I,

2, 3, 4, etc.,

upon the

Through the

Fig. 288.
b, d, e, etc.,

draw

circle,

points,

a, c,

vertical lines equal

to the parallel lines

drawn upon the

surface of the vertical branch of the


joint

thus

(Fig. 288)

is'

'

Fig.

289.

g-

to

CM

aj is

made

bk equal

and so on

to

equal to

BL

until

equal to SI (Fig. 288).

ri

AK

cl

equal

is

made

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The
ment

The

part

evident that

is

tt'ss'

center line of

The
it,

RU, OV, PW,

It

tt'ss',

is

of the part,

Fig. 288.
plain

is

uu'vv'

must be equal

ts,

lines in the pattern,

and bisected by
etc., drawn

upon the surface

KXTS,

the development of the small part of the elbow.

length,

its

the elbow.

is

irj'a'

same way.

laid out in the

in

ajtclmnopgri.
This is one-half of the developbeing exactly the same as the first one, may be

part laid out so far

the other half,

that

equal

the
the

to

part,

part

with the difference that

the small parallels in

are laid

it

out above the large parallels


in

the other part

manner,

the

in the

pfe.rt

equal to the part

same

yy'ww'

Laying out the pattern


this

is

aja'j'.

manner makes

it

in

possible

complete elbow
from one square piece of metal, aya'y'.
The spaces between
to cut out the

the patterns are left for laps,

which are necessary for


ing

all

parts.

join-

it,

are

It is

to the circumference of the pipe

tt'ss'

made

drawn

at right angles

equal to the parallel

to the

lines,

ST,

175

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

176

To develop the dome of a

part of the boiler

respectively to the parallel lines

boiler.

shown by A, Fig. 290, to


fastened by riveting.
The

The

dome, B, is
shows also the side view of the boiler
and dome the top view of the dome C is drawn
above the dome in the side view.
This problem is exactly the same as the one explained on page 170, where the intersection of two
cylinders, of different diameters, was considered
the

this

dome

method emploved

for the

development

in this

consequently, the same as in the previous


problem.
case

is,

The

circle C is divided into any number of equal


through the divisions of v/hich parallel lines
are drawn on the surface of the dome.
The development is shown in Fig. 291 its length

parts,

equal to the circumference of the dome.


The
parallel lines in the development are made equal
is

must be allowed
the boiler by riveting.

to

for fastening

the

To develop the slope sheet of a boiler, shown in


Figs. 2g2 and 2gj,
The slope sheet which is to be developed is shown
in Fig. 293 by ABCD.
This sheet is of an irregular

the

dotted lines around the development show

the lap which

illustration

Fig.

drawn upon the

surface of the dome, Fig. 290.

is

291.

shape.

The

side view

by EF4'G

is

shown drawn

to a larger

294; the same figure shows


one-half of the end view of the same slope sheet

scale

in Fig.

UW4.
To prepare for the development divide the arc
U4 into any number of equal parts, say four;
horizontal lines drawn through the divisions,
will cut

the line F4' at the points

i',

2', 3'

these points draw lines parallel to G4'

i,

2, 3

through

these

lines

ROGERS' DRAWING
are 3'M, 2'N and I'O

these lines.
line
all

LH

-draw the line FP,

Through point L on

draw the

perpendicular to

the slanting parallel lines just drawn

these lines

are cut by the perpendicular at the points H,

I, J,

a horizontal line

the point
aa' lay off

Fig. 294.

on the line M3' lay off the


from the point J on the
distance 10 equal to 3Z
the point

FlO.

'

UW

slope sheet.

it.

On

the distance

Then

295

through

ij

each side of

and

ji'

j,

HQ,

each equal to

lay off the .distances

kl

on the line

if

and

i'f

on

line,

lay off fe

Fig.

N2' lay off the distance JR equal to 2X. From


the point K. on the line O
lay off the distance KS
equal to Vi and from the point L on the line PF
lay off the distance LT equal to
through the
points thus obtained draw the curve HORST.
It
is now possible to draw
the development of the

Fig.

each equal to QR, Fig. 294.


and f'e', each equal to RS, Fig.
294, and lay off the distances eb and e'b' each equal

Next

21)2.

line

aa',

near the center of this line draw

perpendicular to

the same

and L.

From

177

DESIGN.

Draw

parallel to

this line

PF and

perpendicular to

AND

293.

ST, Fig. 294 through the points, b, e, f, j,


f, e', and b' draw lines perpendicular to the line aa'.
Lay off the distances jk and jl, equal to GH and
H4' respectively, Fig. 294 then lay off the distances
ih equal to h'i' and iq equal to i'q' the distances hi
and iq being equal respectively to the distances MI
and 1 3', in Fig. 294.
to

i,

i',

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

178

same manner the distances NJ and J 2',


Fig. 294, are laid off on the lines gfpand g'f p' the
distances OK and Ki', Fig. 294, are laid off on the
lines deo and d'e'o' and the distances PL and LP",
Fig. 294, are laid off in the same way, on the lines

and m' by two other arcs, drawn from the points c


and c' as centers, with a radius equal to the distance EP, Fig. 294.
Join the points m and c, m and n, do the same at
c'm' and n'm' and in this manner the pattern or

cbn and

templet of the slope sheet

In the

c'b'n'.

Fig.

Now

trace a curve through the points


d'

and

c,

d, g, h,

and another curve through the


points, n, o, p, q, 1, q', p' o' and n'.
From the points n and n' as centers, describe arcs

k, h', g',

with a radius
Fig. 294

c'

nm

equal to n'm' each equal to EF,

and intersect these arcs

in

the points

in

is

obtained.

294.

The dotted lines around the templet show the lap


which must be allowed for riveting.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

295.

179

WORKING DRAWINGS.
in

The purpose of a working drawing is to give the shopman information necessary to be known
order to construct the object or mechanism which is represented in the drawing.
The drawings of the different parts of the machine are called " detailed drawings ;" in these

each detail is represented in the most unmistakable manner, with all the dimensions of the parts written
in, containing also, all further information concerning the part In question, that may be important for
the purpose of

making the patterns or

forglngs.

The drawings of the complete machine are called general drawings, or general plans, or
"assembled drawings;" they show the whole arrangement of the machine, indicating the relative
position of its parts they may also be made to show the motions of the movable parts.
In preparing a detail drawing the first point is to decide the number of views required to Illustrate the shape of the object and its parts in a complete and at the same time in a simple and
easily understood manner.
After deciding on the manner of views, the selection is decided upon of such a scale that will
;

enable the placing of

all

the required views of the object within the space of the paper.

As to the number of views required for an object no definite rule can be laid down it Is
dependent upon the form and character of the figure and must be decided by the best judgment of the
draughtsman.
After ascertaining the most important dimensions of the mechanism a general drawing of the
whole should be executed, omitting the smaller parts after this particular drawings are made. The
larger and more important parts are first produced, next, the smaller parts which are to be attached to
;

the larger parts.

The
indicated,

made should be shown either by sections or by


work which are to be followed by the workman should be
pointing out what machine tool is to be used for the work.

materials of which the parts are to be

special remarks, notes, etc.; the

methods

sometimes to the extent of

of

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

184

from which the work

is

and also with

laid out,

reference to center lines.

DIMENSIONING DRAWINGS.

All figured dimensions on drawings must be in


plain,

round

vertical figures, not less than one-eighth

This interesting subject has been referred to and


illustrated upon pages 132-134; in these the student will find much valuable matter relating to the

inch high, and formed by a line of uniform width

subject.

figured

dimensions below two feet are best ex-

pressed

in inches.

Putting the dimensions on a drawing correctly

is

not only one of the most important but also most

work

draughtsman the
latter will put in those dimensions only which will be
required by the shopman; the manner in which this
is done must depend upon the method to be used
by the workman in constructing the part to which
difficult

parts of the

of a

the dimensions refer; for this reason, an acquaintance with the methods adopted in shop practice as
well as with the tools to be used is essential.
Every dimension necessary to the execution of

work should be clearly stated by figures on the


drawing, so that no measurements need to be taken
in the shop by scale.
All measurements should be
given with reference to the base or starting point
the

Note.

It

must be understood that the

given for a shopman to


must all be taken from
the chief draughtsman's
also for the use of other

scale

heavy to insure printing

suiificiently

ting

thin,

all

sloping

or

doubtful

well, omit-

figures.

All

It may be put down as a rule that the draughtsman must anticipate the measurements whi'ch will
be looked for by the workman in doing the w(^fk, and

these dimensions only must be put on the drawing.

Surfaces which are


plainly

marked

to

" finished."

be

finished

When

should

be

a particular tool

is to be employed in finishing is
mentioned, by putting the name of the tool, in small

or machine which

letters,

word

near the surface which

" finished "

When

is

to be finished, the

need not be added.

an object

is

to be turned in a lathe, the

dimensions of the turned surfaces must be given by


their diameters.
"

Near the outline

of the surface

word turned should be plainly marked. For


some purposes it may be desirable to put in the
radius for turned work if such a case may be foreseen by the draughtsman, the dimension should be
the

on a drawing is not
take his dimensions from
such dimensions
the dimension figures the scale is given for
use, or whoever may check the drawing, and
draughtsmen who may make at some future

time alterations or additions to the drawing.

and

"

inserted.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Wherever the ends

of a piece of

work

lathe are to be finished, as, for instance,

in

the

the two

ends of a hub on a pulley, the word "face" should


be plainly marked near the surface which is to be
finished in this manner.

The dimensions

zuritten on

always give the actual finished


mattej' to

what

scale the object

All dimensions

sizes

may

of the drawing. The arrow heads should


be put inside of the lines, from which the distance,
as given in the dimension, is reckoned.

hand side

VZ2^ZZ^

drawifig should

the

185

of the object, no
drawn.

be

which a shopman may require

should be put on a drawing, so that no calculation


be required on his part.

For

instance,

it is

not enough to give the lengths

of the different parts of the object, but the length

which is the sum of


should also be marked as shown
over

all,

all

these lengths,

in Fig. 296.

The figures giving the dimensions should be placed


on the dimension lines, and not on the outline of
the object.

The dimension

lines

should have arrow heads at

each end and the points of these arrow heads should

always touch exactly the

which

is

lines,

the distance between

indicated by the dimension as illustrated in

Fig. 297.

The

When

figure should be placed in the middle of the

dimension line at right angles to that line, and so


as to read either from the bottom, or from the right

the space between these lines

is

too small

for the figures, the lines being very close together,

as

shown

in

Fig.

298,

the arrow

heads

may be

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

186

placed outside and the figures also be put outside,

When a

which case an arrow should be put in to indicate


the proper position of the figures.
The dimension lines should also be put in the
drawing, very near to the spaces or lines, to which

be repeated in

in

they

refer.

dimension

is

given in one view,

it

need not

another view, except when such a rep-

etition is essential to locate the size in question.

For must shop drawings blueprints are used

the

dimensions on the print


do not cc rrespond with the scale this is due to the
shrinkin'3^ of the blueprint paper after it has been
washed as the dimensions on a blueprint are generally shorter than the scale by which they have

beginner

will

find that the

When

"the view" is complicated, dimension lines


drawn within it, might tend to make it still more
obscure and difficult to understand in such a case
;

been meiisured.
In

'^

many shops

there exists a rule

that every

draughtsman must mark plainly on his drawing in


some place where it is easily seen by the workman,
^

4"

'V

"

do not scale drawing."

_L"

When

Fig.

297.

Fig.

298.

drill is to

near the hole

be used,

advisable to write

it is

question the word

in

'

drill."

Should

the dimension lines should be carried outside of the

the hole be provided with a thread to be produced

view and extension lines drawn from the arrow


heads to the points, between which the dimension is

by

tap, write " tap,"

size or

When

the dimension includes a fraction, the nu-

merator should be separated from the denominator by


a horizontal line and not by an inclined line ; care
should also be taken to write the figures in a very

and legible manner and crowding should be

avoided.

adding to

this

one word,

its

number.

When

given.

clear

a.

the hole

eter, so that

it

is

of a comparatively large diam-

can be finished only in the lathe by

by boring, the words


"turn" or "bore" respectively should be put in

turning, or in the boring mill

near the circumference of the hole.


also,

In this case,

the diameter of the hole, and not the radius,

should be given.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

When a number of holes are to be laid out in


one piece of work, the distance from center to
center should be given, and not the distances between the circumferences of the holes.

When

number

of holes are at equal distances

from a central point, or when their centers are


cated in the circumference of a
ference should be

circle, this

lo-

circum-

drawn through the centers

of the

and the diameter should be given as a dimenThe distances between the centers of the
holes measured on a straight line, or measured as a
part of the circumference, on which their centers
holes,
sion.

are located, should also be noted.

In practice, at times, instead of dimensions refer-

ence letters are used, thus

It is

preferable to give the diameters of turned

and bored work on a section, instead of an end


drawn separately confusion is sometimes caused
by a number of radial dimensions.
;

The following are quoted from A.


admirable Office Rules

-L-

^T?

Every drawing, whether whole or half-sheet,


shall have the title, date, scale and number of the
sheet stamped in lower right-hand corner, and the
quarter and eighth sheets printed on top.
"
is

The name

^ ^J

------t

The

state the general

name

name

first

division

D=diam.

299.

of shaft, 2j4 inches.

L=length of bearing, 3-)^ inches.


T=thickness of collar, J'^g inch,
d^diam. of collar, 3^ inches.

to

is

of the thing or machine,

and

to clearly designate the part

is

The wording

if

a general view should so

of titles should be submitted

head draughtsman for ap-

proval.
"

Each drawing

shall

bear the

name

drauofhtsman and examiner, the surname


Fig.

title,

invariably to consist of two divisions in one line

to the chief engineer or

of the drawing, as given in the

separated by a hyphen.

state).

5-T-

Robinson's

"

or parts represented (or

^m

W.

the second
)K

187

without

of

the

being- used

initials.

Drawings of piping details should be made


diagram form, using standard symbols.
"

in

"All detail parts for standard or repetition work


shall be shown unassembled as far as possible."

ROGERS' DRAWING

188

AND

DESIGN.

Cast Iron

TINTS AND COLORS.

digo,

sometimes found necessary to prepare a


highly finished and shaded drawing of the work in
hand, and for special purposes, they are also tinted
and colored such elaborations, in fact, are much
admired by the uninitiated, although no criterion as
It

Brass

is

Neutral-tint

mixed with a

little

made

of India Ink, In-

Carmine.

Gamboge or Chrome Yellow.


Emerald Green sometimes

Babbitt

light mix-

ture of India Ink.

Copper

Purple

Lake.

to the scientific value of the object

is

represented.

Mechanical drawings are seldom tinted, but are


mainly produced in India ink. Where, however, a
fine effect is desired, working drawings are colored,
so as to show at a gflance the material of which the
different parts are to be made.

The

colors required are few but should be of the

Besides India ink the following water-

best quality.

colors are generally used


I,

Neutral-tint;

Yellow
7,

4,

5,

Raw

Blue;
Sienna

8,

Certain colors and tints represent


and materials as follows

g.

3,

6,

Chrome
Carmine

Steel

Iron

Sepia;

10,

different metals

Pruss'an Blue.

Carmine and

Prussian Blue, mixed to give

a purple shade.

Steel Casting

Venetian Red.

Same

when the moist

paper must be exover its surface

all

tint is

applied the paper

wrinkle and get out of shape

will

to

do

this cut

the paper at least half an inch less in size than the


drawing board lay the paper face down, turn up a
margin or edge of about three-fourths of an inch
;

round, then

all

and clean water


it

is

dampen
;

allow

the paper with a sponge


it

to

soak for a few minutes


dampened next

evenly and thoroughly

turn the paper upside

down

(face up).

Apply strong paste

Wrought

the

tints,

Vermilion Red;
These come in hard cakes.

Vermilion;

Indigo.

applying the

otherwise

until

Prussian

2,

Gamboge

In

panded and stretched evenly

as the above darkened by

to the under side of the marround rub down, on the drawing-board,


working from the center of the board outwards so
as to exclude the air and prevent creases or furrows.
The board is then inclined and left to dry slowly
make sure that the paper is all well pasted and
every part of the edges attached to the board.

gin

all

If tracings are required to be tinted or shaded,


the color may be applied before the tracing is cut
off, or what is more usual, the color may be applied
on the back of the tracing then there is no liability
to wash out the lines.
;

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.

TRACING AND BLUE PRINTING.

189

Drawing on tracing paper or cloth is effected by


pencil and drawing pen as in ordinary work.

Whenever it is desired to have more than one


copy of a drawing, a "tracing" is made of it and
from this as many blueprints can be obtained as

over the drawing, by pins or thumb tacks moisture


or dampness should be carefully avoided and the

are required.

drawing done, preferably, on the smooth side of the

When

needed for making blueprints


a piece of tracing paper or tracing cloth of the
same size as the drawing is placed over the original
drawino- and fastened to the board.
This tracing
paper or cloth is almost transparent the tracing is
a mechanical copy of a drawing made by reproducing its lines as seen through a transparent
mf-dium such as has been described and the lines of
the drawing can be seen through it.
a tracing

is

The

surfaces of the tracing cloth are called the

"glazed side" and the "dull side," or "front" and


" back ;" the glazed side has a smooth polished sur-

and the

face

dull side

is

like a piece of

ordinary

linen cloth.
Note.

Many

immaterial which side of the cloth is used in tracing,


however, if any mistakes are made and have to be corrected this can be
done easier on the glazed side on the contrary, if any additiuns must
is

it

be

made

side will

which have to be drawn in pencil first, the dull


be found most convenient, as the pencil marks show plainer

to the tracing,

on the dull

side.

tracing cloth must be fastened to the board,


;

cloth.

When

tracing cloth will not take ink readily a

small quantity of pounce

may be

applied to the sur-

and distributed evenly with a piece

face of the cloth

of cotton waste, chamois, or similar material, but


the pounce should be thoroughly removed before

applying the ink.


In

follows:

ink

tracings the order to be followed

making

in

I,

is

as

ink in the small circles and curves; 2,


3, then all the

the larger circles and curves

horizontal lines, beginning at the top of the drawing and working downward 4, next ink in all the
;

and moving
lines
oblique
6,
the
draw
in
5,
the figuring and lettering should be

vertical lines,

back to

concerns have rules of their own, directing their


ilraughlsnien to use either the smooth or the rough side for all purposes
if there are no such rules, it is left to the judgment of the
draughtsman.

While

The

tht'

finishing

in

commencing

right

done with India


"

Erasing,"

ink,

in

at the left

thoroughly black.

case of mistakes or errors, should

be done with an ink-eraser or a sharp, round erasing


knife the surface of the tracing cloth must be
;

made smooth
erased

this

in
is

those places where lines have been

accomplished by rubbing the cloth

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

190

BLUE PRINTS.

with soapstone or powdered pumice stone, applied


with a soft cloth or with the finger.

made

When

a mis-

cannot be corrected
by erasing, a piece of the tracing cloth may be cut
out and a new one inserted in its place.
A finished tracing should be provided Avith the
take

title

is

so serious that

it

of the drawing, the date, scale

Read
as

things

are

make

blue prints three

serviceable

essential:

i,

good paper;

2,

proper

200.

shown

in Fig.

shown in Fig. 300 when a part to


which a note refers is at an angle to the base line,
the letters should be placed parallel to the part
mentioned.
All the letters should be so placed that
the drawing can be " read " without turning the
drawing completely around.
as possible, as

In order to

initials

302 which is a
representation of a blueprint taken from a tracing.
The letters on a drawing should be placed, as near

of the

printing."

this way.
Fig.

draughtsman

and the

As many copies as may be desired of a tracing


made from it by the process known as " blue

can be

Fig. 301.

chemicals for coating the paper, and


ing frame.

One form

of the latter

good printshown in Fig.

3,
is

back raised the back is made


in two sections and hinged together, this being
done in order to enable the operator to lift one-half
of the back and inspect the prepared paper, so as to
301, with half of the

ascertain

if

the print

is

of the right color.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The

springs

shown

the figure are intended to

in

keep the hinged back pressed close against the prepared paper, tracing and -/ass, the latter, of course
being invisible in the cut, but which should consist
of good clear, double thick glass of a size to fit the

frame.

191

tween them. This should be done in a darkened


room 4, expose for three to six minutes, according
to the intensity of the sun
5, the sensitized paper
is to be taken out of the frame and quickly washed
in clean cool water
the drawing will appear in white
lines on blue ground
6, the print finally hung up
by one edge so that the water will run off and the
;

The

back or that side which


presses against the prepared paper is always covered
by felt or three or four layers of Canton cotton,
which are glued to it.
inside surface of the

print allowed to dry.

The sun

rays or a strong electric light act

ink lines in the drawing

The "printing"
ratus necessary

is

is

very simple, as the only appa-

a blue printing frame one form of

which is shown in Fig. 301, and a trough containing


water for washing the prints
in brief, this is the
;

method

of procedure

the tracing

i,

is

i.

e.,

the inked side, next

"sensitized" side of the paper


the back of

the

cover and fasten

tracing

down

the

3,

to the
is

the frame and washed,

springs

drawing

glass

2,

as explained already,

the

lines of the draw-

ing in plain white.

the

the
so

TEST

wooden

that

both

NoTE. Large printing frames are generally mounted on a frame,


which are provided with wheels running on rails by means of this arrangement the frame can be pushed out through a window for exposure.
;

taken out of

is

paper and tracing are compressed firmly against


the glass, permitting no creases or air spaces be-

their yellowish

When

paper turns dark blue leaving the

next laid against

replace

and change

color gradually to a dull gray.

fixed in the

frame, with the surface on w-hich the

made,

upon

those parts of the sensitized paper not covered by

To make good

PIECES.
by
edge of sensitized

blueprints, being guided only

the appearance of the exposed

paper, requires considerable experience.

Very

often,

especially on a cloudy day, the edge looks just


about right, but when taken out of the frame and
given a rinsing, it is only to find that the print looks

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

192

it should have been allowed to remain


exposed for a longer period.
Now simply take a small test-piece of the same
paper (say about 4 inches square) and a piece of
tracingf cloth with several lines on its surface and
lay these small pieces out at the same time the real
print is being exposed, and cover these samples
with a piece of glass about 4 inches square.
As a
general rule, we can find a place on top of the frame
for the testing-piece, and by having a small dish of
water at hand for testing the print by tearing off a
small bit and washing same to note its appearance,

pale because

the novice can get just as good results as the exper-

ienced hand and without

much danger

of failure.

obtain sharp lines on a blueprint

all lines

on

made heavier than on ordinary drawing paper and a sharp- inking pen should
be used.
the tracing should be

Paper which has a glossy or starched appearance


should never be used, as the blueprint solution when
applied to the paper will intermix with the starch

and the

be poor prints.
Drawing paper
or blueprint paper (unprepared) which may be
obtained of any dealer will give the best results.
result will

about to use mix an equal quantity of each in a cup


and apply in a dark room with a soft brush or
sponge to one side of white rag paper, similar to
envelop paper. To complete the process let it dry

and put away

When
one
one

in a

dark place until required for use.

several prints are to be

made

the second

may be

placed into the frame while the first


soaking when the print is properly soaked,
say about ten minutes, lift it slowly out of the water
by grasping two of its opposite corners immerse
again and pull out as before.
This is to be conis

HELIOGRAPHIC PRINTING.
To

The sensitized paper is sold ready for use, but it


can be prepared by dissolving two ounces of cit
rate of iron and ammonia in eight ounces of soft
water; keep in a dark bottle; also, one and onethird ounces of red prussiate of potash in eight
ounces of water keep in another dark bottle when

tinued until the paper does not change to a deeper


blue color.

Hang the

corners to dry.

paper on the rack by two of

In case any spots appear

its

an
indication that the prints were not properly washed.

When

corrections or additions are to be

it is

made

to

a blueprint a special chemical preparation must be

used to make white lines. A solution of quicklime and water is generally used for this purpose.
When white lines or figures are to be obliterated a
blue pencil

may be used

to cover same.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Keep the solutions

BLACK PROCESS COPYING.


This is accomplished by specially sensitized paper
by which a fac-simile of the original drawing can be

made that is, black lines upon white ground this


method of printing avoids the objection to the blueprint paptr of shaded drawings which show light and
;

shade reversed.

The

prints

made by

this process are said to

permanent and can be altered, added


the same as original drawings.

be

to or colored

to

make

is

much used

in

separate in dark colored bottles


dark place not exposed to the light. To prepare the paper, mix equal portions of the two solutions and be careful that the mixtures are not long-er
exposed to the light, than is necessary to see by. It
in a

is,

work

therefore, a necessity to perform this

in a

dark room, provided with a trough of some kind to


hold water
this should be larger than the blueprint and from six to eight inches deep a flat board
should be provided to cover this trough
there
should also be an arrangement like a towel rack to
;

SENSITIZING.
This term

193

prints

be cut

such a manner as to be a

in

the tracing, in

photography and means

"sensitive" to the action of light derived

from the sun or from electricity. To sensitize blue


printing paper proceed as follows
The paper
should be white, smooth and of good quality, it is
best to purchase such paper as is purposely made

The

hang the

when the

on while drying.

sheets should
larger than

little

order to leave an edge around

tracing

is

placed upon

twelve sheets are placed upon a

From

it.

flat

must be taken to spread them

flat

other, so that the edges are

even.

all

it

ten to

board; care

one above an-

The

sheets

for sensitizing.

should be secured to the board by a small nail


through the two upper corners, strong enough to
hold the weight of the sheets when the board is placed

The solution used for ordinary blue printing is


made according to the following receipt
a. One ounce of red prussiate of potash dissolved

vertically.

ounces of water.
One ounce of citrate of iron and ammonia
solved in 5 ounces of water.

inclined, only as

in 5

b.

dis-

Place the board on the edges of the trough with

one edge against the wall and the board somewhat

much

light as

is

absolutely required

should be obtained from a lamp or gas

down very

low.

The

solution

referred

jet,

turned

to

above

ROGERS' DRAWING

194

should be applied evenly with a wide brush or a fine


sponge over the top sheet of paper. When the top

AND

TO

DESIGN.

SENSITIZE PAPER FOR BLUE LINES

remove it from the board by pulling


at the bottom of same and tearing it from the nail
which holds it place said sheet in a drawer where
it can lie flat and where it cannot be reached by the

yields a photographic paper giving blue lines

light.

white ground

sheet

is

finished

ON A WHITE GROUND.
The

Treat the remaining sheets


the

in the

same way

After an exposure of

margin protruding beyond the tracing cloth changes its original


minutes

ounces.

Acacia

35^ ounces.-'
25 ounces.

Water

100 ounces.

in bright sunlight, the

light yellow color to a dull reddish


is

8 ounces.,

Tartaric acid

paper may be substituted.


five

salt

Ferric chloride

In place of blue printing paper bj'ozun printing

on a

Common
as

one.

first

following process, credited to Captain Abney,

brown.

The

print

Dissolve the acacia


the other ingredients

The

then immersed in the water-bath and thoroughly

soaked and rinsed on both sides the back ground


immediately changes to a brown color the lines coming out in perfect white. The prints are then placed
in a fixing solution and washed again during fifteen
or twenty minutes.

sized

liquid

and

is

in half
in

the water, and dissolve

the other half

subdued

The
The paper

light.

should be dried rapidly to prevent the solution sinking into

its

pores.

When

dry, the paper

is

ready

for exposure.

In sunlight, one or two minutes

then mix.

applied with a brush to strongly-

well-rolled paper in a

coating should be as even as possible.

ficient to

Note. There is a method of copying drawings on thick paper and


even on cardboard it consists of using a kind of sensitive paper known
as " gelatine " or "bromide"; this is covered with a sensitizing com-

is

is

generally suf-

give an image, while in a dull light, an hour

necessary.

pound made
gelatine.

chiefly

from the bromide of

silver

put on in a layer of

To

immediately
after leaving the printing frame upon a very weak
develop the

print,

it

is

floated

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


None

solution of potassium ferrocya^iide.

of

the

developing solution should be allowed to reach the


back.
The development is usually complete in less
than a minute.
The paper may be lifted off the
solution

when

the face

wetted, the development

is

proceeding with that which adheres to the print.

t\

blue coloration of the backofround shows insufficient


exposure, and pale-blue over-exposure.

When

the development

floated on clean water,


is

placed

in

a bath,

and

made

is

complete, the print

after

two or three minutes

Hydrochloric acid

8 ounces.

Water

is

as follows

Sulphuric acid

ounces.

loo ounces.

removed
It
all iron salts not turned into the blue compound.
Blue spots
is next thoroughly washed and dried.
may be removed by a 4 per cent, solution of caustic
In about ten minutes the acid will have

potash.

MOUNTING BLUE PRINTS FOR THE


SHOP.
The shop foreman

is

often put to a great deal of

inconvenience because of
either through

becoming

of the tracing

must be placed

in

contact

with the sensitive surface.

The sensitized paper, when not in use, should be kept in a


dry and air-tight place, as with age and exposure the paper
becomes deficient in quality the best way to preserve the sensitized
paper is to have made a tin c^dinder about 3>2 inches in diameter and
an inch or two longer than the paper it is desired to keep and with a
tight cover to fit over the outside at one end.
dark,

the

rapid

destruction,

soiled or torn, of blueprints

which are used at the machines. Some damage is


undoubtedly due to careless handling of the prints,
but the greater part of the wear and tear cannot be
avoided, even with the greatest care, and the spotting and creasing soon make the print unusable.

To obviate this
common sheets of
board

itself

the blueprints can be fastened on

pasteboard, but

becomes broken and

in

time the paste-

hence

oil-spotted,

the frequent adoption of the idea of using thin sheet


iron as a backing.

The

common

prints in

use in the shop are

first

pasted on pieces of sheet iron, then both sides are

varnished over, so as to

The back

Note.

195

waterproof.

After being

the prints can be

make

the paper

oil

filed

By

hung up near the machines.

thus mounting the prints they are clean and

and can be

and

subjected to this treatment,

away

in

a small space

when

clear,

not

in

moreover, they are practically indestructible,


because when soiled they can be put under the hose
use

and washed

off.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

196

Sheets that are likely to be removed and replaced,


for any purpose, as working drawings generally are,
can be fastened very well by small copper tacks, or
the ordinary thumb-tacks, driven in along the edges
at intervals of 2 inches or less.

The paper

can be very slightly

fastening in this manner, and

dampened before

if

the operation

is

performed the paper will be quite as


smooth and convenient to work upon as though it
were pasted down the tacks can be driven down so
as to be flush with, or below the surface of, the
If
paper, and will offer no obstruction to squares.
a drawing is to be elaborate, or to remain long
upon a board, the paper should be pasted down.
carefully

TO MAKE DRAWINGS FROM THE PRINTS.


To

accomplish

over with

"

this,

may be inked
and when thoroughly

the blueprints

waterproof ink

"

dry washed with a solution of oxalate of potash,


treated thus the ink lines will remain, and the blue

ground

and become white and appear

will fade

similar to an original drawing

bleached by washing them

in

the prints can be

a saturated solution of

oxalate of potash, as above.

To do
it
I

this, first

prepare thick mucilage, and have

ready at hand, with some


in.

or so, wide.

Dampen

slips of

absorbent paper

the sheet on both sides

with a sponge, and then apply the mucilage along


the edge, for a width of

some
if

^ -s/g

in.

difficulty to place a sheet

the board

is

set

on

its

It is

a matter of

upon a board

but

edge, the paper can be

Then, by putting the


strips of paper along the edge, and rubbing over
them with some smooth hard instrument, the edc/es
o
of the sheet can be pasted firmly to the board, the
paper slips taking up a part of the moisture from
the edges, which are longest in drying.

applied without assistance.

MECHANICAL DRAWING AND ITS RELATION TO PRACTICAL SHOP WORK.*


The

relation of

shop work

is

the drafting

a vital subject that

upon the attention

of all

room
is

to practical

constantly forced

by the occurrences

of daily

work, but each department, the drafting room and


the shop, has its well-defined place.
In mechanical

work we must have

or conception of what

is

first

the zdea,

wanted, whether the idea

comes from the inventor, the draughtsman or the


machinist;the draughtsman, by means of the drawing,

becomes the interpreter


*NoTE.

of the idea to the shop.

From

an address delivered by L. D. Burlingame, Chief


Draugtitsman at ttie Brown & Sliarpe Manufacturing Company, before
the Eastern Manual Training Association, at the coiivention held at
Boston.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The

important relations hereafter dwelt

three

upon can be stated


First

briefly thus

The drafting department as the interpreter

the shop the drawing making plain the meaning


and requirements of the designer to the workman.
Second The drafting department as the interpreter of the shop
the draughtsman, through consultation and discussion, making available the
practical experience and suggestions of the shop
man.
Third The drafting department as the recorder
for the shop- the records of all data and information
being so compiled and kept as to be reliable, and
/^

quickly available
First.

when needed.

separately detailed, and in


all

many

shops, each on a

particulars of oiling

and venting

holes must be shown, grinding limits given, the

There must be an
be allowed for fitting,
and of the special kinds of finish on machined surfaces.
All special tools used in manufacturing the
piece must be listed below its name, and perhaps
a list of operations given either on the drawing or
depths of tapped holes figured.
indication of

in

if they become draughtsmen, one of their important duties will be so to get in touch with the

shop as to make this knowledge available, even


though it may come to them in crude form from
a mind not trained to analyze, to classify and to put
ideas upon paper
in other words, that they learn
to be the interpreters of the shop.

a separate

when stock

list.

Third.

is

to

room is
here we touch upon the

Briefly the ofhce of the drafting

the recorder for the shop

In preparing drawings each piece must be fully and


sheet by itself;

instilled into the

that

Let us consider the drafting room as an

interpreter to the shop

oil

would earnestly recommend that there


minds of technical students the
importance of taking advantage of the great mass
of mechanical knowledge and the ideas stored up in
the minds of the mechanics of the country, in the
minds of the men that are actually doing the work,
and that the students have it impressed upon them
Second.

be

197

important work of tabulating,

listing and classifyexample thousands of special tools accumulate in a large shop


pro ninent among these are
taps, reamers, drills and counterbores, cutters, gauges,
etc.
there are many things to be preserved for ref

ing

for

erence that naturally find their

way

to the drafting

room, such as trade catalogues, photographs, copies


The treatment of
of patents and technical journals.
these

in

indexing makes

they are valuable

on

of

all the difference whether


growing value as time goes

or nearly as worthless.

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

198

The importance

of the shop side has perhaps

been

emphasized in what has been said, but I


would not belittle the draughtsman, even aside from
the high position he often holds as designer and
I agree with the statements made by
constructor.
''The workman
Prof. Charles L. Griffin; he says:
of to-day is not permitted to assume dimensions or
certainly

shapes

it

his business to execute the draughts-

is

man's orders

it is,

however, often his privilege to

choose his own way of doing it, but further than


modern practice does not allow him to go.

The drawing

this

must be
It might be added
plain, direct and all sufficient."
draughtsman
must mentally
the
make
it
so
that to
put himself in the place of the shopman, and anticiis

pate his needs.

draughtsman and

supreme,

it

is

ofificial

The workman

will

and

will

mind

of the student, so that he

imagination the parts designedly


in

then respect the

TO READ WORKING DRAWINGS.

drawn

in,

that he

may

Even
is

in full size

incomplete

in

as

see, mentally, the whole.

drawings

not objectionable.

It

to," for

it

this

system of figuring

a system which should

workman

allows the

is

to

made

" to

work
comprehend at a

glance the size of his work and the pieces he has to


Figuring makes a drawing comprehenget made.

In

even to those who cannot make drawings.

some

figures

it is

necessary to show end views,

also section views, to enable all

thoroughly understood.
In studying a drawing, the object it is intended to
represent should be made as familiar as possible to

compound

is

be followed whenever a drawing

working drawing should be made, primarily, as


by the draughtsman second, the
should
patiently
and carefully study it, so
workman
it is

out

Drawings are almost always made "finished size,"


that is, the dimensions are for the work when it is
completed.
Consequently all the figures written on
the different parts indicate the exact size of the work
when finished, without any regard to the size of the
drawing itself, which may be made to any reduced
and convenient scale.

read from the drawing.

that

fill

a gear wheel where only two or three teeth are

sible

plain as possible

left

may

it

be willing to follow implicitly the instructions given on his drawings.


his work,

the

DESIGN.

measurements

to

be

Fig. 302 represents a blueprint of a bracket-bearing, constructed


oil

from the drawing, for the Raabe


the front, end view and plan,

engine

with dimensions, are shown


2"== I ft.
1

the scale

is

full

size

MACHINE DESIGN,
The

study of mechanical drawing not only consists

grams by accurate measurements and


operation of the mechanism designed

The designing

fine finished lines,


;

i.

e.,

in

copying drawings of machinery and diait includes the purpose and practical

but

drawing as a means to an end.

machines requires an extended acquaintance of parts and of similar mechanisms which have been found suitable for the work required and thus have become standard elements
of construction
to utilize this knowledge is ofte' the lite task of the draughtsman and designer of
machinery.
of

It is a matter of common acceptance that machine design depends more upon an acquaintance with mechanism and siiop practice than upon a knowledge of the strength of materials and other
kindred subjects making up the science of mechanics; this is the reliance, however unscientific it

may

be, that

to-day,

is

depended upon

and there
It

is,

machines
struction

it

will

in perfecting

the designs for the machinery that

probably never be another system

that,

on the whole,

will

is

being produced

be more satisfactory.

however, not sufficient to limit our education to observation of completed working


is just as necessary to know the theoretical principles and laws of mechanical con-

these have been classified as

Theoretical Mechanics or

Theory

of

Mechanism

a few

necessary definitions and general considerations will be found on the succeeding pages
Note.

upon

"The

correct forms to be given to the raatenais

employed

in

the construction of tools or machinery depend entirely

Natural form consists in giving each part the exact proportion that will enable it to fuifiU -ts assigned duty
with the smallest expenditure of material, and in placing each portion of the materials under the most favorable conditions of position
that circumstances will admit of.
" Such natural form is not only the most economical but, strange to say, it is always correct in every :'espect, and is invariably
Liatural principles.

beautiful

and

lovely in

its

outlines."

Andrews.

?05

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

206

The most

with a love for mechanics and a measure of inventive

appear as afterthoughts, are the principal elements


of mechanical beauty.

added a

In reference to the particular case in hand, the

ability

if

retentive

successful designer

is

no doubt born

to these inherent qualities be

memory, a mind trained

to observe closely,

deliberate carefully and decide wisely, he should be

a success.
avail

but

Technical education
if

in

itself is of little

allied to these other qualities, perfect

and round them out, smoothing the way over places


that would be otherwise well nigh insurmountable.
so

The cost and results of special machinery depend


much on the ability of the designer that it may be

well to consider

what

his attainments should

should be able to clearly illustrate his ideasessarily a finished

be

he

not nec-

draughtsman and he should have


in machine shop practice so that

a practical experience

ought

designer

to

familiarize

methods before employed,


previously

made

occupied,

size,

power required, and number likely

to

weight,

be made,

All notes, deductions, sketches and the like should

be carefully preserved, at least until the machine


;

a designer can be highly successful

perience the

It is

inconceivable that without shop experience


better,

To

the

more

several.

the structure, and sufficient taste to realize that true

calculation or blunder of

machinery does not consist of imitating architectural embellishments


for beauty, as well as for
strength and cheapness, castings should be of the
simplest shape possible rounded corners, especially
interiors, straight lines where permissible, with all
projections provided for originally, rather than lo

vexation for some one, and possibly a serious

succeed requires determination and

painstaking hard work

a mistaken figure, a wrong

any kind

is

Finally, always study simplicity of

avoiding as
wrenches,
iron

and

far

etc.,

as

possible

all

sure to bring
loss.

construction,

special

shaped

and using "more than enough" of


and

steel in all designs, to assure strength

durability.

ex-

not in one shop alone but

should also know enough of machine design


no
illy-proportioned parts disfigure or weaken
that
art in

is

completed that is, actually built, for these sketches


may prove to be proof of the most convincing character should questions arise as to mechanical elements
considered, even at the time unapproved.

with the patterns or in making castings from them.

He

the

should be carefully considered.

know that the elements of his design can readily


be machined, and that no unnecessary trouble be had
to

with

himself

the product has been

quantities of product expected from

the machine, space to be


speed,

if

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

207

Elasticity is the property possessed by most

DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL


CONSIDERATIONS.

bodies, of regaining their original form


after the

Attraction. This is an invisible power in a


body by which it draws anything to itself the power
in nature acting naturally between bodies, or parthe attraction
ticles, tending to draw them together
gravitation
acts
at
all
distances
throughout
the
of
universe adhesive attraction unites bodies by their

solid

or shape,

removal of a force which caused a change

of form.

adjacent surfaces
affinity, is that

tary

of

chemical attraction, or chemical

peculiar force which causes elemen-

atoms or molecules

of expansion ; X\\^ co-efficient


offriction ; the word generally means, " that which
unites in action with something else to produce the
same effect!'
dition as the co-efficient

that force which binds

is

bodies together.

It is

potential energy

its

motion.

energy

it

work
has

in

someenergy
stored up as that existing in a spring or a bent bow,
or a body suspended at a given distance above the
;

upon by

kinetic

pressing the ratio of the useful

work performed, which

is

is

gravity.

The efficiency of a machine

is

work

a fraction exto the

whole

equal to that expended.

is

A Factor is one of the elements or quantities


which when multiplied together form a product.
Force

is

body

in the

that which tends to produce or to de-

stroy motion

is

Ductility \s that property by which some metals


can be drawn out into wire or tubes.

direction of

the energy

two or more

together.

a force which acts on a

is

times called actual energy

tends to put

is

body

virtue of being in motion

that force which the neigh-

boring particles of a body exert to keep each other

Mffort

the capacity for performing

is

earth and acted

to unite.

Co-ef&cient is a number expressing the amount


some change or effect under certain fixed con-

Cohesion

^Energy

the kinetic energy of a

it

if

in

that by which

body

motion
all

centripetal

is
is

at

anything which

rest

a force

centrifugal force

bodies moving around another

a curve, tend to

in

motion

a body

is

ffy off

from the axis of their

that which draws, or impels a

body toward some point


alent ^.o push or pull.

as a center

force

is

equiv-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

208

Fatigue of Metals.

many

In

cases materials

are subject to impulsive loads and a gradual diminu-

observed in part this deterioration of strength may be due to the ordinary action
of a live or repeated load, but it appears to be more

tion of strength

is

often due directly to the gradual loss of the power

the force required to hold

keep it from
weights are nothing more
it

back, or to

descending hence, also,


than measures of the force of gravity
;

in

different

bodies.

of elongation in

consequence of the slow accumulation of \\i^ permanent set ; the latter may be defined

Inertia is that property of a body by virtue of


which it tends to continue in the state of rest or
motion in which it may be placed until acted on by

as the fatigue

some

Friction

is

of metals.
that force

which acts between two

bodies at their surface of contact so as to

resist

on each other, and which depends on


the force with which they are pressed together.
their sliding

Gravity.
what it does,

We

can not say what gravity

namely, that

is,

but

something which
gives to every particle of matter a tendency toward
every other particle. This influence is conveyed
from one body to another without any perceptible
interval of time.
We weigh a body by ascertaining
it

force.

Kinematics.

The

science that

treats of

mo-

in themselves, or apart from their


Kinematics forms properly an introduction to mechanics as involving the mathematical
principles which are to be applied to its more prac-

tions,

causes

tical

considered
;

"

problems."

is

LtOad.
is

By the

load on any

member

of a

machine

meant the aggregate of all the external forces in


upon it. These may be distinguished as (i)

action

the useful load, or the forces arising out of the useNote.

appears that in some if not all materials a limited amount of


stress variation may be repeated time after time without apparent reduc
tion in the strength of the piece
on the balance wheel of a watch for
It

and compression succeed each other for some 150 millions of times in a 3-ear, and the spring works for years without showing signs of deterioration. In such cases the stresses lie well within
the elastic limits on the other hand the toughest bar breaks after a
small number of bendings to and fro when these pass the elastic limits.
instance, tension

power transmitted, and (2) the. prejudicial resistances due to friction, to work uselessly expended, to
weight of members of the machine, to inertia due
to changes in velocity of motion, and to special
stresses caused in the apparatus by changes in its
ful

parts through variations of temperature.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


There are two kinds of load first, a dead load
which produces a permanent and unvarying amount
of straining action, and is invariable during the life
of the machine
such, for example, as its weight;
and, second, variable or live load, which is alternately imposed and removed, and which produces
:

constantly varying

Everj' load which

amount

of

straining action.

on a structure produces a
chang-e of form, which is termed the strain due to the
load.
The strain may be either a vanishing or
elastic deformation, that is, one which disappears
when the load is removed or a permanent deformation or set, which remains after the load is removed.
In general, machine parts must be so
designed that, under the maximum straining action,
there is no sensible permanent deformation.
acts

The Breaking Load


in

that load which causes

tension equal to the

every case this

is

Modulus

of

Rupture

equal to the force necessary to

tear, crush, shear, twist, break,

or otherwise deform

under which

signification

of

the

Modulus is a measure the modulus of a machine


means the same as the efficiency of it. " The modulus
of a machine is a formula (or measure) expressing

has been constructed";


all

formed from the same root-word and meaning somewhat the same.
Modulus of Resistance is the strain which corresponds to the limit of elasticity, compression and
expansion each having a corresponding modulus.
Modulus of Rtipture is the strain at which the mo-

Modulus of

lecular fibres cease to hold together.

Elasticity

the measure of the elastic extension

is

and is the force by which a prismatic


body would be extended to its own length, supposing such extension were possible. The Modulus
of a Machine is the amount of work actually obtained, divided by the work that should be obtained
of a material,

theoretically.

Momentum

means impetus or push


in a moving body
it

quantity of motion

it

is

is

the

always

proportioned to the quantity of matter multiplied


into the velocity.

Moment
The primary

it

the words mode, model, mold are kindred terms

a body.

Modulus.

work a given machine can perform under the

condition

those fibres which are subjected to the greatest

strain, a

in

is

the

809

to

is

the tendency, or measure of tendency,

produce motion, especially motion about a fixed

point or axis.

Motion

signifies

movement

in

mechanics

it

may

be either simple or compound, the latter consists of

ROGERS' DRAWING

210

of motion

velocity of a

is

sufficiently large to allow, not only for unforeseen

the rate of change of the

contingencies and the neglected causes of straining^

moving body,

an increasing

in either

or a decreasing rate.

but also for the difference between the elastic and


ultimate strength. The actual straining action mul-

by

tiplied

Power

is

the rate at which mechanical energy

is

exerted or mechanical work performed, as by a steam


engine, an electric motor, etc.

Theoretical Resistance is the


when applied to any body, either as

force which,
tension,

com-

pression, torsion or flexture, will produce in those

which are strained to the greatest extent, a


tension equal to the modulus of resistance or, in
other words, it is a load which strains a load to its
fibres

limit of elasticity.

The

Practical Resistance often

improperly termed merely resistance,

is

a definite

but arbitrary working strain to which a body

be subjected within the limits of

Ultimate Strength.
on a bar

is

If

till

for

different

the bar breaks,

is

called the ulti-

That ultimate
materials more or less
bar.

roughly proportional to the elastic strength.

may

insure the safety of a structure

termed

factor of safety^
then equated to the ultimate strength of the

is

structure

is still

2.

the value of the factor of safety must be

determined by practical experience.

The

of Safety is the ratio between


the theoretical resistance and the actual load, or,
what amounts to the same thing, the ratio between
the elastic limit and the actual tension of the fibres.
The Factor of Safety is the ratio between the
breaking load and the actual load.

As

Co-efficient

a general rule, for machine construction, the

may be taken as double that


used for construction subjected to statical

Co-efficient of Safety

which

is

The Strength of Materials

entering into mameasured by the resistance


which they oppose to alteration of form, and ulti-

chine construction

is

mately to rupture, when subjected to force, pressure,


load, stress or strain.

We

by taking care
by a factor

to multiply the actual straining action

and

this factor

forces.

the straining action

gradually increased

mate or breaking strength of the


is

may

elasticity.

the load which produces fracture

strength

DESIGN.

The

combinations of any of the simple motions.


acceleration

AND

Stress is the re-action or resistance of a body


due to the load.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Strain

is

the alteration in shape, as the result of

ing speed.

the

the stress.

211

Velocity ratio

movement

of the

is

the proportion between

power and the

resistance, in

the same interval of time.

Tenacity

\?>

the resistance which a body offers to

being pulled asunder, and


strength in

lbs.

is

measured by the

tensile

per square inch of the cross section

ViS-VlVa, or living force, is a term formerly used


to denote the energy stored in a moving body
the
term is now practically obsolete, its place being
taken by the word energy.
;

of the body.

Tensile Strength
surface,

is

the resistance per unit of

which the molecular

fibres

oppose to separ-

ation.

WorU is

the overcoming of a resistance through

measured by the amount of


by the length of space
through which it is overcome; the Principle of
Work : The foot-pounds of work applied to a
machine must equal the number of foot-pounds of
work given up by the machine plus the number
absorbed by friction.
a certain space,

Velocity is the rate of motion in kinematics,


is sometimes used to denote the amount of
;

speed

velocity without regard to direction of motion, while


velocity is not

direction

Linear
and

line,

regarded as known unless both the

and the amount are known.


velocity is the rate of
is

measured

in

(W.

motion

D.)

or per

Circjilar velocity

is

body describes an angle about a


given point, and is measured in feet per second or
per minute, or in number of revolutions per minute,
as is a pulley or shaft.
Uniform velocity takes
place when the body moves over equal distances, in
equal times.
Variab
velocity takes place when a
body moves with a constantly increasing or decreasthe rate at which a

'e

and

is

resistance multiplied

in a straight

feet per second,

minute, or in miles per hours.

I.

the

Note. The simplest possible example of doing work is to raise a


weight through a space against the resistance of the earth's attraction,
that is to sa)', against the force of gravity. For instance, if a hundred
pounds be raised vertically upwards, through a space of three feet, work
is done, and, according to the above, the amount of work done is measured by the resistance due to the attraction of the earth or gravity, i.e.,
one hundred pounds, multiplied by the space of three feet, through
which it is lifted. The product formed by multiplying a pound by a
foot is called a foot-pound. Thus, in the above instance, the amount of
work done is 300 foot-pounds. Had the weight been only three pounds,
but the height to which it was raised been 100 feet, the quantity of work
done would have been precisely the same, i.e., 300 foot-pounds.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

212

PHYSICS.
Physics

ing motion

that branch of science which treats of

is

the laws and properties of matter and the


acting

upon

it

forces

especially that department of science

(known, formerly, as Natural Philosophy) which


treats of the causes that modify the general proper-

is

called dynamics.

includes the action of forces on


solid,

liquid,

or gaseous.

It

The term
all
is

mechanics

bodies, whether

usually, however,

used of solid bodies only. Applied mechanics is the


practical use of the laws of matter and motion in the
construction of machines and structures of all kinds.

the bodies.

ties of

The

object of physics

is

presented to us by bodies

added that changes

in

the study of
;

it

phenomena

should, however, be

the nature of the body

PROPERTIES OF MATTER.

itself,

such as the decomposition of one body into others,


are. phenomena,

whose study forms the more imme-

diate object of chemistry.

The two essential properties of matter, both of


which are inseparable from it, are extension and
impenetrability.

Extension, in the three dimensions

and thickness, belongs to matter


under all circumstances and impenetrability, ox the
property of excluding all other matter from the space
which it occupies, appertains alike to the largest body
and the smallest particle.
of length, breadth,

MECHANICS.

Mechanics is that section of natural philosophy or


physics which treats of the action of forces on bodies.

That part

of mechanics which considers the action


producing rest or equilibrium is called
that which relates to such action in produc-

of forces in
statics

NoTE.

" The mechanics of

liquid bodies

is

also called hydrostatics

according as the law of rest or of motion are considered.


The mechanics of gaseous bodies is called also pneumatics.
The mechanics of 7?a?'rf5 in motion with special reference to the methods
of obtaining from them useful results constitutes hydraulics."
or hydrodynatnics

The

knowledge relating to the


matter may be found in the three fol-

limits of useful

properties of

lowing definitions
(a) "

An atom

is

an ultimate indivisible particle

Webster's

International Dictionary.

of matter."
(b)

"

An atom

is

an ultimate particle of matter

not necessarily indivisible

a molecule."

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


(c)

"An atom

is

a constituent particle of matter,

which belong not to matter universally, but only to

made up

certain classes of bodies, as elasticity, malleability, or

or a molecule supposed to be

nate particles."

As no one

W.

I.

of subordi-

the power of being extended into leaves or plates

D.

knows what matter is in the


abstract, not even the most powerful microscope
having- shown it, it were wise to rest here.

The
called

really

Mass ;

the space

it

occupies,

its

and

ductility,

length, as

or the power of being extended

when drawn

The mass

in

into wire.

of a body, or the quantity

it

contains

is

is

a constant quality, while the weight varies according

Volume ;

to the variation in the force of gravity at different

quantity of matter which a body contains


its

813

its

relative quantity of matter

under a given volume,

its

Density.

All bodies have

empty spaces denom-

places.

inated Pores.
In solids,

we may

often

see the pores with the

naked eye, and almost always by the microscope in


Huids, their existence can be proven by experiment
there are reasons for believing that even in the

THE THREE STATES OF MATTER.

amount of solid matter is small


compared with the empty spaces, hence it is inferred
densest bodies,

the

Matter

any collection of substance existing by


matter appears to us in
separate forms which however can all be reduced to
itself in

is

a separate form

three classes, namely, solids, liquids, gaseous

a solid

that the particles of matter touch each other only in

offers resistance to

a few points.

always keeping the same size or volume and the


same shape a liquid is a body which offers no resist-

There are

which are
belong to all matter, as
and divisibility ; and others still

also several other properties

known by experience
gravity, inertia,

to

The distinction between weight

and moment is one imporWeight, in mechanics, is the resistance against


which a machine acts as opposed to the power which moves it moment,
in mechanics, is the tendency or measure of tendency to produce motion,
especially motion about a fixed point or axis.

Note.

tant to have in mind.

change of shape or shape of bulk,

ance to a change
substance

in

in

shape and a gas or vapor

is

any

the elastic or air-like shape.

Note. The difference between a gas and a vapor is one less of kind
than of degree. It is important to note that experiment proves that
every vapor becomes a_gas at a sufficiently high temperature and low
pressure, and, on the other hand, every gas becomes a \apor, at sufficiently low temperature and high pressure.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

214

THREE LAWS OF MOTION.


As

there are three states of matter already de-

scribed,

i.

e.,

solids, liquids, gaseous, so there are three

laws of motion.

Law

I.

"

These are

as follows

Everybody continues

it is

Law

designer should not only

state of rest,

made

for strength,

know what

provi-

wear and tear, but

he should also be familiar with the various materials used in machine construction
he should know
what parts of the design are to be cast, forged, cast
in one piece or framed or put together of many
pieces and also how the work is done.
The principal metals used in machine construction are
Cast iron, wrought iron and steel.
;

or of uniform motion in a straight


far as

The

sions are to be

in its

MATERIALS USED IN MACHINE CONSTRUCTION.

2.

line,

except

in so

compelled by force to change that

state."

"Change

is

of (quantity of)

motion

pro-

portional to force, and takes place in the straight

line in

Law

which the force


"

To

acts."

every action there

always an equal
and contrary reaction or the mutual actions of any
two bodies are always equal and oppositely directed."
3.

is

The above

means

of studying directly the

transference of energj* from one body or system to another.

The
iron.
;

first

smelting of the iron ore pro-

Pig iron

as a rule

it is

the kind of iron required

Law two tells us among other things, how to find the one force
which is equivalent, in its action, to anj* given set of forces. For,
however many change of motion may be produced by the separate
forces, they must obviously be capable of being compounded into a single change and we can calculate what force would produce that.
three furnishes us with the

portions.

duces pig

construction

are " Newton's Laws."

Law one tells us what happens to a piece of matter left to itself, i. e.,
not acted on by forces; it preserves its " state," whether of rest or of
uniform motion in a straight line. The first law gives us also a physical definition of " time," and physical modes of measuring it.

Law

Cast iron is a mixture and combination of iron


and carbon, with other substances in different pro-

Experi-

ment, however, was required to complete the application of the law.

qualities of cast iron

is

very seldom used

in

remelted and made into


for

construction.

The

depend upon the proportion

of

carbon contained therein.

There are different trades of cast iron


1st. White cast iron contains only a very small
proportion of carbon it is very hard and brittle, it
is mostly used for manufacturing wrought iron and
:

steel.

2nd.

Gray

cast iron contains part of the carbon in

chemical combination and the rest

is

mechanically

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


mixed with the
cast iron

is

iron in the

form of graphite.

according to the quantity of carbon


graphite

it

Gray

divided into several kinds (mainly three),

contains

these are Nos.

the shape of

in

i,

and

3.

No.

contains the largest and No. 3 the smallest percentage of graphite. The first kind has a great fluidity

when melted and casts well; it has but little strength.


The las.t kind has considerable strength and makes
the mo.st rigid and massive castings.

The
sired

great facility of casting this iron into any de-

mold

is

the principal reason for

application and

its

unlimited

its

great utility in machine construc-

It

and

Steel is refined or nearly pure iron, chemically


combined with a certain per cent, of added carbon.
Its great elasticity and strength make it the most
suitable material for machine construction.
Steel is
divided into different varieties,

according to the

amount

it.

cannot be welded or riveted,


it

has but

it is

very brittle

of carbon contained

Steel can be
forged like wrought iron and it is fusible.
Its hardness depends entirely upon the per cent, of carbon
contained therein.
According to its quality it may

be used for cutlery,

in

and so forth.
In selecting materials for machine construction,
the most important properties that must be consid-

ered, are

tion.

215

bility,

ease

tools, springs

strength, stiffness, elasticity, weight, dura-

of manufacture and cost.

little elasticity.

These disadvantages cause the designer oftenThis iron


times to select more expensive materials.
is mostly used where rigidity and weight are of the
utmost importance, as for instance in bed plates,
frames, hangers, gears, pipes, etc.

MACHINES.
Machines are divided into simple and compound;
and machines when they act with great power, take
the name, generally of engines, as the pumping engine.

Wrought iron

produced by decreasing the


it cannot
quantity of carbon contained in cast iron
be cast but can be worked into form by rolling or
it can be welded, punched, riveted, etc., it
forging
For shafts it is "cold
is
flexible and malleable.
rolled," thus adding to its strength and elasticity.
is

The simple machines are six in number, viz.


The lever. The wheel and axle. The pulley.
The inclined plane. The screw. The wedge.
:

These can in turn be reduced to three classes


A solid body turning on an axis. 2. A flexible
cord.
3. A hard and smooth inclined surface.

I.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

216

of the wheel and axle and of


the principle of the
combines
the pulley, merely

For the mechanism

lever with the tension of the cords

the properties

and velocity to the motion as will enable the machine to do the required work.
The study of machines is divided by Reuleaux

of the screw depend entirely on those of the lever


and the inclined plane and the case of the wedge
is analogous to that of a body sustained between
two inclined planes.

into the following parts

All machines, however complicated they may be,


are combinations of simple mechanical devices; the

stituted.

1.

object in combining
Note.

them

is

to give such a direction

Man as a Machine. " The human body forms an example of

a machine.

work done by the body in foot


work being represented by the energy required to

Physiologists calculate the

tons, a foot ton of

one ton weight one foot high. A hard-working man in his day's
labor will develop power equal to about 3,000 foot tons, this amount
representing both the innate work of his frame involved in the acts of
living and his external muscular labor as a hewer of wood and a drawer
raise

in

The study

of

machinery

in general,

looked

connection with the work to be performed

teaches what machines exist and

2.

The theory

how they

at

this

are con-

of machines, which concerns, itself

with the nature of the various arrangements by

means

of

which natural forces can best be applied

to machinery.

The study of machine design, the province of


3.
which is to teach how to give the bodies constituting
the machine the capacity to resist alterations of
form.

of water.

"A man's heart, in twenty-four hours, shows a return equal to


that is, supposing he could concentrate all the work
120 foot tons
of the organ in that period into one big lift, it would be capable
of raising 120 tons weight one foot high. The breathing muscles, in
twenty-four hours, develop energy equal to about 21 foot tons, and
when are added the actual work of the muscles and that expended in
heat production 3,000 foot tons are arrived at as the approximate daily
;

expenditure of energy.
All this power, moreover, is developed on about eight and one-third
pounds of food a day, the supply including solid food, water and oxygen.
No machine of man's invention approaches near to his own body, thereand this for the practical reafore, as an economical energy producer
son that the human engine gets at its work directly and without loss of
'

'

power entailed in other appliances that have to transmit energy through


ways and means involving friction and other untoward conditions."

4.

T+ie study of pure mechanism, or of kinematics,

which relates to the arrangements of the machine by


which the mutual motions of its parts, considered as
changes of position, are determined.

Upon

these foundation principles have been con-

many thousands of machines instances are


on record where the number of tools and machines
have run into the tens of thousands used in a single
shop, in another more than three thousand "jigs"
were in use from this may be perceived the possibility of describing but few of the many examples.

structed

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

STRESSES, STRAINS
The

2.
Compressive or crushing strain or stress,
which produces a tendency to shorten or crush the

AND LOADS.

great variety of materials employed in ma-

chine construction

precludes a complete table

maloads and for machines

under dead and live


subjected to sudden and frequent strains of short
duration,

We

known

as shocks.

give here only a few of the most important

materials showing the


practice

factors

allowed

in

general

Dead Load.

Load.

Material
subject to
shocks.

10-15

15-20

12

MATERIALS.

Varying

Cast Iron

Wrought

Iron

Steel

Copper
Timber
Masonry and Brickwork
stresses to

constructions

mainly
I.

15

8-10

10-15

10

15

15

25

30

the direction of the load.

Shearing strain or stress produced in a piece


is distorted by a load, tending to

3.

of material which

cut

across.

it

Various metals have a different strength to resist


compressive and tensional stresses. Stress is usually

measured

in

pounds per square

inch.

As mentioned above, when a part is not loaded


beyond its limit of elasticity, the stress produced is
by the

to

the

strain

is

so

strain,

same material. This constant quantity is


modulus of elasticity. The modulus of
elasticity is found by dividing the stress by the strain.
The modulus of elasticity is also called the coefificient

If

of elasticity.

a cross section of a given bar

square inches and

if

is

equal to

this bar is subjected to a load

the

or stress, which

pounds per square


determined by the formula

pounds which may result in tensile or compressive stresses, and if the modulus of elasticity
material

in

the given bar

is

inch, then the strain

in

the

called the

of

has a ten-

that

a constant quantity

for the

subjected are of three kinds,

Tensile strain

proportional

stress divided

which constructions and parts of

may be

directly

of

dency to lengthen the body


load.

in

FACTORS OF SAFETY.

The

body

of

factors of safety for use in practice for various


terials

217

the direction of the


Strain

=E WA
X

equal

to

produced

E
is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

218

We

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY.
Pounds per

Materials.

Cast Iron

Wrought

Iron (in bars)

"

"

30,000,000
(wire)

"

increase
length of
= original
length of bar
in

Strain

bar

26,000,000

(in plates)

Brass (cast)

Copper

express this in the following formula

8,000,000

29,000,000

Steel
"

may

sq. in.

For instance

9,000,000

elongated by jV
of an inch when subjected to a load, the strain is

4,000,000

equal to tV divided by 96

(in sheets)

15,000,000

(wire)

7,500,000

It

is

a bar 8

if

ft.

long

is

rsiTT-

be remembered that the relation of the

to

proportion between the stress and the strain

The

stress or load per sq.

For

the unit stress.

to a load of 2,000 lbs.

bar

is

equal to 4

would be 2000

As has been

in.

instance,

of section

if

a bar

is

is

of the

the unit stress of the bar

sq. in.,

lbs.

said before, strain

is

the

amount

of

form of a piece of material produced


If
by a stress to which the piece is subjected.
a wrought iron bar is subjected to pulling stress
and is, as a result of this, lengthened titVt of an
inch, this change in its form in length or area, as
may be the case, is called the strain.
unit strain

is

form per unit of form.


and then it

of length,

unit of length.

the

amount

It is
is

The

true

limit.

smallest load which will cause the rupture of

a piece of material

that piece, that

alteration in

The

only within the elastic

ip

subjected

and the cross section

^4=500

called

of alteration

of

usually taken per unit

called the elongation per

can

the piece

is

is

called the ultimate strength of

the stress in

sustain

just

lbs,

per sq.

before

in.

which

rupture takes

place.

The

following

is

a table of ultimate strengths

ULTIMATE STRENGTH IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH.


Material.

Cast Iron

Wrought
Steel

Wood

Iron...

Tensile.

Compressive.

Shearing.

19,000

90,000

20,000

52,000

52,000

50,000

50,000

70,000

100,000
10,000

8,000

600

to 3,000

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Example

A
to

219

and as the given

Let us employ a factor of safety, say 5 for cast


iron.
That is, we will suppose that the load which
is
to be sustained will be 5 times greater than
80,000, i. e., 400,000 lbs.
As the piece of material
in question is subject to a compressive stress, we
find the ultimate strength of cast iron in compression, go,ooo per sq. in. of section.
To find the re-

bar measures 4 sq. in., in section, the


load required is 52,000x4^208,000

quired area of a section, divide the load, 400,000,


by the ultimate strength, 90,000, -ViriW-= 4-444

i,

wrought

Fig. 303.
iron bar 2" by 2" in section

tension by the action of a load ;

find the weight which

The

zvill

cause

it is

its

foregoing

subjected
to

rupture.

table

strengths shows 52,000


as the tensile stress,

is

required

lbs.

of

ultimate

per

sq.

in.

This

square inches.

lbs

for the block

is

the square section required

so to find the length of a side, take

root of 4.444 which


or about 2^^ inches.

the square

From

this

said above,

The
is

2.1081

inches,

example, as well as from what has been

we draw the following conclusions

resistance to compression, of a piece which

short,

lated

is

compared with

its

cross section,

by the following formula

is

calcu-

Load
Area of Section x Compressive Stress.
The compressive strength of materials is generally much more difficult to determine when the maFig.

terial is of

Fio. aM.

308.

them

Example

2,

square cast iron block

load 0/80,000
side

Fig. 304.

lbs.

of this block ?

a soft and plastic character which causes

to spread out

The method
is

required

What must

to

sustain a

be the Icjigth

of a

when under compression.

here described for the calculation of

the compressive strength of materials


in

the case where the given piece

short.

Longer pieces

is

is

true only

comparatively

of material, subjected to com-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

220

much more

pressive stresses are

difficult to calculate

It is

evident that a

beam may have

as

many

neu-

because of other strains arising from the action of

tral

the load.

beam. The bending stresses occurrino- in a beam


supported at both ends will depend not only upon
the magnitude of the forces acting thereon, but also
on the distances of the line of action of the given
forces from any section of the beam under consider-

The

example.

first

of

resistance to tension

a piece having a cross section

square inches

by the action
sile

If

calculated as in the

is

is

subjected to a tensile stress

of a load of

W pounds, and

strength in pounds per sq.

in., is

tributed over the cross section, and

then the load

W = A (area)

Resistance to shearing

is

The

the ten-

is

equal to

At any
ing action

by the same
namely

calculated

ation.

f,

f (slre"ngt'h).

formula as the resistance to tension,

W=A

if

uniformly dis-

axes as there are cross sections taken in the

is

shearing

strength

of

metals

is

sum

of

all

external forces

expressed generally as follows

the bending action must be measured by the

is

beam

the forces acting on the

The moment

100 per cent, of their ultimate

moments

relative to the

direction of
Stresses induced by bending.

When

beam

supported at both ends, the load


in the upper part, to be compressed and that in the lower part to be stretched.
We may imagine a horizontal surface separating
the compressed part of the beam from the stretched
a

is

causes the material,

We

shall call this surface the neutral surface

beam.

The

of

a force

is

equal to

the

force

multiplied by the length of the perpendicular to the

tensile strength.

of the

This

given section.
ultimate

usually from 70 to

part.

the length of the beam, the bend-

in

equal to the

at that point.

of

point

line in

which

sects a transverse section of the

neutral axis of that section.

this surface inter-

beam

is

called the

the force, from a point in which the

beam is supposed to be fixed. In Fig. 305 the


moment of the force induced by the weight of 20 lbs.
is

equal to 20 times 10 ^= 200


In Fig. 306, the

moment is

pounds.
equal to 20 x
ft.

9= 180

ft lbs.

The resultant moment


beam on one side of

the

to that section,

the

beam

fixed at

is

of

the forces acting

on

a given section, referred


called the bending moment on

at that section.

For

one end and loaded

instance, in a
at

beam

the other with a

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

DESIGN.

221

weight of lOO pounds, Fig. 307, the bending moment


at a cross section at a distance of 5 ft. from the free

end of the beam

is

x 5=500

100

ft.

lbs.

In Fig. 308, a beam supported at both ends is


shown, and where a uniformly distributed load of
pounds per unit of length and a concentrated load
pounds at a distance a from one end is given,
of

R'^

-X
Y

->

iVJC
Fig.

-a-

306-

w
Fig.

308.

Jft

be required to find the bending moment at g


First detersection, a distance x from one end.
let

it

mine by the principle of the lever, the reactions R


and R' of the points of support. The forces to the
and w X x. The
left of the given section are R,

Fig.

307.

moments

of these forces relative to the section are

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

222

R X

X,

W X (x -

resultant

and

this

ment

moment
is

-^ and the

Form of

Section

Rx-W X (x-a) - ^^

Section.

MODULU.S.

a)

and

Section
Modulus.

the required bending mo-

at the given section.

i }3D'

_.

The combined compressive stresses

3.W6 r>^.

on one side of the neutral axis of any


cross section are equal to the com-

^--B--^
I'll:.

;ji('i.

bined tensile stresses on the other

These two equal

side of that axis.

and parallel forces form a couple,


whose moment is the moment of

fJB'

6^

beam to bending- of
The moment of resist-

resistance of the
that section.

ance

equal

is

the

to

bending mo-

ment.

Suppose that the greatest compressive or tensile stress at a given


section of a

we may

beam

is

express the

equal to

moment

ance by the product of

f,

then
>,

o.//sB^

..lJ

of resist-

where z
is a quantity called the modulus of
the section, depending upon the form
fz,

i^tFiu.

S].5.

Fig. 311.

of the section of material in consideration.

The modulus
modulus

is

3./W6

of section or section

is.

9)

sometimes called resisting

inches of a section.

Fig.

312.

j^.,

i
''"3-

-i.

Fj(i. 31B.

^^

DRAWING AND DESIGN.

ROGERS'
Form of

Section
Modulus.

Section.

Section
Modulus.

223

The relation between the


bending moment and the moment of resistance may be expressed by the formula M=fz.
It

must be remembered that

this ratio

is

only true as long as

the elastic limit of the

Kii;. :11T.

beam

has not been reached.

The formula
\X

J- f6<idtL7i^)

is

based on the

supposition that the stress being


greatest at the
of

cross

top or bottom
diminishes

section,

X
Fig.

318.

d-

gradually to nothing at the neu-

-)i

tral axis of

The

the section.

following

illustrations,

Figs. 309-324, give the value of

the section modulus


sections.

drawn
Fig.

in

The

horizontal

line

each section represents

Jzl.

safe resisting

moment

is

equal to the safe stress of the


material multiplied by the section modulus.

3).

various

the neutral axis.

:ilH.

The

Fig.

z for

ROGERS' DRAWING

224

Example

What

is

B and

3.

6,000
1

2"

deep

moment

the safe resisting

beam, the extreme


per

lbs.

AND

fibre stress of

sq. in.,

when

the

of a

which

beam

is

is

lo"

wooden

equal to

wide and

Take a factor of safety equal to 6.


The section modulus for the given
according to the table ^21

'"^^'t"

DESIGN.
is

equal to

L, the weight of the load

5.

In Fig. 326

is,

= 240.

There also exists a shearing force equal to the


magnitude of the load W, which force is to be taken
equal from end to end of tlie beam.

Example
section

multiplied by the length of the beam.

is

carrying a load

shown a beam

uniformly distributed.

imwMB

The

y//////A////

one end,

vmrn
^:

fixed at

fy/Mm^

,,

J.

->

Lt

m^r<i<
Ftg.

Fig.

325.

The extreme stress for the given material is equal


to 6,000 lbs.
As a factor of safety equal to 6 has
been taken into account, we divide 6,000 by the
6^1,000 lbs.
Then the safe resisting moment of a section of the
beam is equal to 240 x 1,000=240,000 inch pounds.

factor

Useful examples of bending moments.

Example 4,
The beam is
at the other.

The

one end while the load acts

greatest bending-

to

moment

is

again at

B and

is

equal

% WL.
Example

6.

we have

beam supported at each


end and loaded exactly in the middle. The greatest bending moment in this case is at B and it is
equal to ^
X L. There also exists a shearing
In Fig. 327

Fig. 325.
fixed at

greatest bending

326.

moment

is

at

force

equal

throughout.
o

to

W,

this

force

being uniform

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The

in Fig. 328 is supported at each


The greatest bending
uniformly.
loaded
end and is
moment is at the middle of the beam and is equal
to 5^
X L- When compared with the bending

The beam shown

greatest shearing force

supports and

225

is

equal to yi

Example

8.

When

beam

the

is

is

at the

ends near the

W.

fixed securely at each end,

and

B
---it-

FiG.

.'If

32T.

y 4

Fig.

moment in the preceding example, we see that a


beam may carry a load two times greater when the
load

is

distributed uniformly throughout the beam.

'1

328.

loaded at the center, as in Fig. 329, the greatest


bending moment is at the center and at each end,
and is equal to i/^
x L- This is based on the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

226

supposition that the cross section of the

beam

should be made as short as possible and the depth


as great as circumstances will permit. With the same

is

uniform throughout its full length.


The bending
moments at the ends are contrary to the bending

moments

at the center,

bottom of the beam


be subjected to

will

tension, while at the

ends
will

bottom

the

that

is,

\y//y////A

|^^^
f///^M(^

area of section, the deeper the

at the center, the

it

will be,

^^\

'y///X^///^^

|>V
\\\\\\\\
.

the stronger

lateral breaking.

Various

princi-

ples of strength of

compression.

materials
9,

applica-

the

tion of

be subject to

Example

beam

provided the breadth of the beam is sufprevent


ficient to

will'

be

discussed in connec-

Fig.
Fig.

330.

tion with the design

329.

beam,
uniform
cross section from

of different parts of

end to end

fixed

for

both

signing

When

having

machines.

securely

is

at

Another requisite

ends, the load which

the

beam

carry,

is

being

made

to

ties
Flu.

materials

of

machine

bending moment

is

greatest at the

moments at the ends.


If a beam is required

bility

to

be very

stiff,

the length

to

the

adaptability

are to be subjected

form.

construc-

In selecting materials for machine parts the

tion.

designer must consider their properties

is

at the center

for

;J30.

equal to tV WL.
The bending moment
is equal to yi of the moment at the
ends, that is, equal to 5V WL, and is contrary to the

ends and

a knowl-

commonly used

distrib-

Fig. 330, the

is

de-

edge of the proper-

uted uniformly, as
in

successful

for
;

the

work

to

in

regard

which they

the strength, stiffness, dura-

and convenience of working into the necessary

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

machine properly constructed, must be able to


withstand the stress to which its various parts are to
be put, and this depends entirely on their action and
endurance, as conditioned by the forms of the parts

By

of the machines.

the word stress

we mean a force

acting between two bodies or two parts of the

same

body when subjected

This

to the action of a load.

understood to resist the load in preventing it


from changing the form of the machine or its parts.
force

is

The combination

of

all

we

itself,

and

new

force

this resisting force

call stress.

All the external forces are called the load of the

machine.

The

When

under the influence of a load the piece of


material is permanently deformed
that is, does not
return to its original form when the load is removed

we say that the

limit of elasticity of the material

has been reached.

Up

to the limit of elasticity the stress

proportional

to

the

strain

beyond the

elasticity the strain increases taster


until rupture

is

is

directly
limit of

than the stress

produced.

external forces acting on

a part of a structure calls into e.xistence a

within the structure

2Ji7

effect of the load is the strain

pro-

duced in the machine the strain is the tendency to


change the form of the machine part under the
The resistance which is
influence of the load.
offered by a material to the change of form resulting
from the application of a load, combined with its
natural power of returning to its original shape after
the load is removed, is called its elasticity.
When a piece of material deformed somewhat

The loads to which material can be subjected may


be divided primarily into two classes a dead load
is one which is applied slowly and remains steady
and unchangeable a live load is one which constantly changes, being either alternately imposed and
removed, or varying in intensity and direction.
:

when subjected
original

form

to

load

returns exactly to

as soon as the load

piece of material

is

in certain limits of

is

its

removed, the

said to be perfectly elastic with-

a load.

To

avoid the danger accompanying an unforeseen

intensity of strain, which

may produce

undesirable

deformation or rupture, as may be caused by imperfect workmanship, poor quality of material or other
resist

machine are usually made to


a much greater load than will be brought on

them

in the regular course.

causes, the parts of a

The expected

load

is

supposed to be greater, and for this reason is multiplied by a number known as the factor of safety.

The

factor of safety varies for different materials

according to their structure and application, as well

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

228

as for the
ditions to

same kind
which

it

of material according to con-

may be

The proper way

to

draw a screw thread as it acis by laying out a

tually appears in a finished screw,

subjected.
liable to

curve or curves upon the surface of the cylinder,

change, the factor of safety must be larger than for

forming the body of the bolt.


This curve is called
a helix ; the helix may be defined as a curve generated by progressive rotation of a point around an
axis, remaining equidistant from the axis through-

For

materials,

the quality of which

is

is more uniform and


change through atmospheric exposure

materials the quality of which


less liable to

or varying temperature.

happens that in some structures the whole load


cannot be ascertained with accuracy in such cases
the factor of safety must be increased as a safeguard
against unexpected straining action.
It may also
happen that in some machines the working load may
be suddenly increased for such accidental strains a
factor of safety must be allowed.
It

out the length of the motion.

When

a machinist desires to cut a thread upon a

cylinder, he will first

change the gears of the Lathe

to produce the desired

number

inch of length of the screw

of threads toreach

being done, the


cylinder is put in place on the centers of the lathe
and the thread cutting tool is then set to its proper
;

this

angle.

SCREWS, BOLTS AND NUTS.


In

all

Before proceeding to cut the thread, the tool

working drawings consideration should be

given to the manner of uniting the different parts of


the machine.
Screws play a most important part in

machine design, particularly as a means


the different parts together.

The

for fastening

representation of

and screw threads is consequently of such importance that a knowledge of their proportions and
the usual method of drawing them, is of great consideration to machine draughtsmen
the exact representation of a screw thread is somewhat difificult it
takes both time and care.
bolts

moved

close to

tiic

is

work, so as to trace a fine line

upon the surface of the cylinder when the machine


is put in motion
the fine spiral produced upon the
;

surface of the cylinder in this manner,

is

the helix of

the screw.

To dram a helix, the diameter and


height of one turn being given.
The heiijht of one turn of a helix is called its

Problem

pitch.

Let the diameter of the cylinder be


pitch

2".

3"

and the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Draw

ABCD

tion

to

the elevation of the cylinder

bottom view

its

229

2, 3, etc.,

i,

may be

AB

equal to

12

eleva-

and

is

equal

helix.

the pitch from the point

off

above

The

four inches high, that

two complete turns of the

Lay

ABCD

Fig. 331.

upon the

Divide the pitch

12 B.

line

12

any number of equal parts, for instance in this


case 12.
Divide the circle into the same number of
into

Through

equal parts.
circle,

draw

the points of division on the

lines parallel to the

tend them through the

line

AB

and

ex-

height of the front view

full

ABCD.
Through the point
draw
line

i-i'
I

parallel to

in

i'

the point

quired helix.
sions,

i'

Through

draw the

of the divisions of the pitch,

AD,

intersecting the vertical

which

is

a point

the point

line 2-2' parallel to

secting the vertical line 2

the re-

AD

at the point

and interwhich is

2',

helix.

Through the point

3 of

draw the

line 3-3' parallel to

AD

another point of the


the pitch divisions

2'

in

of the pitch divi-

and cutting the vertical line 3 3' in the point 3',


which is a third point of the required helix. Proceed in this manner until the sixth point of the helix
is found
it will be situated on the line DC.
The
points A, i', 2', 3', 4', 5' and 6' determine the position
:

of one-half of a turn of the helix,

through these points,

first in

which may be traced


and then inked in.

pencil

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

330

same mariner the second half of the first


The accompanying illusturn may be completed.
repetition
of the above explanarenders
a
tration
In the

tion unnecessary.

The second

half of the turn

is

drawn dotted, as it is on the other side of the cylinThe second turn may be
der and cannot'be seen.
laid out by the aid of the points of the first turn of
Set the comthe helix in the following manner.
passes to a distance equal to the pitch and lay ofi
the points i", 2", 3", etc., above the corresponding
point

i!,

2',

3',

etc.,

of the first turn of the helix.

cannot be employed

in

the shop in drawing machin-

ery, where, as a rule, the


is

number of

bolts

and screws

very considerable.

The

numerous on some
customary to make separate dol^
sheets, showing all screws necessary for one machine,
in all their different sizes and forms.
bolts,

machines, that

nuts, etc., are so


it is

The square thread shown


when drawn by straight

appear,
334,

in

Fig.

333,

and the V-thread shown before would be drawn

as in Fig. 335.

A thorough understanding of the above problem is


of considerable use, not only for drawing large sized
screws, but especially for drawing a
gears,

which

worm

for

worm

will be explained later.

screw with a V-thread, drawn with exact helical

curves
It is

is

shown

made

of

in Fig. 332.

two

one for the top of the

thread and the other for the root of

it.

shows a screw with a square thread. An


examination of the drawing will show that the thread
two helices upon the
is drawn with four helices
outside of the cylinder, the top of the thread, and
two for the root of the thread. It is evident that
the method of drawing screw threads with helices
Fig. 333

while producing an exact representation of the screw

v^

We

have so far considered only right-handed


right-handed screw is one, which passing
through a fixed nut and turned in the direction of
the motion of the hands of a clock, will advance into

screws.

the nut.

helices,

would

lines only, as in Fig.

which to pass through


a fixei nut^ must be turned in a direction opposite to
Such a thread is
the motion of the hands of a clock.
shown in Figs. 336 and 337. Screws maybe either
left-handed screw

is one,

single-threaded or double-threaded.

If

we assume

that a screw consists of a cylinder with a coil form-

ing the thread

wound around

it,

we may easily

define

a double screw as a cylinder with two parallel coils

To avoid the difficult and tedious operation of drawing the


screw threads are generally indicated by straight lines only.

Note.
helices,

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

333.

Fig.

33:3.

231

Fig.

334.

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.

232

of thread

wound around

it.

Generally the double-

threaded screw is defined as one having two paralled


threads.
A screw having three parallel threads is
called

a triple-threaded

screws are shown

The distance

Double-threaded

screw.

in Figs.

(Outside)

betzveen the centers

of two

is

successive

called the pitch

340 and 341 the pitch is equal


to the distance tvhich the screw will advance into a
fixed nut during one turn.
Figs.

Fig 341 shows the pitch of a square thread.


It is
equal to twice the pitch of the triangular thread.

Screw threads are generally either triangular or


square in section, although some other forms are in
use.

S.

Standard Screw Threads.

Threads per
Inch.

Diameter at Root
OF Thread.

Diameter op
Tap Drill.

20

0.1S5

18

0.240

-h
\

1(5

0.294

14
13

0.344

A
S3

12

0.454

11

0.507

1
rf

10

0.620

1"

0.731

0.837

0.940

M
M

li
If

1.065

Diameter of
Screw.

338 and 339.

threads in a single-threaded screw

of the screw.

Table of U.

t\

\
-h
%
\
1
1

7T

0.4011

il-

1.160

lA

1.284

I5V

If
If

5i

1.389

1.491

m
n

Fig. 342.

1.616

i|

The U. S. Standard screw, known also as the


Franklin Institute Standard, was presented to that

4i

The

triangular thread

is

called the V-thread.

The

form of V-thread most commonly used in this country,


known as the U. S. Standard thread, is shown in

Institute

him
tute

by Mr.

in 1864.

As

Wm.

this,

i|-

4
4

2.176

'H^

2.426

h\

2.629

2p-

3i
3i

3.100

3.567

H
H

2i

paper read by

^
2|

recommended for general adoption by American

engineers the following rules and table of standard


threads

1.712

1.962

the Franklin Insti-

Sellers, in a

a result of

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The

proportion of pitch to diameter

P=o.24

The depth

-v/D

of the thread

+ 0.625 o.
is

The

is

FlO.

the root of the thread

is

always meant

The diameter measured

the outside diameter.


is

To

find the

one inch by the number of threads.


Eight threads to one inch give a pitch of ys".

75
0.65 of the pitch.

the term diameter of the screw

table does not give the pitch.

pitch, divide

FlO. 3%.

By

233

at

called the inside diameter.

FlO.

336.

337.

In the foregoing table of U. S. Standard Screw


Threads, the number of threads to one inch of screw
is

given from i^

to 4" in diameter.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

234

The

third

column gives the diameter

of the screw

The

next column

to be used for

any required

at the root, or the inside diameter.

gives the diameter of

drill

They are

ordinarily a

little
diameter of tap or thread.
laro-er than the diameter at the root of the thread.

Fig.

338.

drawing screw threads it may be neglected entirely.


For a square-threaded screw, the number of threads
per inch is equal to one-half the number on a Vthreaded screw.

Fig.

339.

The screw thread is formed with straight lines at


an angle of 60 to each other. The top and bottom
of the thread are flattened, each to a width of ^^th

form, the width of the thread

of the pitch, Fig. 343.

Fig- 344-

For small diameters of bolts the amount of flatis not made to any particular measure, and in

tening

In

of the

square-threaded screw of U. S. Standard


is equal to the width

groove

The depth
of the pitch

each

equal to one-half the pitch,

of the thread

that

is,

is

also equal to one-half

equal to the width of the groove.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Figs.

345-350 exhibit the conventional methods

of showing; different threads of a bolt.

235

Fig. 346 represents a single square-thr

To draw

the screw,

first

draw the

aded screw.

cylinder.

Lay

off

distances each equal to one-half the pitch and through


the division points draw lines at right angles to the
axis of the cylinder, and cutting the other side of
the cylinder, the inclination of the parallel lines indicating the thread through the width of the cylinder

being equal to one-half the pitch.

This method

is

clearly illustrated in Fig. 346.

Fig.

312.

Fig. 345 shows a single V-threaded screw,


To
draw the screw lay out the outlines of the cylinder
of the bolt and upon one of its sides set off distances
each equal to the pitch.
Do the same on the other

side of the cylinder beginning at a point one-half the


pitch

from the end of the cylinder,

the lines for the top of the thread.


Figs. 340

and

341.

of division

draw

after

which draw

From

the points

lines inclined to each other 60 for

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

236

the threads, on both sides of the cylinder, then connect the roots by straight

It will

lines.

be noticed

that these lines are not parallel to the lines connect-

ing the tops of the thread.


Fig. 347

shows a

still

simpler method of represent-

The pitch is laid oft as in


The heavy lines represent

ing a V-threaded screw.


the preceding example.

the bottom of the thread.

The method employed


rapid in delineation and
for rapid drawing.

in

is,

is still more
recommended

Fig. 348

therefore,

Here the heavy

lines are

used

to represent the top of the thread, the fine lines inFiQ.

343.

dicatinjj the

bottom

of the thread.

In Fig. 349 the fine lines are drawn as long as


the heavy lines, which makes the drawing of the

thread

still

easier.

method

of indicating screw

when great haste is necessary and


shown in Fig. 350.

threads

Pitch
1^-

i Pitch

>k

i
-k P'fcf*

ing

is

for sketch-

In drawing the thread as illustrated in the last

four figures, no particular attention need be given to

the

number

of

threads per inch.

note written

plainly on the drawing, very near to the representa-

tion of the screw, gives the exact


to the inch.

Even

this

diameter of the screw


Fig. 3.

is

may be

number
left

of threads

out

when

the

plainly given, with the note

"standard" near it; in this case the workman is


expected to determine the number of threads to
the inch from the table of U. S. Standard Threads.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The

proportions of bolt heads and nuts

have been accepted


as follows

The
lel

in this

The

which

curve cde

is

237

drawn

to the height of the nut.

country as a standard are

first,

with a radius equal

When

the points c and e

are thus determined, a fine straight line

distance between the paral-

and nuts is equal


times the diameter of the

sides of heads

to

Yi

plus

bolt,

y%

inch=i3^

D +

5^

inch.

The

thickness of heads

to one-half of the distance

is

equal

between

the parallel sides.


i}4

D+

ys inch.

The

thickness of nuts

is

equal to

bolt^ D.
The same proportions are used

the diameter of the

for square

In

all

Fia.

Fia.

:i45.

heads and nuts.

these formula;

D expresses

the diameter of the bolt.

shows the conventional


method of representing a hexagonal
Fig. 351

nut for a 2" bolt,


nut

is

equal to

may be drawn

2".

The height of the


The two views

similar to the

two

views of a hexagonal prism,

ex-

plained in the chapter on projection.

Fio.

349.

346,

is

drawn

238

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

351.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


through these points and extended in both directions so as to cut all vertical edges of the nut in both
Arcs are then
views, at the points a, g, h, k and m.

239

with compasses, after a centre is found by trial with


the compasses.
The chamfer at aa and g3 may be

drawn by 45

lines,

from the points a and g respec-

tively.

Fia.
Fig.

352.

Fig.

drawn through the points a, b, c and through e, f, g.


The same is done in the other view in passing arcs
through h, k and k, 1 and m. These arcs are struck
i,

354.

Fig.

a55.

353.

This is not the exact construction of the curves as


they appear on a hexagonal nut.
However, the
exact curves are not of any importance on a working drawing, and it will be found that this prac-

tical

effects a material saving of time

shop method

particularly as the representation


is

chine drawing.

In drawing a hexagonal nut or head,

it is

of very frequent occurrence in

the general custom to

show three

square nut or bolt head

generally
a

bolt

check nuts.
ient to

is

make both

ard thickness, that

faces of each.

is

faces.

equal to

y^ times the diameter of the bolt plus


inch.
^

The

height

is

equal

the distance between the

parallel faces.

The

arc for the

chamfer of the head is usually


drawn with a radius equal to 2^
times the diameter of the bolt.
A set screw is shown in Fig.

hexagonal

nuts of stand-

equal to the

although it
often found that the inner nut

diameter of the

In the illustration the outer nut

y%
to

is

more convenis

thinner.

chamfered on both

The

Fig. 352 illus-

with

It is

made

DESIGN.

In Fig. 353 a bolt with a square head is shown.


distances between the parallel faces of this head

ma-

shown by drawing one

face of each only.


trates

is

of

and trouble,
heads and nuts

is

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

240

bolt,

354.

The

figure

illustrates all

required proportions, as they are

Fig.

356.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


commonly used. The point of the set screw
usually made with an arc having a radius equal

is

to

four times the diameter of the screw.

is one which is threaded at both ends.


end being screwed into one of the
one
Fig. 355,

stud-bolt

The

241

way of representing screws with


square heads is shown in Figs, 357, 358. A round
head screw is shown in Fig. 359. The head of the
screw

conventional

is

In the top view the parallel lines

slotted.

showing the

should be drawn at an angle of


45^^ with a horizonal line.
This head is particularly
adopted for countersunk work.
In conclusion a few words are added concerning
the strength of bolts.
Tke weakest part of the bolt
is the section at the bottom of the thread.
The following is a table of the tensile strength of U. S.
Standard Bolts at 5,000 lbs. per sq. in.
slots

Tensile Strength of U. S. Standard Bolts


AT 5,000 LBS. PER Square Inch.

'rd-

Diameter of
Screw.

Tensile
Strength.

Diameter of
Screw.

Tensile
Strength.

i...

-lU-

I---

h
1
1^
i

^
FiQ.

Fig.

3oT.

Fig.

358.

%
\

3.59.

pieces of a machine to be connected, while the other

end passing through the other


fastened to the
Fig. 356,

which

first,

piece,

carries an

illustrates

fastened to a cylinder head.

how

which

is

to

be

ordinary nut, as in
a stuffing box

is

\
1

H
li
The figures

134
226
339
465
625
809
980
1,500
2,100
2,750
3,450
3,900

1-1

H
H
If
i|
2

H
H
4
3
3^
4

5,300
6,400
7,650
8,800
10,150
11,500
15,600
18,500
23,000
27,200
37,700
49,500

in the second and fourth columns show the total load


In calculating
bolts of the above diameters.
the strength of a bolt the stress to which it is subjected by the use of

which can be sustained hy

the wrench must be taken.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

242

The

show the
of

second and the fourth columns


load which can be sustained by bolts

figures in the

the

total

respective diameters.

In

resisting strength, the value of the safe stress per

square inch of section must be taken comparatively


low, and it is advisable for the purpose of overcoming all difficulties here mentioned, not to take the

calculating the

strength of a bolt, the stress to which

it is

k-

subjected

-15D

Q4

*W

0>|o

0)|b
Fio.

by the use of the wrench must be taken into consideration.


Small bolts frequently break because of
this strain.

safe stress higher than 5,000 lbs. per sq.


in

may

not be

known

as to

its

in.

as given

the table.

360 shows the generally adopted proportions


The wrench may be drawn for any
of a bolt head or nut, with the proportions of

Fig.

necessary to take into account the manner in which the load is applied.
As the nature
It is also

of metal of the bolt

360.

of a wrench.
size

the parts as given in this illustration.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Other injurious

RIVETS AND RIVETED JOINTS.

243

punching are, i, the


spacing by this method, and 2,
the fact that a punched hole is always tapered, the
wider end of the hole being tha't next to the die.
effects of

difficulty of correct

For fastening together two or more comparatively


thin pieces of metal, rivets are generally employed
;

found in boiler work,


plates
by riveting is found to
where the joining of
be the only practical method.
This method of fastening, however, is comparatively expensive and unsatisfactory in many ways
the rivets form a permanent fastening and can only
be removed by cutting off one of the heads this
creates trouble and expense.
The process of punching the holes in the plates
for riveting also has a serious effect by reducing the
tensile strength of the plates by the disturbing influence of the punch on the metal near the riveted
their greatest application

is

joints

work the holes are now generally


this, again, is more expensive,
without the use of multiple drilling ma-

for better

made by
especially

drilling

chines.

The

due to punching, when the plates have


may be remedied
by annealing them after punching; the ill effect of
punching may also be removed by punching the
injury

not been cracked by the process,

holes ys" smaller in diameter than the required size


of the hole, which may then be completed by reaming.

Fig.

361.

Rivets are made in different forms


commonly employed being of a spherical
form, as illustrated in Fig. 361
rivet

show the

spherical head.

that most

or cup head

both parts of

this

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

244

The

rivet

shown

in Fig.

362 has a conical head,

the lower part showing a pan head.

The

right pro-

In
rivet

in

the illustrations.

is

taken as the unit of

is

The

portions of the parts of the above rivets are given

the above illustrations the diameter of the


all proportions.

all

construction of the spherical head, Fig. 361,

as follows

Fio.

With
rivet,

36.3.

a radius equal to one-half the diameter of

from the center

on the

vertical center line,

describe a circle cutting the center line at the points


Fig.

Fig. 363

The

usual

shows a

B and

rivet with

proportions

marked on the

382.

figure.

of

this

countersunk heads.
kind of rivet are

C.

Set the compasses to the distance

and from the point B as

center, describe

an arc

BC
cut-

ting the outline of the upper plate in the point D.

Make BE

equal to the distance

AD

and with E as

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


center and

CD

as

radius,

describe the arc which

forms the outhne of the spherical head.


The construction of the other kinds of rivets may
be easily understood from the illustrations without
special explanation.

245

The length of the rivet required to form the head


about i^ times the diameter of the rivet.
For
countersunk rivet heads, a trifle more than one-half
is

of this

amount

is

allowed.

Riveted joints may give way because of the tearing of the plates between the rivets, as illustrated in
Fig.

364,

by breaking of the plates between the

ROGERS" DRAWING AND

246

DESIGN.

and the edge of the plate, as shown in


Fig. 365
by crushing of the plate or by crushing of
the rivet, and by the breaking of the rivet through
shearing, as indicated by Fig. 366.
By the pitch of rivets is meant the distance between the centers of two adjoining rivets, in a
single riveted joint, that is where the seam is
formed by one row of rivets, Fig. 367. When
more than one row of rivets make the joint, the
pitch is the distance between the center lines of
'"
-;
rivets in the same row, Fig. 368.
rivet holes
;

Fig.

3fi.

J=>itch

Fig. 3H7

Fig.

368.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

247

Fig. 370.

T^i

Fig.

The

3T1.

distance between the centers of two adjoin-

ing rivets, both in the

same diagonal row

is

called

the diagonal pitch, Fig. 369.


The strength of a riveted joint depends upon
the arrangement of the rivets and upon their proportions.

Since a rivet
crushing,

it

is

may

part either by shearing or by

necessary for a given thickness of

plate to find the proper diameter of a rivet having

f/

v^^/'

''^^''

ROGERS' DRAWING

248

equal shearing and crushing strength.

The

AND

DESIGN.

rela-

between the thickness of the plate and the diameter of the rivet, calculated for single shear, is
tion

^\

/A

\^

.^

^^

Fig.

Fig.

374.

Fig.

375.

373.

expressed by the following formula;, of which the


first

is

rivets

true for iron rivets

and the second

for steel

vS

d=2.o6
d=2.28

for iron rivets.

for steel rivets.

Fig.

?^

^'k

376.

ft

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


d expresses the diameter of the rivet and

249

stands

for the thickness of the plate.

For
rivet

plates thicker than f ^-in. the diameter of the


smaller in proportion to the thickness

-nSSr^

may be

of the plate than

The

is

required by these formulae.

proportions

for lap-joints

and

commonly observed

single-strap butt-joints

in
is

practice

given

in

the following- table:

Thickness of plate in inches.


Diameter of rivet in inches

Numerous

14

i\

J_

styles of riveted joints are in

;
Fig.

377.

Fig.

378.

4
H

general

The two classes into which the different styles


may be divided are the lap-joint and the butt-joint.
use.

In the lap-joint, Fig. 370, the plates overlap each


other.

Figs. 371, 372

show other examples

of this

form of riveted joint.


Fig. 373 shows a butt-joint.
Here the plates are
butted against each other and a cover plate or strap
is placed over their junction and the rivets passed
through the plates and strap. Fig. 374 shows a
butt-joint with two cover plates.
The examples of joints thus far illustrated differ
as to the number of rows of rivets that are used for
the seam.

Fig. 370

plate

is

is

a single-riveted joint.

.1 _.
I

Si

--U

The

in

pierced by only one row of rivets.

'^

^1.

Figs. 373, 374, are also singleIn a single-riveted joint the edge of each

butt-joints
riveted.

shown

Fig.

3.9.

w- ^m-i-m^

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

250

^
^--^

Fig.

A
Fig.

similar joint for

S/i'

Here the pitch


376.
holes being made i

380.

".

is

plates

Another

riveted.

the positions of the rivets

in

one row are

opposite the spaces between the rivets in the other


row, the seam

The

staggered.

following illustrations are examples of riveted

joints taken

Fig. 375
plates,

is

from practice

having

in boiler

work.

double-riveted lap-joint for two


-j-l"

rivets,

the rivets in this case

is

1/%

holes.

equal to 2^".

The

pitch

also

shown

in Fig.

the rivets ir', the


joint of the same

371

When

is

2^" and

and 372 show double-riveted joints


here the edge of each plate is pierced by a double
row of rivets. When the rivets are opposite each
other, as in Fig. 372, the seam is known as chainFigs.

,~^

381.

y^,"

of
FiG.

382.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

251

/^Si'.

im*

Fig.

383.

Fig.

character
plates

is

and

385.

illustrated in Fig.

same

rivets are the

the pitch, however,

is

33^

377.

Here

as in

Fig. 376

made

is

fl

',

the rivets

and the pitch

i|"

butt-joint with

shown

lyV'.

is

in Fig.

the holes are

is 3".

double cover plates

trated in Fig. 379. Here the plate is


The inner covering strap
i" rivets.

the outside strap

".

In the double-riveted lap-joint


378, the plate

the

equal

in

is

illus-

|" steel
is

J^g"

and

thick,

thickness to that of

the plate.

Similar joints are shown in Figs.


382, 383

The
Fici.

3M.

and

joint

frequently.

380,

381,

384.

shown

in Fig.

385

is

not used very

POWER TRANSMISSION.
The

word transmission comes from two Latin words, trans, across, or over, and mittere,
from one place to another; the illustration of a few devices for the transmission
of power from its cause to its place of useful employment is the limit of this section of design.
Prime movers or receivers of power, are those pieces or combination of pieces of mechanism which
receive motion and force directly from some natural source of energy
the mechanism belonging to the
prime mover may be held to include all pieces which regulate or assist in regulating the transmission of
oft-repeated

to send, hence, to carry

energy,

from

the source of energy or power.

Throughout this preliminary sketch, power and energy are used synonymously.
The useful zvor k of the prime mover is the energy exerted by it upon that piece which it directly
drives; and the ratio which this bears to the energy exerted by the source of energy is the efficiency of
the prime mover; in all prime movers the loss of energy may be distinguished into two parts, i, 7iecessary

loss ;

The

2,

zvaste.

sources of power in practical use

Weight
of a prime mover
mals, (b)

Among

of liquids, (c)
is its

useful

Motion

work

in

may be

classed as follows

(a)

of fluids, (d) Heat, (e) Electricity

some given

Strength of

men and

and magnetism.

ani-

The duty.

unit of time, as a second, a minute, an hour, a day.

examples of power transmission may be mentioned the case of a man hauling up


weight with a rope or pushing or pulling an oar or capstan; in these instances the man is the prime
mover and the duty performed is the raising of the weight and the moving of the vessel.
The various combinations of mechanical 'povfers produce no force they only apply it. They form
the communication between the moving power and the body moved ; and while the power itself may be incapable of acting except in one direction, we are able by means of cranks, levers, and gears, to direct and
modify that force to suit our convenience. Every one may see examples of this in the construction of
the most common pieces of machinery as well as in the most complicated.
the

first

355

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

256

SHAFTS.
When

a shaft

is

twisting strain

rotated by a lever attached to

it,

is

obtained by multiplying the length

point at which the force

of the lever or to a point at the rim of the pulley or

to R, Fig. 386, then

?;

from the

of the lever, or the perpendicular distance

as in Fig. 3S6, or by a pulley or a gear-wheel as in


Fig. 387, and a force P is applied to the free end

is

the shaft, by the force P.

R X

twisting moment and

is

applied to the center of


If this

= T,

expressed

equal to the resisting

moment

For finding the diameter

is

in inch

called the

pounds.

moment must be

evident that the twisting

It is

distance be equal

which

of the shaft.

of a crank shaft of a

stationary engine with cylinders up to 30" in diameter


at the pitch-circle of the

gear-wheel a twisting strain

produced on the shaft, this twisting strain causes


combination
of stresses within the fibres of the
a
is

some

authorities

practical rule

recommend

the

following

The diameter

of the crank shaft

is

equal to the

radius of the cylinder minus 5^ of an inch.


In practice many different diameters are found

performing the same work.

Now

T = twisting moment

let

pounds.

per minute.

on shaft

in inch

= number of revolutions of the shaft


H = horse power transmitted, then the

horse power equals

3.1416

XT X N
:

0.00001587

OJ'"-

The number

Fig.

38:

which mainly consist of shearing stress. The


shearing stress is equal to nothing at the center of the
shaft and it is greatest at its circumference.
The
shaft,

formula expresses
33,000 foot pounds of work performed per minute,
and this amount of work is called one horse power.
33,000 in

The above formula

this

gives a

method

horse power transmitted by a shaft.

of finding the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Rule

Multiply the

twisting

moment

in

The number

inch

257

of revolutions

pounds by the number of revolutions per minute,


and multiply the product by the number o.oooo1587 the product will be the horse power transmitted by the shaft.

from the same formula

Example

Example

12

^ "2

may

X 33,000 X H 63025.21 X
'^
X 3. 14 6 XT~
T

must make per minute

Solution

produces the twisting moment.

wheel,=i8
inches by the force applied, ^4,000 pounds, and
multiply the product by the number of revolutions
and by the number 0.00001587: Horse power=
18 X 4000 X 100 X 0.00001587=114.264.
Multiply the

From

pitch

radius

of

find the

X
X

of revolutions which a shaft

in order to transmit 114.264


a force of 4,000 pounds acting on
the pitch circle of a gear-wheel of 36" in diameter

horse power,

Solution
18

when

The twisting moment in this


X 4,000= 72,000-inch pounds

to

of 100.2 or the revolutions per minute.

33,000

3.1416

X N

63025.21

ered

in

which

the same formula the twisting

moment may

be determined when the horse power transmitted by


the shaft and the number of its revolutions are
given.

equal

is

To find the num-

power 114.264 by 72,000 and multiply the product


by the number 63025.21 thus obtaining a quotient

is

the twisting

moment

to transmit a given horse

The cube

only

is

to be consid-

calculating the diameter of a round shaft,

speed, the following formula

From

case

ber of revolutions required divide the given horse

When
12

number

the

the above formula the following expres-

sions are obtained

Find the horse power transmitted by a shaft making 100 revolutions per minute, provided with a
gear wheel 36 inches in diameter (pitch circle), the
turning force being 4,000 pounds.

To

also be obtained

thus,

power

may be used

at a given
:

of the diameter of the shaft or.

Twisting moment
0.196

stress in

pounds per square

inch.

;;

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

258

The

pounds per square inch at


For
the outer fibres of the diameter of the shaft.
steel shafts the stress may betaken at 10,000 pounds
and for wrought iron at 8,000 pounds per square
stress

is

taken

in

inch.

Long

shafts are subjected to

and bending

DESIGN.

pulleys are on the shaft the closer the bearings must

The beams may be

placed about 8 feet apart,


be provided with a hanger on its
lower side. To prevent end motion on shafts a
collar is placed on each side of one of the bearings.
be.

and each beam

combined twisting

actions.

Let B

= bending moment

== twisting moment

JOURNALS.
That part

of a horizontal shaft

= the equivalent twisting moment.


Then Ti = B + V^M^T^

on a journal acts

In practice for long shafts in factories the follow-

axis.

Ti

ing simple formula

D^

The speed
upon

it.

in

When

journal.

The

in a direction

the shaft

is

placed

in

depends upon the speed of

machine shops are run from

120 to

is

The more

in

its axis.

and as long as

necessary to keep the pressure per square inch as

small as possible.

This pressure per square inch

is

not measured on a circumference of the journal but

will

should not be great enough to permit a deflection

pressure of a shaft placed

as the required strength will permit

in diameter.

distance between the centers of the bearings

The

The journal of a vertical shaft is called a pivot.


The diameter of a journal must be made as small

by the area of

foot of length.

its

an inclined posi-

a vertical position acts in the direction of

more than ^w" per

pressure of a shaft

perpendicular to

axis of the shaft.

of revolutions of shaft.

200 to 250 revolutions per minute. Shafts in woolen


mills run up to 400 revolutions per minute.
Line
shafts should, as a rule, not be less than i^" thick

The

z.

number

of the shaft

Shafts

called

in

tion the pressure acts in a direction inclined to the

150 revolutions per minute; wood


working machinery shafts usually run from about

about

is

which rotates

recommended
125 X horse power

is

bearing

the driving belt or by the diameters of the pulleys

of

to

Example:

its

projection.
journal 3" in diameter and 6" long

have a projected area of

inches.

Now

if

pounds per square inch then the


X 300=5,400 pounds.

equal to 18

X 6=18 square

the pressure of the journal

is

300

total pressure

is

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING
Example

If

the total pressure of a 3

"

then the length of the journal


,

If

and 6 inches long and

eter

is

its

3 inches in

total

diam-

pressure

is

to be 5,400 pounds, then the pressure per

square inch of projected area

is

To

Wrought

iron pi^-ot on

Cast iron pivot


pounds.

found as follows:

find the pressure per square inch of projected

on gun metal bearing, 470

iron bearing

on lignumvitae bearing,

to the latest practice

it seems, howwhich have to run continuously,


the above-mentioned pressures should be reduced

ever, that, for pivots

to one-half.

of pressure per square inch varies

greatly in different cases in practice.

reduced where a greater speed

The maximum

Wrought

According

diameter of the shaft by .7854 and divide the total


pressure of the shaft by the product thus found.

ally

gun metal bearing, 700

1,400 pounds.

300 pounds.

area for a pivot bearing, multiply the square of the

The magnitude

150

pounds.

3.

5,400
X 6

of

for cast iron journals for

factory shafts.

2.

known

allow a pressure

the most desirable.

a given journal

manufacturers

pounds per square inch

1.

Example

259

For pivot bearings the following pressures per


square inch are given by a high authority, as being

= 6 inches.

5,400
^L-L

300 X

found thus

is

Some

diameter

journal equals 5,400 pounds and it is desired not to


exceed a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch

DESIGN.

It is
is

BEARINGS.

gener-

The

required.

simplest form of a journal bearing for a shaft

on the main
journal bearings of steam engines is 600 pounds per
square inch for slow running and 400 pounds for
high speed engines.
Wherever possible it is advantageous to make long bearings, thus reducing
the pressure by about 200 to 300 pounds per square

or spindle of a machine

inch.

ing.

intensity of pressure

is simply a hole in the frame


supporting the rotating piece.
If it is necessary to
increase the length of the bearing the frame must
be made thicker in this particular place by casting

shown in Figs. 388 and 389. Fig. 389


an end view and 388 is a section of such a bear-

bosses on
is

it

as

The above

described form of bearing

is

not

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

260

durable as

it

has no means of adjustment for taking

up the wear, and it cannot be renewed without renewing part of the frame of the machine. It is
therefore better to use the form of solid bearing
shown in Figs. 390 and 391. In this case the hole
is bored much larger than the journal, and lined
with a solid bushing of soft metal, which can easily
be replaced when worn. This arrangement requires
a screw or key to hold the bushing in place in most
cases the bushing is driven into the hole with considerable force to prevent it from turning, see Figs.
390 and 391.
Bearings for horizontal shafts have different
names, which indicate the manner in which they are
;

Fig.

Fig.

390.

391.

used.

HANGERS.
When
ing

it

is

a bearing,

is

suspended from the

called a hanger.

show the various

Figs. 392 to

details of a

ceil-

395

hanger made by

Fig. 392 is a side


a leading manufacturer.
the
longitudinal
view
Fig.
section.
394
This design was first introduced by Sellers,
and has been reproduced and modified by
It has a bearing
different manufacturers.
box. Fig. 393, with a spherical center which
is held between the ends of two hollow stems,
;

all
Fig.

38.

Fig. 3m.

these parts are

made

of cast iron.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fio.

395.

Fig.

393.

261

ROGERS' DRAWING

262

AND

DESIGN.
-^-

These stems,

Fig, 395, are provided with


screw threads at their outer ends, ordinarily

shallow square thread.

The

bosses on the

frame are also provided with a similar screw


into which fits the screw of the

nzj

thread,

stem.

By means

-aj

on the stems the


height of the bearing can be adjusted, and
the

of the thread

spherical centers allow a considerable

adjustment

in

other directions.

This construction makes the setting up or


lining up of shafting much easier and the
hangers made as described above enjoy
therefore

the

greatest

popularity

at

the

present time.

WALL BRACKETS.
When a shaft is to be supported by a
bearing fixed to a wall or pillar, a wall
bracket is generally used for this purpose.
In Figures 396 to 398 is shown a form of
a wall bracket of an elegant and most solid
design.
..,._51'_

Figs.

393, 397

and

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

263

with babbit, a soft metal whose composition is as follows One pound of copper, ten pounds of tin and

PEDESTALS AND PILLOW-BLOCKS.

The words

pedestal, pillow-block,

bearing and

one pound of antimony.

To hold the babbit in


place recesses are cast in the cap and base, extending
almost across the entire width of the bearino-.
The

journal box are used indiscriminately.

bearing designed to support a shaft above a


floor or any fixed surface is called a pedestal or
pillow-block,

hangers as well as the wall brackets shown above


have the bearings babbited in
the same manner.
The babbit

depending upon the

type of bearing, as will be seen


later.

shown

in Figs.

simple pillow-block

399 and 400.

A mandrel,
having a diameter a trifle less
than that of the journal, is placed

is

is

It

consists of two parts, the box


which supports the journal and
the cap which is screwed down to
the box by two screws or bolts,

in

cast in as follows

position

within the bearing

box which the

The

called cap-screws.

shaft

is

to occupy.

babbit, in a molten state,

then poured around

bearing

shows
the front view of
a complete pilFig. 399

is

and the

it

bored

is

then

to

the

proper diameter.

low-block

with

and

bolts.

using babbit for

cap

Instead

of

400 is a top

the friction sur-

view of base with


the cap removed.

faces in bearings

other

The

such

Fig.

seats in the

journal-box
usually
ed, that

are

brass,

gun metal or oth-

babbitis,

metals,
as

er alloys

lined

used.
Figs.

AND

400.

may be

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

264

The

melting point of these metals, however,

high, that they cannot be

cap

directly, as in the case of a

They consequently

are

called steps or brasses,

and cap
In

in different

some

very

motion

babbited bearing.

made

and are

as separate pieces,
fitted into

the box

where

and

slow

described

cap of the pillow-block.

them from turning with the .shaft.


To prevent the brasses from sliding out endwise,
they are provided with a shoulder on each end,
which

fits

over the ends of the bearing-.


well

When

sleeve,

the

brasses

simple

which

is

is

placed

the
in

404.

to~be

a stand-

and

both are
together by

case

bolts.

Bearings that are made

up

of wear,

bearing and the cap brass.


often

on

pillow-block,
this

fastened

and

for

in

removing

the shafts, are fitted with two brasses however, the

is

is

This standard may


be cast separate from

This bushing is simply


turned off and
bored,
and
is
then

of the brasses

a shaft

to

ard.

a bushing.

halves, for the taking

402

the pillow-block

floor,

called

forced into the hole.

applica-

supported a considerable distance above the

a hole through the cast-

of

their

Figs.

in

in

The bearing in this


case is made by boring
and

as

tion are fully illustrated

and 391 may


be employed.

ing,

Brasses of

the octagonal type as

Figs. 390

consist

shape in the box and


This is done to prevent

fitting into recesses of similar

required, the

is

method

so

ways.

cases,

little,

is

poured into the box and

In this case the outside

made square

or octagonal,

Note.

Brasses are made from different alloys

which vary accord-

ing to the judgment of the designer. Some engineers recommend the


following composition Six pounds of copper, one pound of tin and to
:

every hundred pounds of this mixture one-half pound of zinc and onehalf pound of lead are added.

ROGERS

[f^-'lr--^

'%'

DRAWING AND DESIGN.


V^

*--^---H

265

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

266

Very

often, however, the pillow-block

dard are cast

one piece and

in

it

is

then called a

pedestal.

A
403
Fig.

Belts most

may be

shown

is

in

Fig.

Figs. 402 to 404.

a front elevation and 402 shows

its

commonly used
single or

cal direction, will

various parts of this pedestal are exactly the

same as

in

made

of leather

top view.

404 represents a side view of the pedestal.

The

are

double
in damp places,
canvas belts, covered with rubber are sometimes
used leather belts are usually run with the hair
side on the outside or away from the pulley.
Long belts when running in any other than a vertithey

pedestal
is

BELTS AND PULLEYS.

and stan-

their

the above-described pillow-block with

the exception that the seats or steps in this case are

work better than short

own weight holds them

Fig. 405

shows an open

belts, as

firmly to their work.

belt,

and Fig. 406 a

crossr

belt.

of an octagonal shape.

Pulleys connected by open belts run in the same

connected by cross-belts run


When two pulleys are conin opposite directions.
nected by a belt, the motion of one, the driving

direction, while those

There

is

no established standard of proportions

for the parts of a bearing

blocks

made by

the proportions of pillow-

different manufacturers vary con-

siderably.

pulley,
If

is

transmitted to the other pulley, the follower.

we assume

that there

is

no stretching or slipping

of the belt, every part of the circumference of the

pedestal for supporting a very small shaft

is

follower will have the

same velocity

as the driving

often obtained by turning a hanger upside down,

pulley being equal to the velocity of the belt passing

reversing, of course, the bearing.

over them.
If

Such small

pedestals

are

usually

called

Jloor

than the diameter of the follower, the latter will


make two complete revolutions for each revolution

stands.

The main

the pulleys are of different diameters, for inif the driver has a diameter two times greater

stance,

bearings of large engines with girder

beds are also often called pedestals.

This ratio between the speeds of two


expressed in the following

of the driver.

pulleys

is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

267

405.

Fio. 407

Fig.

406.

ROGERS' DRAWING

268

Rule

DESIGN.

the diameter of the driver

are inversely proportional

This may be expressed

Number

found by multiplying

Number

revol.

of

revol.

of second pulley

Example

lutions,

to their diameters.

the following formula

in

number of revoproduct by the number of

the diameter of the follower by

and dividing the

its

revolutions of the driver.


:

For four pulleys connected by


of

of nrst pulley

diameter

pulley

second

of

Y)\2.m^^^v of

making 300 revolutions


pulley 20" in diameter.
second
drives
a
minute,
per
How many revolutions per minute does the second

make

No. of

revol. of

==
second pulley
^

40X300
20

^600 revol.

in

Example

Let the diameter of the drivers be 40" and 30",


the diameter of the first follower 10" and of the
second follower 15".
What is the number of revolutions of the last shaft,

when the

100 revolutions per minute


find the revolutions of the follower

shown

of each of the driver.-, equals


the num.ber of revolutions of the last pulley, miiltiplied by the diameter of each follower.

pulley

belts, as

Fig. 407, the following rule is to be applied


The number of revohitions of the first pulUy, tnultiplied by the diameter

pulley

first

pulley 40" in diameter,

To

is

The tiumber of revolutions of two connected pulleys

AND

Multiply the diameter of driver by its number of


revolutions, and divide the product by the diameter of
the follower.

first

shaft

makes

Here the speed of the last shaft, multiplied by the


diameter of the followers, 10" and 15', must equal
first shaft, 100 multiplied by the
diameter of the drivers, 40" and 30" that is,

the speed of the

Example
The follower

speed of

olutions.

is

What

driving shaft that

20" in diameter
is

and makes

50 rev-

the size of the driver used on a

makes 200

revolutions per minute

Diameter of driver =-2


200

i5

inches, that

is,

speed
^

= 100 X 40 X
100 X 40 X ^o
^^ = 800
snait =
10 X

last shaft
f

01 last

When

10

15

30, or

revol.

15

the

number

last shafts are

of revolutions of the

known, and

it is

first

and

required to find the

diameters of the pulleys, apply the following

"

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


RULH

Example

Divide the higher number of revolutions by the


lozver.

In

we

case where four

pulleys are

to

be used,

numbers whose product is equal to


the quotient resulting from the above division of
the speeds.
One of these numbers is taken as the
ratio of the diameters of one pair of the pulleys, and
find the

the other number, of the other pair.

Example

revolutions, the

1,500

revolutions per minute.

required

when

driving shaft

What

following practical formulae

making 300

size of pulleys are

four pulleys are to be used

speeds,

quotient resulting from division of the two

equals

-^

5.

Two numbers whose

are 2)^ and

pair of the pulleys

in

the ratio of 2^4


Therefore, the

first

and the other pair as 2 to i.


pair may be 30" and 12" and the other pair 24"

and

to

To

find the

speed of the belt

is

belt

found, by

and

divid-

the product by the speed ; or


fijtd the speed in feet

horse pozoer by goo,

width of the

Consequently one

2.

must betaken

transmitted

To find the required width of the belt, multiply


the horse power to be transmitted, by goo, and divide

Example
product equals

to be

multiplying the speed by the width of


ing the above product by goo ; or

To

The

Let the diameter of the pulley be equal to 2 ft.


and the number of revolutions per minute 100.
Then, 2 X 3.14 X 100 -= 628 ft. per minute, the
speed of the belt.
The relation between the speed of the belt in feet
per minute, the width of the belt in inches, and the
horse power to be transmitted, is expressed in the

The horse power

required to run the last shaft with a speed of

It is

269

Two
a

belt,

and

per minute, multiply the

divide the product by the

belt.

pulleys, each 2

make 200

ft.

in

diameter, connected by

revolutions per minute.

It is de-

sired to transmit 20 H. P.
What is the proper
width of the belt to be used ?
The speed of the belt is equal to 2 x 3.14 x 200
1,256 ft. per minute; consequently the width of
the belt equals

=
:

Multiply the circumference of the pulley by the

number of revolutions per minute.

2
1.256

14.6 inches, or a belt

14^

inches.

ROGERS"

270

The above

formulae are

true of

DRAWING AND DESIGN.

single

Polishing wheels, such as leather-covered

belt.

When

wheels, or rag wheels,

belts

velocity of 7,000

double belts are used, made of two single


cemented and riveted together through their

The speed

entire length, they should be able to transmit twice


as

much power

The above

as a single belt,

formulae

may be

and even more.


applied to the calcu-

number 630 is
constant number

lation of double belts, provided the

put

in

900.

the formula instead of the

This

will

give the required proportions for

when used upon small pulleys, in which case


more power is required for the transmission.

belts,

ft.

may

wooden

run with a peripheral

per minute.

of cut for cast iron

minute, for tool steel about 10

ft.

is 20 to 30
per minute.

ft.

per

Cut-

machine may be run with a perft. per minute for gun metal
for cast iron
and for machine steel

ters in the milling

ipheral velocity of 80

35 to 40

about 30

ft.
ft.

Example

What

per minute.

is

the proper

number

of revolutions of tKe

spindle of a machine shop grindstone 24" in diameter?

SPEED OF MACHINE TOOLS.


I

n selecting the speed of pulleys, the designer must

be guided by the speed of the machine which is to


be driven.
The speed of different machines varies according
to the work which they perform, as, for example, the
cutting speed of machine tools, or the velocity of
emery wheels.
Grindstones in machine shops, suitable for grinding machinists' tools may be run with a peripheral
speed of about 900 ft. per minute grindstones for
pattern makers' use, run about 600 ft. per minute.
Emery wheels may be run with a peripheral veloc;

ity of

5,500

ft.

per minute.

The
The
2

ft.

usual peripheral speed

is

900

ft.

circumference of the given stone


X 3.14=6.28
^

Example

is

equal to

ft.

r=about

6.28

per minute.

per minute
143
^^ revolutions ^

Let the emery wheel in a grinder be 12" in diameter, and let it be required to run the wheel with a
peripheral velocity of 3,600 ft. per minute.
What
should be the speed of the spindle of this bench
grinder ?

The circumference

wheel is 3. 14 ft.
3,600 by 3.14 and the speed of the spindle
3,600

3-14

Divide

of the

= about 1,150

revol.

is

found.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The

following are rules

experience for the use of

recommended by

practical

belts.

Pulleys of small diameter, say of less than

should not be used for double


belts

work better than

used,

it is

belts.

thin ones.

If

i8",

Narrow, thick
wide belts are

This, however,

is

only true within certain limits

among

engineers

is

to

go

in this direction

The weakest

part of the belt

is

fastening does not answer for

ing

is

made very
all

between the shafts


is

bearing,

especially

with

for

carefully

pulleys.

The

angle of the belt with a horizontal line should

not exceed 45 whenever possible.

run advantageously
ft.

for

when

Belts are not

their speed exceeds 2,500

per minute.

the same

belt-joinings.

nected by a belt too near one to the other.

over small pulleys

and
overhung

also increased, causing greater friction

wear on the

not advantageous to place two pulleys con-

ft.

must be remembered, that

to the ex-

at the joint

according to the most approved methods

of 15

it

reason joints should be

It is

kept very

tight.

In tightening belts

class of

this

stretched leather belts, which must be

while tightening the belt, the pressure on the bear-

it depends largely upon the


work the belt is to be used for, and the
only wa}' anyone can claim to be expert in this line
is through practical experience and good judgment.

treme

Running belts in a vertical direction should be


avoided whenever possible.
Machine tools driven
by vertical belts require particularly good well-

proper to increase their thickness.

the tendency

271

narrow belts running

good average.

PULLEYS.

A distance
Wider

belts

running over larger pulleys for good work require

The
straight,

rim

of

Fig.

a belt pulley

may be made

either

408, or convex, as in Fig. 409.

It

duce such a pressure on the journals of the shaft

would seem that the belt would remain on the


straight pulley more readily than on the convex one.
Experience shows, however, that the belt always
tends to run on the highest part of the pulley, provided it does not slip, in which case the belt will fall
off more readily from a convex surface than from a

as to injure them.

straight rim of the pulley.

a greater distance between the shafts.

30

ft.

is

The distance between


the shafts should not be made too great, as this may
cause too much of a sag of the belt, which may pro-

good average

for such cases.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

272

The

flat

or straight rim pulley

necessary to

kmkkkk^
^^^\\^^

move

is

used where

it is

the belt from one side of the rim

to the other, as in the case

where one pulley drives

a pair of fast and loose pulleys.

Whenever

there

is

of a belt, through a
ance, the pulfey

frequent slipping

off"

temporary increase

the rim
in resist-

provided with flanges, as shown

is

in Fig. 410.

The amount of curvature in a section of the rim,


is made greater, the faster the speed at which it runs.
The curve may be an arc described with a radius'
equal to about
Fig.

408.

Fio.

times the breadth of the pulley.

4(S.

breadth of the pulley is generally made a


wider than the width of the belt, Fig. 411.

The

thickness of the rim at the edge

little

The
may be found by

dividing the diameter of the pulley by 200 and adding ys of an inch. For a pulley 25" in diameter, the
thickness of the rim should be
25 inches

V^ inch == i^ inch.

200

The

thickness of the walls in the central part of

the pulley, called the hub.

given by Mr.

Thomas

Thickness of hub
410.

Fig.

411.

found by a formula

Box, as follows

1-

96
Fig.

is

^, where

D is

the

diameter of the pulley and d the diameter of the


shaft.

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Unwin

Prof.

For

For

-(-

J4!

the pulley.

B up

hub

= 0.14

hub

= 0.18

14 in.

a double belt, the thickness of

V B D
73

gives the following formuls;:

a single belt, the thickness of

V"B"D~ +

273

where B indicates the breadth of


The length of the hub is made from
in.

to B.

The hubs

in

This

is

true for fast pulleys only.

loose pulleys are usually longer than

The hubs

need not
inch beyond
be so thick, and they project about
Fig. 412 shows
each side of the face of the pulley.
loose and fast pulleys
in fast pulleys.

in loose pulleys

Fig.

413.

?^W^??^l////M;22Z^
Fig.

412.

Fig.

414.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

274

The

,m,m;^'^7777m

straight-armed pulley

ance and construction.


the

number

to

18" in

of

arms

The

There

in

no fixed rule for


Usually those up

arms.

si.x

cross-section of the

The

is

a pulley.

generally oval-shaped

shown

simplest in appear-

diameter have four arms, and those of

larger diameters,

is

in

is

arms of cast-iron pulleys


and of the proportions

Fig. 417.

longest

of the oval

a.xis

a,

may be found

from the following practical formula;: the breadth_a


being taken at the center of the pulley, supposing
the arm to be continued through the hub to that
point.
Fig.

The arms

Fig.

415.

of pulleys are

usually

straight,

sometimes they are curved, as shown

416.

in Figs.

4N

but

413

In these formulae
is its

diameter and

for sintrle belts,

for

is

double

and

belts.

the width of the pulley,

the

number

of revolutions per

minute.

The

proportions of the section of the arm near

the rim
in

may be

be noticed that the breadth of the oval is


the cubic power.
To find the actual
breadth a, multiply B by D, divide the product by
4 N and then find the cube root of the resulting
It will

Fig.

417,

It is the general practice in machine


shops to draw the section of a pulley, as shown in
Fig. 416, no matter what shape the arms may have.

and 414.

two-thirds of the proportions given

the above formulae.

given

in

number.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


For varying the velocity
are used, Fig. 418.

As

the belt will

to climb a conical pulley,

made

speed cones
have a tendency

of a shaft,

special provision

for keeping the belt in place.

must be

275

pulleys in each one of the

same.

As

three sets

is

also ihe

a result of these conditions the length of

the crossed belt for

all

sets

is

the same.

It is also desir-

able to have both cones alike, so that they can be


cast

from one pattern.

Cone
made in

pulleys or speed

pulleys,

shown

a series of steps, as

are
in

frequently
Fig. 419, in

which case they are termed step-pulleys.


It is

an established

fact,

that

when two cones

are

placed with their centers at a given distance, and are

sum of their radii remains conan endless cross-belt, containingr both cones
will not change in length in the smallest deeree
during the change in the actual diameter of each
so related that the
stant,

cone.
It is

sum

necessary to keep

in

mind the fact that the


and the distance be-

of the radii of both cones

tween their centers remain constant. As a result


of this the sum of the radii of two opposite pulleys
in a series of steps must be the same for all steps,
as only with this condition will a crossed belt fit any
pair of pulleys in the series.

420 shows three sets of pulleys which may


be arranged into a step pulley with three sets or
steps.
The distances between each set of pulleys is
the same, and the sum of the diameters of the
Fig.

L*__

Fig.

418.

The above statement does not hold true


The middle sections of cone pulleys

belts.

for
for

open
open

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

276

belts

must be larger proportionately than

equal the small diameter multiplied by the square

for crossed

root of the quotient of

belts.

shown in Figs. 421 and


and the first one makes N

In the pair of cone pulleys


422, both are

made

alike,

revolutions per minute

let

it

be required that the

Fio.

second pulley should have a range of speed from


m to n revolutions, m beine the greater number.
Then N must equal the square root of the product
of m and n, thus, N
Vm x n.

The

large

diameter

in

the

cone

pulleys

must

As was remarked

divided by

n.

open belts, the middle


diameter of the cone pulleys must be made larger.
If D and d are the large and small diameters of a
before, for

419.

cone pulley, then the proper middle diameter is


D
d
o'o8 (D-d)=
,
r .u Aequal1 to
1

-I-

where L
,

^^?;

-,

is

the dis-

tance between the two shafts.

When

the middle diameter

is

thus

found, the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


outline of the cone

is

laid out

by an arc of a

circle

and d

passing through the ends of the diameters

tinuous cone,

vy

A B D C,

into the required

Fig. 423, the cone

number

Figs. 421

lines,

as well as the
it is

ends

oi

the middle diameter.

When

desirable to substitute a step pulley for a con-

like

F,

etc.,

of equal parts

and

divided
parallel

422.

drawn

at

These diameters are then taken


the different steps.

is

by

equal

distances.

as center lines for

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

278

have the same ratio of velocity, or as


termed a constant velocity ratio.

GEAR WHEELS.
When

two wheels with

parallel axes, as

shown

In

Fig. 424, are placed firmly together so as to form a


rolling contact, the

no slipping,

will

motion of one wheel, if there is


produce a motion in the other

The number of revohitions of the shafts will

and this

ratio will remain constant, provided there

a point on the rim of one wheel


the same rate of speed as any

will travel exactly at

point on the rim of the other wheel


this

kind

when

in

is

called a positive rotation.

positive

rotation

by

is

it is

ratio,

im.pos-

hence, to

424.

secure this condition, the wheels are provided with

423.

teeth which will enable


in this case

surfaces

maintain a constant velocity

Fig.

be

no slipping.

With wheels having smooth

wheel

generally

inversely proportional to the diameters of the wheels,

sible to

Fig.

it is

a rotation of

Both wheels

rolling contact, will

them

to rotate without the

possibility of slipping.

To

avoid a separate velocity for each tooth and

to obtain

an equal speed velocity

in all parts of the

wheel, the teeth are designed with proper proportions,

which

will

be explained and illustrated hereafter.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

425.

279

r-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

280

The

rims of two imaginary wheels which have the

same axes and which would have the same velocity


ratio as two given gear wheels and the same width,
form what are z^\t.d, pitch surfaces ; the circles representing the section of both pitch surfaces, at right

angles to the axes, are called the pitch

The

circles.

If

addendum, and the part


of the outline or curve of the tooth on the addendum
is called the face of the touth, as shown in Fig. 425.
is

called the

That part of the tooth inside of the pitch circle is


called the dedendum, and the part of the surface of
the tooth inside of the pitch circle forming the front or

back of the dedendum

of the tooth.
The point where the flank and the face meet is called
the pitch point and is situated on the pitch circle.
The circle passing through the tops of the teeth is
called the addendum circle and is equal in diameter
to the blank or disc, from which the gear is to be cut.
circle

is

the diameter of the pitch circle

is

equal to D.

The circumference of the pitch circle is equal to


Let the number of teeth in the wheel
3.1416 X D.
3.1416 X D
be N.
Then
is the circular pitch.

part of a tooth in a gear wheel outside of

the pitch circle

The

Example

^y diametral pitch

is

meant the number

the gear per one inch of

in

Example
If

its

pitch circle diameter.

the diameter of the pitch circle

Inches,

of teeth

is

equal to

and the number of teeth equals

N
iy= diametral

then

pitch.

called the flank

passing through the bottom of the teeth

dedendum circle. The distance measured


on the pitch circle between the pitch points of two consecutive teeth is called the circular pitch of the gear
The circular pitch includes one thickness of
wheel.
tooth and one space between teeth the circular pitch
is equal to the circumferetice of the pitch circle
divided by the number of teeth in the gear wheel.
\'s,Z'A\&A\h.&

The diametral pitch expresses

in a direct and simmanner the ratio between the diameter of the


pitch circle and the number of teeth.
Usually it may
be expressed by a whole, number and therefore its

ple

form

is

convenient for expressing the proportions of

the teeth, which are usually dependent upon the


pitch, for this

made

in

Rule

reason nearly^all gear calculations are

terms of the diametral pitch.

To change the diametral pitch

to

circular pitch,

divide J. I ^16 by the diametral pitch.


To change the
circular to diametral pitch, divide j. 1^16 by circular
pitch.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


The proportions commonly adopted for gears
made with precision, are as follows
The addendum equals divided by the diametral

sometimes equal to yV of the circular pitch


good practice only for very rough castings.

pitch.

The

flank

and the dedendum

circle are

this

is

joined by

small arcs, to avoid sharp corners at the root of the

These are

tooth.

ExAMPLii:
If

281

the diametral pitch equals

dum

equals

tivice

the

The pitch

yi.

addendum

then the adden-

circle diameter,

plus

equals the blank diameter of the

The dedendun

and are usually made

to one-seventh

between two consecutive teeth,

of the distance
-measured on the adden-

dum circle.

When

S^ear.

bottom clearance.

called filets

with a radius equal

is

equal

The

to the

addendum, plus the

clearance

to To the thickness of the tooth,

is

generally equal

measured on the

pitch line.

two gear wheels with parallel shafts are


turning one the othelv^the distance between the
centers of the shafts

eq\lal to the

diameters of both gears divided by

sum

of the pitch

2.

The thickness of the tooth and width of space,


measured on the pitch circle, are each equal to one-half
the pitch, on carefully cut gears ; in practice, however, it is customary to make the width of the space

Example. Let D equal the pitch diameter of


one wheel and d the pitch diameter of the other
wheel then the distance between the centers in this
D + d
u
pair 01f i^ear wheels
is
;

The number of teeth

order to allow for inaccuracies of workmanship and


operating, unavoidable because of the

difificulty of

producing theoretically correct gears.


cast gears.

The

This

is

par-

difference

between the thickness of the tooth and the width of


space is called the back lash ; the amount of back
lash necessary for a gear must be left to, the best
judgment of the designer in cast iron gears it is
;

slighth" larger than the thickness of the tooth, in

ticularly necessary in

is

is

found by dividing the

cir-

cumference of the pitch circle by the circular pitch.


If the diametral pitch be given, the number of teeth
is

found

by multiplying the pitch diameter by the

diametral pitch.

The pitch diameter

is

found

by multiplying the

num,ber of teeth by the circular pitch


the product by j. 1^16.

and dividing

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

282

If the diametral pitch


ter can be

is

found by dividing

given, the pitch diamethe

number of

teeth by

The diameter of the blank equals the pitch diameter plus 2 divided by the diametral pitch.
If the number of teeth and the diametral pitch are

known, add 2 to the number of teeth and divide by


the diametral pitch.
classified as follows

When

the pitch circle

and the gear

is

them

The

pitch surfaces in this case are cones.

Bevel

gears of the same size connecting shafts at right


angles are called miter gears.
If the shafts are neither intersecting nor parallel,
the pitch surfaces will be hyperboloids of revolution
and the gears are called hyperbolic or skew gears.

gears enumerated up to the present, the


teeth are made with rectilinear elements and the
pitch surfaces touch each other along straight lines.
In

The

all

in-

straight line

rack.

of teeth generally used

and

according to the methods of producing

cycloidal system of gearing was, for a long

is

of late, however, the

rapidly gaining in popularity and

engineers advocate

its

general application

in

cases.

well with their centers at varying distances and

transmit uniform velocity.

The

still

chief objection that

has been raised against involute teeth

is

of action, causing increased pressure

upon the bear

the obliquity

ings.

wound around a

and
the part which is off the circle is kept stretched and
straight, any point in it will describe a curve which
If

is

a flexible line be

the involute of the

To draw

circle,

circle.

the involute to a given

circle,

PABCO,

circle into any number


by the points P, A, B, C, D, etc.,
through which points draw tangents to the circle.

Fig. 426.

Gears are used for connecting shafts


which are at right angles to each other and which
do not meet when lengthened indefinitely in either

a diameter

become a

Involute teeth are of greater strength and will run

all

Worm

will

in spiral lines.

these are involute teeth and cycloidal teeth.

many

meet

made with

is

termed a

There are two kinds


classified

involute system
for shafts

it

time, used almost exclusively

which are parallel in this


case the pitch surfaces would be cylinders.
A gear wheel with a comparatively small number
Bevel gears for conof teeth is termed a pinion.
necting shafts which intersect when lengthened.

Spur Gears

pitch surfaces

definitely increased,

the diametral pitch.

Gears may be

The

direction.

Divide the given

of equal parts

Make

the length

Aa

equal to the length of one

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


AP, the length Bb equal to two such divisions Cc to three divisions, Dd to four and so on.
Through the points P, a, b, c, d, etc., draw the
division

required curve, which

is

a portion of

the circle's

called

the

283

line of

intersect the line

action).

HH

Let the base

at the point

W.

circle

From

this

base circle the involute is drawn, passing through


the point
and extending to the point V on the

involute.

The outline of an involute gear tooth is


made with a single curve, the involute of an
especially selected circle which

base
lies

The

circle.
in

base

is

called the

center of the base circle

the center of the pitch

circle

is

circle,

and the

always smaller than the pitch

circle.

manufacturers make the base


of an involute gear of different diameBrown and Sharp make the diameter

Different
circle
ters.

of the base circle equal to 0.968 of the pitch


circle.

The ordinary method

base circle
If

is

is

as follows:

the center of the wheel and P the

pitch circle,

dum

of finding the

draw the addendum and deden-

circles, Fig. 427.

Take any

Fig.

426.

point O, as the pitch point on

the pitch circle and draw a radial line

HH

through
Draw a line EE making an angle of
this point.
radial line HH.
with
the
The base circle is
75
found by drawing inside of the given wheel, a circle
tangent to the inclined line, EE (which line is

addendum

circle.

The

the base circle and the

and

is

No

part

between

of the flank

dedendum

circle

is

straight

part of the radius of the circle.

wheel having

rectly together

less

when

than 12 teeth

the base circle

will
is

gear cor-

laid out in

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

384:

this

manner

in

practice a curve wliich approximates

is generally employed.
Sharp system the line of action
is drawn so as to make an angle of 75 3^, Fig. 428.
This is true for gears having more than thirty teeth
for gears having a smaller number of teeth,

the required involute curve

Brown

In the

&

special rules are followed.

&

The Brown

Sharp method explained

above cannot be used for involute gears


having less than thirty teeth, as the space
left at the root is too narrow for the free
motion of the mating gear. In such cases
the curve is drawn from the base circle to
the addendum from the base circle to the
dedendum circle, the flank is drawn parallel
to a radius of the wheel through the middle
of the space between two adjoining teeth,
the dedendum circle by ah arc or fillet.
;

being joined to

In an involute rack,
straight lines passing
in Fig. 429.

The

in

many

shops,

the

teeth

through the pitch points of the

are

made with

teeth, as

shown

direction of the straight edges of the teeth

right angles to the line

of action,

angles of 75 with the pitch

line.

that

is

is

at

generally lines making

For racks which are

to run with

pinions having fewer than thirty teeth, the outline of the teeth on
the rack near the

addendum

the flank of the pinion tooth.


Fw.

427.

outline of a tooth

is

are rounded to prevent interference with

In the cycloidal system of gearing the

made by a double curve

here the face

is

a por-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

the generating circle rolls along a straight line

If
it

285

will describe a cycloid.

along the outside of a

rolls

and when

epicycloid,
circle,

it

The

the generating circle

If

circle

will describe

it

an

rolling along the inside of a

will describe a hypoc\'cloid.

construction of these curves

and 432,
draw the cycloid

is

shown

in Figs.

430, 431
Fig.

tion of an epicycloid

both joined
If

in

a circle

428.

To

and the flank a hypocycloid,

the pitch point.


is

made

it

to roll along a straight line,

always remaining

in the same- plane, a point in the


circumference of the rolling circle will describe a

cycloidal curve.

The

rolling circle

erating circle or describing

line

is

called the gen-

Fig. 430,

in

Describe the generating

any number

into

From

3, 4, etc.

of equal parts

draw a straight
and divide

circle

by the points

i,

2,

B, the point of contact of the gen-

erating circle with the straight

equal to the portions of the

distances

line, set off

BC

so that

be
length to one-half of the circumference of
rolling circle and will be divided into the same

equal
thfe

circle.

AC.

will

in

number

of equal parts

Through

.cf/'/^v"

circle,

ABC.

generating circle
;

Through the center of


draw a line parallel to the

this line will cut the

points

2',3',

i',

etc.

these points draw lines perpendicular

to the line

AC

by the points

a, b,

c,

d,

e,

etc.

perpendicular

With these

the
line

in the

points as

centers, describe arcs of circles with a diameter

equal to the diameter of the generating

These
i',

2',

arcs will touch the line


3',

4',

429.

circle,

Through

circle.

in the points

the point

draw a line parallel


ting the arc which passes through i'.

generating
Fig.

etc.

AC

to

on the

AC,

cut-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

286

through the point 2'.


Through the points 4, 5, 6,
etc., in the generating circle, draw parallels to meet

radial lines extended outside of the base circle AC


and cutting them in the points a, b, c. d, etc., by a
circle having one common center with the base
circle and passing through the center of the gener-

the arcs cutting the points

ating circle O.

Through point
line parallel to

The

draw a
and cutting the arc which passes

3 in the generating circle,

AC

3', 4', 5',

etc.,

respectively.

With the

intersections of these lines with the arcs deter-

points

a, b, c, d,

etc.,

draw

as centers,

mine the required curve.


Fig. 431.
To draw the epicycloid, describe the

arcs with a radius equal to the radius of the gener-

generating circle tangent to the circumference of the


given circle at the point B.
Divide the generating

the points

circle into

any number of equal parts by the points

1,

etc.

2,

3,

4,

Set

ofi

ating circle, these arcs touching the base circle in

etc.,

the equal portions of the

generating circle on the circumference of the given


circle

by the points

i',

2', 3',

etc.,

etc.

3',

AC,

the points

etc.,

430.

Through the

points

i, 2,

3,

the generating circle draw arcs concentric

i',

points

epicycloid.

Fig.

2',

with the base circle


these

through which draw

in

1',

2',

of

3',

to

meet the

respectively,

intersection

draw

arcs touching

and through
the

required

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

288

The

hypocycloid

shown

in Fig. 432.

To

is

drawn

in the

same manner,

as

same generating circle should


be used for both face and flank of the teeth in the
mating gear.
flank of one wheel, the

lay out the outlines of a cycloidal gear,

the pitch

circle, Fig. 433,

and divide

of equal parts, corresponding to the

required.

Each one

of these parts

is

it

into a

draw
number

number of

teeth

equal to the

cir-

Bisect each one of these

cular pitch of the wheel.

pitch distances to obtain the thickness of the tooth

and the width

the space

of

Wherever necessary make


thickness,

thus

between the

teeth.

the space larger than the

providing for back lash.

draw the addendum and dedendum


the proper describing

circle.

circles,

The

Next,

and

profile

select

of the

dedendum and the pitch circle,


tooth, is made by an epicycloid gen-

tooth between the


the face of the

erated by the generating circle as

it

rolls

along the

circumference of the pitch circle.


The flank, that
the outline of the tooth between the pitch circle

When the outline

one tooth is found, a template


to one of its sides and by
attaching this template to an arm of suitable length,
which may be held to the center of the wheel by a
-pin, we can swing it around and bring it in position
to draw the profiles of the rest of the teeth.
of thick paper

of

may be cut

would be too much to describe all teeth


by tracing for each one of them the proper cycloidal
curves, it is usual to approximate these curves by
means of circular arcs. We find an arc which very
Since

it

closely coincides with the proper curve for the face,

and the same

is

done

for the flank.

until the

proper arc

is

circle,

is

a hypocycloid of a

generating circle equal to the above generating circle,


or, if convenient, with a generating circle having a

is found to be the center


In Fig. 435, the point
which very closely coincides with the flank

of an arc

of the tooth ab.


tric

different diameter.

Draw

with the pitch

a circle through A, concen-

circle.

The

for the flanks of the rest of the

For two gears which are

to run together, as in Fig.

434, the faces of the teeth in both wheels must be


described by one generating circle.
Wherever one

generating circle

is

used for the face as well as the

centers of

found.

is

and the dedendum

The

these arcs are found by trying with the compass

will lie in

centers of

all

teeth in this

the circumference of this

circle,

arcs

gear

and the

To draw
radii of these arcs will equal in length Aa.
the flank d on the tooth cd, set the compasses to a
radius equal to Aa, put the needle point in d and

^. .

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

438.

*^.~

289

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

290

J)e5cribit\g C/rc/e

^pjcycloid

Fig.

433.

"',

'^^

c/

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

291

rxpxiFh^
(^^]
^^ ^
^ry^

r~~~--.

\'

f/
f\

/S.

O/

"""\//x
\ \_3t
)

P<('"V

r~^

cl

^p

}p

\i

'bAcf

/""^^^
\

V'^

^-^^

\^

I
434.

-^

/^>. ^
^\/^^\\ y^^ C
h
/ V y c
^^_^ ^\y s\
\

^
CA.
s
.^
\

Fig.

(\^

X)^"-^
h/\fkj

^7

^
r\A
^

yi

Sf

ROGERS' DRAWING

292

A2 by

cut the circle

the arc at the point

this

point will be the center for the arc of the flank

way

In this

When

all

flanks

may be

d.

drawn.

the center of an arc, which as closely as

found, the circle of centers for the faces


and all arcs for the faces of the teeth will

is

drawn,

is

lie in this

circle

circle equals one-half of the pitch

15-

tooth

12-

circle

may

be,

within

certain

any diameter, so long as it is not greater


than the radius of the wheel on which it is used.
When the diameter of the generating circle is equal
to the radius of the pitch circle, the path of any
limits, of

point in the circumference of the generating circle

a straig^ht

According

line.

to the

diameter of a
According to other practice a

pinion.
is

In Fig. 436,

taken as the base.


is

shown a

and pinion.

cycloidal rack

The

curves of the teeth-profiles for the rack are


generated by rolling the generating circle along each
side of the pitch line,
set

The generating

DESIGN.

tooth pinion

possible coincides with the face of the tooth ab

is

AND

on which

all

pitch points are

off.

in which the teeth are on the inside


termed an annular or internal gear
In such a gear the teeth correspond with the spaces
of an external gear of the same pitch circle, as do

spur gear

of the rim

is

also the other proportions of the teeth.

consequently designed

the

in

manner

They

are

described

above as involute or as cycloidal gears.

Brown

&

Sharp system,

in cy-

diameter of the generating circle


of a 15-tooth gear of the pitch
radius
the
to
is equal
The
required, this being the base of the system.
have
double
curves,
this
system
rack
of
of
the
teeth

cloidal gearing, the

One

particular rule

the diameters

great as the

must be observed

internal gears

epicycloidal

of the pitch

sum of

in

regard to

the difference between

circles

must

the diameters

be at least as

of the

desci'ibing

which may be traced by the base circle, rolling alThe same


ternately on each side of the pitch line.
generating circle is used for all gears of the same

circles.

pitch.

cases the shafts are at right angles with each other.

According to the prevailing


the

practice, the flank of

15-tooth pinion in cycloidal gearing

radial

is

made

accordingly the diameter of the generating

Bevel gears are used to connect two shafts which


intersect when lengthened indefinitely.
In most

The

pitch surfaces of bevel gears are cones which

have a

common

vertex, the point of intersection of

the axes of the shafts. Fig. 437.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fio.

435.

293

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Before proceeding to draw a pair of bevel gears
draw a section through the shafts of both gears,
thus showing a section of one-half of each gear.
Draw the two axes of the shafts, OA and OB meeting at O, Fig. 438 shows the two axes at right angles
with each other.

Determine the diameter of the largest pitch

cir-

gears proportionate to the required


corresponding to the circles which

cles in the bevel

velocity

ratio

form the bases of the two pitch cones.


Let

be the

ef

larger,

maximum

pitch diameter of

from and

parallel to

An

indefinite

OB draw the

the line gh parallel to

OA,

draw

"

awaj'

then draw

Through the

OA

lines parallel to

h lines parallel to OB.

distance

line ef

each one of these lines

being bisected by the axes.


f

the

and gh the maximum pitch diameter of the

smaller bevel gear.

and

The

points e

and through g and

lines intersect in the

F and H. Connect the point O by straight


F and H. The resulting

points E,

lines with the points E,

triangles

EOF

and

FOH

are sections of the pitch

Make FG equal to the


cones of the bevel gear.
From the point G
width of the face of the teeth.
draw the

lines

respectively.

IG and GJ
Each one

parallel to

of the gears

EF
is

and

FH

then com-

pleted separately with the required proportions for

the teeth.

The manner

in

which

this

is

done

is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fio.

438.

295

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

296

In this figure,

illustrated In Fig. 439.

ABC is

a part

of the pitch cone laid out according to the principles

maximum

pitch circle

is

This view must be drawn first. K are the outline's of the teeth of a spur gear laid out for a pitch

then divided Into a number

Through each one

required.

explained with Fig. 438.

Is

of equal parts corresponding to the

drawn to the center


the teeth.

lines of

shown

at

number

of teeth

of the divisions a line

these lines are the center

The

proportions of the teeth

are then set off from each center line

diameter equal to the maximum pitch of the bevel


gear.
The proportions of the teeth on the bevel

for the purpose of forming the projection of

from these outlines. EB and BD


the line ED
are the addendum and dedendum
the
line
AB of the
being drawn at right angles to

dendum

gear are laid

off

pitch cone.

BF

is

made

equal to the length

of

a line perpendic-

the teeth on the bevel gear at


B is drawn, and the addendum and dedenular to
;

The

teeth.

distance a

is

set off

the distance b oA the

circle,

the

on the largest de-

maximum

pitch

on the addendum circle. All


these lengths are set off so as to be bisected by the
center line of the tooth for which they are incircle

projection

of

the distance

tended.

dum

of the smallest outline of the tooth

is

deter-

The

mined by the intersection of the line GH with


Next the other view is
the lines EA and DA.

tooth

drawn.

addendum

Is

the smallest

profile of

the

obtained by drawing radial lines from the

points at the

addendum

circle

to

of the large profile to the

the smallest

addendum

cir-

cle.

perpena line drawn parallel to BC.


OJ
dicular to this line dropped from the point B determines the maximum pitch circle and a perpendicis

ular

from the point

the

minimum

The

pitch

points of

drawing radial

pitch circle.

tooth for the projec-

the

tion of the smallest profile at


lines

L,

is

obtained by

from the pitch points of the

large profile to the smallest pitch circle, and

In the same manner the

dum

addendum and deden-

circles for the largest as well as for the smallest

profiles of the teeth

may be found by dropping

pendiculars from the points

and G,

per-

D and H. The

root of the smallest profile

manner by drawing

is

obtained in the same

radial lines

from the dedendum

points of the large profile to the smallest


circle.

the

dedendum

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

<^

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\\1 \^

\/

;|

-;

\L

'

'

'

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III'

^J

'

'

III

'

'

'

'

'

'

V,

Y--'/'''

/-v

<

<!'VN

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1

'

'

Ml

',

1
s

i-iC'""

-''''y\'\\

1
1

// /

WW
\^vV\

i
1

/
/

fe
/

/
1

\\^

//

^~N^s;Ox^\,v^''yC

i;

I'll

..

__

'
i

^v

o_^
4'!
;

'

f
\I

'

\^

'

Y
'

'

'

jii

//Wy^''
/'x)
y^'

''

'

>,

>

/^\^^^^^^-^-^^^^<^^^'
"\
N^fe^S--^^^'^^!!!^-"

'

-'

^\!'Vt^

>.

"

fe===:z^

-+
r~

Fig.

439.

::-;;;;:::::-->

f^::":::i:::::^-:iA...

^^^^^^^=5:&/

/X
X

iM
'

'

/ /^/i

/ / ''/

^^^^Vi

-^""^

'i

T''^fy^

14
1

'

/^X/\.
/'//'
\\:l 1 ///// A'/'y/
>

'^

iii'

\'l

// /

;
1

;//

/
/ /

'//

1'

/ii

'II

itr/t^''''-^
III

'

l\;

'

\\\\ \ V \V
^^: XM/

^^^^^/

^^^

'

'

It

/ '/" nNX\

v^
i

\\A

<

^-~"^ l^~^i

'

^^4<Vv\\\\
W
\ \\ \ M
X^-^V \

V-W
;

'

li
"

^^ -'^';^2$tt11
,Yo^3^r^'\ \\\ \

'

II

^v^""^^

X^j/

III

'

>

,^;''^.

7^^

p
1

"^-N.

-W;;:
III

'

1
1

::---sA

:%^^>^

\i;;i

..

'

A.

p""^ W^"^--^^r :"

\\

'

297

-"^h^^.~.

DESIGN,

^--feSSi^ J^^

^^

1A \\

!
'

""

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

298

When made by

In speaking of the diameter of a bevel gear, the


largest diameter of the pitch cone

The

is

teeth will be straight.

meant.

by the

between the pitch diameter of a


number of teeth and velocities are
the same as for spur gears, and all calculations are
made in the'same manner.
relations

shown

The worm may be drawn


The worm may

aid of helices like a screw.

Figs. 443
gear.

worm

and 444 show the outside views of a


Fig. 446 also shows tl)e outside view

of a complete tooth.

views of a

The drawing of

the outside views of

at riofht anofles to

it,

when

shaft to another

worm

gear and

worm shown

in Figs.

443 and 444 are used. The section of the worm


shown in Fig. 445 is of the same outlines as a rack
of corresponding pitch, and may be of either the
involute or cycloidal form.

generally adopted,
duce.

The worm

The diameter

as
is

of the

its

The

involute form

teeth are

is

easier to pro-

cut in a lathe like a screw.

worm

is

ordinarily taken about

5 times the pitch, although it could be made of any


convenient diameter. The worm must always be
the driver.
It is not well adapted to the transmis-

sion of

heavy power, as the tooth action

is

purely a

slidingf one.

Fig. 446

made by

shows a

partial section

of a

worm

gear

a plane perpendicular to the axis of the

worm through

the axis of the gear.

worm

gear

is wholly unnecessary for the purposes of machine


shop construction, to make complete outside views
it

the axes of the shaft do not


;

intersect, the

'i

Fortunately, however,

involves considerable labor.

For transmitting motion from one

worm

also be single, double, etc., like a screw.

bevel gear pitch,

In Figs. 440, 441 and 442 are


completed bevel gear.

the involute system the

of

worm

gears.

of bevel gears.

The same

is

also true in the case

most generally
The wheel is usually

sectional view

is

adopted to show the wheel.


made to embrace about one-sixth the circumference
of the

worm.

vVhen the diameter of the worm is increased and


approaches the diameter of the wheel and when the
worm is given a multiple thread and the number of
teeth in the worm wheel is comparatively low, then
both worm and worm wheel take the shape of spiral
gears.

To add strength to spur gears, the rim is made


wider than the teeth, and is carried outward, as
shown in Figs. 447 and 448. This is called shrouding of the teeth.
If two wheels gearing together
do not differ greatly in diameter, each may be

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

440.

Fig.

UL

299

Fig.

442.

ROGERS' DRAWING

300

shrouded to the pitch on both sides but when one


is very much larger than the other, it is usual to
shroud the smaller only.
;

For
shown

light spur gears the rim

The

in Fig. 449.

is

section

made

generally

shown

in Fig.

as

Sections of arms for gear wheels are shown

For

number

is

The

of

Fig. 453

light spur gears the

arms

is

diameter of the pitch circle


nearest even number may be taken.
of the

following manner.

X width

arm

is

equal to

of tooth

diam.

The

thicknes of hub

The

length of the hub

The

cir-

circular pitch

0.2

pitch diameter

in

is,

most

cases, equal to

may vary up

it

pressure on one tooth

to i}4 times

then,

may be

taken, for mqat-

purposes, to equal | of the whole pressure that is


of the driving force at the pitch line, calculated from
;

the horse

power and the speed.

=H

inches.

arms may be calculated in the


In the arm shown in Fig. 451

the greatest breadth of the


1.6

in

1.6

4 when

approximately

the

The width

The

for bevel gears.

is

is

the width of the tooth.

shown in Fig. 451 is used. For heavy spur


wheels the sections shown in Fig. 452 is adopted.
section in

thickness of the

in

section

The

hub

practical rule for finding the

the width of the tooth

terms of the circular pitch of the gears.

and 453.

DESIGN.

450

shows the rim of a heavy spur gear. The proportions marked on the sections in these figures are in

Figs. 451, 452

AND

where

ity of

the spur gear.

wheel

is

33,000

the given horse

The

power and
velocity

the veloc-

of the given

found by multiplying the circumference in


feet by the number of revolutions per minute.
The
thickness of the tooth on the pitch line may be found
from the following formula,
c,
is

?'.

cular
2

and

pitch

pitch

X number

of teeth

Square of thickness=

3 times pressure

for the other sections,


T53

X pitch diameter
X number of teeth.

width of tooth
2

on one tooth

safe stress

For

cast iron gears the safe stress

to equal 4,000

pounds per

sq. in.

may be

taken

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fia.

443.

Fia.444,

301

302

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

DESIGN.


ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

FlO. Hi.

Fig.

303

4i8.

Fig.

451.

rS

f ^M

*-

047

Fig.

452.

Fig.

453.

-B

FiQ.aa.

ITiO. 450.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

304

F shall make 50 revolutions, then


value of the train is equal to 50.

said that the

it is

That is, the value of a train of gear wheels is


equal to the number of revolutions in the last follower in a given time, divided by the number of
revolutions of the main driver in the same time.
teeth, the
Suppose that the first wheel had
second B, the third C teeth, the fourth wheel D
then,
teeth, the next E and the last F teeth

Fig.

454.

Example
If

the whole driving force at the pitch circle

-^-== the velocity ratio between the

equal to 12,000 pounds, then the pressure on one

tooth will be

1-1

thickness

The

01

8, coo
1

the

pounds, and the square of the

1-11
wul

tooth

8,000

equal
^

the square root of

6,

i. e.,

2.449

">

^^Y '^%

and the

second axes upon which are fastened the wheels B

and

- =

=6.

4,000
thickness of the tooth must then be equal to

first

is

the velocity ratio between the second and

third axes

JE ^^ velocity ratio between third and fourth axes,

\nc\\

T
and

TRAINS OF GEAR WPiEELS.


When

a train of gear wheels

machine, the usual arrangement

is

is

employed
to

gear wheels of unequal size upon every

in

D X

the train.

except

Example

axis,

first

Let

==

,^

two extreme

fasten two

and the last, and to make the larger wheel


of any pair engage the smaller one of the next pair.
If the wheel A in Fig. 454 is the driving wheel,
and the wheel F the last follower, and if it be determined that for each single revolution of A, the wheel
the

C
X-

the velocity ratio

between the

h
axes, that

is, it

will

equal the value of

have 120

teeth,

15 teeth,

150 teeth and F 30 teeth.


Then, the value of the train is equal to

50 teeth,

120

100
-X-

15

50

150

80

100 teeth,

METAL WORKING MACHINERY.


The

discovery of metals and the means of working them are

among

the

first

stages in the develop-

of primeval man
the earliest evidence of a knowledge and use of metals is found in the primitive
implements of the so-called Bronze and Iron Age. Attention is called to the interesting note below.
The Old Testament mentions six metals gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead ; the old Greeks in
addition to these, and to bronze, came also to know mercury ; the same set of metals without addiabout
tions seem to be the only ones known until the Fifteenth Century when atitimony was discovered
arsenic
and
cobalt
were
discovered
in
in
the
A.
D.,
discovered,
nickel
and
manganese
were,
1730
1774;
meantime something had become known in a general way of zinc, bismuth diXxA platinum.
Since the date last mentioned the discovery of many rare metals has become frequent, aluminum
being among the last most useful and interesting discoveries of metals unknown at the beginning of the
Nineteenth Century.
The following pages deal, in text and illustrations, with iron working machinery, as agamst those
machines devised to work i7i luood, etc., and few as are the cases named they show vividly the progress
made in the methods of working the metals named.
In designitig machines it is well to keep in mind, i, that each machine ought to be made of as lew
parts as possible, 2, as simple as possible, 3, the strength of every part should be made proportional to
the stress it has to bear, 4, all superfluous weight which clogs the machine's motion should be avoided,
5, all parts should be contrived to last equally well, 6, in wheels with teeth, the number of teeth that
play together ought to be so constructed that the same teeth may not meet at every revolution, but as
seldom as possible.

ment

Note.

" Some recent analyses of the iron of prehistoric weapons have brought to light the

interesting fact that

many

of the prehistoric

specimens of iron manufacture contain n consiilerable percenlage of nickel. This special alloy does not occur in any known iron ores but is
It thus appears that iron was manufactured from meteorolites which had fallen to the earth in an almost
invariably found in meteoric iron.
pure metallic state, possibly long before prehistoric man had learned how to dig for and smelt iron in any of the forms of ore which are found
on this planet." Enc. Briiannica.

307

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

308

DES AND
The

has an opening exactly equal to the form of the


punch.

PRESSES.

use of dies and presses has increased in

recent years to an almost marvelous extent, and a

numberless variety of articles are now being pressed


out easily and rapidly by the aid of dies, which in
former times involved great labor as well as a long
special training.

The number and

are so very large that

book

to give

it is

list

is

preferably

made

in

one piece with the punch.

variety of dies

beyond the

even a partial

Fig. 455 shows a punch and die for a circular


The narrow part of the punch, the shank,
blank.

limits of this

or classification of

these useful tools.


In this section

we

shall limit ourselves to a

few

examples of the most frequently employed forms of


dies, so as to give the reader an opportunity to acquaint himself with this importamt part of modern
mechanism sufficiently to understand further special
literature upon this subject, if it should be the
desire of the reader to make a thorough study of
this branch of machine shop practice.

The

simplest form

Blanking dies are

of a

made

die

for the

is

a blanking

Fig.

purpose of cutting

out various pieces of metal from a comparatively


thin sheet of metal, cardboard, etc., leaving the cut

out piece perfectly

flat

this piece

is

called a blank.

set of blanking dies consists of a

punch, and the lower or female

die.

male

die, or

The lower

455.

die.

die

The shank

is

fastened to the

ram of the press,

while

secured to the bed of the press.


The
taper of the lower die gives the clearance, required
the die

is

purpose of facilitating the dropping of the


blank from the die as soon as it is cut the clearance is made from
to 3' for average work.
for the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


For the purpose

of greater rapidity of

309

work and

uniformity in the matter of spacing the holes, dies


and. punches are grouped; that

Fig.

is,

several punches

456.

are fastened to one shank, while several separate


openings are worked out in the lower die to correspond with the number of required separate dies, if
the work were done by single dies.

Fig. 458.

V
Fio. 457

shows such a gang die, as it is called,


made for cutting out washers of the shape shown in
Fig. 459. One stroke of the die produces two holes,
as shown in Fig. 4^7.
The metal is fed into the
Fig. 458

KiG.

459.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

310

die from

punch

The

the side of the smaller hole.

will cut

a hole in

it

small

equal to the inside diam-

eter of the washer, as shown

in

Fig. 456

the metal

then advanced and at the second stroke the large


punch will cut out the complete washer, while the
is

which is made very sharp for that


purpose.
The diameter of the punch is equal to
the diameter of the die, minus two times the thickoff

by the edge

P,

ness of the blank.

small punch pierces the metal for the next washer at


the

same

stroke.

The

plate

S,

Fig. 458,

is

the

stripper which takes the metal off the punches on

Fig.

460.

upward stroke. It is evident that the metal


must be fed below the stripper.
Fig. 461 shows the simplest form of a drawing
punch and die. The flat circular blank. Fig. 460,
is placed upon the die so as to fit the set edge S,
and is pushed through the die by the punch. While
the punch returns upward, the finished shell is pulled
their

Fig.

461.

Fig. 462 shows the shell.


This simple form of a
drawing die should be used only on shallow work,
to avoid crimping around the edge of the shell.
When the blank is held firmly while being drawn,
the crimping even on deeper work may be avoided.

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

DESIGN.

311

(O;

r^

tr

\^
Fig.

%J'

tr
Fig.

463.

Fio.

464.

Fig.

465.

466.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

312

Another gang

die

shown

is

in Figs.

463 and 465.

Fig. 466 is the blank, Fig. 465 the top view of the
lower die and stripper Fig. 464, a sectional view of
;

the

same

and Fig. 463 shows the punch

Fig.

In Fig. 468
relative

is

in section.

469.

shown a type of a die, which by its


when compared with the work

simplicity

produced, will always stand as a beautiful example


of mechanical ingenuity.
T^G.

468.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


It is

erall)-

a single-action cutting

and drawing

die,

called a single-action combination die;

genit is

continues until the drawing punch C is drawn down


on the drawing die D, when the blank is drawn into
the required shape.

combination of a blanking and a drawing die in one


it cuts the blank and draws it up into the shell shown
In descending the
in Fig. 467 at the same stroke.
blank is cut by the edge of the blanking punch B,

meetinor the edg-e of the blanking die A.

Fig. 469
Fig.

470

is

shows a sheet iron dynamo armature disc.


a section on a larger scale of a set of

dies of latest construction, designed for cutting such

The blank

Fig.

313

These

discs.

dies are

made

to cut discs

up to 100"

470.

then held firmly by the blank holder ring E and


forced down together with it, by continued downward motion of the blanking punch B. The blank

diameter, and it is claimed that when the press is


run at a speed of 55 revolutions per minute, nearly
6,000 sheets 20" in diameter may be produced in ten

forced up by the elastic force of the rubber spring barrel R upon which the ring sets, through
the medium of six pins passing through the bolster or
The descent of the blanking punch B
die holder.

hours.

is

is

holder ring

is

in

Fig. 471 shows a well-known type of punching and


shearing machine.
It will be noticed that the ma-

chine

is

powerfully geared.

The machine

is

really

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

314
a form of a press and contains

all

essential parts of

such a mechanism.
It will also

be noticed that the machine

with a stop clutch, operated by a foot-lever.


tion of a stop-clutch
to suddenly

constantly

make

following

is,

is

equipped

metals, as

The func-

Drill

is

table

sizes

of

of drills

the

and

speeds

of

for different

recommended by the Cleveland Twist

Company

at the will of the operator,

Table of Drill Speeds.

a driving connection between the

revolving gear wheel and the tempor-

ary stationary main shaft.

Its further

purpose

is

to

members again automatically, after


has made exactly one revolution and when

disconnect these
the shaft

The

drills for different

the punch has reached

its

Diam-

Speed

Speed

Speed

Diam-

Speed

Speed

Speed

eter of

for Soft

for Soft

Steel.

for
Brass.

eter of

Drill.

for Cast
Iron.

Drill.

Steel.

for Cast
Iron.

for
Brass.

1,824

2,128

3,648

ItV

108

125

"215

912

1,064

1,824

102

118

203

608

710

1,216

lA

96

112

192

456

532

912

li

91

106

182

365

425

730

101

174

355

608

ItV
If

87

304
260
228

83

97

165

304

520

lA

80

93

159

266

456

76

89

152

lA

78

85

146

70

82

140

highest open position.

DRILLING MACHINES.

mechanism of the greatest importance in a


machine shop is the drilling machine. The ordinary
machines are genercomplicated
machine
tool, presenting
ally called, is a
a great number of interesting mechanical principles
It is, however, not within the scope
to the student.
of this book to take up extensively the construction
of this machine the figure on page 317 is an example of this class of machinery the drawing shows
a bench drill, which embodying, as it does, all the
parts essential to any drilling machine, will enable
the student to understand the favorite types of the

drill press, as the larger drilling

1-

t'h
1

203
182
166

236

405

213
194

365

332

^\

68

79

135

152

177

304

If

65

76

130

fF

140

164

280

63

73

125

I
If

130

152

260

60

71

122

122
114

142

243

in

59

69

118

133

228

57

67

114

tV
5

w
f

drilling machine.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,

316

shows a side elevation of a bench drill


and practical design, suitable for drilling
small holes.
A front view of this machine is illus-

The number

Fig. 472

of a neat

trated in Fig. 473, while


view of the same.

The

474 exhibits a top

Fig.

principal parts of the

driving cone pulley, as well as the fast and

loose pulley are


at the

The

mounted upon one horizontal

back of the frame near

its

shaft,

is

led

in this

presses

drill

type the work

is

is

which

known

is

particularly

as the radial

drill

not shifted, after drilling a

more holes

be drilled into the


same surface
the drill spindle, with its entire
mechanism is mounted upon a heavy cast iron ai^m,
which swings horizontally upon the frame of the
hole,

there are

if

to

the

arm may be lowered or

raised to suit

the work, and the spindle carriage can be

moved

in

or out on the arm, to suit conditions.

to the

point.

The lower end

of the spindle

is

receive the drilling tool.

The weight of drill,


move down

ward or upward together with these parts are


counterbalanced by a weight which is hidden in the
hollow frame.
For the upward and downward
motion of the spindle a pinion and rack motion is

The

table m.iy also be lowered or raised

according to the requirement of the work.

The Milling Machine may be

is

chuck, spindle and other parts which

provided.

THE MILLING MACHINE.

provided with a

thread for the purpose of holding a chuck which


to

of

cone pulley, which


mounted upon the vertical spindle near its highest

in a horizontal direction
is

class

adapted for larger work

machine

lower end.

upward from the cone


pulley over two horizontal guide pulleys, and then
driving belt

also for

machines is
Large drilling machines are used
tapping holes and are generally provided
of varieties of drilling

rapidly.

with automatic feed.

machine are the vertical


spindle, holding the drilling tool, a table upon which
the work to be drilled is held, and a rigid frame to
which all parts of the machine are fastened.

The

growing

classed as a combi-

nation of several other machine tools used for cutting

metals
is

the work that can be done on this machine

not limited to either straight or curved surfaces,

or drilling of holes

machine does not

in

general construction this

differ greatly

drill press, in fact it

In this machine the table

held

is

movable

from an ordinary

can often be used in

in all

its

place.

upon which the work

is

directions, without disturbing

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

317

3ji'

Fio.

Fig.

472.

Fig.

473.

474.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

318
the adjustment of the work, which

is

fed either auto-

hand feed, while the rotating cutter


removes the superfluous metal.

matically or by

In illustrations Nos. 475 and 476 are illustrated


an approved form of a vertical spindle milling

machine.

shows the front view of this machine,


and Fig. 476 shows the side elevation. The whole
machine is an advanced type of a modern milling
machine and produces an impression of strength
and neatness of design.
Fig. 475

The

vertical spindle of this

diameter

fully 3" in

machine

is

made

the lower end of the spindle

provided with a thread for large

mills,

working

is

in a

horizontal plane.
77^1?

are 5

platen as well as the saddle of this machine

1]/^'

long.

All feed screws are provided with

dials, thus enabling accurate work

ient

in a

most conven-

manner.

The
platen

largest distance between the spindle


is

2ii/^".

The extreme

and the

distance between

table and the vertical spindle is 16".


There are fully eight changes of feed for the table
and sixteen changes for the rotary attachment.

the rotary

The dimensions
follows:

Height

machine over all, are as


width 65" and depth 88}4"-

of this
81",

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

476.

319

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

320

>
^

i^S

\
rsr

-en

Fig.

FlO.

4TT.

478,

DRAWING AND DESIGN.

321

THE LATHE.
The most important machine

shop

tool in a

is

undoubtedly the lathe.


It is used for a great variety
of purposes and for this reason it is made in many
different special forms and designs.

The simplest
to 479.

It

kind of a lathe

work which can be run

small

The
parts

lathe

is

shown

called a speed lathe

is

composed

is

in Figs.

and

is

477
used for

at a high speed.

of the following principal

I.

2.

345-

By means

The bed.
The legs or supports.
The head stock.
The tail stock.
The tool rest.

of the steps in the

cofie

pulley on the

head stock different changes of speed of the spindle


The tool rest, V\^^. \%o and 481,
is adjustable in all directions, but it is not provided
can be obtained.

with automatic feed connections.

The

ordinary engine lathe, used for heavier and

more accurate work, has the same main


speed
with

lathe.

its

In this lathe, however, the carriage

tool support

is

moved over

bed by the lead screw and

screw

is

parts as the

its

the shears

connections.

splined and the feed

mechanism

of the

The
is

lead

driven

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

322

from a collar which has feather engaging the spline


and slides over the lead screw. The form of thread
used on lead screws is somewhat similar to a square
thread with sides forming an angle of 14^ degrees.
2^.

The

lead screw

is

driven from the spindle of the

head stock by gear wheel connections.


The head stock of an engine lathe, in two views, is
shown in Figs. 482 and 483. Fig. 482 shows an elevation of the head stock, and Fig. 483 represents its
plan or top view, the back gears being plainly shown.

Large engine lathes are also provided with a


screw

separate feed shaft besides the lead


shaft

is

driven by a belt

the stud, and

is

upon

is

fitted

it

can slide on

splined lengthwise
this
it

shaft

in

lengthwise,

this

pulleys,

from

a splined

worm

and cone

but

is

held by two

turn with the feed shaft.

worm engages

in a

be run with the back gears

idle,

with the spindle gear; in this

by locking the cone

way

the spindle has

only the changes in spindle speed depending upon


the steps of the cone pulley as in the speed lathe.

The gear wheels at

the back of the head stock reduce

the speed of the spindle and a double

number

of

speed can thus be obtained.


Figs. 486 and 487 show the mannfer in which the
spindle gear may be connected with the lead screw
gear, for producing different feeds.

changes

in

CHANGING GEARS FOR SCREW CUTTING.


The problem

of cutting a screw on a lathe resolves


connecting the spindle of the lathe with
the lead screw by a number of gears in such a manitself into

worm-wheel, connected

by a clutch to a gear, which meshes with a rack


under the front edge of the lathe-bed. By means
of this clutch the feed can be engaged or disengaged. The worm-wheel also connects with a
clutch, which will operate the cross-feed of the tool.
Both clutches are operated by knobs at the front
of the apron.

484 shows the longitudinal section and Fig.

a cross or lateral section of the tail-stock of a


485
lathe of the usual form.
All back-geared lathes can
is

such a manner that

projections on the apron of the carriage, so that it


will slide with the carriage and at the same time

This

Fig.

ner

that

the

carriage,

moved by

the lead screw,

advances exactly one inch during the lapse of time


required for the lathe spindle to
revolutions equal to the
inch in the

The

lead

thread, and,

desired

number

make

number

of

of threads to the

screw.

screw has,

nearly

therefore, to

move

always,

the

a single

carriage for-

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.


CenferLine

3" t-d.m S/ideTTest-

Ufi
I

^-

Fig.

481.

323

324

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fto.

482.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fio.

483.

325

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

326

ward

just

one inch

revolutions equal to
inch.

know

It

the

is,

it

its

must make a number

own number

consequently,

number

first

of

of threads per

of all necessary to

of threads per inch on the lead

that the gear on the spindle has double the

screw.

The

Number
spindle of the lathe

provided with a gear

is

with the lead screw


or cotnpoujid gearing.

In simple gearing the motion of the stud gear

is

on stud gear

Number of turns of spindle


Number of turns of stud
by

Number

It is

multipled

of threads on the lead screw

Divided by number of threads per inch


on required screw.

Problem

The connection of the stud


may be accomplished by simple

of teeth

Divided by number of teeth on lead screw gear

which transmits the rotary motion of the spindle to


the stud gear, below the spindle, by means of intermediate gears, situated within the head stock. There
are two of these intermediate gears, one being an
idle gear, for the purpose of changing the direction
of the motion of the stud and through this the lead
screw.

number

on the stud.
The following formula will give the required ratio
for the gears on the stud and on the lead screw

of teeth than that

required to cut a screw with i6 threads to

the inch

the lead screw has 8 threads to the inch

and the spindle makes 20 turns

to

40 turns of the

transmitted either direct or by means of an inter-

stud.

One
mediate gear to the gear on the lead screw.
or more intermediate gears, which simply transmit

Solution

the motion received from one gear to another, do

Number

of teeth

on stud gear

20

Number

of teeth

on lead screw gear

40

16

not affect the

resulting ratio of a train of gears.

Consequently, the intermediate gears


ing will be disregarded in

all

in

simple gear-

calculations for screw

stud gear

required ratio

is

one to

four,

i.e.,

when the

stud gear will have 16 teeth the lead screw gear will

cutting.

The

The

is

usually equal to the driving gear

on the spindle; it may, however, be of a different


size and in the following problem it will be assumed

have 16 X 4^64 teeth; now if the stud gear will


have 20 teeth the lead screw gear will have 20X4
80 teeth and so on.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

, .ftfN}}WW?^.V/?f

Fig.

484.

327

ROGERS' DRAWING

328

AND

DESIGN.

In compound gearing, as in Fig.


487, the motion of the stud gear
is

transmitted

lead screw

to the

by two gears keyed together on


intermediate

an
case

there

gears and

are

In

stud.

four

this

changeable

consequently a wider

range of changes than

in

simple

gearing.

Of

the

two gears working

to-

gether on the intermediate stud

one which works with the


is called the first gear
and the other working with the
lead screw g-ear is termed the secthat

spindle stud

ond gear.

Now

assuming that the spindle

gear makes

20 revolutions to 40

revolutions of the stud gear

and

that the lead screw has 4 threads

be necessary to
find the velocity ratio between the
stud gear and the lead screw gear
for cutting a screw with 50 threads
to the inch

it

will

to the inch.
Fig.

^imhla Qearing.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

329

Number

of teeth in stud

Number

of teeth in lead

20

_a;ear

40^50

25

screw gear
that

is,

if

the gear on the stud should have

16 teeth then

tlie

would have 400

gear on the lead screw


teeth, or

ratio for simple gearing.

the required

For compound

gearing this ratio can be divided into


tors,

for

instance,

iX|=5V'

that

is

fac-

the

velocity ratio for the spindle stud gear and

the

first

made

intermediate stud gear could be

i, and the same velocity


two other gears. For instance, if the stud gear will have 16 teeth
the first intermediate stud gear must have
5 X 16^80 teeth; the second intermediate stud gear could have 16 teeth and the
Or 15 and 75
lead screw gear 80 teeth.
could be taken for the first pair and 16 and
80 for the second pair, or in fact any pair of
gears having the desired velocity ratio.

equal to

ratio for the

Figure 488 represents a modern shafting lathe, built by the Springfield Tool
Company, and which can be used both for

ordinary lathe work and especially for


Fio.

487.

Comhound

(^eartny.

turning shafting.

330

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

im

rm

ffitf

fq|

(ml

Q_s

Fig. 488a.

Trk.

ROGERS' DRAWING

no.

laaB.

AND

DESIGN.

Fig,

489.

331

Fig.

490.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

332

may be

This lathe

fed by a friction feed or by

Slightly below and

the lead screw.

midway between

the shears in the bed, passes a splined shaft, which


tail stock face plate by means of an intermediate gear, shown in Fig. 490. This small gear
can be thrown out of action by the worm-wheel sec-

drives the

tion

shown

made

The

in Fig. 489.

tail

stock face plate

purpose of driving the shaft by a


done by the head stock. It is very
convenient for turning the end of the shaft for which
the head stock dog has to be removed.
is

for the

dog, exactly as

The long

is

centers are a necessity in this lathe in

view of the fact that they must reach through a


bushing in the rest. This bushing is depended upon
to support the shaft during the cutting
it is made
;

to

fit

The

the shaft exactly.

special rest for shaft-

when the comThe pump and tanks for


by this rest. The pump is

ing slides into place on the saddle

pound

rest

is

removed.

lubricants are carried

driven by a gear wheel seen

in

Fig.

491, which

engages with a pinion sliding upon a shaft this


extends the entire length at the back of the
lathe.
Fig. 491 also shows the lower tank into which
all the lubricant collects, from where it flows by
;

latter

gravity to the pump.

ENGINES
The study

AND

BOILERS.

of the steam engine involves an acquaintance with the sciences of heat, of chemistry,

and
and applied mechanics, as well as a knowledge of the theory of mechanism and the strength of
many other things are needed to be known, as the student will find as he progresses in his
materials
researches, the first of which should relate to the safe and economical production of the steam itself.
Nearly the whole of the Eighteenth Century passed in experiments made to reduce the energy,
at its earliest point of progression the boiler
latent in coal and other fuels, to the service of mankind
and the engine were substantially one and the combined engine and boiler were known as the fire engine.
At a little later period when scientific research had shown clearly the source of the power which gave
vitality to the newly invented mechanism the name changed to the heat engine, it having become known
that heat accomplishes work only by being let down from a higher to a lower temperature, a certain
amount of heat disappearing when changed into work.
The modern Steam Engine is now considered as apart from the Steam Boiler and the classification
and variety of each and the successive steps of advancement, while full of interest are too voluminous to
consider in this volume, but some account of their early history is given in the note below.
of pure

About

Thomas Newcomen, ironmonger, and John Cawley,

glazier, of Dartmouth, in the county of Devonshire,


put up an engine, operated by steam, which acted successfully. The progre.ss made
was very rapid and it is recorded that in the year 1737 there was a pumping engine of the Newcomen construction working a succession of
pumps each 7 inches in diameter and 24 feet apart, and making 6-feet strokes at the rate of 15 per minute, whereby water was pumped from cistern to cistern throughout the whole length of a shaft 267 feet deep, by steam at or near the atmospheric pressure.
The construction of the Newcomen engine was greatly improved by Smeaton, who designed and erected an engine for the Chase-Water
mine, in Cornwall, which had a cylinder of 72 inches in diameter, with a 9-feet stroke, and worked up to 76 horse power. There were three
This was the last effort on a system then about to pass away, for the engine was set up in 1775 no less
boilers, each fifteen feet in diameter.
than six years after the date of Watts' patent, and we are told that when " erected it was the most powerful machine in existence."

Note.

made

the year 1710,

several experiments in private,

and

in the year 1712

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

336

plates riveted together, the ends of the cylinder be-

STEAM
A

BOILERS.

closed vessel in which water

the purpose of generating steam


boiler

the boiler

is

ing closed by

may be heated
is

partially filled with

this purpose, the level of the

water

for

called a steam

water for

in the boiler be-

its water line ; the space above the water


termed the steam space.

ing called
line

is

plates called the heads

of the boiler.
The furnace is arranged at the front end of the
boiler, the fuel being placed on the grate through
the furnace door, the ashes falling through the
grate into the ash pit below. Behind the furnace
is built a brick wall, called the bridge wall, which
flat

keeps the hot gases

in close contact

with the under-

side of the boiler.

That part

of the surface of the boiler,

exposed to

and of the hot gases, is called


the heating surface of the boiler, and its measurement is usually given in square feet.
the heat of the

The

may be

often

is

classified

according to their

construction and form, or according to their appli-

Thus, we have horizontal and vertical boilers,


externally and internally fired boilers, plain cylin-

is

drical shell boilers, fire-tube

hot gases

and water-tube

boilers.

Boilers may be stationary o'c portable ; there are


locomotive boilers and marine boilers semi-portable,

All portions of the brick

plain cylindrical boiler, Fig. 492, consists of


shell,

made

of iron or steel

furnace over the

Within the chimney

made

work exposed

of fire-brick.

to the action

It is

not desir-

able to allow the upper portion of the boiler to


in

come

contact with the hot gases, and for this reason the

boiler

above the water

Water

is

line

is

lined with fire brick.

forced into the boiler through the feed

pipe leading to the lower end of the boiler, by the


aid of an injector or a pump.
To prevent the steam

from rising above a certain pressure, a safety valve


is

placed at the top of the boiler.

From

etc.

a long cylinder called a

flow from the

placed a damper regulating the flow of these gases.

of the gases, are

cation.

The

second bridge-wall

is built.

The

bridge walls into the chim,ney.

generated is called
the furnace ; the surface upon which the coal is laid
is called the grate surface, and its dimensions are
also given in square feet.
boilers

boilers of this class a

fire

space in which the heat

Steam

For long

the highest part of the boiler also, the main

steam pipe leads the steam to the engine or any


apparatus for which the steam is to be used.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

V//^^/////////////////////7^^

'-'-

'^^'':^:- ^-^X' : '^<

Fig.

493.

t'.

'-'<

<y-:^

337

ROSERS' DRAWING

388

The

pressure of the steam in the boilers

cated by

which

the steam space


level,

DESIGN.

indi-

Figs. 493 and 494, attached


passes through the front head into

/"/z^ i'/!'^?^^

to a pipe

is

AND

^azit^^,

of the

boiler.

To

determine the water


the front head of the

gauge cocks are placed in


There are, commonly, three of them

boiler shell.

d
To SfeamSfjac^

Gauge Glasb

-^

Top

of l/^Joer Tfou/

of Tubes
Fig.

Fig.

493.

491.

one vertical line the level of the water may be


found approximately by opening these gauge cocks,

in

shown

in Fig. 495.

The
water

level of the

glass,

water

may

shown by a
Valves at the

also be

illustrated in Fig. 496.

top and bottom.allow the steam to be shut


glass breaks or needs cleaning,

and

2i

off if

I^ater6pace

cie:
^^To Ashpit

the

pet cock at the

Fig.

495.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


bottom allows the water to be blown out of it. The
brass fittingrs of the water glass are often screwed
when this cannot be
directly into the boiler plates
done, the water glass may be put on a water column
;

shown in Fig. 495.


The boiler must also be provided with a

like that

pipe,
in

through which the water

may

blozu-off

be discharged

339

A nianhole,\g. ^g/, is constructed in the front head


or on top of the boiler, to allow a person to enter

purpose of cleaning, inspecting or repairing.


At the lower side of the boiler a handhole is generally sufficient, as in Fig. 498, for cleaning it out and
removing the accumulated sediment.
for the

Fig. 492 the feed pipe, as well as the blow-off

may be

seen at the rear of the boiler.

FIQ.4W.

y//////////^.
Fig.

496.

w/yyyy/yyyyy.
\\\\V\\\\\\^\\\\\\\\^L^^^^^

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

340

ii_i
Fig.

Plain cylindrical, or plain shell boilers, may be


made from 30 to 40 inches in diameter and from 20
to 40 feet lono^ they are not considered economical
on account of their small heating surface.
The jiue boiler. Figs. 499 and 500, differs from
;

498.

having a diameter of three or four inches.


About two-thirds of the boiler is filled with water

ally

the other third being the steam space.


level

row

running lengthwise through the shell, below


the water level.
The hot gases pass from the furnace over the bridge walls and then through the
flues to the smoke box and chimney.
This type of
boiler is more economical than the plain shell boiler,
as the flues considerably increase the heating surface.

used wherever the water is bad, even


may not be as economical as some other

It is

though

it

types of boiler.

The

cylindrical tubular boiler. Figs. 501, 502, 503


is a development of the flue type.
It con-

sists of a cylindrical shell,


flat

closed at the ends by two

tube plates and of numerous

fire-tubes,

usu-

above the highest

fii-e-tubes

hold the

two ends of the boiler

rigidly together, acting as stays, but as these are

placed only below the water line the upper parts of

by through rods or stays,


or diagonal stays, similar to that shown in Fig. 505.
The boiler is supported by the side walls by means
of brackets riveted to the shell, similar to the one
shown in Fig. 506.

the

flat

plates are braced

The Cornish
with

and 504,

six or eight inches

of fire-tubes.

The

the plain shell boiler in having one or more large


flues

must be

The water

or

flat

flue,

507.

boiler consists of a cylindrical shell

ends, through which passes a smaller tube

containing the furnace as shown

The

furnace

built of fire brick.

is

in

Fig.

terminated by the bridge wall

The hot

gases flow over the

bridge wall to the end of the furnace tube, then they

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


return on both sides of the boiler shell through the

and again pass to the


back end of the boiler by the flue running along its
bottom to the chimney. The figure shows a longiflues on the side of the boiler

FlG.

much

It has been found that this method of draft


heated the plates unequally and thus weakened the
boiler.
For this reason the products of combustion
are led through the bottom flue first and then only

lects.

199.

tudinal section of the boiler.

341

Fig.

The

gases part with

of their heat before reaching the

the boiler, and therefore are less liable

bottom of
to unduly

heat the bottom plates where sediment usually col-

through the side

500.

flues, this

method being

called the

split draft.

A Cornish boiler having two internal furnace tubes


is

called a Lancashire boiler.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

342

5r
^rtS==

"

ill

-s-^

5
-^

g^rN

^0

o"^

3 ^o

Fig.

501.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

502.

343

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

344

The Galloway

will

be

stood from the part section shown

underin Fig.

Here water tubes are placed within

50S.

the furnace tube

each other
joints

in

holes are cut opposite

the furnace tube, and the

made good by

riveting the flanges

of the water tube around the hole

they

pass directly across the furnace tubes, so


that the hot gases have a

considerably

increased heating surface to act upon.

Instead of extending through the whole


length of the boiler, the two furnace tubes
unite just behind the bridge wall in one
large flue, which extends to the rear head
of the boiler.

locomotive or fire box boiler of a semiportable character is shown in Figs. 509

and 510, which exhibit a half end elevation and half cross section through the
fire box.
The rectangular fire box which
constitutes the furnace of this boiler

is

riveted to the front part of the cylindrical


boiler.

shell

2^
to

space called the water leg

around the

left

this space,

is

box and the boiler


which is usually from

fire

inches to 4 inches wide,


filled with water.

be

v^'^^^^^^^'.^^v^^<^^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^'^'^s^^^^^'^^

boiler

is

intended

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

345

fy^.

4
f

'i'^/'

Fio.

501.

7"^

///'/////f/yy///'/
/ // /, / /f ^////^/, ///,//////, //\///'//'// y///y'//,//// /' / //^ y / / / /v\
yyyyy'y/''y
y "
y y /y^y' ' y ' y ' ' ' ' y ' ' ' ' y ^^^jyyjfy ^frffy/^i^f/f^ ,/>/.y/,/ ^,,^ ///,,/\i\
L^_^_iJ

''

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

346

and shell are


liable to bulge underpressure, they must be securely
braced or stayed the illustration shows the s^aj/ bolts
which are there for that purpose. The top of the
fire box is strengthened in a similar manner, as is
Since the

flat

sides of the furnace

seen

in

An

example of
shown in Figs.

interesting

this type of boiler con-

is
511, 512 and 513; this
It
design has given excellent economical results.

struction

may be observed

that there are

no

flat

surfaces

the longitudinal section of this boiler, Fig.

number

510;

boiler

and are secured

large

of

tubes pass through the

to a tube plate at the rear

end

000

000

000
Fig.

and

tOo.

box

end a
cylindrical smoke box is fastened to the rear end of
the boiler the gases of combustion pass directly
from the furnace through the tubes to the smoke
box and thence to the smoke stack.
of the boiler

to the fire

at the front

FiQ.

506,

Vertical boilers have the advantage of taking up

comparatively small floor space.

many

They

are

made

in

and are used

par-

ticularly for fire engines, hoisting engines, etc.,

and

a great

varieties of designs

wherever space

is

limited.

which require staying, the top of the shell, as well as


the upper plate of the fire box, are of hemispherical
shape, giving the
weight of material.

maximum

strength for a given

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

347

products of combustion pass from the fire box


through the inclined oval-shaped flue, into a com-

The water is contained in a large number of small


lap-welded tubes, connected in various ways to each

bustion chamber and thence through a very large

other, as well as to the cylindrical

The

number

of horizontal tubes to the

The water

smoke box and

thence to the chimney.

Fig.

As may be seen
chamber

lined with

is

Whenever
steam

in

in

the illustration, the combustion


fire brick.

the generation of a large quantity of

comparatively short time

water tube boilers are

now

is

required,

the tubes and a part of the drum.


furnace of the usual form is placed under the front

507.

end of the tubes, the products of combustion circulating around the tubes and the under side of the
drum. An illustration of this type of boiler is shown
in Figs. 514, 515.

In this type of boiler the

extensively employed.

steam space is limited to a cylinwhich forms only a part of the boiler.

drum above them.

fills all

In these boilers the

is

drical shell

to

made comparatively
and above

the

drum

large,

network

and
of

for the
is

steam space

located parallel

tubes,

which are

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

348

inclined, as well as the

drum,

at

an angle with a hori-

zontal plane, so as to bring the water level to about


one-third the height of the

drum

in

the front and

about two-thirds of its height in the rear. The ends


of the tubes are expanded into large water legs made

DESIGN.

and is terminated by a bridge wall air


admitted through a channel at the bottom of the
space behind the bridge wall, and is heated in passof the boiler

is

ing through the wall.

wrought iron, flanged and riveted to the shell,


which is cut out for a part of its circumference to
of

Fig. m&.

receive them.

The two ends

of the

drum

hemispherical form and are not braced as

is

are of a

the case

heads are used. The water legs form the


ntural support of the boiler.

where

Fig.

flat

The
setting

boiler
;

is

by a brick work
situated below the front end

entirely enclosed

the furnace

is

The

feed water

509.

brought through a feed pipe


leading to the front head of the drum within the
main drum is suspended a mud drum below the water
is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Z' 7/i

349

8>%

Fig.

510.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

350

line.

The

which

is

in this

feed water

enters the

mud drum

submerged into the hottest part of the water


manner the impurities of the feed water are

largely extracted.
of tubes are placed

layers of fire brick, acting as baffle plates, forcing the

hot gases to circulate back and forth between the


finally

flow

out through the chimney

placed above the rear end of the boiler

drum

part of the main

is

the upper

protected by a lining of

When several of these boilers are used together,


forming a battery of boilers, an additional steam
drum is usually placed at right angles and above the
steam drums already described.

DESIGN A STEAM BOILER.

In designing a steam boiler an engineer has to

bear

in

may

serve to

show how

may be calculated.
be required to design a 60 horse power
horizontE multi-tubular boiler, to carry a working
pressure of 150 lbs. per square inch, and which will
be capable of sustaining a test pressure of 225 lbs.
Let tbt: length of the tubes be 15 ft. and each
tube havi;: an internal area of 6.08 sq. in., i. e., about
the parts of a boiler

Let

it

inches outside diameter.

should

b<;

mind the following considerations:

required strength;

2, its

for inspection, cleaning

durability;

and repairs

3, its
;

i,

its

accessibility

4, its ability

to

perform the work 5, the special laws of the locality


in which the boiler is to be used, as well as the rules of
insurance companies; and 6, the type best adapted
;

to existing conditions.

"
"
"
"

The

heating surface

about 37 times the grate surface.

Let the area of the grate

fire brick.

TO

following example

Between the horizontal rows

tubes and

The

first,

'

equal

in sq. ft

the lieating surface in sq. ft


the area of smoke passage through the
tubes in sq. ft
the water space in cubic feet.
the steam space in cubic feet

"
"

G
H
C

"

"

According to the standard recommended by a


committee of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, it is customary to rate boilers by their
horse power, considering jo potmds of water evaporated from feed water at 100" F., under pressure of
70 lbs. by the steam gauge, is equivalent to one horse
power ; this is equivalent to 34^ lbs. of water evaporated from feed water at a temperature of 212 F.,
into steam at atmospheric pressure.
Now, as 343^ lbs. are evaporated for i-horse
power, for a boiler of 60 H. P. 34.5 X 60
2,070
lbs. must be evaporated to meet the conditions.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

-ee<5> * ^Se- @% --!f}-^^>- {^ ^-sfe


---
f----
-C# --:@;o-S iS:--^!;-^'^-S & 6-^ -- oe-,,^
-- * -- --vfro
0^ -
6 a> ---* >

351

->;

3r

-;!

lb

"K3
'

-e

-^ -^ffi---&-

f-(&-^<3<g;*-#-3>#;-

ffi

-o-

Ftg.

512,

Fig.
Fio.

511.

813.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

352

Evaporation per
quality of the coal
also, 3,

depends on the
the rate of combustion, and
of coal

lb.

2,

the construction of a boiler.

The

Style of Boiler

Plain Cylindrical

following

Evaporation per

sq.

ft.

coal.

ing surface.

6
8
10

10.5
10.4

2.52
3-33

10.

12

9-5
8.9
8.2

4.04
4-56
4-98

of surface.

14
16

The evaporation per pound of


(n the different

Hutton,

is

is

5-25

5 to

Vertical

5 to

10

25

25 to

35
50 to 100

as

pound

of coal will evaporate 9

pounds

12 pounds,

will

pounds

square foot of grate

evaporate

12

9^108

Dividing the number 2,070 by

of water.

108 gives the reqttired area of grate.

6 to 11
8 to 12

Locomotive Boiler

8 to 13

^ = 19.16
108

area of heating surface of each type of boiler

is

Now,
surface,

to 11

Multi-tubular

Below

20 to

water at 212 F.
As we have found, 2,070 pounds of water will have
to be evaporated in this boiler to give us the required 60 H. P.
of water, the coal contained in

Plain Cylindrical

30

For the boiler which we have taken as an example, we will assume that 12 pounds of coal can be
burned per square foot of grate, and that one pound
of anthracite coal will evaporate about 9 pounds of

of heat-

coal that takes place

nearly always in a constant ratio to

area

ft.

types of boiler, according to Prof.

as follows

Water-tube
Cornish

The

sq.

15

5 to

Flue
Cylindrical Tubular
Locomotive Tubular
Cylindrical

according to tests with a boiler, which had a ratio


of 25 to I of the heating surface to the grate surface.
Evaporation
per lb. of

12 to

Cornish

table illustrates the effect of the rate of combustion,

te of combustion in
ounds of coal per

Ratio of Grate Surface


to Heating Surface

i,

the grate

given a table showing ike ratio

be-

tween the grate surface and the heating surface, generally observed in the several types of boiler
:

The

sq.
^

ft.

grate surface,
of ^

smoke passage through the tubes to


the grate area, C G, is according to good practice,
made equal to
8 for this type of boiler.
The
3"
in diameter may be found
number of tubes, each
in the following manner
area of

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


19.16
8

6.08

Adding the steam space and the water space

144 == about 56 tubes.

353

gether,

we get 309 cu. ft.,

for the

volume

of both

to-

this

Here 6.08 is the internal area of one tube.


Suppose our boiler is designed for a steam engine
which is to use 40 pounds of steam at a pressure of
70 pounds per horse power per hour, and that the
steam space shall hold enough steam to supply the

volume would determine the capacity of the shell,


were there no tubes passing through it and taking
up part of the space within in this case, therefore,
the space taken up by the tubes must be added to
the above volume.

nearly

have already found that the boiler will conThe outside area of one tube of the
tain 56 tubes.
given size, is 7.107 sq. in., consequently

engine 30 seconds

the absolute pressure

is

85 pounds and the specific volume of steam at this


The space which will be taken
pressure is 5.125.

by steam required

^X

-12

60 X 60

for

one horse power

We
56

is,

5-125 == 1.706 cubic feet.

be
60
X
102.36 cu.
1.706
That is, the steam space,

say 103 cu. ft.


S, should hold 103 cu.
be taken to equal two
space
may
water
the
As
ft.
times the steam space, the water space, W, will equal
2

S, or 2

15

41.45 cu.

ft.

= the

space

Adding this to the volume


taken up by the tubes.
found above, 309 cu. ft. plus 41.45
350.45 cu. ft.,

the entire

P. will

7.107

144

Let us assume that this amount of space is taken


up by the steam required for one horse power then
the total space required to contain the steam for the
60 H.

103 == 206 cu.

ft.,

ft.

As

is

of the shell.

to

be 15 feet long, the area of

its

head must be ^^

'^^

ing this by 0.7854,

we get

the square of the diameter

3362.3

of the shell;

D^=

zz.^

3362.3 sq.

g^_

j^^

0.7854
for the space occupied by the stays,
take D equal to 67".

JJoTE. The steam space required by a given boiler depends upon


the purpose for which the steam is to be used. Where the steam is
under high pressure and comparatively small quantities of it are withdrawn at very frequent intervals, the steam space need not be so large
as in cases where large quantities are withdrawn, even though less
frequently.
Where the boiler supplies a steam engine, it is the general
practice to have the steam space of such dimensions that it shall contain
sufficient steam to supply the engine for about a half a minute.

volume

the shell

in.

Divid-

Allowing

etc.,

we may

One-half of the outside surface of the shell equals


_Z

3-14

i^

131.4 sq.

ft.

The

inside surfaces

12

of the tubes equal

-^

12

^-

61

1.8 sq.

ft,

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

354

Allowing for the heating surface, one-half the sur-

and all of the


have
we
131.4 + 6i 1.8

face of the shell,

the tubes,

H.

= 743.2

We

sq.

inside surfaces of

= 743.2

sq.

ft.

equal to 19.16

sq.

conditions given in

'^^"
1

9.

Dividing the heating surface


are to get, according to the
the problem, the ratio of 2)7-

ft.

surface,

As was

stated before, the evaporation of 30

of water per hour,

ft.

have already found the grate surface to be

by the grate

HORSE POWER OF THE STEAM BOILER.

we

38.7, or

very nearly as required.

lbs.

from a feed water temperature of

100 F. into steam at

gauge pressure

of 70 lbs.

is

the value of a commercial horse power, adopted by


the A. S. M. E.

Different boilers will generate

steam at different pressures, receiving also the feed


In order to comwater at different temperatures.
performances
of
different
boilers,
pare properlj' the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


their actual evaporation

must be reduced

Rule

From the total heat of steam at pressure


actual
evaporatioji,
subtract the observed temperaof
ture of the feed water and add J2
multiply the

an

to

The

equivalent evaporation from and at 212 F.

problem may be stated differently as follows


It
necessary to find what would be the evaporation
:

is

,-

result by the actual evaporation

if

Fig.

and divide

by g66

i.

515.

the feed water would be at 212 F., and the deliv-

Example:

ered steam at o gauge pressure.


To find the equivalent evaporation of a boiler,
j

proceed as follows:

355

If

a boiler generates 2,000

steam per hour at a pressure of 100 lbs., and


temperature of the feed water is 70, what
equivalent evaporation of the boiler?

lbs.

of

if

the

is

the


ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

356

From

the steam pressure table given below, the

total heat corresponding to a pressure of lOO lbs.


gauge is 1184.5; consequently the equivalent evap-

oration

is

(1184.5-70
+ 32)
^^^^^
-

2,000

^\

^^

To

power of the boiler, divide the


equivalent evaporation by 34.5. In this case, the horse
(1184-5-70 + 32) X2.000
^g_g ^^^^jy_
power
find the horse

g66.i

Let

evaporation

alent

or

966.1

3:

is

equal to

(H
^

32)^
r^
966.1

W
H-

32

10

[I54.6

15

[I57.8

95
100

[182.4
ti83-5

20

[I60.5

105

[162.9
[165.I

110
115

1167.1

120

1[

169.0

125

170.7

130

172.3

135
140

25

45
50

212 F.

The

is

called the factor of evaporation.

equivalent evaporation

is

equal to the actual

evaporation of the boiler, multiplied by the factor of

evaporation; knowing the actual evaporation, and

having a table of factors of evaporation, we are easily

able to calculate the equivalent evaporation, or

the horse power of the boiler.

Total
Heat\

[i8u4

evaporation to equivalent evaporation from and at

966.1

Gauge

90

which changes actual

quantity

Pressure by

Heat

85

40

The

Total

[I5O.9

35

required to generate

[I46.

30
t

one pound of steam from water at 32 F. under

Gauge

"

.-

is

constant pressure.

Pressure by

observed temperature of the feed


then, according to the above rule, the equiv-

a table of steam pressures the


table gives the pressure of the steam by gauge and
following

total heat

"

The

34.5

W equal the actual evaporation


H

water

TABLE OF GAUGE PRESSURE AND TOTAL HEAT.

the corresponding total heat

966.1

'

1I

55

60
65
70
75

80

173-8
175-2

176.5

177.9

179.

180.3

145
150

155
160

[184.5

[185.4
[186.4
1187.3
1x88.2
[

189.0

189.9
190.7
[191-5
192.2

[192.9

193-7
194.4

ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.

SAFETY VALVE RULES.


The safety valve

Let

provides for the safety of boilers,

by allowing the steam

to escape

represent the length of the lever

its

pressure
its

in

by a heavy weight placed directly over

in inches.

the distance between the center


of valve

when

exceeds a certain limit. The valve is kept in


seat, either by a weight at the end of a lever, as
Fig. 516, or

AB
AC

357

and A, also

in inches.

the weight in pounds.

the weight of the lever in pounds.

the pressure of the

steam per

sq. in.

Let a

the area of the valve in sq.

"

in.

the weight of the valve in pounds.

weight

and valve be
neglected, we have, when the steam reaches the
limit of pressure, for which the valve is intended,
If

the

of

downward pressure

the

of

lever

AB
-

and

same time an upward pressure equal

When
sures

the valve

may be

P X a; from
Fig.

fast as

it

The
seat.

lever,

may be

all

To
AB,

good

safety

excess of steam to escape as

generated.

valve shown

considered equal

this,

W:

lift,

P X a X

P X

a.

AB
AC
^

=^

pounds.

Taking into consideration the weight of the valve,


which should be done for accurate practice, we have a

downward pressure

516 rests on a circular


find the weight, W, or the length of the

then

AB

to

these two pres-

~-~- in

516.

the valve, or by a strong spring.


valve must allow

just about to

is

at the

of

AB
W X ~

the pressure due to

in Fig.

for a given pressure of

steam

the weight W, plus

w X AB
=;,
2 1\\^

the pressure due to the

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

358

weight of the lever, assuming that the weight of the


lever acts

downward

in its middle,

and plus Y, the

weight of the valve.

The upward

pressure remains, as before,

Here

again,

w X ^^ + V
AC

AC

P X

=P

compared with that of a steam pump, we


come to the conclusion that even if the injector may
consume a little more steam than the pump, the heat
injector

is

a.

DESIGN.
is

returned to the boiler, by being imparted to the

feed water.
a.

Let it be required to find the weight,


Example
when the lever AB is equal to 36 in., AC equals 4
in., w equals 5 lbs., V. equals 3 lbs., P equals 80 lbs.

is tapped
at the highest point of the
steam space, and a pipe leading downward is inserted

boiler

and a equals 6 sq. in.


The weight of valve and lever must be taken into
account.
According to the above formula,

= 80 X
Wx 3^+ x-2^^
2X44
W X + X + = or
W 48025-5
3

4.5

The

injector

is

6,

The

steam

it

a tank, well,

etc.

live

chamber, where

it

acquires a velocity equal to that

and being thus


enabled to overcome the pressure within the boiler,
of the jet

of the entering steam,

by its momentum, it is forced through an opening


and a check valve, into the boiler.
While the pressure within the boiler may be taken

INJECTOR.

an instrument, by the aid of which,


boiler,

stream of water into the

boilers, for

receives through a special

the feed water pipe, allowing the water to enter the

is

boiler.

injector has largely replaced other appliances

for feeding

it

pipe fr^m the source of water, be

steam which enters the injector and is


given the shape of a pointed jet, forms a partial
vacuum within a chamber in the injector just above

or

480,

the energy of. a jet of steam from the


utilized in forcing a

the feed water which

The

50.5 lbs.

THE STEAM

To the open end of this pipe is


attached the injector, which again is connectec^ with
the lower part of the boiler, into which it is to force
into the opening.

when the work

of an

to

be pretty nearly equal

in all

its

parts, the partial

vacuum caused by the condensation


steam meeting the colder water

in

of the jet of

the injector, com-

pels the jet of steam to rush into the injector at a

much higher

velocity than

if it

were discharged into

ROGERS' DRAWING

Fig.

517.

AND

DESIGN.

359

ROGERS' DRAWING

360

AND

DESIGN.

the atmosphere.

Consequently the high velocity


and the resulting momentum of the entering feed

driven into the (4) delivery nozzle, through which


it enters the boiler.
The delivery nozzle is usually

water.

made with

The accompanying
518,

show

illustrations,

Figs.

517 and

an outside view and a longitudinal section


Referring to the sectional view,

of an injector.

it

be seen that the injector consists of a case with


its upper part, water inlet directly
below the steam inlet, delivery outlet to the boiler

will

a steam inlet at

and an overflow opening

at the

bottom

of the injec-

Separate handles are provided to regulate the

tor.

flow of steam, of feed water and delivery.

The

nozzles within the injector

according to their purpose

The steam

may be

termed,

through which the steam


enters into the chamber of the injector.
It is bored
out straight in the middle and slightly conical towards its ends.
(i.)

The combining

(2.)

steam nozzle

come
the

together.

first

(3.)

nozzle,

nozzle

is

nearest to

the

here the steam and the feed water

This nozzle

is

placed in line with

one.
nozzle,

is

the next one

it

forms the vacuum, upon which is based the velocity


of the feed water
from this nozzle the water is
;

in

all

the nozzles.

The

the delivery nozzle determ-

the volume of water which may be forced


through it into the boiler. The size of an injector
is always given by the diameter of the smallest part
of the bore in the delivery nozzle, expressed in millimeters thus a No. 6 injector has an opening of 6
ines

millimeters in diameter.

To start the injector, open the water valve first.


When the water appears in a solid stream in the
open the steam valve, situated directly
above the jet, and close the jet valve. The steam
valve must always be opened slightly before closing
the jet valve, so as not to break the vacuum of the
overflow,

injector.

be noticed that the injector is put together


in such a manner as to render feasible all repairs
within by unscrewing the connected parts.
The
nozzles may have to be replaced from time to time,
It will

as they have to withstand the great velocity of the

flow

The condensing

the smallest bore of

diameter of the bore

of

water,

which

because of

its

impurities,

occasions considerable wear on the nozzles.

account of
hard metal.

this,

all

nozzles are

made

On

of a special

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

518.

361

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

362

STEAM

ENGINE.

which

The steam engine is a machine designed to transform the energy of steam, underpressure, into actual
energy in the form of continuous rotation.
For this purpose the steam is made to move the
piston in the steam cylinder backward and forward,
by bringing the steam into the cylinder, alternately
from one side of the piston and then from the other,
thus imparting a reciprocating motion to the piston.
The mechanism which regulates the direction of
the steam into the cylinder is called the valve
meclianism or valve gear of the steam engine.
When the piston, or the area which receives the
pressure of the steam, travels in a circular path continuously in one direction, the engine

is

termed a

rotary steam engine or the steam turbine.

The

to the

which the pisand forth, is the ordinary form of


this important motor.
It has been found to be
the most convenient and most economical design,
hence we shall take up for illustration and explanation this form, only, of the steam engine.
The reciprocating motion of the piston may be
transformed into a continuous rotary motion in
various ways the crank motion is the most popular
form of mechanism adopted for this purpose the
motion of \.]\& piston is transmitted hy the piston rod,
rcciprocatijjg steam engine^ in

fastened firmly at one end to the piston, to

crank pin oi the cra^ik;

this

forms a solid

structure with the main shaft of the engine.

The

?naifi

manner the

shaft, receiving in this

rotary motion, serves as the source of rotary power,


used for the many purposes of modern industry.

The length of the cylinder is made equal to the


twic
travel of the piston, which itself is equal
the effective length of the crank, phis the thickness
of the piston, to which must be added the allowance
for clearance at each end, so that the piston shall not
strike the head of the cylinder, and at the same time
to-,

will

provide the necessary space for the steam to

get behind the piston


of

ton travels back

is

the crosshead, from which the co7i7tecting rod leads

its

when

the latter

is

at the

end

stroke.

The length of the piston rod must be


permit the piston to return the
stroke and
cylinder

still

leave

to fasten

it

enough

full

sufficient to

length of

to the crosshead.

leakage of steam through the hole

in

To

is

avoid

the cylinder

head, through which the piston rod protrudes,

ing box

its

of the rod outside the

2.

stiff-

attached to the cylinder head.

It

is

evident that the extreme length of the stuffing box

must be added

to the length of the piston rod.

The crosshead

is

guided

in its rectilinear

close-fitting rods, bars or blocks,

path by

which are securely

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

363

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

364

fastened to the engine bed, or form a part of the

from the engine to the machinery.

bed

usually called belt wheels

casting, in

cross/lead

one

gtiides

and which are called the


these must be set absolutely
piece,

cylinder, as well as

the steam engine mechanism,

is

all

other parts of

fastened to a heavy

casting called the engiiie bed^ which

is

rigidly held

upon a solid masonry foundation by means of anchor


rods, whenever the engine is of the stationary type
in marine engines the bed plate is fastened to extra
heavy frames forming part of the hull.
;

When

the crank

is

in

a horizontal position,

plane of the piston rod, and the crank-pin

in

the

lies in

drawn through the center line of the cylinder, the


its extreme positions of the
stroke, the engine is then said to be on its dead center
as the pressure of the steam upon the piston will not

piston being at one of

The

rotatingr shaft

is

usually supplied with a heavy fly wheel, intended to


store

up the energy of

tions of the fly wheel

rotation,

is

and one

of the func-

to carry the engine

carrying the

or bnlance wheel,

mechan-

ism past the dead centers.

Fly wheels are of many different constructions,


varying from a solid cast iron wheel of small diameter, to built up wheels of over 30 ft. in diameter.
In
modern practice the rim of the wheel is made wide
enough to carry the belt which transmits the motion

belt.

519 and 521 are shown two views of a


wheel of modern construction, 18 ft., 8 in. in
It is unnecessary to show the entire
diameter.
In Figs.

belt

wheel, as

is

it

would be simply a repetition

shown, accompanied by a partial section

shown
It

of similar

In most cases only a quadrant of the wheel

parts.

line

result in rotation of the crank.

fly

which was constructed independent of the pulley

parallel to the axis of the cylinder.

The steam

rimmed

the old-style narrow

Such wheels are

m distinguishing them from

like that

in Fig. 519.

will

be noticed that the outline of the belt

wheel hub is a regular dodecagon, its sides forming


the planed surfaces, to which the arms are attached
by means of flanges and bolts. The other ends of
the arms are also flanged and connected to the difin Fig. 520.
The hub
two sections and the rim in
to each of which latter two arms are

ferent rim sections as


in this

case

six sections,

is

made

shown

in

flanged.

The sections of both hub and rim are held together by bolts passing through projecting flanges,
as

shown

521, 522

quired,

often

in Fig.

and 523

520 and
.

in

Where

partial detail in Figs.

extra strength

is

re-

the reinforcements shown in Fig. 520 are

made use of.

These consist simply

of I-shaped

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

366

made

pieces

of mild steel,

cesses of similar shape,

which are shrunk into

making a

different type of reinforcement

detail in Figs. 521, 522

and

523.

Here, instead of

is

is

times the success of an engine depends upon the


fly

illustrated in

is

the I-shaped piece, a wrought iron link

which

re-

rigid joint.

substituted,

shrunk over bosses cast into the castings for

wheel, for even a

points during the revolutions, where but

motion

forcement is rapidly finding favor for permanently


connecting parts of heavy machinery, such as large
sectional engine beds, etc.

to

very

It is

however, to disconnect such


when heating the link to expand it

difficult,

fastenings, for,

be heated and exmost cases cutting and

for removal, the lupfs will also

panded,

necessitating

in

destruction of the link.

In Fig. 524

is

shown a

section through an

arm

of

the wheel, and Fig. 526 illustrates a section through


the rim, close to one of the flanges to which the arms
are attached.
Fig. 525 represents part of the hub,

showing the

face of the joint.

The

design of a

wheel is one of the most difficult tasks that an engineer m.ay meet and requires
judgment and much practical experience. Oftenfly

active governor

would

be unable to steady the motion of an engine with a


variable load, were the fly wheel not able to carry
the crank past the dead centers, as well as those

These bosses are cast so that they will


not project beyond the surface of the rim, as shown
in Fig. 522, leaving them flush so the wheel may
be faced off after mounting. This method of reinthis purpose.

good and

is

little

rotary

supplied by the driving parts.

Great care must also be taken to have the material


the rim evenly distributed, for if the wheel is not
balanced, the centrifugal force will have a tendency
in

bend the

shaft, besides

causing severe vibration.

The rim speed


exceed one

of a cast iron fly wheel iVovX^ never


mile, 5,280 feet per minute, for the cen-

tendency to burst the rim and


this tendency increases as the speed increases.
This
danger is not overcome by increasing the thickness of
the rim, for while the extra, thickness adds strength
to the rim, the extra weight increases the centrifugal
trifugal force has a

force.

Two or more cylinders

are often used in one steam

when two cylinders are used, they are usually


arranged so that the two cranks of the separate
cylinders are at an angle of 90 to each other. When
three cylinders are used the cranks will be at angles
engine

of 120 to each other.

Such multi-cylinder engines do not require as


heavy a fly wheel as a single cylinder engine of the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

367

same power,

as the cranks will assist each


other over the dead centers; at the same
time they act so that one cylinder develops

maximum

power, while the others are


nearing completion of the stroke.
its

The connecting rod


made from four to

ally

of an engine

is

usu-

six times the length

of the crank.

The top view


shown
shown

in

Fig.

of a horizontal engine
527.

The same engine

is

is

in Fig. 528.

One

Fig.

527.

illustration shows a rio;ht hand and


the other illustrates a left-hand engine.

rtght-hand engine is one in which the Jiy


wheel is to the right of the observer as he
stands at the head end of the cylinder looking

towards the main bearing of the engine.


The size of the engine is commercially
rated by the length and diameter of the steam
cylinder.

When

an engine produces a rotary motion

of the fly wheel

and crank, so that the crank


when starting from its inner dead center
rises above the axis line, or descends below
it,
upon the beginning of the stroke, the
engine is said to "run over" or "run
Fig.

.528.

under," Fig. 529.

It is, as

a rule, desirable

to

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

368

have an engine run over, because the pressure


is then always downward, and
taken up by the guides and bedplate.

engines, however,

of the connecting rod

to

is

parts.

An example
engine

A
532

is

of proportioning the

given

in

Figs, 530

and

vertical etigine for small


it

main parts of an

531.

power

is

shown

in Fig.

shows a section through the cylinder and

DESIGN.
is

commonly not

sufficiently rigid

prevent undesirable vibration

The

the moving

of

shown

section of the vertical engine

in

Fig.

532 shows a type of a steam distributing valve, called


the slide valve, one of the oldest and up to the present

most

reliable valve gears.

The functions of a valve on a steam cylinder are


primarily to admit the steam from the boiler^to one
side of the piston, while the steam filling the other
side of the cylinder

is

allowed to escape through

the exhaust pipe, and second to stop the

admission of steam at a certain point, for


the purpose of producing

its

desired ex-

pansion and finally to close the exhaust

opening

at

such a point

stroke, that a

certain

in

the return

volume

of steam

the other side of the cylinder to be

be
compressed behind the piston, to serve as an
shall

Fig.

529.

of cylinder wear,

and

still

more

the small floor space required by the vertical engine,

Note.

The horizontal position of the engine

lar for factories,

space.

To have

power

its

use practically universal for crowded

plants, steamships, etc.

The support

of such

power
all

is

where there

plants, etc.,

by far the most popuis

considerable floor

the parts of an engine easily accessible and a solid

support for the engine, as offered by a large bed, are the great advantages offered

have made

elastic

cushion.

valve chest, while Fig. 533 exhibits a section on a


plane at right angles to that of the first section.

The avoidance

left in

hy a horizontal engine

while on the other hand, the ten-

dency of the cylinder to wear vmequally


be denied.

is

a disadvantage which cannot

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Diagram

369

of

HORIZONTAL ENGINES.

Fig.

Table

SIZE or

ENGINE
iZ>^24-

A B

of

Fig.

ra).

Dimensions Reference being had

D E F Q

t()

531.

above Diagram.

K L

M N

P Q R

15

/;

Z4

7-fi 4-Qi

2-iOi 10 12

3-4 6i

13

8-0 7i 16

14-81 16-51 9

15

\i

Z4-

7-51 4-2^

2-108 10

12

3-4 7

15

8-0 81 16

15-31 18-01 13

15

20 2-4-

d-Z'z

15

4-0 9

16 10-0

mi n-dl 20-11 15

18

iz

l2-5i 17-iii 20-3i 15

18

Z-9
15 3-4
27 3-4

lO-4h l4-8i 16-51

i3^24 l0-4h
iS^Z4 lQ-7'z
i6-2S
18^28
20x30

is-e'2 19-91 22-61

20 10

22-30

I3-/2 19-llz U-8'2

20 10

23

2-9

8-3'z

4-71

II

9-51 5-3l\ 3-6l IZ 16 4-10 91


IO-3i 5-m 3-91 13 18 4-10 //b'

7-2 4-9 15 20 6-0


I2-I(l'z 7-9'z 4-IOz 15 22 6-0
12-Oi

9^

19

20

10-0 10
10-0

//

24
28

12-0 121

24

12

34

IZ-0 I3i

26

20

Hi 22

ROGERS' DRAWING

370
It is

evident that the opening or closing of the

steam inlets or outlets of the cylinder must be caretimed to produce the required pressures in the
different parts of the cylinder at the proper time.
fully

The

valve

generally

is

moved back and

forth

within the steam chest by the action of an eccentric,

one type of which

shown

is

in

Fig.

536; this

is

securely fastened to the main shaft so as to turn

together with

In

it.

some

rare cases, the eccentric

is

forged solid on the shaft, but the general practice

is

to fasten

it

by keying

it

on

the eccentric

is

usually

placed just outside of the bearing which holds the

main shaft.
This mechanism

two parts the eccentric proper or sheave, Fig. 536, and the eccentric
strap. Figs. 534 and 535.
The eccentric strap is
made to fit in a groove in the face of the eccentric,
or the eccentric fits in a groove in the strap.

To

consists of

the eccentric strap

which

is

is attached the eccentric rod,


connected to the valve rod, this finally con-

necting to the valve.

The

eccentric

is

a form of crank, the difference be-

tween them being that in the eccentric the crank pin


is so large that it embraces the crank shaft.
This
is shown in Figs. 536 and 537.
Twice the distance
between the center of the crank shaft and the center
of the crank pin is the length of a stroke produced by
the crank.
The same is true for the eccentric.

AND
The

DESIGN.

which has been used most extenIts form


and action will be understood by reference to the
illustrations shown in Figs. 538 and 539
here the
slide valve is shown in its most elementary form, as
a box open on its under side sliding over a plane
surface on the outside of the steam cylinder.
This
surface is supplied with openings called steam ports,
sively

slide valve

is

the plain three-ported slide valve.

leading into the cylinder

angular

by the

these ports, usually rect-

in section, are indicated in

the illustration

and S^.
opening over which the slide valve
moves, indicated by the letter E, is the exhaust opening, through which the steam escapes from the cylinder.
It will be seen that, when the valve is in its
middle position, its two edges cover the two steam
ports, while the hollow part of the slide valve is over
the exhaust port.
When the valve no more than
covers the steam ports when in its middle position,
the eccentric must be placed 90 in the advance of

The

letters S^

third

the engine crank.

The

illustration

shows the piston

at the left

end

moving toward the


and about to open the steam port S^ to permit
the steam to pass through this port into the cylinder,
During this
thus forcing the piston to the right.
same time, the steam port Sg and the exhaust port
E will be connected by the hollow part of the valve,
of the cylinder, with the valve

right

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

532.

Fig.

533.

371

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

372

and the steam, which


the piston

The

is

valve will have

position

is

when the

the cylinder, and

moved

to

its

extreme right

piston has reached the middle of

when the

piston has reached

its

be in the midWithout this arrangement


dle of its return stroke.
there would be no expansive working of the steam,
as one end of the cylinder is left open for the admittance of live steam during the whole stroke of the
piston, while the other end is open during the same
To produce expansion, the
time to the exhaust.
valve must more than cover the steam ports when
The amount which the valve
in its middle position.
projects outside of the steam ports, when the valve
is in its middle position, is called the outside lap of
the valve, and the amount which the valve projects
on the inside of the steam ports in the direction of
the exhaust ports, is called the inside lap. Fig. 540.
The addition of laps necessitates a change in the
angle of advance between the crank and eccentric,
because the valve must be on the point of opening
the steam port when the^ piston is at the beginning
of its stroke, and therefore the valve must be away
from its middle position, by a distance equal to the

extreme right position, the valve

outside lap

when

The

contained to the right of

allowed to escape into the exhaust.

the piston

is

will

at the beginning of

its

stroke.
The angle between the eccentric and the
crank must then be more than 90.

correct position of the eccentric in relation

to the crank

is

found by the construction

illustrated

Here AO represents the crank, while


CDE is the path of the center of the
eccentric.
On AO set off OB equal to the outside
lap of the valve.
Draw BD perpendicular to OB
cutting the circle at D. Then OD is the position of

in Fig. 541.

the

circle

the eccentric sheave,


of

the arrow.

if

the motion

If opposite,

angle,

angle

COD

and the acute angle

the direction

OE is the right
CO A i&a 90*^

then

The

position of the sheave.

in

is

is

called the angle

of advance.

When

it

is

desirable to partly open the steam

port just as the piston

is

beginning

valve must be given a lead.

opening of the steam port


stroke,

is

called the lead

To produce

its

stroke, the

The amount

at the

of the

of such
beginning of the

valve.

the valve lead, the angle of advance

must be increased, so as to make


above figure, equal to the outside lap,

of the eccentric

OB,

in the

plus the lead.

Let the circle ABCD in Fig. 542 represent the


path of the center of the eccentric sheave.
When
the valve is in its middle position, moving toward
the left, the eccentric will be in the position OC,

moving in the direction indicated by the arrow.


Let P be one position of the eccentric drop from
the point P a line PM perpendicular to AB.
Then
;

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

373

Fios. 531 AITD

53S.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

374

OMwill correspond to the distance the


Make
has moved from its middle position.

the distance

valve

QO
tric

equal to

MO.

If

more

positions of the eccen-

are taken, and for each one a similar construc-

employed, the points corresponding to the


point Q, found above, will, when joined, produce a
curve which will have the form of the two circles,
tion

AQON and OSBT. These circles are described


on AO and OB as diameters.
By means of these
two circles the position of the valve may be readily
found for any position of the eccentric. For instance,
if

OR

will

is

the position of the eccentric, the valve

be at a distance

To

OS

from

find the position of the

its

middle position.

engine crank for any

given position of the eccentric, say for the position

OP, make the angle

POL

equal to the angle be-

tween the eccentric and the crank, equal to a right


OL will be

angle plus the angle of advance; then


the required position of the crank.
If

OL

the distance

OQ,

equal to

MO,

be

set off

on

OP, and a similar operation gone


a number of positions of the crank, it

instead of

through for
be found that the different positions of the
point Q, when joined, will form a curve just coinciding with the two circles described on OE and OF,
Fig. 543, as diameters, the diameter EOF making

will

the angle

COE,

equal to the angle of advance.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


From

position of

diagram the position of the valve for any


the crank may be found. If the crank is

in position

OL,

Fio.

valve
it

will

from

a distance

of the crank for a

comparing the respective positions of the point:; of


admission, cut-off, release and compression, the ap-

Fig. 543, then the valve

is

just

be
its

at

is

position.

any position
given position of the valve. For

instance,

when

the

a distance equal to the outside lap,

central position.

If

an arc be described

and a radius equal

to the outside

be the position of the crank when the


admitted, and O62 its position when the

06,
steam is
steam is cut ofT.
The position of the piston can
easily be found from this.

lap,

will

paratus called the steam engine indicator

is

used.

538.

on the point of opening or closing,

with the center

To

determine whether the valves are set correctly,


by means of diagrams taken of the steam pressure
from each end of the cylinder and by observing and

this

OQ from its middle


We can also find

375

A description
with a study of

of the indicator
its

and

its

use, together

diagrams, can not be classed with

mechanical drawing, and would cause us to drift too


A very interesting and thorfar from our subject.

on the indicator is " Hawkins' Indicator Catechism," and the student who desires to take
up the field of steam engineering, is respectfully

oueh

treatise

referred to this work.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

376

544 shows a valve diagram, as well as a


form of an indicator diagram.
The radius of the eccentric equal to one-half the travel of
the valve, is equal to the distance AO in the diagram.
Fig.

theoretical

The

outside lap equals

angle of advance

is

OC,

the lead equals b

equal to the angle

d,

EOC;

the
the

Compression begins when the crank is in


is completely open while
the crank moves through the angle q o r, and it is
completely open for exhaust while the crank moves
through the angle tOs.
To find the indicated horse power of a steam
tion O63.

the position 06^; the port

engine, fuuliiply the

mean

effective

pressure in

lbs.

OuhideLaJi
/r)6ide Lafi
i

=t

Fig. 641.

per
Fig.

inside lap

is

When

540.

equal in length to Og, the width of

the steam port


gh.

is

given by

the steam

is

MK,

which

When

is

is

is

in.

on the piston during one

stroke.^

by the

released the crank

is

is

divide the result by j^,ooo.

P X

the

06,.

in the posi-

LXAXN
^^^,
= ^^.
Indicated H.

P. of

33000

is in

When

cut off the position of the crank

the steam

equal to

admitted, the crank

the position indicated by the line 06;.

steam

sq.

length of the stroke in feet, then by the area of the


piston and by the number of strokes per minute and

where P
stroke

is

the

mean

pressure

L, the length of the

and N, the numThe actual horse power

A, the area of the piston

ber of strokes per minute.

engine,

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


may be

taken as about

of

the indicated horse

power.

of

To

find the area of the piston multiply the square

its

diameter by

o.jS^-f..

377

each part, half-way between the division

lines,

as

shown by the dotted

Add

the

lines in

Fig.

545.

length of all the dotted lines, and divide by the


ber of divisions, in this case 10.

num-

Fig.

To

find

indicator

the

mean

diagram of

of equal parts, say

an
any number

effective pressure,

the engitie into

lo, then

Fig.

oi-Z.

divide

measure the height of

The mean

.>t3.

effective pressure

may also be found by

m-easuring the area of the diagram, by means of a


planimeter and dividing it by the length of the dia-

ROGERS' DRAWING

578

AND

gram;

DESIGN.
multiply this result by the scale oj the indi-

cator spring,

and the product

will be the

mean

effec-

tive pressure.

Example: Find the horse power of an engine


when L equals 4 ft.; diameter of cylinder equals 32
inches, P equals 40 lbs. per sq. jn. and N equals 40
per minute.

H.

_4oX

P.

804.25

X40_

736 nearly.

33000

From

above formula, the proportions of a


cylinder may be determined, when the horse power,
pressure and nuihber of revolutions per minute are
the

given.

L X

HP X
P X

L the
The area may

piston,

and

33000

.7854
^^
'

manner

X D=

we make L equal

to

=
d,

as

from the above formula, d


Fig.

544.

jg

^^^ ^j.^^ ^f

be expressed by the diameter of

consequently the above formula

L X
If

length of stroke.

the piston in the following

D^

j^^j.^

= .7854 X

may be

written

^^^^^"^
P X
is

often done,

= 79.59

we have

VTTF-from
PN

which we may find the required diameter of cylinder,


for an engine which shall have a given horse power,

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


mean

pressure and

number

of strokes per minute.

For the completed thickness of the walls of the


steam cylinder, Prof. Reauleaux gives the following
formula
Thickness ^^ Vg inch

in.,

If

the diameter of the cylinder

the thickness of
4-

'A

48
100

its

ordinary

size,

Let the diameter of the cylinder be

equal to 32 inches the boiler pressure 81 lbs. per


and the assumed diameter of bolt equal to
;

The

sq.

area of a

3/^ in.

of bolts

bolt equals. 0.442 sq.

in.,

^-:1^54 X 32 X 32 X

81

in.

then

_^^^

48

wall should be

= .125

For the thickness

is

in.,

Number

lOO

Example

Example

379

.48

= .605

of the heads of

when the heads

cylinders of

are not stiffened

by

radial ribs, the thickness

= 0.003
Example

X d X V
:

If

boiler pressure per sq.

the diameter of the cylinder

equals 40 inches, and the


then the thickness of head

= 1.46

in.

toiler

pressure 150

^0.003 X 40 X

lb';.,

1/150

Having found a convenient thickness


of the head and flange of the steam cylinder, upon
in.

which the head is to rest, the diameter of the bolts


which fasten the cylinder head should be one-half
the width of the flange.
The number of required
bolts may be found from the following formula
Number of bolts equals 0.7854 X square of diameter of cylinder, multiplied by the boiler pressure
and divided by 5,000 times the area of a single bolt
:

of the

assumed diameter.

Fig.

The steam

chest

545.

must be made

as small as the

It
dimensions and travel of the valve will permit.
usually has the form of a square bo.x, surrounding
The steam chest cover, as well as
the valve face.

the sides of

it,

made of the same thickwalls.


The size of the steam

are usually

ness as the cylinder

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

380
ports depends

upon the quantity of steam which is


and upon the speed
of the piston.
It is a good practice to make the
area of the ports equal to yV of the piston area when
the speed of the piston is about 600 feet per minute.

to be admitted through them,

the speed of the piston

the size of the ports

is

is

higher or lower,

increased or diminished pro-

To find the speed of the piston,


multiply the length of stroke by double the number
of revolutions of crank per minute.
portionately.

A practical formula for


shown

in Fig. 546,

is

the thickness of the piston,

length of stroke in

diameter of cylinder
Example: If the diameter of the cylinder
in. then the required thickness of piston is

Q^

When

4 /

riiickness of piston

The
still

a/

in.

in in.
is

30

v 30 X 30

= V 900 =

piston rod

may be made

better of steel.

It is

5.4 in. nearly.

of

wrought

iron, or

generally keyed to the

crosshead and fastened to the piston by a strong


thread and nut or by wedge.

The diameter of a wrought iron piston rod may


be found by the following rule
Divide the diameter of the cylinder in inches by
:

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

547.

-iiFig.

548.

381

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

382

60 and multiply the quotient by the square root of


initial steam pressure.

the

examples

initial

Fig.

Diameter

of steel

^9
To

pressure.

upon the

may be used
396000 X HP
n'' X L X N
I

shoe of the crosshead

Fig.

total area of the

550.

square inches, and


sq. in.

\/ initial pressure.

find the pressure of the crosshead

Pressure ==

Let the

allowed upon a

guide, in pounds, the following

The

in this chapter.

be equal to

equals the length of the con-

549.

rod

diam. of cylinder

other letters represent the same values as in former

Diameter of wrouoJit iron rod


diam. of cylinder

In this formula

necting rod divided by the length of the crank.

be equal to p

let
;

the pressure

then,

~ pressure of crosshead upon guide


P

If

the pressure of the crosshead be found to equal

6,568 pounds, and

if

the pressure per

allowed be equal to 125

lbs.,

then,

sq. in. of slide

384

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

552.

ROGERS'

DRAWING AND DESIGN.

385

^"^
Fig.

oo3.

386

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

DESIGN.

/^

Fig.

554.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

555.

Bs-;

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

388

the area of shoe

6568

52.5 sq.

divide the diameter of the cylinder


in.

tract y^

125

the width of the shoe be taken equal to 4 in.,


then the length of it will be 13. i in., as 4 X 13.
If

equals 52.4

The

sq. in.,

by 2 then subbe the diameter


;

of the crank shaft.

found above (nearly).

THE CORLISS

is

best

made with

The

a diameter equal to that

ENGINE.

illustrations represent views of the cylinder

of the Fishkill

of the crank pin.

Landing Corliss engines.

shows the valve gear of

The

smallest diameter of the connecting rod

is

found by dividing the diameter of the cylinder in


inches by 55, and multiplying the quotient by the
square root of the steam pressure per sq. in. of piston.
The greatest diameter is one and one-half times the
smallest.

The diameter

is

of the crank pin

HP

^ o

*/

'^

^ L X N

equal to

is

the length of the crank pin journal in

The length of the pin may be made


0.013 X d^ where d is the diameter of the

equal to
piston.

crank shaft for stationary engines, with cylinders up to 30 in. in diameter.


find the diameter of a

Fig. 551
y^

Corliss engine has four separate valves,

two

and cut off of steam, while the


other two are placed below the axis of the cylinder
for the exhaust.
The steam valves are rigidly connected with cranks seen on the outside of the cylinder.
All valves are cylindrical in form and extend
across the cylinder above and below, respectively.
for the admission

cranks on the outside of the valves are operated

by a number of

links,

of the valves

actuated.

The
This formula is true for a single crank and for
one made of wrought iron.

this engine.

situated above the axis of the cylinder and intended

The

inches.

To

will

pin in the crosshead which holds the connect-

ing rod,

where

and the remainder

in.,

is

and

Corliss valve gear

of steam engines.

in this

is

Fig. 551

manner the motion

used

in a

large

number

shows a side elevation

of the valve gear, while Fig. 552 exhibits a partial

longitudinal section of the cylinder.

being shown
is

shown

556, 557

in

in

Fig. 553.

detail in Figs.

The

cut-off

554 and

and 558 the crosshead

is

A cross section
mechanism

555.

shown.

In Figs.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

--"-"

f-

389

-fi

Figs.

556, 557

and

558.

ROGERS' DRAWING

390

The

disc seen in the middle of the cylinder in

Fig. 551, called the wrist plate,

the stud in

its

is

made

eccentric on the crank shaft.

The

from the

wrist plate has

four valve connecting rods, which connect

the bell
valves.

upon

to rock

center by a rod leading

it

with

cranks, which in turn operate the

steam

These valve connecting: rods can be

lenorth-

ened or shortened, so that each valve may be set


independent of the other three. As the wrist plate
rocks backward and forward, the exhaust valves rock
with

it.

The two

other bell cranks, which are provided

with disengaging

links,

also given a rocking

hooking

in the

generally called hooks, are

motion by the wrist plate by

blocks which are rigidly fastened to

AND
means

DESIGN.

from the vacuum air dash


pots.
The dash pot is a cylinder in which fits a
piston nearly air-tight.
As the valve is turned it
lifts the piston in the dash pot and creates a partial
vacuum below it. The atmospheric pressure acts
as a weight forcing down the piston into the dash
pot and at the same time closing the valves.
The air below the piston in the dash pot prevents
a sudden shock when the piston drops down. ,As a
consequence of this arrangement, the valves, 'are
entirely independent in their adjustment and the
inlet ports may be suddenly opened full width by
the quick movement of the steam valves, while the
exhaust valves are nearly at rest.

The

of the vertical rods

advantagfes of the Corliss valve g-ear are the

the cranks on the outer ends of the steam valve

large port area, the

stems, thus causing the valves to rotate with them,

short lengths of ports, quick opening and closing

and causing them

of valves_and easy adjustment.

to

open the steam ports

for the

admittance of steam.

Having turned

a certain distance, the disengaging


on the bell crank are unhooked by a cam
operated by the governor, and the cranks of the
valves are pulled back to their original position by
links

number

of parts

little friction

through the valves,

However, the great


makes the expense of these engines

greater, their operation noisy, besides

impossible to run them at a high

engines do not, as a
lutions per minute.

rule,

which

speed.

it

is

Corliss

run higher than 150 revo-

ELECTRICITY,

THE DYNAMO AND MOTOR.

name derived from the Greek word


2,000 years ago that amber when rubbed possessed the
Electricity

is

electron

amber.

It

was discovered more than

curious property of attracting light bodies.

It

property could be produced in jet by friction, and in A. D. 1600 or


thereabouts, that glass, sealing-wax, etc., were also affected by rubbing, producing electricity.

was discovered afterwards that

Whatever

electricity

as a kind of invisible

is,

it

this

is

impossible to say^ but for the present

something which pervades

all

it

is

convenient to look upon

it

bodies.

While the nature of electricity is a mystery, and a constant challenge to the inquirer, many things
about it have become known thus, it is positively assured that electricity never manifests itself except
when there is some mechanical disturbance in ordinary matter, and every exhibition of electricity in any
of its multitudinous ways may always be traced back to a mass of matter.

The

we cannot grasp or handle them and


Electricity and gravity
enough, they have the appearance of being very unreal.
skillful
are as subtle as they are mighty they elude the eye and hand of the most
philosopher.
great forces of the world are invisible and impalpable

though they are

real

In view of this,

To

them,

is

The
far

it is

well for the average

man

not to try to fathom, too deeply, the science of either.

"on the market," and to acquire the skill


reason for doing it, and zvhy the desired resiilts follow.

take the machines and appliances as they are


the longest step toward the

to operate

and the practical applications of dynamo electric machinery is a theme


work, and beyond the limits of many volumes equal to it in size suffice it

design, manufacture

beyond the scope

of this

to say, that the subject

is

as inexhaustible as

it /y

useful

to

explore

it

is

especially in this, as in other

sections of the volume, that the aim of the author has been to suggest the field of
try to fully explain

many

things needed to be known.

393

work rather than

to

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

394

Fig.

559.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

395

r^

Fia.

560.

rn

:i

l_l

xn

m.

ni

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

396

Electricity,

it

is

conceded,

and, while electricity

same

thing,

it is

according to
/.

its

is

without

without doubt, one and the


for convenience sometimes classified
is,

motion, as

Static electricity, or electricity at


2.

Magnetism, or
f.

electricity

2.

/.

Negative

2.

Dynamic

This
time

iti

rotation,

into

electricity.

There are still other definitions or divisions which


are in every-day use, such as " frictional " electricity,

Static electricity.

This

define electricity produced

by

electricity,

When

causes

more

static

defined as

it

may

pass.

Radiated electricity is electricity in vibration.


Where the current oscillates or vibrates back and
forth with extreme rapidity, it takes the form
waves which are similar to waves of light.

of

is

a term

friction.

employed
It is

to

properly

employed in the sense of a static charge which shows


itself by the attraction or repulsion between charged
bodies.

through which

liquid

opposite of

"resinous"

may be

conductor in a given
or, electricity in the act
of being discharged, or electricity in motion.
An electric current manifests itself by heating the
wire or conductor, by causing a magnetic field around
the conductor and by causing chemical charges in a

electricity.

"atmospheric" electricity,
"vitreous" electricity, etc.

Current electricity.

into
Static, as the

the quantity of electricity which passes through a

Electricity in vibration.

Other useful divisions are


/. Positive and

by the passage of sparks or a brush discharge by a


peculiar prickling sensation by a peculiar smell due
to its chemical effects
by heating the air or other
substances in its path and sometimes in other ways.

j'esc.

Citrrent electricity, or electricity in motion.


J.

And

weight,

electricity

is

discharged,

it

or less of a current, which shows itself

Note. Statics is that branch of mechanics which treats of the


forces which keep bodies at rest or in equilibrium. Dynamics treats of
bodies in motion. Hence static electricity is electricity at rest.
earth's great store of electricity is at rest or in equilibrium.

The

Positive electricity. This term expresses the


condition of the point of an electrified body having
the higher energy from which

The

level.

excitement
or,

it

flows to a lower

sign which denotes this phase of electric


is

all

electricity

is

either positive

negative.

Negative

This is the reverse conelectricity.


above and is expressed by the sign or
symbol
These two terms are used in the same
sense as hot and cold.
dition lo the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


Atmospheric
of the air

which

electricity^
is

is

the free electricity

almost always present

in

the

exact cause is unknown.


The
atmospheric electricity are of two
kinds there are the well-known manifestations of
thunder-storms
and there are the phenomena of

atmosphere.

phenomena

Its

of

3f7

Voltaic electricity. This is electricity produced by the action of the voltaic cell or battery.
Electricity itself

is

the same thing, or phase oj

whatever source

efiergy, by

it

produced^ and the

is

foregoing definitions are given only as a matter of


convenience.

continual slight electrification in the air.best observed

when the weather

is

fine

ihe aurora constitutes a

ELECTRO-MOTIVE FORCE.

third branch of the subject.

Dynamic

electricity.

This

term

define current electricity to distinguish


electricity.

This

is

is

it

used to

from

static

the electricity produced by the

The term
or tends to

result

Frictional electricity is that produced by the


friction of one substance against another.

tional to

electricity.

This

is

a term formerly

used, in place of negative electricity.

originated

in

This phrase

the well-known fact that a

certain

(negative) kind of electricity was produced by rub-

bing rosin.

Vitreous electricity

is

a term, formerly used to

describe that kind of electricity (positive) produced

by rubbing

glass.

Magneto-electricity

employed

move

of

it

is

electricity in the

currents flowing along wires

from the motion of maonets


o

it is

form of

electricity derived

hence

the name.

which moves

from one place to an-

written E. M. F.;

it is

the

the difference of potential, and propor-

Just as in water pipes, a difference of


level produces a pressure, and the pressure produces a flow as soon as the tap is turned on, so difit.

ference of potential produces electro-motive force,


and electro-motive force sets up a current as soon as a
circuit is completed for the electricity to floiv through.

Electro-motive force, therefore,

may

often be con-

veniently expressed as a difference of potential, and


vice versa ; but the reader must not forget the dis
tinction.

In ordinary acceptance
is

to denote that

electricity

For brevity

other.

dynamo.

Resinous

is

among

workine electricians,
thought of as pressure, and
tical

called volts.

The

engineers and prac-

electro-motive
it

is

measured

force
in

is

units

usual standard for testing and


ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

398

comparison is a special form of voltaic cell called


the Clark cell.
This is made with great care and
composed of pure chemicals.
The term positive expresses the condition of the
point having the higher electric energy or pressure,
and, negative, the lower relative condition of the
other point, the current is forced through the
circuit

by the (E. M. F.)

electric pressure at

generator, just as a current of steam

through pipes by the generating pressure at the


steam boiler.
Care must be taken not to confuse electro-motive
energy when
moved by a magnet, we speak rightly of

force with

matter

is

electric force or electric

magnetic force when electricity moves matter, we


may speak of electric force. But, E. M. F. is quite
;

a different thing, not " force

on matter but on

electricity,

"

at

all,

for

it

acts not

and tends to move

it.

THE DYNAMO, OR GENERATOR.


The word dynamo, meaning power,

is

a machine driven by power,

generally steam or water power, and converting the

mechanical energy expended in driving


trical energy

Dynamos
/.

of the

it,

are classified as

Bi-polar (or 2-pole) dynamos.

2.

J. Multipolar

dynamos.

This division is caused by their different construction, but, whatever their shape or size or peculiarity
of application, the principles upon which they work
a dynamo is always a machine
are always the same

for generating

electric currents.

should be understood that an electric dynamo


or battery does not generate electricity, for if it were
only the quantity of electricity that is desired, there
would be no use for machines, as the earth may be
It

regarded as a vast reservoir of electricity, of infinite


But electricity in quantity without presquantity.
sure is useless, as in the case of air or water, we can

is one transGreek to the English language,


hence the primary meaning of the term signifying
the electric generator is, the electric power machine.
The word generator is derived from a word meaning birth-giving, hence also the dynamo is the ma-

get no power without pressure.


As much air or water must flow into the

chine generating or giving birth to electricity.

the other

ferred from the

into elec-

ciir rent form.

Unipolar dynamos.

the

impelled

is

dynamo

Again, the

pump

blower at one end, as flows out at the other.


is

with the

dynamo

not generated

in the

So

for proof that the current

machine,

we can measure

or
it

is

the

current flowing out through one wire, and on through

it

will

be found to be precisely the same.

ROGERS- DRAWING AND DESIGN.


As

in

mechanics a pressure

a current of

air,

tro-motive force
electricity.

so in electrical
is

is

needed to produce

phenomena an

elec-

necesary to produce a current of

principal parts, viz.:

The armature or revolving portion.


The field magnets, which produce the magnetic
field in which the armature turns.
The pole-pieces.
3.
The commutator or colle( tor.
4.
collecting brushes that rest on the commuThe
5.
tator cylinder and take off the current of electricity
generated by the machine.
In brief, the purpose of the dynamo is to change
mechamcal motion, applied to the armature, revolving
1.

2.

it

at

high speed, into electrical energy.

THE ELECTRIC MOTOR.


An

machine is the term used in defining the energy expended in driving it the amount of power it delivers to the machinery is denominated its outpiit.
;

current in either case can not exist

without a pressure to produce it.


To summarize, the dynamo-electric generator or
the dynamo-electric machine, proper, consists of five

motor is a machine for converting


electrical energy into mechanical energy; in other
words it produces mechanical poiver when supplied
with an electric current ; a certain amount of energy
must be expended in driving it the intake of the
electric

399

The
is

difference between the output and the intake

the real efficiency o{ the machine

it is

well

known

an electric distribjition
which may include several machines, usually
ranges from 75 to 80 per cent, at full load, and
should not under ordinary circumstances fall off
that the total efficiency of

system,

more than

say

per cent, at one-third to half load

the efficiency of motors varies with their


a one-horse

power motor

perhaps, have an

will,

ciency ot 60 per cent, a loo-horse power

have an efficiency of 90 per

may

while

size,

effi-

easily

cent.

A dynamo, as ordinarily constructed, consists of


two parts the stationary magnet frame and the re
volving part, or the armature.
In Figs. 559 and
;

560

is

illustrated a multipolar generator, that

is

dynamo having more than two poles, in this case four.


The armature is generally the revolving part and
to

it

are secured

in

various manners numerous loops

The space occupied

of wire.

net poles by the armature,


field.

at the

is

magnetic

The armature

slightly

revolving in this magnetic field


charged by the influence of the magnetism

magnet frame,
numerous conductors through the magnetic

naturally retained in the iron of the


drives

end of the mag-

called the

its

ROGERS' DRAWING

400

and as each of these conductors, called loops,


passes through this magnetic field, it gathers a little
lines,

amount

of electrical energy, or as
electric current

plained, a slight

through

it

generally' ex-

it is

made

is

brushes to wires outside of the

dynamo ready

for

DESIGN.

manner by increasing the magnetic

When

energy

electrical

and thus the machine

will

into mechanical motion.

The larger the number' of loops the greater the


The
electrical energy gathered by the armature.
amount of the electrical energy gathered by the
armature conductors is greatest when the magnetism

is

magnet

When
tric

is

highest.

the armature

current in

ence

is

it is

is first

set in

motion the

very mild as the magnetic

elecinflu-

also very slight at that time, but as soon as

a mild current
insulated

is

wires

produced,

it is

made to

wound around

pass through

the magnet cores,

once strengthens the magnetism and thus


in turn calls forth a greater electrical energy within
the armature, which greater energy is again utilized
In this
to strengthen the influence of the magnet.

which

at

Note. There are a great variety of armatures in use the drutn


armature has'beeu found the most popular on account of its simplicity,
and comparative efficiency.
One of the types is the ring armature^ whose efficiency is so low,
that it never found very extensive favor, although it is very simple and
;

easy to repair.

For large machines, the multipolar armature^


sively

still

another type, disc armature.

is

used almost exclu-

is

supplied to a

is

dynamo

the armature will turn with great velocity and force,

service.

in the

influence, the

energy within the armature conductors


increased up to the desired limit.

electrical

to flow

and on through the commutators and

AND

transform electrical energy


In this case the machine

called a motor.

The armature
the drum, type

dynamo shown

in

the

it

consists of the core,

Fig. 559'is of

upon Which

wires are wound, these wires being connected to the


commutator, upon this commutator, the brushes are
riding, which gather up the current as it is delivered

commutator by the armature, whence


outside of the machine to the circuit.

to the

The armature

core

made

is

made

unsupported at

of sheets of

tV

each end of the core


of the discs

led

of sheet iron discs

usually about 0.002 inch in thickness.


discs being

it is

the' outer

The

outer

edge, are usually

Three of these at
be enough to hold the rest

thickness.

will

from spreading.

These discs are usually made of the best charcoal


iron.
Between the discs a thin sheet of paper is
laid.

The

circumference of these. discs

is

provided

with apertures of various forms, for holding the ar-

mature

shown

coils

in

in Figs.

place of which several

561-564.

types are

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig. 561

parallel slides.

561.

Fio.

562.

Fig.

Fig.

round holes to contain


Fig. 562 shows plain slots with

shows a

the conductors.

Fig.

disc with

Fig. 563

is

a slight modification of

shown in
securely
by means
the conductors are held
the preceding form.

In the slots

Fig. 564

of hard-

which are driven in above them. The


disc is punched out of sheet iron, a hole for the shaft
and key-way being also cut out. The disc is then
placed under a punching press with a revolving table
for the disc, which is automatically moved a certain
Thus
distance between each stroke of the press.
all slots are punched.

wood

strips,

401

Figs. 565

.563.

564,

and 566 show a section of the commutator

as well as a partial end-view.

that

is

It consists of

the shell,

the outside casting, placed directly upon the

One end

is provided with a cirwedge-shaped


cular projecting
in section, to
support the segments, while the other end is provided
with a thread.
A ring, also wedge-shaped in section
is placed on the shell near its end, for the purpose
of supporting the other end of the segment, and a
nut is then screwed upon the threaded end of the
shell, pressing the ring toward the segments, and
These segments are insuholding them securely.

shaft.

of the shell
lip

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

402

lated from each other, as well as from the shell,


strips of

mica or

fibre,

by

indicated by the heavy black

The segments

lines in the illustration.

are

made

The prolongation of the segment


of hard copper.
at the back is called the ear or lug of the segment.

Fig.

nut are

566.

made

of bronze.

Clearance

is allowed between the shell and the


segments to secure better insulation,
t

The purpose

of the lug

is

to provide a

means

to se-

cure the conductor to the commutator and for this

wide enough to accommodate the wires, which may be secured to it by


small screws or by soldering.
The shell, ring and

slots are cut in the lugs, just

is

not necessary that the shell

should bear on the shaft throughout


its entire length, and to save boring,

cored out, as shown in the illustration, leaving about an inch at each


end of the shell for the support.
it is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fig.

fier

Fig. 508.

403

Fig.

59.

ROGERS' DRAWING

404

The commutator
by means

of

shell

AND

is

DESIGN.

secured to the shaft

a small key not shown

in

the

illustration.

In Figs. 567 and 568

is

illustrated a section

of a simple self-oiling bearing for the support

dynamo, illustrated in Figs.


Within the bearing box is con-

of the shaft of the

559 and 560.


tained the

cylindrical

brass

upper part of the bushing

is

bushing.

The

provided with a

FlQ.

571.

and here is introduced the oil ring, which


upon the shaft, dipping into the oil contained in the reservoir below.
When the shaft is revolved, the ring takes up oil and carries it to the
shaft.
Provision
Larger bearings are provided with two oil rings.
must be made to drain off the oil and to furnish a fresh supply.
slot,

rests

The upper

part of the bearing

box

is

often

made with

a large opening

covered by a hinged lid for the purpose of inspection, as well as for


supply of oil.
A convenient addition is an oil gauge, which shows the
Fig.

570.

amount

of oil in the reservoir.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

405

In the same illustration it can be seen that the rear


end of the bearing box is turned to receive the brush
frame, Fig. 569, which in this case is provided with
four holes to receive four brushes.
Another kind of
brush frame, called a rocker arm, is shown in Fig. 5 70,
made for two brushes. The holes for receiving the

A brush

brush holder studs are often made square.


holder stud

and

is

is

shown

in Fig. 571

The

circular in section.

it is

made of

section

brass

shown

in

the insulating washers and insu-

black represents
latinQ- bushinofs,

made

of hard rubber, insulating the

brush holder stud from the rocker arm.

Outside

placed a brass washer and a

on the stud is
cable luof, which is used to connect it with
the main cable or leads carrying the current to the point of distribution.

The

is shown separately in
and 573. A form of brush
holder which is rapidly becoming most
popular, is shown in Fig. 574 it is called
Here the
the Reaction Brush Holder.
brush is wedded in between the brush
holder and the commutator without any
support on the outer side, the pressure of
the curved lever forcing the carbon brush

Figs.

cable lug

572

Fig.

573.

Fig.

573.

against the inclined face of the holder as well as


against the commutator.

The

pressure of the lever

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

406

is

caused by a helical

straight projection,

spring,

which can be

terminating
set into

in

any one

of

The magnet frame may be cast


parts,

in

one or more

together with the pole pieces, or the pole

may be bolted to the frame. The magnet


frame must be rigidly secured to the base. The
bearings or pedestals may be cast in one piece with
the base, or fastened to it by bolts.
The magnets
may be made of cast iron, wrought iron, or malleapieces

ble iron, according to the requirements.

Two methods

shown in
The shunt method

of exciting the field are

the diagrams in Figs. 575-576.

forming a separate circuit of


which are connected directly

of excitation consists of

the magnetizing coils

between the brushes, or

in shunt, to

the external

circuit.

The diagram

Fig. 575

in

which shunt winding

Another method

is

shows the manner

in

accomplished.

for excitation of the field

is

the

Here the entire current flowing


through the armature is made to flow through the
series winding.

magnetizing

coils.

combination of series and shunt winding, gives


in the diagram, Fig.
This winding is very extensively used for
576.
generators, but is seldom used for motors, as either
a series or a shunt winding serves for almost all conthe

Fig.

574.

the notches on the lever, thus regulating the pressure


of the lever to any desired degree.

compound winding, shown

ditions of operation.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Fk;.

.'.7.-,.

407

Fig. 576.

INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF USE


Preceding the section of " Lettering" and beginning at page 41 much valuable matter relating to
the "Drawing board, T square and triangles" may be found, with many illustrations; what follows
properly belongs with the above section, but is removed to a less important part of the volume because
the matter is almost too elementary it is inserted here "lest we forget."
Good tools are necessary for a proper output of good work but it is not always the man who has
;

the most or the better tools that does the best

man

own
work

has his

select tools,

a little observation also shows that every regular draughts-

gathered as he has progressed

in

study and practice to

suit his

own "handy"

when the draughtsman declines the employment of any but the regumanual dexterity to execute all necessary drawings.
There is an old adage to the effect that " an ounce of showing is worth a pound of telling " the
kindly assistance of an experienced draughtsman at the beginning of one's efforts is invaluable and worth
Euoene C. Peck, M. E., has written an account of the method he
the fee that migrht be charcred.
employed in teaching a class of the employees of the Cleveland Twist Drill Co.; it is quoted almost in
full in the note below
method

of

the time comes

lar instruments, relying

upon

his

Note.

The method employed was mapped out more with a view to teaching the employees to read drawings than to make draughtsmen
same time so that those who cared

to follow the profession in the future would be able to use all the information and pracno originality in plan of teaching was attempted the class consisted of twenty pupils who had been through fractions
and percentage in arithmetic; some had taken lessons previouslv in drawing, knew the use of different instruments and understood the ordinary geometrical problems occurring in drawing, while others were without any such previously acquired knowledge.
As very little drawing could be done in one evening in a class they were instructed to do all drawing at home. Each pupil was furnished
with a blueprint of instructions such as would be needed outside of class, and also a plate (blueprint) to copy from. These plates were drawn,
then blueprinted, but to a scale of about lo inches to the foot, so that no copying by dividers could be done. The first four contain the ordinary
geometrical problems, the next four projection, cylindrical and conical intersections and developments then came the simple machine parts
From this on the plates gradually get more intricate and complicated, but in all cases are
to teach the correct placing of views, shading, etc.
taken from our own shop drawings or a machine in the factory, and more especially is a drawing of a jig or fixture used which may have given
any trouble to the machinist to read. These drawings are then made at home and left in the drawing office, where they are corrected and
marked, a record of the progress of the student being kept for reference.
Later they were given a little algebra in the shape of simple formulas which, by the way, gave most of them some trouble until they got
to handle the characters as though they had no value, or to treat them by the rules regardless of their value.
A short course in the practical laying out and working of gear problems came next, which gave very little trouble, as most of the students
were more or less familiar with the subject.
This year's course in class closed with logarithms, and considering that I left the theory of exponents out of the question, taught them
only the use of the tables and gave them rules to solve the different examples by, they handled the subject remarkably well.
of them, but at the

tice to

good advantage

413

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESiGN.

41J:

COMPASSES.
Compasses are
cles,

measuring

instruments

figures, etc.;

for
Figs.

describing

cir-

577580 show

a pair of

compasses, a pencil, a lengthening bar

and a pen

point,

either of which

may be

inserted

one leg of the instrument when a


The other
is to be drawn.
leg is fitted with a needle point and acts as the center about which the circle is to be described.
The compasses shown in Fig. 577 have a single
into a socket

in

circle in pencil or in ink

socket only; the leg with the needle-like point

is

called

a divider point ; the other leg has a stationary needle


Fig.

point which

is

578.

Fig.

579.

placed in the center of the circle to

be drawn it will be noticed that one leg of the


compasses is jointed; this is done, so xhsiX. the compass points may be kept perpendicular to the paper
when drawing circles.
:

Fig. 580.

The

Note. The student should learn to open and close the compasses
with one hand those provided with a cylindrical handle at the head
are to be held gently between the thumb and the forefinger and those
minus the handle should be held with the needle point leg resting
between the thumb and fourth finger, and the other leg between the
middle and forefinger. Only one hand should be used in locating the
needle point at a point on the drawing about which the circle is to be
drawn, unless the left hand merely serves to steady the needle point.
Having placed the needle point at the desired point, and with it still
resting on it, the pen or pencil may be moved in or out to any desired
When the lengthen ng bar is used both hands must be emradius.
;

ployed.

head of the compasses


should hold the legs firmly in any desired
position and at the same time should permit their being opened and closed with one
hand
the joint may be tightened or
loosened by means of a screwdriver or
spanner, which is furnished with the instrujoint

at the

Fr;.

,577.

NoTE.

The needle point

itself,

in all

good instruments,

steel wire, placed in a socket

is

a separ-

provided at the end of


the leg. The wire, as a rule, has a shoulder at its lower end, below
which a fine, needle-like point projects.
ate piece of

round

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


ment

compasses should not be used for


a radius, not allowing

circles of too large

the points to be placed at a right angle with

lengthening bar. Fig. 580, is


used to extend the leg carrying the pen or
the paper.

pencil

points, as

circles

of

radius

large

may

the case

are

be,

to

when

be

de-

finger, as

to the right

The

Circles should be

drawn with a continuous

when inking

in

a circle

it

is

well to

stop exactly at the end of a single revolution, as the line

going over

it

may become uneven when


second time when closed,

are to be set in

such a manner as to be

even.

DIVIDERS.
Dividers are used for laying off distances

upon a drawing, or

for dividing straight lines

an instrument of this
the points should
be thin and sharp, so that they will not puncture
holes in the paper larger than is absolutely necessary when using the dividers to space a line or
circle into a number of equal parts, they should
or circles

no.

581.

kind

is

into parts

shown

in Fig. 581

be held at the top between the thumb and fore-

to

mark

off

the

and left.
shown

divider

upper end terminating in a spring,


which tends to bring one leg toward the other.
its

The legs of dividers, as well as those of compasses,


made triangular in section, except near the

are

where the corners are ground


to make a round point.
point,

If

the needle point and the pen or pencil point

in Fig. 581 is provided with


a hair spring attachment, which enables the user to
make quite ^ne adjustments ; in this case one leg is
made separate from the main body of the instru-

motion, with an even, slight pressure on the

pen

when using compasses

spaces, the instrument should be turned alternately

ment with

scribed.

415

the point should be

left

off sufficiently

triangular, the holes

punctured into the paper, would be bored out to


such an extent, while turning the instrument, that
accurate measurements would be impossible.
being essential that the points of dividers be
kept in good condition, they should never be used
for anything else, except the purpose they are made
for.
The joint ai the head of the dividers should
be kept not too tight, for unless there is a hairIt

spring attachment, as described above,


ficult to

spring
is

it

will

be

dif-

adjust the dividers accurately, owing to the

in the legs.

Lost motion

in

also a very objectionable feature,

attended to as soon as detected.

the head joint


and should be

ROGERS' DRAWING

416

BOW

PENCIL

AND BOW

AND

DESIGN.
support

PEN.

A bow pencil a,ndi aubowpen are shown in Figs.583 and


584; these instruments are

made

it

in

a vertical position by

resting the needle point on the paper,

and pressing slightly at the top with


the forefinger of one hand, and turn

for describing small

the adjusting screw or nut with the

thumb

of the

same hand.

Bow

di-

viders for measuring very small dis-

tances are also largely in

use, see

Fig. 582.

DRAWING PENS.

For drawing ink lines other than


arcs and circles, the drawing pen or
ruling pen, is used, Figs. 585 and 586;
these consist of two thin steel blades,

made

attached to a handle
ivory or light metal

made
and

of

two

of wood,

the points are

steel blades

which open

close, as required for thickness of

by a regulating thumb-screw.
When using the ruling pen

lines,

should be
Fig.

circles.

that

is

582.

The two

Fio.

583.

Fig.

dicular as possible, the

584.

points should be adjusted evenly,

close either of the above

To

it

perpen-

hand bearing

on the tee square or the triangle against which the line is drawn.
The pen m-ust not be pressed against
the edge of the tee square or triangle
slightly

they should be of the same length, otherwise,

very small circles cannot be described.

held as nearly

open or

mentioned instruments;
Fig.

585.

Fig.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


as the blades will then close together, thus

the line uneven.

guide

the pen

The edge should

making

only serve as a

should be held with the thumb-

-screw on the outside.

This instrument

good

417

is

quite delicate, and,

when

in

very accurate.
It should be used only
for fine work on paper, and never for scribing in
order,

is

metal.

BEAM COMPASSES.
For describing very large
are used

circles

beam compasses

these compasses are shown in Fig.

with a portion of the

587,

wooden rod or beam on which

they are used.

At A, Fig. 587, is shown a section of the beam,


which has the shape of a letter T. This form has
considerable strength and rigidity.
Beam compasses, as shown in Fig. 587, are provided with extra
points for pencil or ink work.

While the generil

by means of the clamp against


the wood, minute variations are made by the screw
B, shifting one of the points.
a Ijustment

Note.

is

effected

Flu.

DRAWING

A good drawing pen should be made of properly tempered

neither too soft nor hardened to brittleness


The nibs shoxUd be
accurately set, both of the same length, and both equally firm when in

387.

INK.

steel,

contact with the drawing paper.

The

points .should be so shaped that

they are fine enough to admit absolute control of the contact of the pen
in starting and ending lines, but otherwise as broad and rounded as
possible, in order to hold a convenient quantity of ink without dropping it. The lower (under) blade should be suificienth- firm to prevent
the closinp^ of the blades of the pen,

when using the pen

against a

The spring of the pen which separates the two blades


should be strong enough to hold the upper blade in position, but not so
strong that it will interfere with easy adjustment of the thumb-screw
the thread of the thumb-screw should be deeply and evenly cut so as not
straight-edge.

to strip.

Liquid India ink can be procured

in

bottles with

glass tube feeders, as in Figs. 588 and 589, or with a


quill attached to the cork, by means of which the pen

may be filled by drawing it through the


common writing pen may a'so be used for
pen

in

the

feeder or

Dry

same manner

blades; a
filling

the

as described for the glass

quill.

ink of good quality however in sticks, Figs.


590-593, cannot be surpassed, although it requires

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

418

skill in its

preparation.

In case the stick ink

put enough clean, filtered or distilled water

is

used

in a shal-

low dish or "tile" for making enough ink for the


place one end of the stick in
drawing in hand
the water, and grind by giving the stick a circular
motion. Do not bear hard upon the stick.
Test the
ink occasionally to see whether it is black.
Draw
a fine line with a pen and hold the paper in a strong
light.
If it shows brown or gray grind a while
longer and test again.
Keep grinding until a fine
;

Fig.

Fig.

shows black the time required to obtain the


desired result depends entirely on the amount of

line

The

ink should be kept free of dust

and prevented from evaporating by covering


a

flat

Figs. 590-593.

water used.
plate of

some

kind.

589.

it

with

Note.

If stick

ink

is

used

it is

very good policy to buy a stick of

the very best quality, costing, say about a dollar,

as, perhaps, it will


longer than several dollars' worth of liquid ink. The only reason
for using liquid ink is that all lines are then sure to be of the same
blackness, and time is saved in grinding.

last

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

When

trouble

is

caused by the ink drying between

the blades and refusing to

RULES AND SCALES.

when

flow, especially

drawing fine lines, the only remedy is to wipe out


the pen with a cloth.
Do not lay the pen down for
any great length of time when it contains ink wipe
The ink may sometimes be started by
it out first.
moistening the end of the finger and touching it to

The rule is used for measuring and comparing


dimensions; they are divided in inches, halves, quarand thirty-seconds.
For some purposes the rules as explained above
cannot be used, as i. e., for making drawings smaller
ters, eighths, sixteenths,

II

419

'

.4

4-

9
2

llllll

Tip

II

2963

10

12

11

?<^INCH

3/jlNCH

HON C
2t

v_

ill

It

ill

ill

01
III

III

6
ill

/.

llllllllllll llllll

3
III

llllll lllllllll

ill

llllllllllll

ill!

Fig.

I.

iliilillillilllili lllllllll lllllllll!


594.

the point of the pen, or by drawing a slip of paper

or larger than the actual size of the object to be

between the ends of the blades.


Before using the pen it is well to try it first on a
piece of paper to make sure that it will produce
lines of the required thickness
the border of the
sheet of paper on the drawing board may be used

drawn.

Scales are then

employed as shown

in Figs.

594 and 595.

for

this

custom.

purpose, according

to

long

established

\
Fig.

595.

mv^

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

420

The most convenient forms are the usual


triangular boxwood scales, having beveled
each of which

is flat,

so that the drawing

may be

595.

when

the

accurately

is

shown

The

in Fig.

using the protractor

that the line

(broken).

IRREGULAR CURVES

AND SWEEPS.
Curves are
lines

a circle

lar line.

irregular
is

a resfu-

Curves other

than arcs of circles are

drawn with the pencil or


ruling pen by means of

PROTRACTOR.

A protractor

x?,

shown

for laying off

or for dividing a
it is

must be placed so

vertex of the angle.

length.

it

forming one side of the angle to be laid off or measured,


and the center O must be at the

and y% inch
one foot and (c) one
edge reads sixteenths
the whole 12 inches of

parts

divided

line

to

ment

is

Fig. 596, will coincide with the

B,

foot, i^ inch

its

a semicircle,

from A to B and
from B to A. Protractors are often made of metal,
in which case the central part is cut away to allow
the drawing under it to be seen.

represents a triangztlar

different

is

and, for convenience,

into 180 equal parts or degrees

It reads on its
edges
follows
as
O
(a) 3 inches and 13^ inches to
one foot, I inch and 3^
inch to one foot, (b) Y^
inch and 2/^ inch to one

scale

outer edge of the protractor

with center at

When

off correctly.

very convenient form of scales


It

edges,

graduated for a distance of twelve


These beveled edges serve to bring

measured, or distances laid

or

is

(12) inches.
the lines of division close to the paper
scale

flat

curved or irregular-shaped

596 it is an instruor measuring angles on paper,


in Fig.

circle into

an equal number of

also used in connection with a scale to

define the inclination of one line to another.

rulers, called

curves or szueeps, Figs. 597-608.

irregular

These are made of

various materials, wood, hard rubber or celluloid,

great variety of shapes.


Note.

A certain

A whole circle

number

in

of points

contains 360 degrees, a right angle contains


ol a circle. A 45 degree angle
90 degrees and therefore as many as a.
contains as many degrees as j^ of a circle.

ROGERS- DRAWING AND DESIGN.

Figs. 597 to BOB.

421

422

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

determined througii which the line is to pass,


and said Hne should be first sketched in lightly,
freehand.
The irregular curve is then applied to
the curved line so as to embrace as many points as
is first

possible

the point where the pen touches the paper.

until the desired curve


It is

is

completed.

very

difficult to

continuous curve.

making the

draw a smooth

In order to avoid

much

curve out too

line

between the points or to cause it to


change its direction abruptly where
the different points join, the irregular
curve should be fitted so as to pass

through three points at

when moving
setting

it

it

to a

so that

it

new

least,

Fig.

neatly penciled

over,

been

in

sketched

and,

position,

by

will coincide with

When

part of the line already drawn.

609.

It will

be readily understood therefore that the direction of


the pen must be continually changed,

only the central points of those thus embraced should be inked in; this process is continued

Fig.

DESIGN.

after

having

free-hand,

little

PENCILS.
Drawings are generally made in pencil and then
inked. A hard pe^icil'x?, best for mechanical drawing.
The pencil should be sharpened as shoWn in Figs. 609
and 610. Cut the wood away, about Y^ or 3/^ of an
inch of the lead projecting then sharpen it flat by
rubbing it against a fine file or apiece of fine emery
cloth or sandpaper that has been fastened to a flat
stick.
Grind it wedge-shaped as shown in the figure.
If sharpened to a round point, the point will wear
off quickly and make broad lines, thus making it
very difficult to draw a line exactly through a point.
The pencil for the compasses should be sharpened
in the same manner but should have a narrower
;

width.

610.

be experienced to ink
it, the pencil line showing the
direction in which
the curve is to be drawn.
difficulty will

When

inking with the irregular curve, the blades


of the pen should be kept against it and the thumb-

screw on the outside the inside flat surface of the


blades must have the same direction as the curve at
;

The

pencil line should be

made

as light as pos-

pressing the pencil too hard will often cut the


paper or leave a deep mark which cannot be erased.
The presence of too much lead on the surface of the
paper tends to prevent the ink passing to the paper
sible

and
in

in

rubbing out pencil lines the ink

is

blackness and the surface of the paper

reduced
rough-

is

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


ened, which

is

As

a disadvantage.

little

Lines are drawn with the

flat

paper"

side of the lead

pressed lightly against the straight-edge, as close to


it

as possible, the pencil being held almost vertically.

DRAWING PAPER.
The
ing

first

paper

plan.

is

The

thine to be considered

in select'mir draza-

qualities that constitute

and

good paper

are

inches wide

nor discolored by reasonable exposure or age, and not buckling when stretched or
brittle

when ink or color is applied.


The sizes and names of commercial drawing paper
made in sheets is as follows
Cap
13x17 ins.
:

1 5x20

Medium

17x22

Royal
Super Royal

9x24
19x27
22x30
26x34
27x40
30x53

Imperial

Atlas

Double Elephant
Antiquarian

is

made
in

made in
for

rolls.

" Detail

marking out new


48 and 54

rolls 36, 42, 44,

the size of detail drawings for shop

dependent upon the type of the


drawing, the size of the parts detailed and the scale
use, of course, are

which they are drawn

good average ones


ally

from the

i8x

12 X 18,

the following sizes are

as they can be cut very economic-

shops
6 x 9, 9 x 1 2,
X
24
36, 36 X 48 and 48 x 72 inches.

rolls sold in print

24,

surface, neither

erable erasing without destroying the surfaces, not

Demy

made

is

it

PREPARING FOR WORK.

repelling nor absorbing liquids, admitting of consid-

becoming

especially

is

designs

to

the kind most suitable for the proposed

strength, uniformity of thickness

For large drawings paper

erasing or

rubbing out as possible should be done.

423

The paper
by means

of

is first

thumb

secured to the drawing board


one at each corner of the

tacks,

and smooth to
obtain this result proceed as follows press a thumbtack through one of the corners about y^ inch or ^
inch from the edge.
Place the tee square in position
sheet.

It

should be stretched

flat

Note. Border lines such as are used throughout the pages of this
book are frequently of considerable service to the draughtsman but
they must be used with a sense of "the fitness of things." Thus:
border lines are out of place in working drawings, etc., but where a set
of drawings are to be inspected and important contracts decided upon
by non-technical business men or capitalists, a neat border line is often
the one thing that attracts attention, to the advantage of the exhibitor
of the plans and specifications used in the competition bids. The Patent
Office rules also call for a border line.
The size of the sheet of pure
white paper on which a drawing is made must be exactly lox 15 inches.
One inch from its edge a single marginal line is to be drawn leaving
" the sight " precisely 8x 13 inches.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

424
as in drawingf a horizontal line,

paper so that its upper edge


edge of the tee square blade.

and

will

straig^hten the

be paralUl to the

Pull the corner diag-

onally opposite that in which the thumb-tack was

and push
the same man-

placed, so as to stretch the paper slightly


in

another thumb-tack.

Proceed

in

ner for the remaining two corners.

The thumb-tacks or drawing-pins should have a


head as thin as possible without cutting at its edgesj
slightly concave on the underside next to the paper,
and should be only so much convex on its upper
side as will give

it

sufficient thickness to

pin to be secured to

it;

it

is

more small pins along the edge


than use one

For

much

particular

enable the

better to use four or


of a sheet of paper

larger pin at each corner.

work

it

is

necessary to stretch the

damp. For stretching the paper


in this way moisten the whole sheet on the under
side, with the exception of a margin all around the
sheet, of about half an inch and paste the dry border
to the drawing board.
To do this properly requires
a certain amount of skill, and paper thus stretched
gives undoubtedly a smoother surface than can be
paper while

obtained

it

is

when using thumb-tacks, but

there are

objections to this process as the paper stretched in


this

under a certain strain and may have some


on the various dimensions of the drawing,

way

effect

when

is

cut off the board.

Once the drawing completed,

cut the paper from

the board with a knife, by following the lines previ-

drawn

around the sheet for trimming.


Make a continuous cut all around if one of the
longer sides is cut first and then the opposite side
there is danger of tearing the paper when cutting the
remaining sides.
ously

all

PENCILING.
The

drawing should look as nearly like the


ink drawing as possible.
A good draughtsman
leaves his work in such a state that any competent
person can without difficulty ink in what he has
pencil

drawn.

The pencil should always be drawn, not pushed.


Lines are generally drawn from left to right and
Pencil lines
from the bottom to the top or upwards.
should not be any longer than the proposed ink
By keeping a drawing in a neat, clean condiwhen penciling, the use of the rubber upon the

lines.

tion

finished inked

drawing

will

be greatly diminished.

INKING.

drawing should be inked

ciling

is

entirely completed.

in only after the pen-

Always begin at the top


and curves,

of the paper,first inking in all small circles

then the larger circles and curves, next all horizontal


lines, commencing again at the top of the drawing

II

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


and working downward. Then ink in all vertical
lines, startinof on the left and moving- toward the
right
finally draw all oblique lines.
Irregular curves, small circles and arcs are inked in
first, because it is easier to draw a straight line up to
a curve than it is to take a curve up to a straight line.
;

425

divided into yi, j^, yi, ^, each of these representing


the same proportions of the actual sizes of the object
to be drawn.
From this contracted scale the dimensions and

measurements are

A quarter size scale


to represent

one

is

foot.

laid off

on the drawing.

made by taking
Each

three inches

of the three inches

be divided into 12 parts representing inches,


each one of these again will be divided in i^, y%,
j?^, etc.; each one of these representing to a quarter
will

DRAWING TO

SCALE.

The meaning of this is, that the drawing when


done bears a definite proportion to the full size of
the particular part,

the same as
diminishinof

When
duced

it

or, in

other words,

would appear

if

is

precisely

viewed through a

orlass.

it is

required to

scale, that

is,

make

a dravving to a re-

of a smaller size than the actual

size of the object, say for instance, J^ full size,

dimension of the object


half the actual size

in

every

the drawing must be one-

in this case

one inch on the

size scale the actual sizes of

^, %,yi,~^ of an inch.
must be mentioned that in several instances, in
this work, distances in one figure are said to be
equal to corresponding distances in the same object
in another view, while by actual measurement they
are somewhat different; this is owing to the use of
It

different

scales

each

scale

separate

should

be

marked on the drawing.


Paper scales for large drawings are extremely useand remarkably accurate. The advantage they
possess over other kinds is that they expand and

object would be represented by 3^ inch.


Such a
reduced drawing could be made with an ordinary

ful

however, would require every size of the


object to be divided by the proportion of the scale,
which would entail a very great loss of time in calculations.
This can be avoided by simply dividing
the rule itself by 2, from the beginning.
Such a

contract equally with the drawing paper during the

rule, this,

rule,

or scale as

in yi inches,

it is

generally called, will be divided

each half inch representing one

full

inch

various changes of the weather.

The nickel-plated sheet-metal steel scale which has


two graduated edges conduces to most accurate
work; this instrument having only two scales the
annoyance experienced of frequently turning it, is
greatly reduced.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

426

A fiat boxwood
pitch on

side

its

scale

and

T square,

with beveled edges has less

be more

for that reason can

quickly and easily read than others.

Scroll.

Dixon's V. H. pencil.

SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTS.

boxwood

12-inch

The

choice of drawing tools

difficult

may hang upon

suitable tools,

hence

some

one of the most

points to settle that can present

cess or failure

of

is

it is

well to follow the advice

procure such tools as are immediately needed and to

The

as occasion

the end are the cheapest.

German

silver

is

better than

brass

also

necessary.

Henry Raabe, M.
in

following

the use of
;

them up

better than to fold

have a

little

accommodate the

it

B.

ers

triangle

triangles, ink, colors, etc.

Instructor of

Drawing

in

New

Compasses, 5^ inches, with needle point; pen,


and lengthening bar.

pencil

Drawing

pen,

4^

inches.

Scale from

Pencil rubber;

pens

pencil

Bow

Drawdivid-

60-degree by 30-degree
Drawing board i Pro;

1" to

the foot to /^

3" to the foot to

Ink eraser;

Pencil holder for

^"

"

to the

to the foot;

Pen holder with


short pencils Compass
i

Pencils from 6 H. to 3 H. (drawing penDrawing ink Sketch pads


Pencil pointer

pencils
cils)

Bow

Tee square

Scale from

Pair of dividers

45-degree triangle

in a piece of

York, recommends the following set of tools for the beginner


Pratt Institute,

is

chamois
satchel or grip which will

E., is entitled to credit for the

of instruments

Pair of compasses, with pencil, pen, needle point,

tractor;

S.,

list

and lengthening bar


Bow pen
ing pen

foot

Louis Rouillon,

eraser.

20 sheets drawing paper, 11 X 15 inches, and a


drawing-board about 16 x 23 inches will also be

the best

pocket or folding instruments is to be avoided if


is necessary to carry the
instruments nothing
leather, or to

Bottle of liquid India ink, four thumb-tacks, pen

and ink

much

graduated 1-16 inch

demands.

best quality of instruments last longer and

metal used,

scale, flat,

the entire length.

Suc-

itself.

the getting the most

professional draughtsman, and in buying,

add others

24-inch blade.

45-degree triangle, 9 inches.


30 and 60-degree triangle, g inches.

Sketch pencils
ing cloth.

(soft);

Thumb

tacks,

paper and

trac-

PRACTICAL RULES AND USEFUL DATA,


For mental

nothing better than the solution of mathematical problems.


It is not
necessary that these problems be intricate and in the higher branches, but only not so easy as to be
readily understood without active and sustained brain work.
drill

there

is

first of all, rapidity and a familiarity with the elements of numbers and their application
problems immediately surrounding one, these are the foundations of many successful lives to
most minds the study of mathematics is dry and uninteresting to make the subject acceptable it must
be presented in such a form as to immediately appeal to the student as of great practical value. This
value is proven when applications are made to problems that confront the draughtsman and engineer in
his daily routine.
There is no more interesting subject for one who is disposed to study than that of
useful numbers.
It gives him his first idea of what it
It literally opens a new world to the student.
means to really /rciz;^ anything, for the demonstrations of figures and geometry prove absolutely and
completely the propositions with which they deal.
"In the wide expanse of mathematics it has been a task of the utmost difficulty for the author to
lay out a road that would not too soon weary or discourage the student if he had his wish he would
gladly advance step by step with his pupil, and much better explain, byword and gesture and emphasis,
the great principles which underlie the operations of mechanics to do this would be impossible, so he
writes his admonition ia two short words: In case of obstacles, 'go on.' If some rule or process seetUS
too hard to learn, go around the difficulty, always advancing, and, in time, retu7'7z and conquer."
The foregoing paragraphs are simply to emphasize a few words explaining the value of the tallies
which are printed in the following pages tables of the results of mathematical calculations are of
immense economy in time, in guaranteeing accuracy and the saving of much drudgery
To thoroughly understand the easy and helpful uspof the tables which follow should be the pleasant
task of the student the value of a teacher or instructor at this point cannot be over estimated ; men are
when assistance is to
not made to do their work alone, to help and to be helped is the universal law
be had whether it is for pay or favor the student should avail himself of it with many thanks.

Accuracy,

to the

429

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

430

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA.
a mathematical science which teaches
the art of making calculations by letters and signs

Algebra

Is

instead of figures.

algabron,

and signs are

Quantities

in

2.^,

Zy,

S'S,

letters

and figures

letters,

as a,

The

or

press
are

letters of the alphabet are

known

quantities

Any

letter

may

represent any

number, and the same letter may represent different


numbers, but in each sum the same letter must
always stand for the same amount.
operations to be performed are expressed by

same signs

as

in

Arithmetic;

thus

expresses Subtraction, and

+ means
X stands

for Multiplication.

Thus +

/;

-^,

thus a^k'

of Equality

is

two short horizontal

read a equals

The

the last letters, those which

Letters employed have no fixed numerical

Addition,

is

is

also expressed

-r-/

is

read a

the sign

lines as a^^=b

and

b.

Parenthesis

or Vinculum

indicates

that the included quantities are taken collectively or

value of themselves.

the

Division

sign of

but this

as

The

the same as 'j'XaXbXc.

is

used to ex-

unknown.

The

to-

b, c,

etc.

first

abc

divided by b

is

The

But the multiplication of letters

a.(5.

more commonly expressed by writing them

Example

called Symbols.

algebra are expressed by

by a combination of

is

denoted by a period between

also

is

gether, the signs being omitted.

reduction of parts to a whole.


letters

Multiplication
the factors as

The name comes from two Arabic words,

The

a plus b ; a b means a less b; and aV^b shows that


a and b are to be multiplied together.

denotes the

sum

of a

and

and

is

read

one quantity.

Example
3 {a-\-S) and 3+<5 each denote
the sum of a and b is multiplied by 3.
:

The

character

"
.

that

denotes hence, therefore.

is a number or letter prefixed to a


show how many times the quantity is to
Hence a coefficient is a multiplier or

Coefficient

quantity, to

be taken.

factor ; thus in

5, 5 is

a numeral coefficient of

When no numeral coefficient is expressed,


always understood. Thus xy means \xy.

a.

is

ROGERS' DRAWING

AND

Algebraic Operation

is

combining quantities

according to the principles of algebra.


A Theorem is a statement of a principle to be
proved.

Problem

is

something proposed to be done, as

a question to be solved.

The Expression of Equality between two


ties is called

An

in algebraic

any quantity expressed


^a

']a,

aArb there are two terms

and
\nx, y and z

Positive Quantity

is

one that

is

to

be added and

letters

advantage of the substitution is that we are enabled to pursue our investigations without being embarrassed by the necessity of
performing arithmetical operations at every step.
Thus, if a given number be represented by the
letter a,

the

we know

the value of a

^^

the half of that number, whatever

may
will

that 2a will represent twice that

be.

In like

be nothing

equally hold whether a be

By

manner

left

5,

or

and
7,

if

a be taken

this result will

or 1000, or any

number whatever.

other

the aid of algebra, therefore,

analyze

there are three.

numbers are expressed by the

of the alphabet

from a there

etc.

of an algebraic expression are those

parts which are connected by the signs


in

In algebra

number, and
is

language, as yi,

The Terms
Thus

quanti-

an Equation.

Algebraic Expression

431

ADVANTAGES OF ALGEBRA.

DEFINITIONS.

An

DESIGN.

we

are enabled to

and determine the abstract properties of

numbers, and

we

are also enabled to resolve

many

it, as 4^ + 33.
one that is to be subtracted
prefixed to it, as \a
and has the sign
3^.
A Simple Quantity is a single letter, or several
as
letters written together without the sign + or

questions that by simple arithmetic would either be

a, ab, 3Xji'.

to

has the sign

prefixed to

Negative Quantity

is

Compound Quantity

is

two or more simple

quantities connected by the sign

ix y.

The Axioms

+ or

as

2,a-\- i,b,

difficult

algebra are self-evident truths as

exemplified on pages 85 and 86.

draughtsman or engineer has but

little

practical

use for a too extended acquaintance with algebra, as


nearly

all

the algebraic rules have been transferred

ordinary arithmetical computation, but as the

algebraic system

is

so inwoven into the school and

college course of instruction


to

in

or impossible.

know

it is

well for every

one

something- of the elements of the science.

Arithmeticians for very

many

study of the use of formulce

years have

(this

is

made

Latin for the

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

432

word forms)

in stating

problems and rules

U X-

these

forms are nearly all expressed in algebraic terms,


The advantage to be derived from the use of these
is that it puts into a short space what otherwise
might necessitate the use of a long verbal or written

of

is

that the

much

of the expression

as ^

25,

then \

=5

of expression,

10

and as f^^ 1 2, then

memory retains the

easier ?.nd longer than

and it may be remarked that those who once become accustomed to


the use of formulae seldom abandon their employment.

method

Va./ ; find the value

Hence, .1-^

Another advantage
the longer

when a
10 d=2a^; ^^25; and/"^ 12.
As = 10, then ^ =^5 as d=^ 24, then y^d=^
.;ir

explanation.

form

%d+\c-

+ 5 9.

15.

Answer.

= f)
the value
jirwhen
= 3/^ and / ^ ^
x^^ (^ i^); here
divided
2=
by
i^.
= 8-(i3^-i>^)
= 8-i<
= 7^ Answer.
=
X ^ a + d f where ^
= d = = and/=
= 2X3 + 4X5 6X7
= 6 + 20 42
= 26 42
= 16 Answer.
AB
x=
the value
Then
x
^ what
C=io; and D =
when A^6; B =
42
x^ 166X7
10 = 6 = Answer.
4.

If

(I

^^^8.

of

find

-y

3!/^ is

Examples Explaining the Solvng of Formul.k


^ + d
a + b
1.
\{ X
f ; what must be the
value of X when = lo, <5=7, ^==9, ?^4, and

/=6?
First substitute the figures for the letters, thus

= 10 + 9+4 then proceed as


Arithmetical
X ^ 21 15 = 6 Answer.
p + ^ find
== 4 g-\- m
A'

in

6,

^.

the

4,

part.

2.

If .r

value of

X when

^=

= 6

'

/>

==

2)

s, e

6,

2,

<5

3,

7.

;t:

the

and

^ 20 m -^ twice 3^6;
n= times 6 == 42 and ^ '^ times = 24;
Hence, ^ = 20 + 6 42 +24
= 5043
= Answer.
Here 4_^= 4 times

11

m-

6.

{{

j-.

16

7;

-?

of

is

~7-

7
'

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

LOGARITHMIC TABLE.

LOGARITHMS.
composed of two Greek nouns'
meaning reason and mimber ; a logarithm is an
artificial number so related to the natural numbers
that the multiplication and division of the latter
may be performed by addition and subtraction and
by their use the much more difificult operations of
raising to powers and the extraction of roots are
effected by easy cases of multiplication and division.
The early computers of logarithms carried them to
ten places of decimals, but it was soon found that five
This word

those given

When

is

and seven places were


in this

sufficient for

book are

438

most purposes

carried to six places.

to

the engineer or draughtsman

make long and

required

is

difficult calculations, consisting of

the multiplication, division, squaring,

of

etc.,

num-

bers, the logarithmic table will, as explained in the

note, be of such assistance as

may amply

repay the

study of the subject and the acquirement of rapid

and accurate use

of the table.

must be understood that but an outline only of


study is here presented and that the
columns of figures given in the tables beginning on
page 435 are but a very small part of those published
hence the exin advanced works on mathematics
amples given of the use of the table are necessarily
It

this interesting

Naperian logarithms are called natural and also


Hyperbolic

logarithms

common

logarithms

are

and also the Briggsian System.


In the Table, letter N over the first column stands
after loo (see page 436) the numfor "number"
bers at the top of the columns express the tenth
parts of N.

confined to very small numbers.

called the decimal,

Note. Logarithms were invented and a table published in 1614


by John Napier, of Scotland but the kind now chiefly in use were proposed by his contemporary Henry Briggs, of London. The first extended
table of common logarithms were calculated by Adrian Vlacq in 1628,
and have been the basis of every one since published when logarithms
are spoken of without any qualifications common logarithms are to be
;

To use the table, fi.nd the number in the first


column marked N, and in the next column the corresponding logarithm, will be found.

The

figures

given in the column are only the

decimal part of the logarithm.

The

rules

and ex-

amples for the application of logarithms are as


lows

fol-

understood. The labor of the operation incurred in the ordinary processes of arithmetic is often enormous by the use of logarithms this
labor is greatly lessened logarithms are of inestimable value in the socalled higher mathematics, in navigation, in surveying, and in the inves;

tigation of

many problems

in physics.

Rule

To

m.ultiply tzvo numbers,

add

their log-

arithms, a7id the result will be the logarithm of the


product.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

434

Mul tiply

Example:

log. 25

log. 14

-397940

2.

Proof:

tract

Rule

50

Example
one, sublog.

of the dividend.

Example

Divide

75

by

log.

175 =" 2,243038

log.

To

Rule

175

-^

log. 25

^= 25
multithe

To find

aiiy

the product

Example

is

the logarithm

of
of the power.

Find the value of 3*

log. 3

1.908484

Find the value of V64


1.806 1 80 -4- 2 =.903090)'==

9X3

128

logarithm

is

= 27

log. 81

-H 7

128

= .301030 =

log.

2.

is

between i

only a fraction.

and 10

the

The logarithm

0/

JO is I, between 10 and 100, a i has to


front of the fractional part found in the table ; between J 00 and 1,000, a 2 forms the whole number ;

and 10,000

What

is

the figure

is j,

on.

by

,089905 and
we have
point,
decimal
front of the
find log. 123

for the true log. of 123

^ 2.089905.

2 in

and so

the logarithm of 123?

we

looking in the table


placing a

= 2.107210

log. 8.

be placed in

Example:

the value of

// the nmnber

between 1,000

.477121

Proof

root.

find the charactistic or

Rule

power of any number,

number

196

ply the index of the power with the logarithm

log.

whole number to be
placed before the mantissa, or decimal part of the
logarithm, proceed as follows

-845098

1.397940-=
:

64=

Example: Find

log.

Proof

To find any root of a number, divide the

logarithm of the divisor from the logarithm

tlie

146 28

logarithm of the num,ber by the index of the

To divide one number by another

1.

2.292256

Rule

log. 150

7609

25

Find the value of 14^

778151

log.

F-XAMPLE

25 by 6

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS.

There are two different


tables of logarithms in use,
one is called the Napierian
system, named after its inventor, and the common
system of which the base' is
lo; the accompanying tables
are
common logarithms.

The logarithm of a number usually consists of two


parts, the integral, or whole
and a

fractional part
the integral part is called
the characteristic or index,
part,

and the

fractional part the

mantissa.
The last word is
from the Latin and means

an addition.

The

abbrviviation of

words "logarithm of"

is

the
log.

or Log., thus: log. 136


2-133539, the characteristic
of the logarithm i ^6 beine
2, and the mantissa .133539.
See Table, page 437.

n the tables the mantissas


only are given.
I

N
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21

22
23
24
25

Log.

000000
301030
477121
602060
698970
778151
845098

903090
954243
000000

Log.

N
51

^30

414973
431364
447158
462398
477121

31
32
33
34
35

491362
505150
518514
531479
544068

56
57
58
59

36
37
38

61
62
63

26
27
28
29

435

Log.

Log.

707570
716003
724276
732394
740363

76
77
78
79

748188
755875
763428
770852
778151

81

82
83
84
85

908485
913814
919078
924279
929419

64
65

785330
792392
799341
806180
812913

86
87
88
89
90

934498
939519
944483
949390
954243

91

52
53
54
55

60

80

880814
886491
892095
897627
903090

041393
079181
113943
146128
176091

39
40

556303
568202
579784
591065
602060

204120
230449
255273
278754
301030

41
42
43
44
45

612784
623249
633468
643453
653213

66
67
68
69
70

ai9544
826075
832509
838849
845098

92
93
94
95

959041
963788
968483
973128
977724

322219
342423
361728
380211
397940

46
47
48
49
50

662758
672098
681241
690196
698970

71
72

851258
857332
863323
869232
875061

96
97
98
99
100

982271
986772
991226
995635
000000

73
74
75

=1
ROGERS- DRAWING AND DESIGN.

436

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

000868
005181
009451
013680
017868
022016

001301
005609
009876
014100
018284
022428

001734
006038
010300
014521
018700
022841

002166
006466
010724
014940
019116
023252

002598
006894
011147
015360
019532
023664

003029
007321
011570
015779
019947
024075

003461'

003891

007748
011993
016197
020361
024486

008174
012415
016616
020775
024896

100
101
102
103
104
105

000000
004321
008600
012837
017033
02.1189

0U0434
004751
009026
013259
017451
021603

106
107
109
110

025306
029384
033424
037426
041393

025715
029789
033826
037825
041787

026125
030195
034227
038223
042182

026533
030600
034628
038620
042576

026942
031004
035029
039017
042969

027350
031408
035430
039414
043362

027757
031812
035830
039811
043755

028164
032216
036230
040207
044148

028571
032619
036629
040602
044540

111
112
113
114
115

045323
049218
053078
056905
060698

045714
049606
053463
057286
061075

046105
049993
053846
057666
061452

046495
050380
054230
058046
061829

046885
050766
054613
058426
062206

047275
051153
054996
058805
062582

047664
051538
055378
059185
062958

048053
051924
055760
059568
063333

048442
052309
056142
059942
063709

048830
052694
056524
060320
064088

116
117
118
119
120

064458
068186
071882
075547
079181

064832
068557
072250
075912
079543

065206
068928
072617
076276
079904

065580
069298
072985
076640
080266

065953
069668
073352
077004
080626

066326
070038
073718
077368
080987

066699
070407
074085
077731
081347

067071
070776
074451
078094
081707

067443
071145
074816
078457
082067

067815
071514
075182
078819
082426

108

028978
033021
037028
040998
044932

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

437

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

085291
088845
092370
095866
099335

085647
089198
092721
096215
099681

086004
089552
093071
096562
100026

121
122
123
121
125

082785
086360
089905
093422
096910

083144
086716
090258
093772
097257

083503
087071
090611
094122
097604

083861
087426
090963
094471
097951

084219
087781
091315
094820
098298

084576
088136
095169
098644

084934
088490
092018
095518
098990

126
127
128
129
130

100371
103804
107210
110590
113943

100715
104146
107549
110926
114277

101059
104487
107888
111263
114611

101403
104828
108227
111599
114944

101747
105169
108565
111934
115278

102091
105510
108903
112270
115611

102434
105851
109241
112605
115943

102777
106191
109579
112940
116276

103119
106531
109916
113275
116608

103462
106871
110253
113609
116940

131
132
133
134
136

117271
120574
123852
127105
130334

117603
120903
124178
127429
130655

117934
121231
124504
127753
130977

118265
121560
124830
128076
131298

118595
121888
125156
128399
J31619

118926
122216
125481
128722
131939

119256
122544
125806
129045
132260

119586
122871
126131
129368
132580

119915
123198
126456
129690
132900

120245
123525
126781
130012
133219

133539
136721
139879
143015
146128

133858
137037
140194
143327
146438

134177
137354
140508
143639
146748

134496
137671
140822
143951
147058

134814
137987
141136
144263
147367

135133
138303
141450
144574
147676

135451
138618
141763
144885
147985

135769
138934
142076
145196
148294

136086
139249
142389
145507
148603

136403
139564
142702
145818
148911

136
137
138
139
140

N
1

091.667

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

438

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS-Continued.

151982
155032
158061
161068
164055

141
142
143
144
145

149219
152288
155336
158362
161368

149527
152594
155640
158664
161667

149835
152900
155943
158965
161967

150142
153205
156246
159266
162266

150449
153510
156549
159567
162564

150756
153815
156852
159868
162863

151063
154120
157154
160168
163161

151370
154424
157457
160469
163460

151676
154728
157759
160769
163758

146
147
148
149
160

164353
167317
170262
173186
176091

164650
167613
170555
173478
176381

164947
167908
170848
173769
176670

165244
168203
171141
174060
176959

165541
168497
171434
174351
177248

165838
168792
171726
174641
177536

166134
169086
172019
174932
177825

166430
169380
172311
175222
178113

166726
169674
172603
175512
178401

151
152
153
154
165

178977
181844
184691
187521
190332

179264
182129
184975
187803
190612

179552
182415
185259
188084
190892

179839
182700
185542
188366
191171

180126
182985
185825
188647
191451

180413
183270
186108
188928
191730

180699
183555
186391
189209
192010

180986
183839
186674
189490
192289

181272
184123
186956
189771
192567

181558
184407
187239
190051
192846

156
157
158
169
160

193125
195900
198657
201397
2041^0

193403
196176
198932
201670
204391

193681
196453
199206

201943
204663

193959
196729
199481
202216
204934

194237
197005
199755
202488
205204

194514
197281
200029
202761
205475

194792
197556
200303
203033
205746

195069
197832
200577
203305
206016

195346
198107
200850
203577
206286

195623
198382
201124
203848
206556

'

167022
169968
172895
175802
178689

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

439

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

161
162
163
164
165

206826
209515
212188
214844
217484

207096
209783
212454
215109
217747

207365
210051
212720
215373
218010

207634
210319
212986
215638
218273

207904
210586
213252
215902
218536

208173
210853
213518
216166
218798

208441
211121
213783
216430
219060

208710
211388
214049
216694
219323

208979
211654
214314
216957
219585

209247
211921
214579
217221
219846

166
167
168
169
170

220108
222716
225309
227887
230449

220370
222976
225568
228144
230704

220631
223236
225826
228400
230960

220892
223496
226084
228657
231215

221153
223755
226342
228913
231470

221414
224015
226600
229170
231724

221675
224274
226858
229426
231979

221936
224533
227115
229682
232234

222196
224792
227372
229938
232488

222456
225051
227630
230193
232742

171
172
173
174
175

232996
235528
238046
240549
243038

233250
235781
238297
240799
243286

233504
236033
238548
241048
243534

283757
236285
238799
241297
243782

234011
236537
239049
241546
244030

234264
236789
239299
241795
244277

234517
237041
239550
242044
244525

234770
237292
239800
242293
244772

235023
237544
240050
242541
245019

235276
237795
240300
242790
245266

176
177
176
179
180

245513
247973
250420
252853
255273

245759
248219
250664
253096
255514

246006
248464
250908
253338
255755

246252
248709
251151
253580
255996

246499
248954
251395
253822
256237

246745
249198
251638
254064
256477

246991
249443
251881
254306
256718

247237
249687
252125
254548
256958

247482
249932
252368
254790
257198

247728
250176
252610
255031
257439

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

440

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued.

181
182
183
184
185

257679
260071
262451
264818
267172

257918
260310
262688
265054
267406

258158
260548
262925
265290
267641

258398
260787
263162
265525
267875

258637
261025
263399
265761
268110

258877
261263
263636
265996
268344

259116
261501
263873
266232
268578

259355
261739
264109
266467
268812

259594
261976
264346
266702
269046

259833
262214
264582
266937
269279

186
187
188
189
190

269513
271842
274158
276462
278754

269746
272074
274389
276692
278982

269980
272306
274620
276921
279211

270213
272538
274850
277151
279439

270446
272770
275081
277380
279667

270679
273001
275311
277609
279895

270912
273233
275542
277838
280123

271144
273464
275772
278067
280351

271377
273696
276002
278296
280578

271609
273927
276232
278525
280806

191
192
193
194
195

281033
283301
285557
287802
290035

281261
283527
285782
288026
290257

281488
283753
286007
288249
290480

281715
283979
286232
288473
290702

281942
284205
286456
288696
290925

282169
284431
286681
288920
291147

282396
284656
286905
289143
291369

282622
284882
287130
289366
291591

282849
285107
287354
289589
291813

283075
285332
287578
289812
292034

196
197
198
199
200

292256
294466
296665
298853
301030

292478
294687
296884
299071
301247

292699
294907
297104
299289
301464

292920
295127
297323
299507
301681

293141
295347
297542
299725
301898

293363
295567
297761
299943
302114

293584
295787
297979
300161
302331

293804
296007
298198
300378
302547

294025
296226
298416
300595
302764

294246
296446
298635
300813
302980

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

441

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
1

201
202
203
204
205

303196
305351
307496
309630
311754

303412
305566
307710
309S43
311966

303628
305781
307924
310056
312177

303844
305996
308137
310268
312389

304059
306211
308351
310481
312600

304275
306425
308564
310693
312812

304491
306639
308778
310906
313023

304706
306854
308991
311118
313234

304921
307068
309204
311330
313445

305136
307282
309417
311542
313656

206
207
208
209
210

313867
315970
318063
320146
322219

314078
316180
318272
320354
322426

314289
316390
318481
320562
322633

314499
316599
318689
320769
322839

314710
316809
318898
320977
323046

314920
317018
319106
321184
323252

315130
317227
319314
321391
323458

315340
317436
319522
321598
323665

315551
317646
319730
321805
323871

315760
317854
319938
322012
324077

211
212
213
214
215

324282
326336
328380
330414
332438

324488
326541
328583
330617
332640

324694
326745
328787
330819
332842

324899
326950
328991
331022
333044

325105
327155
329194
331225
333246

325310
327359
329398
331427
333447

325516
327563
329601
331630
333649

325721
327767
329805
331832
333850

325926
327972
330008
332034
334051

326131
328176
330211
332236
334253

216
217
218
219
220

334454
336460
338456
340444
342423

334655
336660
338656
340642
342620

334856
336860
338855
340841
342817

335057
337060
339034
341039
343014

335257
337260
339253
341237
343212

335458
337459
339451
341435
343409

335658
337659
339650
341632
343606

335859
337858
339849
341830
343802

336059
338058
340047
342028
343999

336260
338257
340246
342225
344196

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

442

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS-Continoed.

221
222
223
224
225

344392
346353
348305
350248
352183

344589
346549
348500
350442
352375

344785
346744
348694
350636
352568

344981
346939
348889
350829
352761

345178
347135
349083
351023
352954

345374
847330
349278
351216
353147

345570
347525
349472
351410
353339

345766
347720
349666
351603
353532

345962
347915
349860
351796
353724

346157
348110
350054
351989
353916

226
227
228
229
230

354108
356026
357935
359835
361728

354301
356217
358125
360025
361917

354493
356408
358316
360215
362105

354685
356599
358506
360404
362294

354876
356790
358696
360593
362482

355068
356981
358886
360783
362671

355260
357172
359076
360972
362859

355452
357363
359266
361161
363048

355643
357554
359456
361350
363236

355834
357744
359646
361539
363424

231
232
233
234
235

363612
365488
367356
369216
371068

363800
365675
367542
369401
371253

363988
365862
367729
369587
371437

364176
366049
367915
369772
371622

364363
366236
368101
369958
371806

364551
366423
368287
370143
371991

364739
366610
368473
370328
372175

364926
366796
368659
370513
372360

365113
366983
368845
370698
372544

365301
367169
369030
370883
372728

236
237
238
239
240

372912
374748
376577
378398
380211

373096
374932
376759
378580
380392

373280
375115
376942
378761
380573

373464
375298
377124
378943
380754

373647
375481
377306
379124
380934

373831
375664
377488
379306
381115

374015
375846
377670
379487
381296

374198
376029
377852
379668
381476

374382
376212
378034
379849
381656

374565
376394
378216
380030
381837

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

443

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued.

241
242
243
244
245

382017
383815
385606
387390
389166

382197
383995
385785
387568
389343

382377
384174
385964
387746
389520

382557
384353
386142
387923
389698

382737
384533
386321
388101
389875

382917
384712
386499
388279
390051

383097
384891
386677
388456
390228

383277
385070
386856
388634
390405

383456
385249
387034
388811
390582

383636
385428
387212
388989
390759

246
247
248
249
260

390935
392697
394452
396199
397940

391112
392873
394627
396374
398114

391288
393048
394802
396548
398287

391464
393224
394977
396722
398461

391641
393400
395152
396896
398634

391817
393575
395326
397071
398808

391993
393751
395501
397245
398981

392169
393926
395676
397419
399154

392345
394101
395850
397592
399328

392521
394277
396025
397766
399501

261
262
253
264
255

399674
401401
403121
404834
406540

399847
401573
403292
405005
406710

400020
401745
403464
405176
406881

400192
401917
403635
405346
407051

400365
402089
403807
405517
407221

400538
402261
403978
405688
407391

400711
402433
404149
405858
407561

400883
402605
404320
406029
407731

401056
402777
404492
406199
407901

401228
402949
404663
406370
408070

256
257
258
259
260

408240
409933
411620
413300
414973

408410
410102
411788
413467
415140

408579
410271
411956
413635
415307

408749
410440
412124
413803
415474

408918
410609
412293
413970
415641

409087
410777
412461
414137
415808

409257
410946
412629
414305
415974

409426
411114
412796
414472
416141

409595
411283
412964
414639
416308

409764
411451
413132
414806
416474

N
I

ROGERS' DRAWING

444

AND

DESIGN.

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

261
262
263
264
265

416641
418301
419956
421604
423246

416807
418467
420121
421768
423410

416973
418633
420286
421933
423574

417139
418798
420451
422097
423737

417306
418964
420616
422261
423901

417472
419129
420781
422426
424065

417638
419295
420945
422590
424228

417804
419460
421110
422754
424392

417970
419625
421275
422918
424555

418135
419791
421439
423082
424718

266
267
268
269
270

424882
426511
428135
429752
431364

425045
426674
428297
429914
431525

425208
426836
428459
430075
431685

425371
426999
428621
430236
431846

425534
427161
428783
430398
432007

425697
427324
428944
430559
432167

425860
427486
429106
430720
432328

426023
427648
429268
430881
432488

426186
427811
429429
431042
432649

426349
427973
429591
431203
432809

271
272
273
274
275

432969
434569
436163
437751
439333

433130
434729
436322
437909
439491

433290
434888
436481
438067
439648

433450
435048
436640
438226
439806

433610
435207
436799
438384
439964

433770
435367
436957
438542
440122

433930
435526
437116
438701
440279

434090
435685
437275
438859
440437

434249
435844
437433
439017
440594

434409
436004
437592
439175
440752

276
277
278
279
280

440909
442480
444045
445604
447158

441066
442637
444201
445760
447313

441224
442793
444357
445915
447468

441381
442950
444513
446071
447623

441538
443106
444669
446226
447778

441695
443263
444825
446382
447933

441852
443419
444981
446537
448088

442009
443576
445137
446692
448242

442166
443732
445293
446848
448397

442323
443889
445449
447003
448552

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

445

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS-Contlnued.
]

281
282
283
284
285

448706
450249
451786
453318
454845

448861
450403
451940
453471
454997

449015
450557
452093
453624
455150

449170
450711
452247
453777
455302

449324
450865
452400
453930
455454

449478
451018
452553
454082
455606

449633
451172
452706
454235
455758

449787
451326
452859
454387
455910

449941
451479
453012
454540
456062

450095
451633
453165
454692
456214

286
287
288
289
290

456366
457882
459392
460898
462398

456518
458033
459543
461048
462548

456670
458184
459694
461198
462697

456821
458336
459845
461348
462847

456973
458487
459995
461499
462997

457125
458638
460146
461649
463146

457276
458789
460296
461799
463296

457428
458940
460447
461948
463445

457579
459091
460597
462098
463594

457731
459242
460748
462248
463744

291
292
293
294
295

463893
465383
466868
468347
469822

464042
465532
467016
468495
469969

464191
465680
467164
468643
47011G

464340
465829
467312
468790
470263

464490
465977
467460
468938
470410

464639
466126
467608
469085
470557

464788
466274
467756
469233
470704

464936
466423
467904
469380
470851

465085
466571
468052
469527
470998

465234
466719
468200
469675
471145

296
297
298
299
300

471292
472756
474216
475671
477121

471438
472903
474362
475816
477266

471585
473049
474508
475962
477411

471732
473195
474653
476107
477555

471878
473341
474799
476252
477700

472025
473487
474944
476397
477844

472171
473633
475090
476542
477989

472318
473779
475235
476687
478133

472464
473925
475381
476832
478278

472610
474071
475526
476976
478422

'

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

446

m
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS-Continoed.

301
302
303
304
305

478566
480007
481443
482874
484300

478711
480151
481586
483016
484442

478855
480294
481729
483159
484585

478999
480438
481872
483302
484727

479143
480582
482016
483445
484869

479287
480725
482159
483587
485011

479431
480869
482302
483730
485153

479575
481012
482445
483872
485295

479719
481156
482588
484015
485437

479863
481299
482731
484157
485579

306
307
308
309
310

485721
487138
488551
489958
491362

485863
487280
488692
490099
491502

486005
487421
488833
490239
491642

486147
487563
488974
490380
491782

486289
487704
489114
490520
491922

486430
487845
489255
490661
492062

486572
487986
489396
490801
492201

486714
488127
489537
490941
492341

486855
488269
489677
491081
492481

486997
488410
489818
491222
492621

311
312
313
314
315

492760
494155
495544
496930
498311

492900
494294
495683
497068
498448

493040
494433
495822
497206
498586

493179
494572
495960
497344
498724

493319
494711
496099
497483
498862

493458
494850
496238
497621
498999

493597
494989
496376
497759
499137

493737
495128
486515
497897
499275

493876
495267
496653
498035
499412

494015
495406
496791
498173
499550

316
317
318
319
320

499687
501059
502427
503791
505150

499824
501196
502564
503927
505286

499962
501333
502700
504063
505421

500099
501470
502837
504199
505557

500236
501607
502973
504335
505693

500374
501744
503109
504471
505828

500511
501880
503246
504607
505964

500648
502017
503382
504743
506099

500785
502154
503518
504878
506234

500922
502291
503655
505014
506370

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

447

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS- Continued.

321
322
323
324
325

506505
507856
509203
510545
511883

506640
507991
509337
510679
512017

506776
508126
509471
510813
512151

506911
508260
509606
510947
512284

507046
508395
509740
511081
512418

507181
508530
509874
511215
512551

507316
508664
510009
511349
512684

507451
508799
510143
511482
512818

507586
508934
510277
511616
512951

507721
509068
510411
511750
513084

326
327
328
329
330

513218
514548
515874
517196
518514

513351
514681
516006
517328
518646

513484
514813
516139
517460
518777

513617
514946
516271
517592
518909

513750
515079
516403
517724
519040

513883
515211
516535
517855
519171

514016
515344
516668
517987
519303

514149
515476
516800
518119
519434

514282
515609
516932
518251
519566

514415
515741
517064
518382
519697

331
332
333
334
335

519828
521138
522444
523746
525045

519959
521269
522575
523876
525174

520090
521400
522705
524006
525304

520221
521530
522835
524136
525434

520353
521661
522966
524266
525563

520484
521792
523096
524396
525693

520615
521922
523226
524526
525822

520745
522053
523356
524656
525951

520876
522183
523486
524785
526081

521007
522314
523616
524915
526210

336
337
338
339
340

526339
527630
528917
530200
531479

526469
527759
529045
530328
531607

526598
527888
529174
530456
531734

526727
528016
529302
530584
531862

526856
528145
529430
530712
531990

526985
528274
529559
530840
532117

527114
528402
529687
530968
532245

527243
528531
529815
531096
532372

527372
528660
529943
531223
532500

527501
528788
530072
531351
532627

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

448

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS-Continoed.

341
342
343
344
346

532754
534026
535294
536558
537819

^532882

534153
535421
536685
537945

533009
534280
535547
536811
538071

533136
534407
535674
536937
538197

533264
534534
535800
537063
538822

533391
534661
535927
537189
538448

533518
534787
536053
537315
538574

533645
534914
536180
537441
538699

533772
535041
536306
537567
538825

533899
535167
536432
537693
538951

346
347
348
349
350

539076
540329
541579
542825
544068

539202
540455
541704
542950
544192

539327
540580
541829
543074
544316

539452
540705
541953
543199
544440

539578
540830
542078
543323
544564

539703
540955
542203
543447
544688

539829
541080
542327
543571
544812

539954
541205
542452
543696
544936

540079
541330
542576
543820
545060

540204
541454
542701
543944
545183

351
352
353
354
355

545307
546543
547775
549003
550228

545431
546666
547898
549126
550351

545555
546789
548021
549249
550473

545678
546913
548144
549371
550595

545802
547036
548267
549494
550717

545925
547159
548389
549616
550840

546049
547282
548512
549739
550962

546172
547405
548635
549861
551084

546296
547529
548758
549984
551206

546419
547652
548881
550106
551328

356
357
358
359
360

551450
552668
553883
555094
556303

551572
552790
554004
555215
556423

551694
552911
554126
555336
556544

551816
553033
554247
555457
556664

551938
553155
554368
555578
556785

552060
553276
554489
555699
556905

552181
553398
554610
555820
557026

552303
553519
554731
555940
557146

552425
553640
554852
556061
557267

552547
553762
554973
556182
557387

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

449

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS-Continued.
]

361
362
363
364
365

557507
558709
559907
561101
562293

557627
558829
560026
561221
562412

557748
558948
560146
561340
562531

557868
559068
560265
561459
562650

557988
559188
560385
561578
562769

558108
559308
560504
561698
562887

558228
559428
560624
561817
563006

558349
559548
560743
561936
563125

558469
559667
560863
562055
563244

558589
559787
560982
562174
563362

366
367
368
369
370

563481
564666
565848
567026
568202

563600
564784
565966
567144
568319

563718
564903
566084
567262
568436

563837
565021
566202
567379
568554

563955
565139
566320
567497
568671

564074
565257
566437
567614
568788

564192
565376
566555
567732
56890a

564311
565494
566673
567849
569023

564429
565612
566791
567967
569140

564548
565730
566909
568084
569257

371
372
373
374
375

569374
570543
571709
572872
574031

569491
570660
571825
572988
574147

569608
570776
571942
573104
574263

569725
570893
572058
573220
574379

569842
571010
572174
573336
574494

569959
571126
572291
573452
574610

570076
571243
572407
573568
574726

570193
571359
572523
573684
574841

570309
571476
572639
573800
574957

570426
571592
572755
573915
575072

376
377
378
379
380

575188
576341
577492
578639
579784

575303
576457
577607
578754
579898

575419
576572
577722
578868
580012

575534
576687
577836
578983
580126

575650
576802
577951
579097
580241

575765
576917
578066
579212
580355

575880
577032
578181
579326
580469

575996
577147
578295
579441
580583

576111
577262
578410
579555
580697

576226
577377
578525
579669
580811

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN

450

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
]

381
382
383
384
385

580925
582063
583199
584331
585461

581039
582177
583312
584444
585574

581153
582291
583426
584557
585686

581267
582404
583539
584670
585799

581381
582518
583652
584788
685912

581495
582631
583765
584896
586024

581608
582745
583879
585009
586137

581722
582858
583992
585122
586250

581836
582972
584105
585235
586362

581950
583085
584218
585348
586475

386
387
388
389
390

586587
587711
588832
589950
591065

586700
587823
588944
590061
591176

586812
587935
589056
590173
591287

586925
588047
589167
590284
591399

587037
588160
589279
590396
591510

587149
588272
589391
590507
591621

587262
588384
589503
690619
591732

587374
588496
589G15
590730
591843

587486
588608
589726
590842
591955

587599
588720
589838
590953
592066

391
392
393
394
395

592177
593286
594393
595496
596597

592288
593397
594503
595606
596707

592399
593508
594614
595717
596817

592510
593618
594724
595827
596927

592621
593729
594834
595937
597037

592732
593840
594945
596047
597146

592843
593950
595065
596157
597256

592954
594061
595165
596267
597366

593064
594171
595276
596377
597476

593175
594282
595386
596487
597586

396
397
398
399
400

597695
598791
599883
600973
602060

597805
598900
599992
601082
602169

597914
599009
600101
601191
602277

598024
599119
600210
601299
602386

598134
599228
600319
601408
602494

598243
599337
600428
601517
602603

598353
599446
600537
601625
G02711

598462
599556
600646
601734
602819

598572
599665
600755
601843
602928

598681
599774
600864
601951
603036

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

TABTF,

451

OF LOGARITHMS Continued.
]

401
402
403
404
405

603144
604226
605305
606381
607455

603253
604334
605413
606489
607562

603361
604442
605521
606596
607669

603469
604550
605628
606704
607777

603577
604658
605736
606811
607884

603686
604766
605844
606919
607991

603794
604874
605951
607026
608098

603902
604982
606059
607133
608205

604010
605089
606166
607241
608312

604118
605197
606274
607348
608419

406
407
408
409
410

608526
609594
610660
611723
612784

608633
609701
610767
611829
612890

608740
609808
610873
611936
612996

608847
609914
610979
612042
613102

608954
610021
611086
612148
613207

609061
610128
611192
612254
613313

609167
610234
611298
612360
613419

609274
610341
611405
612466
613525

609381
610447
611511
612572
613630

609488
610554
611617
612678
613736

411
412
413
414
416

613842
614897
615950
617000
618048

613947
615003
616055
617105
618153

614053
615108
616160
617210
618257

614159
615213
616265
617315
618362

614264
615319
616370
617420
618466

614370
615424
616476
617525
618571

614475
615529
616581
617629
618676

614581
615634
616686
617734
618780

614686
615740
616790
617839
618884

614792
615845
616895
617948
618989

416
417
418
419
420

619093
620136
621176
622214
623249

619198
620240
621280
622318
623353

619302
620344
621384
622421
623456

619406
620448
621488
622525
623559

619511
620552
621592
622628
623663

619615
620656
621695
622732
623766

619719
620760
621799
622835
623869

619824
620864
621903
622939
623973

619928
620968
622007
623042
624076

620032
621072
622110
623146
624179

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

452

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS- Com4nued.


]

421
422
423
424
425

624282
625312
626340
627366
628389

624385
625415
626443
627468
628491

624488
625518
626546
627571
628593

624591
625621
626648
627673
628695

624695
625724
626751
627775
628797

624798
625827
626853
627878
628900

624901
625929
626956
627980
629002

625004
626032
627058
628082
629104

625107
626135
627161
628185
629206

625210
626238
627263
628287
629308

426
427
428
429
430

629410
630428
631444
632457
633468

629512
630530
631545
632559
633569

629613
630631
631647
632660
633670

629715
630733
631748
632761
633771

629817
630835
631849
632862
633872

629919
630936
631951
632963
633973

630021
631038
632052
633064
634074

630123
631139
632153
633165
634175

630224
631241
632255
633266
634276

630326
631342
632356
633367
634376

431
432
433
434
435

634477
635484
636488
637490
638489

634578
635584
636588
637590
638589

634679
635685
636688
637690
638689

634779
635785
636789
637790
638789

634880
635886
636889
637890
638888

634981
635986
636989
637990
638988

635081
636087
637089
638090
639088

635182
636187
637189
638190
639188

635283
636287
637290
638290
639287

635383
636388
637390
638389
639387

436
437
438
439
440

639486
640481
641474
642465
643453

639586
640581
641573
642563
643551

639686
640680
641G72
642662
643650

639785
640779
641771
G42761
643749

639885
640879
641871
642860
643847

639984
640978
641970
642959
643946

640084
641077
642069
643058
644044

640183
641177
642168
643156
644143

640283
641276
642267
643255
644242

640382
641375
642366
643354
644340

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

453

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued

441
442
443
444
445

644439
645422
646404
647383
648360

644537
645521
646502
647481
648458

644636
645619
646600
647579
648555

644734
645717
646698
647676
648653

644832
645815
646796
647774
648750

644931
645913
646894
647872
648848

645029
646011
646992
647969
648945

645127
646110
647089
6480G7
649043

645226
646208
647187
648165
649140

645324
646306
647285
648262
649237

446
447
448
449
460

649335
650308
651278
652246
653213

649432
650405
651375
652343
653309

649530
650502
651472
652440
653405

649627
650599
651569
652536
653502

649724
650696
651666
652633
653598

649821
650793
651762
652730
653695

649919
650890
651859
652826
653791

650016
650987
651956
652923
653888

650113
651084
652053
653019
653984

650210
651181
652150
653116
654080

451
452
463
454
456

654177
655138
656098
657056
658011

654273
655235
656194
657152
658107

654369
655331
656290
657247
658202

654465
655427
656386
657343
658298

654562
655523
656482
657438
658393

654658
655619
656577
657534
658488

654754
655715
656673
657629
658584

654850
655810
656769
657725
658679

654946
655906
656864
657820
658774

655042
656002
656960
657916
658870

466
457
458
459
460

658965
659916
660865
661813
662758

659060
660011
660960
661907
662852

659155
660106
661055
662002
662947

659250
660201
661150
662096
663041

659346
660296
661245
662191
663135

659441
660391
661339
662286
663230

659536
660486
661434
662380
663324

659631
660581
661529
662475
663418

659726
660676
661623
662569
663512

659821
660771
661718
662663
663607

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

454

TABLE OF LOGAPaTHMSContinued.
IT

&

664266
665206
666143
667079
668013

664360
665299
666237
667173
668106

664454
665393
666331
667266
668199

664548
665487
666424
667360
668293

668945
669875
670802
671728
672662

669038
669967
670895
671821
672744

669131
670060
670988
671913
672836

669224
670153
671080
672005
672929

461
462
463
464
465

663701
664642
665581
666518
667453

663795
664736
665675
666612
667546

663889
664830
665769
666705
667640

663983
664924
665862
666799
667733

664078
665018
665956
666892
667826

664172
665112
666050
666986
667920

4^6
467
468
469
470

668386
669317
670246
671173
672098

668479
669410
670339
671265
672190

668572
669503
670431
671358
672283

668665
669596
670524
671451
672375

668759
669689
670617
671543
672467

668852
669782
670710
671636
672560

471
472
473
474
475

673021
673942
674861
675778
676694

673113
674034
674953
675870
676785

673205
674126
675045
675962
676876

673297
674218
675137
676053
676968

673390
674310
675228
676145
677059

673482
674402
675320
676236
677151

673574
674494
675412
676328
677242

673666
674586
675503
676419
677333

673758
674677
675595
676511
677424

673850
G74769
675687
676602
677516

476
477
478
479
480

677607
678518
679428
680336
681241

677698
678609
679519
680426
681332

677789
678700
679610
680517
681422

677881
678791
679700
680607
681513

677972
678882
679791
680698
681603

678063
678973
679882
680789
681693

678154
679064
679973
680879
681784

678245
679155
680063
680970
681874

678336
679246
680154
681060
681964

678427
679337
680245
681151
682055

8^

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

455

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS- Continued.


]

481
482
483
484
485

682145
683047
683947
684845
685742

682235
683137
684037
684935
685831

682326
683227
684127
685025
685921

682416
683317
684217
685114
686010

682506
683407
684307
685204
686100

682596
683497
684396
685294
686189

682686
683587
684486
685383
686279

682777
683677
684576
685473
686368

682867
683767
684666
685563
686458

682957
683857
684756
685652
686547

486
487
488
489
490

686636
687529
688420
689309
690196

686726
687618
688509
689398
690285

686815
687707
688598
689486
690373

686904
687796
688687
689575
690462

686994
687886
688776
689664
690550

687083
687975
688865
689753
690639

687172
688064
688953
689841
690728

687261
688153
689042
689930
690816

687351
688242
689131
690019
690905

687440
688331
689220
690107
690993

491
492
493
494
495

691081
691965
692847
693727
694605

6911-70

692053
692935
693815
694693

691258
692142
693023
693903
694781

691347
692230
693111
693991
694868

691435
692318
693199
694078
694956

691524
692406
693287
694166
695044

691612
692494
693375
694254
695131

691700
692583
693463
694342
695219

691789
692671
693551
694430
695307

691877
692759
693639
694517
695394

496
497
498
499
500

695482
696356
697229
698101
698970

695569
696444
697317
698188
699057

695657
696531
697404
698275
699144

695744
696618
697491
698362
699231

695832
696706
697578
698449
699317

695919
696793
697665
698535
699404

696007
696880
697752
698622
699491

696094
696968
697839
698709
699578

696182
697055
697926
698796
699664

696269
697142
698014
698883
699751

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

456

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

501
502
503
504
505

699838
700704
701568
702431
703291

699924
700790
701654
702517
703377

700011
700877
701741
702603
703463

700098
700963
701827
702689
703549

700184
701050
701913
702775
703635

700271
701136
701999
702861
703721

700358
701222
702086
702947
703807

700444
701309
702172
703033
703893

700531
701395
702258
703119
703979

700617
701482
702344
703205
704065

506
507
508
509
510

704151
705008
705864
706718
707570

704236
705094
705949
706803
707655

704322
705179
706035
706888
707740

704408
705265
706120
706974
707826

704494
705350
706206
707059
707911

704579
705436
706291
707144
707996

704665
705522
706376
707229
708081

704751
705607
706462
707315
708166

704837
705693
706547
707400
708251

704922
705778
706632
707485
708336

511
512
513
514
515

708421
709270
710117
710963
711807

708506
709355
710202
711048
711892

708591
709440
710287
711132
711976

708676
709524
710371
711217
712060

708761
709609
710456
711301
712144

708846
709694
710540
711385
712229

708931
709779
710625
711470
712313

709015
709863
710710
711554
712397

709100
709948
710794
711639
712481

709185
710033
710879
711723
712566

516
517
518
519
520

712650
713491
714330
715167
716003

712734
713575
714414
715251
716087

712818
713659
714497
715335
716170

712902
713742
714581
715418
716254

712986
713826
714665
715502
716337

713070
713910
714749
715586
716421

713154
713994
714833
715669
716504

713238
714078
714916
715753
716588

713323
714162
715000
715836
716671

713407
714246
715084
715920
716754

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

457

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

521
522
523
524
625

716838
717671
718502
719331
720159

716921
717754
718585
719414
720242

717004
717837
718668
719497
720325

717088
717920
718751
719580
720407

717171
718003
718834
719663
720490

717254
718086
718917
719745
720573

717338
718169
719000
719828
720655

717421
718253
719083
719911
720738

717504
718336
719165
719994
720821

717587
718419
719248
720077
720903

526
527
528
529
530

720986
721811
722634
723456
724276

721068
721893
722716
723538
724358

721151
721975
722798
723620
724440

721233
722058
722881
723702
724522

721316
722140
722963
723784
724604

721398
722222
723045
723866
724685

721481
722305
723127
723948
724767

721563
722387
723209
724030
724849

721646
722469
723291
724112
724931

721728
722552
723374
724194
725013

531
632
533
534
535

725095
725912
726727
727541
728354

725176
725993
726809
727623
728435

725258
726075
726890
727704
728516

725340
726156
726972
727785
728597

725422
726238
727053
727866
728678

725503
726320
727134
727948
728759

725585
726401
727216
728029
728841

725667
726483
727297
728110
728922

725748
726564
727379
728191
729003

725830
726646
727460
728273
729084

536
537
538
539
540

729165
729974
730782
731589
732394

729246
730055
730863
731669
732474

729327
730136
730944
731750
732555

729408
730217
731024
731830
732635

729489
730298
731105
731911
732715

729570
730378
731186
731991
732796

729651
730459
731266
732072
732876

729732
730540
731347
732152
732956

729813
730621
731428
732233
733037

729893
730702
731508
732313
733117

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

458

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

641
542
543
544
645

733197
733999
734800
735599
736397

733278
734079
734880
735679
736476

733358
734160
734960
735759
736556

733438
734240
735040
735838
736635

733518
734320
735120
735918
736715

733598
734400
735200
735998
736795

733679
734480
735279
736078
736874

733759
734560
735359
736157
736954

733839
734640
735439
736237
737034

733919
734720
735519
736317
737113

546
647
548
549
550

737193
737987
738781
739572
740363

737272
738067
738860
739651
740442

737352
738146
738939
739731
740521

737431
738225
739018
739810
740600

737511
738305
739097
739889
740678

737590
738384
739177
739968
740757

737670
738463
739256
740047
740836

737749
738543
739335
740126
740915

737829
738622
739414
740205
740994

737908
738701
739493
740284
741073

551
552
553
554
555

741152
741939
742725
743510
744293

741230
742018
742804
743588
744371

741309
742096
742882
743667
744449

741388
742175
742961
743745
744528

741467
742254
743039
743823
744606

741546
742332
743118
743902
744684

741624
742411
743196
743980
744762

741703
742489
743275
744058
744840

741782
742568
743353
744136
744919

741860
742647
743431
744215
744997

556
557
558
559
660

745075
745855
746634
747412
748188

745153
745933
746712
747489
748266

745231
746011
746790
747567
748343

745309
746089
746868
747645
748421

745387
746167
746945
747722
748498

745465
746245
747023
747800
748576

745543
746323
747101
747878
748653

745621
746401
747179
747955
748731

745699
746479
747256
748033
748808

745777
746556
747334
748110
748885

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

459

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

564
565

74S9G3
749736
750508
751279
75204h

749040
749814
750586
751356
752125

749118
749891
750663
751433
752202

749195
749968
750740
751510
752279

749272
750045
750817
751587
752356

749350
750123
750894
751664
752433

749427
750200
750971
751741
752509

749504
750277
751048
751818
752586

749582
750354
751125
751895
752663

749659
750431
751202
751972
752740

566
567
568
569
570

752816
753583
754348
755112
755875

752893
753660
754425
755189
755951

752970
753736
754501
755265
756027

753047
753813
754578
755341
756103

753123
753889
754654
755417
756180

753200
753966
754730
755494
756256

753277
754042
754807
755570
756332

753353
754119
754883
755646
756408

753430
754195
754960
755722
756484

753506
754272
755036
755799
756560

571
572
673
574
57-5

756636
757396
758155
758912
759668

756712
757472
758230
758988
759743

756788
757548
758306
759063
759819

756864
757624
758382
759139
759894

756940
757700
758458
759214
759970

757016
757775
758533
759290
760045

757092
757851
758609
759366
760121

757168
757927
758685
759441
760196

757244
758003
758761
759517
760272

757320
758079
758836
759592
760347

576
577
578
579
680

760422
761176
761928
762679
763428

760498
761251
762003
762754
763503

760573
761326
762078
762829
763578

760649
761402
762153
762904
763653

760724
761477
762228
762978
763727

760799
761552
762303
763053
763802

760875
761627
762378
763128
763877

760950
761702
762453
763203
763952

761025
761778
762529
763278
764027

761101
761853
762604
763353
764101

561
562
563

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

460

TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.

681
582
683
684
686

764176
764923
765669
766413
767156

764251
764998
765743
766487
767230

764326
765072
765818
766562
767304

764400
765147
765892
766636
767379

764475
765221
765966
766710
767453

764550
765296
766041
766785
767527

764624
765370
766115
766859
767601

764699
765445
766190
766933
767675

764774
765520
766264
767007
767749

764848
765594
766338
767082
767823

686
687
688
589
690

767898
768638
769377
770115
770852

767972
768712
769451
770189
770926

768046
768786
769525
770263
770999

768120
768860
769599
770336
771073

768194
768934
769673
770410
771146

768268
769008
769746
770484
771220

768342
769082
769820
770557
771293

768416
769156
769894
770631
771367

768490
769230
769968
770705
771440

768564
769303
770042
770778
771514

591
692
693
594
595

771587
772322
773055
773786
774517

771661
772395
773128
773860
774590

771734
772468
773201
773933
774663

771808
772542
773274
774006
774736

771881
772615
773348
774079
774809

771955
772688
773421
774152
774882

772028
772762
773494
774225
774955

772102
772835
773567
774298
775028

772175
772908
773640
774371
775100

772248
772981
773713
774444
775173

596
597
598
599
600

775246
775974
776701
777427
778151

775319
776047
776774
777499
778224

775392
776120
776846
777572
778296

775465
776193
776919
777644
778368

775538
776265
776992
777717
778441

775610
776338
777064
777789
778513

775683
776411
777137
777862
778585

775756
776483
777209
777934
778658

775829
776556
777282
778006
778730

775902
776629
777354
778079
778802

'

1
1

9
1

USEFUL TABLES FOR DRAUGHTSMEN, MACHINISTS

AND

ENGINEERS.

TABLE OF DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS.


Sths, J6ths, 32ds

8ths.

and

32nds.

64tlis of

an Inch.

64tbs.

Il=-5i5625

-03125

,V= -015625

^=09375
^=15625

5\=. 046875
5\ = .o78i25

lt= -546875
ff= 578125
11= 609375

A=
A= -28125
M= -34375

A=- 109375

ii=

^=.140625
I4=.i7i875

l=.875

J|=. 40625

|f=.203I25

H= .671875
n= 703125
u= 734375

i6ths.

M=-46875

wX. 234375

11=

Ji = -53i25

u--= 796875

J =.125

i-.25o
f =-375

^=.500

1=

625

f =-75o

A=

.21875

fJ =.0625
A=-i875
A=-3I25

M=-59375

H= -265625
^ = .296875

M= -65625

li=.32Si25

TJ=-4375

11= -71875

ll=-359375

^=5625
ii

= .6875

n=.8i25
11= -9375

11=
11=

640625

765625

828125
859375

If =-78125

11= .390625

fl=-84375
||=.9o625

||=.42i875

u= S90625
M= 921S75
U= 953125

||=.453i25

Sf=

M=-96875

|i=. 484375

461

984375

11

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

d62

m
00
D
Z
1
00

o2
^ o n ^ 1^ m -M rn t^ r^ o e^ tn -^ ta es t^ CO OS '^ v> n ta to t^ a> e> o -^ e^ n -* ui to t' a> o
aS
o
So
-^ r-^r-r- i-hS,-.cjc<i e<io>iNe<icq irc^ mm COM TOCO coco com-*
ogoo'='^'=^"'*''*^**
rr,'

,/-,

JO joqiun^

<-!

-!

et>

-ii

Ift

0 5^

1
OOr^OlOCOC^i'to 'Tj'COCCil--'"CDOiaOCOGOOtM^D
^-r-*CO?CCO(M'^4'MCN(M'M"r--. r^t-H,

a
00

COl>.-g<"-<OCOi-HCOt^in)rf<MOOCiCOt>-t>-OCD

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

ri

^J-Hi-HOOOCiC50a500QOOOCOIr*t^l>'CDCDO0Oir5U*i'^'^'-i'^7COOirNt--'-i'ooooasoi

.c^(^^(^l(r^(^^c^l^r-^l-HI-HrH^HIHr-f-H.-HrHrM,-^rHl--^T-HI-Hr^,-HrHr-r^r^rHT-l^-HrH,^

PL,

ojt^
luuadmi

V3

1 . f-^ocooooooooooooooooooooooooo<:>

SM'Jaie33J0A\
'00 -ajjvr naow
5> lunqqeEji

aiiAV .sqn^s

.00OOiOOOI>.CCOOOOCOOiOftlCOC>lOOiOOOOl^COOOO-^^fO(NOO'MOOOO"-HlC50
0'rio4^r^^-'^r-.ootncoocoi--cr'in'rfcocMr-*oooi

CC00C0<M0*M(MC1^^i-'i-(^^^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

.coc<I^ococ^col0^^c^^^'rlootoOlOT
.Ciocoococc>"^<^^oo^^o-TCcc^oocol>.o0"^'^coro<^^'^^'^^':^l.^-^Ic^rH^^r-*,r-ioo

COiOCOiMOOOC^^tC'MOCiajl^OtO'Tt'-^COC^'M'ri'rJ'M.-ii-ir-i-lr-T-HOOOOO
'^'^COCOCCC^(MCN<?lG^^^^
tO'NOO'^

JO

^-'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

'uiBqSutmjia

-i

adiBqg
UMOJa JO
uvciuauiv

:5>

JO jaqmnii

00

^^TfCOCCCOC^iMC^OJTJi-'i

o
00

-fOSCD-ri^OCOOfM-^COOOOCqOO

aSntio

0'*'^c:)i>.o-t'

r^^'^oO'^'--oOl'"^r'-c^iOOKtiii(>D<-:cioi>.c-^c^i'Ocoi'-t^'iDioiO'^^

-
-

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

463

RULES
TABLES.
Relative to the Qrcle.

To And

the area of a circle

Area,

Multiply circumferencebyone-quarterofthediameter.

Or
Or
Or

by 0.7854.

multiply the square of diameter


"

''

circumference "

"

"

diameter

"

.07958.
3.1416.

To nd circumference
Multiply

Or

by

3.1416.

"

"

0.3183.

divide

'.s

.8
.9

1.0
.1

.2
.3
.4

Multiply circumference by 0.3183.

Or

.1

.7

To And diameter
"

"

3.1416.

To And Radius

,5
.6
,7

Multiply circumference by

0.

Or

6.28318.

ISQIS-

.8
.9

divide

"

"

2.0

In the following tables the diameter of a given


inch

is

to be found in the first column, the area

be found
in

in

is

to

CIrciun.

.1

.2
.3
.4

Circles advancing^

Dloin.

3.0

.007854
.031416
.070686
.12566

.31416
.62832
.94248
1.2566

.19735
.28274
.88485
.50266
.63617

1.5708
1.8850
2.1991
2.5133
2.8274

.1

.2
.3

.4
.5
.6

.7
.8
.9

.7854
.9508
1.1810
1.3273
1.5394

3.1418
8.4558
3.7699
4.0841
4,8982

4.0

1.7671
2.0106
2.2698
2.5447
2.8353

4.7124
5.0265
5.3407
5.6549
5.9690

.5

3.1416
8.4636
3.8018
4.1548
4.5239

6.2832
6.5973
6.9115
7.2257
7.6398

5.0

4.9087
5.3093
5.7256
6.1575
6.6052

7.8540
8.1681
8.4828
8.7965
9.1106

.5
.6

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

.1

.2
.8

.4

Area.

with a diameter of 2.7 inches


has an area of 5.7256 square inches and a circumference of 8.4823 linear inches.
:

circle

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

.7
.8
.9

by tenths.
Clrcum.

7.0686
7.5477
8.0425
8 5530
9.0792

9.4248
9.7389
10.0531
10.3673
10.6814

9.6211
10.1788
10.7521
11.3411
11.9456

10.9956
11.3097
11.6239
11.9381
12.2523

12.5664
13.2025
13.8544
14.5220
15.2053

12.5664
12.8805
13.1947
13.5088
18.8230

15.9048
16.6190
17.3494
18.0956
18.8574

14.1372
14.4513
14.7655
15.0796
15.8938

19.6350
20.4282
21.2872
22.0618
22.9023

15.7080
16.0221
16.3863
16.6504
16.9646

23.7588
24.6301
25.5176
26.4208
37.8397

17.2788
17.5929
17.9071
18.2212
18.5854

the second column, and the circumference

the third column.

Example

Area.

0.0

.5
.6

diameter

divide

DIam.

and Qrcomfei-enccs of

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

464

TABLES OF AREAS

AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF

Area.

Clrcum.

Dlaiii.

Area.

CIrcuni.

Dlam.

28.8743
29.2247
30.1907
31.1725
32.1699

18.8496
19.1637
19.4779
19.7920
20.1062

10.0

78.5398
80.1185
81.7128
83.3239
84.9487

31.4159
31.7301
32.0443
33.3584
32.6726

14.0

33.1831
34.8119
35.2565
36.3168
37.3928

20.4204
20.7345
21.0487
21.3628
21.6770

.5

86.5901
88.3473
89.9202
91.6088
93.3132

32.9867
33.3009
33.6150
33.9293
34.2434

.5
.6

38.4845
39.5919
40.7150
41.8539
43.0084

21.9911
28.3053
82.6195
22.9336
23.2478

11.0

95.0332
96.7689

.2

98.'5203

.3

100.2875
102.0703

34.5575
34.8717
35.1858
35.5000
35.8143

15.0

.1

44.1786
45.3646
46.5663
47.7836
49.0167

23.5619
23.8761
24.1903
24.5044
24.8186

.5

103.6689
105.6833
107.5132
109 3588
111.2202

36.1383
36.4425
36.7566
37.0708
37.3850

.5
.6
.7

50.2655
51.5300
52.8102
54.1061
55.4177

25.1327
25.4469
25.7611
26.0753
26.3894

12.0

113.0973
114.9901
116.8987
118.8229
120.7688

37.6991
38.0133
38.3274
38.6416
38.9557

16.0

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

56.7450
58.0880
59.4468
60.8213
62.8114

26.7035
27.0177
27.3319
27.6460
27.9602

.5

122.7185
124.6898
126.6769
128.6796
130.6981

39.2699
39.5841
39.8982
40.2124
40.5265

.5

9.0

63.6173
65.0388
66.4761
67.9291
69.3978

28.2743
28.5885
28.9027
29.2168
29.5310

13.0

132.7323
134.7822
136.8478
138.9291
141.0261

40.8407
41.1549
41.4690
41.7832
42.0973

17.0

29.8451
30.1593
30,4734
30.7876
31.1018

.5

143.1383
145.2672
147.4114
149..5712
151.7468

42.4115
42.7257
43.0398
43.3540
43.6681

DIam.

6.0
.1
.2

.3
.4
.5
.6
.7

.8
.9

7.0
.1
.2
.3

.4

,5
.6

.7
.8
.9

8.0
.1

.2
.3
.4

.1

.3

.3
.4

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

70.8822
72.3823
73.8981
75.4296
76.9769

.1

2
.3

.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

.4

.6

.7
.8

.9

.1

.2
.3

.4

.6

.7
.8
.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

Area.

CIRCLESContinued.
Clrcuiu.

Dlam.

153.9380
156.1450
158.3677
160.6061
162.8603

43.9823
44.2965
44.6106
44.9248
45.3389

8.0

165.1300
167.4155
169.7167
173.03.%
174.3663

4.5.5531

.5
.6

176.7)46
179.0786
181.4584
183.8539
186.2650

47.1239
47.4380
47.7522
48.0664
48.3805

188.6919
191.1345
193.5928
196.0668
198.5565

48.6947
49.0088
49.3230
49.6372
49.9513

201:0619
203.5831
206.1199
208.6724
211.8407

50.2655
50.5796
50.8938
51.8080
51.6221

20.0

213.8246
216.4243
219.0397
221.6708
234.3176

51.8363
52.1504
52.4646
52.7788
53.0929

.5
.6
.7

53.4071
53.7212
54.0354
54.3496
54.6637

21.0

.4

236.9801
829.6583
238 3522
235.0618
837.7871

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

240.5282
243.2849
246.0574
248.8456
251.6494

54.9779
55.2920
55.6063
55.9203
56.2345

.5

.1

.2
.3
.4

.7
.8
.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.8

.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7
.8
.9

.1

.8
.3

45.8673
46.1814
46.4956
46.8097

.1

.8
.3

.4

.7
.8
.9

19.0
.1
.2

.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

.1

.2
.3

.4

.8
.9

.1

.8

.3
.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

Area.

Clicuin.

254.4690
257.3043
260.1553
263.0820
265.9044

56.8628
57.1770
57.4911
57.8053

268.8025
271.7164
274.6459
277.5911
280.5521

58.1195
58.4336
58.7478
59.0619
59.3761

283.5887
286.5211
289.5292
292.5530
295.5925

59.6903
60.0044
60.3186
60.6327
60.9469

298.6477
301.7i86
304.8058
307.9075
311.0255

61.8611
61.5752
61.8894
68.2035
62.5177

314.1593
317.3087
320.4739
323.6547
326.8513

62.8319
63.1460
63.4602
63.7743
64.0885

330.0636
333.2916
3a6.5353
339.7947
343.0698

64.4026
64.7168
65.0310
05.8451
65.6593

346.3606
349.6671
353.9894
356.3273
359.6809

65.9734
66.2876
66.6018
66.9159
67.2301

363.0503
366.4354
369.8361
373.2526
376.6848

67.5442
67.8584
68.1728

56..5486

68.48W
68.8009

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


TABLES OF AREAS
f

^-,

DIanu'

Area.

Clrcum.

Dlaiii.

23.0

.380.1327
.<)83.5963

.2
.3
.4

SST.OTTO
390.5707
394.0814

69.1150
69.4292
69.7434
70.0575
70.3717

26.0

.1

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

397.6073
401.1500
404.7078
408.2814
411.870t

70.6858
71.0000
71.3142
71.6283
71.9425

.5
.6
.7

.1

^2
.3
.4

.8
.9

AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF
Clrciini.

nam.

530.9293
535.0211
539.1287
543.2521
547.3911

81.6814
81.9956
82.3097
82.6239
82.9380

30.0

551.5459
555.7163
559.9025
564 1014
568.3220

Area.

DIam.

94.2478
94.5619
94.8761
95.1903
95.5041

34.0

.2
.3
.4

706.8583
711.5786
716.3145
721.0663
725.8336

83.2523
83.5664
83.8805
84.1947
84.5088

.5
.6
.7
.8
.0

730.6167
735.4154
740.2299
745.0601
749.9060

95.8186
96.1327
96.4469
96.7611
97.0752

.5

572.5553
576.8043
581.0890
585.3494
589.6455

84.8230
85.1373
85.4513
85.7655
86.0796

31.0

754.7676
759.6450
764.5380
769.4467
774.3712

97.3894
97.7035
98.0177
98.3319
98.6460

85.0

86.3938
86.7080
87.0231
87.3363
87.6504

.5

779.3113
784.2672
789.2388
794.2260
799.2290

98.9602
99.2743
99 5885
99.9026
100.2108

.5

804.3477
809.2831
814 3322
819.39f0
824.4796

.1

72.2566
72.5708
72.8849
73.1991
73.5133

27.0

433.7361
437.4354
441.1503
444.8809
448.6273

73.8274
74.1416
74.4557
74.7699
75.0811

.5

.9

593.9574
598.2849
602.6282
606.9871
611.3618

452.3893
456.1671
459.9606
463.7698
467.5947

75.3982
75.7124
76.0265
76.3407
76.6549

28.0

615.7.522

620.1582
634.5800
629.0175
633.4707

87.9646
88.2788
88.5929
88.9071
89.2313

32.0

.1

471.4352
475.2916
479.1636
483.0513
486.9547

76.9690
77.2832
77 ..5973
77.9115
78.2257

.5

637.9397
642.4243
646.9246
651.4407
055.9734

89.5354
89.8495
90.1637
90.4779
90.7920

.5
.6
.7

78.5398
78.8540
79.1681
79.48i3
79.7965

29.0

660.5199
665.0830
669.6619
674.3565
678.8668

91.1063
91.4203
91.7343

33.0

.2
.3
.4

490.8739
494.8087
498.7592
502.7255
506.7075

9?.04>'7

.3
.4

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

510.7052
514.7185
518.7476
522.7924
526.8529

80.1106
80.4248
80.7389
81.0531
81.3673

.5
.6

683.4928
688.1345
692.7919
697.4650
702.1538

92.6770
92.9911
93.3053
93.6195
93.9336

.1

.2
.3
.4

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

24.0
.1
.2

.3

A
.5

.6
.7
.8
.9

25.0
.1

.1

2
.3
.4

.6
.7
.8

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7
.8
.9

.1

.2
.3

A-

.7
.8

.9

CIRCLESContinued.
Clrcniii.

415.4756
419.0993
422.7327
426.3848
430.0526

23.0

465

93.3628

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6

.7
.8

.9

.1
.2

.3

.8
.9

.1

.2

.5

.6
.7
.8
.9

Area.

Area.

Ctrcuin,

907.9203
913.2688
918.6331
934.0131
939.4088

106.8142
107.1283
107.4425
107.7566
108.0708

934.8203
940 2473
945.6901
951.1486
956.6328

108.3849
108.6991
109.0133
109.3274
109.6416

963.1138
967.6184
973.1397
978.6768
984.2290

109.9557
110.2699

.6

989.7980
995.3822

.7

10009821

.8
.9

1006.5977

10133390

111.5265
111.8407
112.1549
113.4890
113.7832

100.5310
100.8451
101.1593
101.4734
101.7876

36.0

1017.8760
1023.5387
1029.2172
1034.9113
1040.6212

113.0973
113.4115
113.7357
114.0398
114.3510

829.5768
834.6898
839.8185
844.9628
850.1329

102.1018
102.4159
102.7301
103.0442
103.3584

.5

1046.3467
1052.0880
1057.8449
1063.6176
1069.4060

114.6681
114.9823
115.3965
115.6106
115.9348

855.3986
860.4903
865.6973
870.9202
876.15S8

103.6726
103.9867
104.3009
104.6150
104.9292

37.0

1075.2101
1081.0299
1086.8654
1092.7166
1098.5835

110.2389
116.5531
116.8672
117.1814
117.4956

881.4131
886.6831
891.9688
897.3703
902.5874

105.2434
105.5575
105.8717
106.1858

.5

1104.4662
1110.3645
1116.3786
1122.2083
1128.1538

117.8097
118.1239
118.4380
118.7523
119.0664

106..5000

.1

^2
^3
.4

.6
.7

.8

.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

.1

.2

.3

.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

110..5841

110.8982
111.2124

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

466

TABLES OF AREAS
Diam.

88.0
.1

.8

.3
.4
.5
.6

7
.8
.9

39.0
.1

.2

.3

A
.5

.6
.7
.8

.9

40.0
.1

.2

.3
.4
.5
.6
.7

.8
.9

41.0
.1

.2
.3
.4
.5

.6
.7

.8
.9

Area.^

Cli'cnm.

AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF
^

Dlain.

Area.

1385.4434
1392.0476
1398.6685
1405.3051
1411.9574

1134.1149
1140.0918
1146.0844
1152.0927
1158.1167

119.3805
119.6947
130.0088
120.3330
120.6372

42.0

1164.1564
1170.8118
1170.2830
1182.3698
1188.4724

120.9513
121.2655
121.5796
131.8938
123.3080

.5

1194.5906
1300.7246
1206.8743
1813.0396
1219.2207

122.5221
123.8363
123.1504
123.4646
123.7788

43.0

1225.4175
1231.6300
1237.8583
1244.1021
1250.3617

124.0929
134.4071

.5

1347313

.7

135.0354
135.3495

.8

1256.6371
1262.9281
1269.2348
1275.5573
1281.8955

125.6637
125.9779
126.3920
126.6063
136.9303

44.0

1288.2493
1294.3189
1301.0043
1307.4053
1313.8219

127.2345
127.5487
137.8628
138.1770
138.4911

.5

1320.2543
1326.7024
1333.1663
1339.6458
1346.1410

138.8053
139.1195
139.4336
139.7478
130.0619

45.0

1352.6520
1359.1786
1365.7210
1372.2791
1378.8529

130.3761
130.6903
131.0044
131.3186
131.6327

.5

.1

.3
.3
.4

.6

.7
.8
.9

.1

.8

.3
.4

.6

.9

.1

2
'.Z

.4

.6
.7
.8
.9

.1

3
!3

.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

Continued.
CIrcum.

DIam.

Area.

144.5133
144.8274
145.1416
145.4557
145.7699

50.0

1963.4954
1971.3572
1979.2348
1987.1280
1995.0370

157.0796
157.3938
157.7080
158 0221
158.3363

1698.2272
1705.5392
1712.8670
1720.2105
1727.5697

146.0841
146.3982
146.7124
147.0265
147.3407

.5

2002.9617
2010.9020
2018.8581
2026.8299
2034.8174

158.6504
158.9646
159.2787
159.5989
159.p071

51.0

.3
.4

1734.9445
1742.3351
1749.7414
1757.1635
1764.6012

147.6550
147.9690
148.2833
148 5973
148.9115

2042.8206
2050.8395
2058.8742
2066.9345
2074.9905

160.8813
160.5354
160.8495
161 1637
161.4779

149.3257
149.5398
149.8540
150.1681
150.4823

.5

2083.0723
2u91.1697
2099.2829
2107.4118
2115.5563

161.7920
162.1062
162.4203
162.7345
163.0487

52.0

1839.8423

150.7984
151.1106
151.4248
151.7389
152.0531

2123.7166
2131.8926
2140.0843
8148.2917
3156.5149

163.3628
163.6770
163.9911
164.3053
164.6195

1847.4528
1855.0790
1862.7210
1870.3786
1878.0519

152.3672
152.6814
152.9956
153.3097
153.6339

.5

8164.7537
2173.0082
2181.2785
2189.5644
2197.8661

164.9336
165 2479
165.5619
165.8761
166.1903

1885.7409
1898.4457
1901.1662
1908.9024
1916.6543

153.9380
154.2522
154.5664
154.8805
155.1947

53.0

2206.1834
2214.5165
8232.8653
2231.8298
8239.6100

166.5044
166.8186
167.1327
167.4469
167.7810

1924.4218
1938.2051
1940.0042
1947.8189
1955.6493

155.5088
155.8330
156.1378
156.4513
156.7655

.5

2248.0059
2256.4175
2264.8448
2273.2879
2281.7466

168.0752
168.3894

Dfutn.

Area.

131.9469
133.2611
132.5753
132.8894
133.2035

46.0

1661.9025
1669.1360
1676.3853
1683.6502
1690.9308

1418.6254
1435.3093
1432.0086
1438.7238
1445.4546

133.5177
133.8318
134.1460
134.4602
134.7743

.5
.6
.7
.8

1452.2012
1458.9635
1465.7415
1472.5352
1479.3446

135.0885
135.4026
135.7168
136.0310
136.3451

1486.1697
1493.0105
1499.8670
1506.7393
1513.6273

136.6593
136.9734
137.2876
137.6018
137.9159

1520.5308
1527.4503
1534.3853
1541.3360
1548.3035

138.2301
138.5443
138.8584
139.1726
139.4867

48.'0

.4

1555.2847
1563.2826
1569.2963
1576.3255
1583.3706

139.8009
140.1153
140.4293
140.7434
141.0575

.5

1590.4313
1597.5077
1604.5999
1611.7077
1618.8313

141.3717
141.6858
142.0000
142.3142
143.6283

49.0

1625.9705
1633.1255
1640.^962
1647.4826
1654.6847

142.9425
143.2566
143.5708
143.8849
144.1991

Clrcuiu.

CIRCLES

.1

?
.3
.4

.9

47.0
.1

.2

.5

1772.0546

.6

1779. .5237

.7

1787.0086
1794.5091
1803.0254

.8
.9

.1

.2
.3

.6
.7
.8

.9

.1

.2
.3

.4
.5
.6
.7

.8

.9

~^''^~~~

1809.5574
1817.1050
1824.6684
18.S2.2475

CIrcum.

.1
'.3

A
.6
.7

.8
.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6

.7
.8
.9

.1

2
!3
.4

.6
.7
.8

.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7

.8
.9

1(58.7035

169.017V
169.3318

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


TART.RS
DIaiQ.

Area.

54.0

8290.2210
2398.7112
2307.2171

Circum

OF ARFAS AND

56.0

2463.0086
2471.8130
2480.6330
2489.4687
2498.3201

175.9292
176.2433
1T6.5575
176.8717

60.0

2507.1873
2516.0701
2524.9687
2533.8830
2542.8129

177.5000
177.8141
178.1283
178.4425
178.7566
179.0708
179.3849
179 6991
180.0133
180.3274

61.0

.4

2551.7586
2560.7200
2569.6971
2578.6899
2587.6985

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

2596.7227
2605.7626
2614.8183
2623.8896
2632.9767

180.6416
180.9557
181.2699
181.5841
181.8983

.5
.6

57.0
.1

.2
.3

210.4867
210.8009
211.1150
211.4292
211.7433

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

3166.9217
3176.9043
3186.9023
3196.9161
3206.9456

199.4911
199.8053
200.1195
200.4336
200.7478

.5

188.4956
188.8097
189.1239
189.4380
189.7522

64.0

3216.9909
3227.0518
3237.1285
3247.2222
3257.3289

201.0620
201.3761
201.6903

68.0

2874.7536
2884.2648
2893.7917
2903.3343
2912.8936

190.0664
190.3805
190.6947
191.0088
191.3230

.5

2923.4666
2933.0563
2941.6617
2951.2828
2960.9197

191.6373
191.9513
192.3655
193.5796
193.8938

65.0

2970.5728
2980.2405
2989.9244
2999.6241
3009.3395

193.3079
193.5231
193.8363

2827.4334
2836 8660
2846.3144
2855.7784
2865.2583

.5
.6
.7
.8

.9

3536.1845
3546.7324
3557.2960
3567.8754

187.8672
188.1814

174.3584
174.6726
174.9867
175.3009
175.6150

.5

3535.6.524

.1

186.9248
187.3389

2419.2227
2427.9485
2436.6899
2445.4471
2454.2200

.6
.7
.8

197.9203
198.2345
198.5487
198.8628
199.1770

67.0

.2
.3
.4

3117.2453
3127.1493
3137.0688
3147.0040
3156.9550

2780.5058
2789.8599
2799.2297
2808.6152
2818.0165

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

177.18.i8

208.9159
209.2301

.9

3473.3270
3483.6807
3494.1500
3504.6351
3515.1359

63.0

.2
.3
.4

.5
.6
.7
.8

185.3540
185.6681
185.9833
186.2964
186.6106

59.0

.2
.3

196.3495
196.6637
196.9779
197.2930
197.6062

2733.9710
2743.2466
2753.5H78
2761.8448
2771.1675

172.7876
173.1017
173.4159
173.7301
174.0443

.1

3067.9616
3077.7869
3087.6279
3097.4847
3107.3571

183.7832
184.0973
184.4115
184.7256
185.0398

2375.8294
2384.4767
2393.1396
2401.8183
2410.5126

.1

207.3451
207.6593
207.9734
208.2876
208.6017

2687.8289
2697.0259
2706.3386
2715.4670
2724.7112

171.2168
171.5cl0
171.8451
J72.1593
172.4735

55.0

3421.1944
3431.5695
3441.9603
3452.3669
3463.7891

.5

2332.8289
2341.3976
2349.9820
2258.5821
2367.1979

.8

66.0

3019.0705
3028.8173
3038.5798
3048.3580
3058.1520

182.2134
182.5265
182.8407
183.1549
183.4690

.5
.6
.7
.9

194.7787
195.0929
195.4071
195.7212
196.0354

62.0

2642.0794
2651.19T9
2660.3331
2669.4820
2878.6476

2324.2759

2iJ15.7386

Area.

58.0
.1

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7
.8

.9

.1

.2
.3

.4

.9

.1

.2
.3
.4
.5

.6

.7

.8
.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.7
.8
.9

CIRCTP.S- Continued.
Dlam.

Area.

Area.

.4

.1
.2
.3

OF

DIain.

DIam.

169.6460
169.9603
170.2743
170.5885
170.9026

CTR.aiMFF.RF.NCF.S

467

CIrcuin.

18,7.5531

191.1.504

194,4646

.1

.2
.3
.4
.5

.6
,7
.8
.9

.1

.1

.8
.3
.4

circum.

.1

.2
.3
.4

.3
!3
.4

.6
.7
.8
.9

202.3186

.4

213.3717
212 6858
213.0000
213.3141

214.2.J66

314.5708
214.88-19

.5

3685.2845

.6

3696.0.-)23

.7
.8

3706.8359
3717.6351
3728.4500

215.1991
215.5133
215.8274
216.1416
216.4556

3739.2807
3750.1270
3760.9891
3771.8668
3782.7603

216.7699
217.0841
217.3982
217.7124
218.0365

3793.6695
3804.5944
3815.5350
3826.4913
3837.4633

218.3407
218.6548
218.9690
219.2832
219.5973

204.2035
204.5176
204.8318
205.1460
205.4602

69.0

.2
.3
.4

3318.3073
3328.5353
3338.7590
3349.0085
3359.3736

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

3369.5545
3379.8510
3390.1633
3400.4913
3410.8350

205.7743
206.0885
206.4026
306.7168
307.0310

.5

.1

213.628S
213.9425

202.00'44

202.6327
202.9469
203.2610
203.5752
203.8894

.9

209.8584
210.1725

212.0.575

.2
.3

3267.4527
3277.5922
3287.7474
3297.9183
3308.1049

.6
.7
.8

209..5443

3578.4704
3589.0811
3599.7075
3610.3497
3621.0075
3631.6811
3642.3704
3653.0754
3663.7960
3674.5324

.1

circum.

.9

.1

.3

,3
.4

.6

.7
.8

.9

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

468

TABLES OF AREAS
Dfain.

Area.

70.0

3848,4510

.1

3tf59.4544

.3
.3

CIrcuin.

Diflm.

284.0487
234.3638
234.6770
284.9911
285.3053

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

4889.8189
4852.1584
4864.5128
4876.8838
4889.2685

346.6150
346.9293
247.2433
247.5575
247.8717

.5
.6

4417.8647
4439.6585
4441.4580
4453.2783
4465.1142

235.6194
235.9336
236.3478
236.5619
236.8761

79.0

4901.6699
4914.0871
4936.5199
4938.9685
4951.4338

248.1858
248.5000
248.8141
349.12^3
249.4425

83.0

4476 9659
4488.8332
4500.7163
4513.6151
4524.5296

337.1903
387.5044
337.8186
238.1327
288.4469

.5
.6

4963.9137
4976.4084
4988.9198
5001.4469
5018.9897

4536.459S
4548.4057
4560.3673
4572.3446
4584.3i77

238.7610
339.0752
339.3894

4596.3464
4608.8708
4620.4110
4632.4669
4344.5384

340.3318
240.6460
240.9602
241.2743

241.9036
242.2168
242.5310
342.H451
343.1592

81.0

.4

4656.6357
4668.7287
4680.8474
4692.9818
4705.1319

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

4717.2977
4729.4793
4741.6765
4753.8894
4766.1181

343.4734
343.7876
344.1017
344.4159
344.7301

.5

331.4833
321.7964
332.1106
322.4248
232.7389

.5

71.0

333.0531
223.3672
233.6814
233.9956
334.8097

75.0

3959.1921
3970.3526
3981.5239
3992.7308
4003.9384

.5
.6
.7
,8
.9

4015.1518
4036.3908
4037.6456
4048.9160
4060.3023

224.6239
334.9880
255.3522

.5

225..5664

.8

225.8805

.9

73.0

4071.5041
4083.8317
4094.1550
4105.5040
4116.8687

226.1947
326.5088
336.8330
327.1371
327.4513

76.0

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

4138.3491
4139.6452
4151.0571
4163.4846
4173.9379

327.7655
238.0796
228.3938
238.7079
229.0221

.5

73.0

4185.3868
4196.8615
4208.3519
4319.8579
4231.3797

229.3363
329.6504
339.9646
330.2787
330.5939

77.0

4243.9173
4354.4704
4366.0394
4277.6340
4389.2343

230.9071
231.3212
381.5854
331.8395
232.1637

.3
.8
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

82.0

Dlain.

4359.1563
4870.8664
43S3.5924
4394.3341
4406.0916

3903.6353
8914.7073
8935,8049
3936.9183
3948.0473

.1

245.0442
245.8584
245.6725
245 9867
246.3009

CIrcum.

.2
.3
.4

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

.3
.3
.4

Area.

4778.8624
4790.6335
4803.8983
4815.1897
4837.4969

.1

DIani.

78.0

3870.4786
3881.5084
3893.5590

.8
.3

Circuin.

232.4779
283.7920
233.1063
233.4203
238.7345

74.0

.1

Arcji.

CIRCLESContinued.

4800.8408
4312.4721
43a4.1195
4335.7827
4847.4616

319.9115
220.3256
230.5398
220.8540
331.1681

'

AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF

.1

.3
.3
.4

.6
.7
.8
.9

.1

.2
.3
.4

.6
.7

.1

.3

.8
.4

.6
.7
.8
.9

.1

.2

.3

3:i9.7035

340.0177

3415885

.1

.1

.2
.3
.4

.7
.8
.9

80.0
.1

.3
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7

.8
.9

.1

.3
.3

.4

.6

.7
.8
.9

Area.

CIreum.

5281.0173
6393.9056
5306.8097
5319.7295
5382.6650

257.6106
257.9247
258.2389
358.5531
358.867a

5845.6163
5858.5832
5871.5658
5384.5641
5397.5782

359.1814
259.4956
359.8097
260.123?
260.4880

.2
.3
.4

5410.6079
5423.6584
5486.7146
5449.7915
5462.8840

260.7522
361.0665
261.3805
361.6947
262.0088

249.7566
350 0708
250.3850
250.6991
251.0138

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

5475.9928
5489.1168
5502.2561
5515.4115
5528.5826

262.3230
262.6371
262.9513
263.2655
263.5796

5036.5482
5039.1335
5051.7134
5064.3180
5076.9894

251.3274
251.6416
251.9557
252.2899
252.5840

84.0

5541.7694
5554.9720
5568.1902
5581.4342
5594.6739

263.8938
264.3079
364.5221
264.8863
265.1514

5089.5764
5102.3292
5114 8977
5127.5819
5140.2818

252.8983
353.3134
358.5265
253.8407
354.1548

5607.9392
5621.2203
5634.5171
5647.8296
5661.1578

265.4646
265.7787
266.0939
266.4071
266.7212

5153.9973
5165.7287
5178.4757
5191.3384
5304.0168

254.4690

85.0

3.i4.7833

.1

355.0973
255.4115
255.7256

.3

5674.5017
5687.8614
5701.3367
5714.6277
5728.0345

267.0354
267.3495
267.6637
267.9779
268.2930

256.0398
256.3540
256.6681
256.9823
257.2966

.5
.6
.7
.8

5741.4569
5754.8951
5768.8490
5781.8185
5795.3038

268.6062
268.9203
269.2345
269.5486
269.8628

5316.8110
5339.6208
5343.4463
5255.3876
.5368.1446

.1

.3
.3
.4

.7
.8
.9

.1

.1

.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7

.8
.9

.3
.4

.9

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.


TABLES OF AREAS
lain.

Area.

86.0

6808.8048
5822.8315
5835.8539
5849.4020
5863.9659

.1
.2

.3
.4

AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF

Diam.

Area.

270.2770

90.0

6361.7351

270.49U

.1

637.5.8701

^2

6390.0309
6404.3073
6418.3995

Clrcuni.

370.8053
271.1194
271.4336

'.3

.4

CIrcum.

282.7433
283.0575
283.3717
283.6858
284.0000

5876.5454
5890.1407
5903.7516
5917.3783
5931.0206

271.7478
272.0619
272.3761
272.6902
273.0044

.5
.6
.7
.8

.9

6433.6073
6446.8309
6461.0701
6475.3351
6489.5958

284.3141
284.6283
284.9425
285.2566
285.5708

'Area.

295.3097
295.6239
295.9380
296.2522
296.5663

97.0

7389.8113
7405.0559
7420.3162
7435.5922
7450.8839

304.7345
305.0486
305.3628
305.6770
305 9911

7013.8019
7028.6538
7043.5214
7058.4047
7073.3033

296.8805
297.1947
297.5088
297.8230
298.1371

.5

306.3053
306.6194
306.9336
307.3478
307.5619

.2

7088.2184
7103.1488
7118.1950

.3

7133.0.568

.4

7148.0343

.5
.6
.7

7163.0276
7178.0366
7193.0612
7208.1016
7223.1577

'301.2787

.9

7238.2295
7253.3170
7268.4202
7283.5391
7298.6737

801.5929
301.9071
302.2313
302.5354
302.8405

99.0

7313.8240
7328.9901
7344.1718
7359.3693
7374.5824

803.1637
303.4779
303.7920
304.1062
304.4203

Area.

94.0

6939.7783
6954.5515
6969.3106
6984.1453
6998.9658

.1
.2

.3

.5
.6
.7
.8

.9

87.0
.1
.2

.3

A
.5
.6
.7

.8

.9

88.0
.1

.2
.3
.4

.3

6503.8833
6518.1843
6532.5021

.3
.4

6561.1848

.5

657.5.5408

.6
.7

6589.9304
6604 3268
6618.7388
6633.1666

5944.6787
5958.3525
5973.0430
5985.7473
5999.4681

273.3186
273.6337
273.9469
274.2610
274.5753

91.0

6013.2047
6036.9570
6040 7250
6054.5088
6068.3082

274.8894
275.2035
275.5177
275.8318
276.1460

6083.1384
6095.9543
6109.8008
6133.6631
6137.5411

276.4602
276.7743
277.0885
277.4026
277.7168

.1

.8
.9

93.0
.1

.3
.3

.4

6.546.8356

6647.6101
6662.0692
6676.5441

66910347
6705.5410

285.8849
286.1991
286.5133
286.8274
287.1416

287.4557
287.7699
288.0840
288.3983
288.7124
289.0265
289.3407
289.6548
289.9690
290.2882

95.0
.1

.8
.9

96.0
.1

.2
.3

.5
.6
.7

.8
.9

6151.4318
6165.3443
6179.3693
6193.2101
6307.1666

278.0309
278.3451
278.6563
278.9740
279.2876

.5
.6
.7

.8
.9

6720.0630
6734.6008
6749.1542
6763.7233
6778.3083

290.5973
390.9115
391.3256
391.5398
291.8540

.4
.5
.6
.7

.8

89.0
.1

.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7

.b

.9

6331.1389
6335.1268
6249 1304
6363.1498
6377.1849

279 6017
279.9159

93.0

280.2301

.2

280 5442
280.8584

.4

6291.3356
6305.3031
6319.3843
6333.4822
6347.5958

281.1725
281.4867
281.8009
282.1150
282.4292

.1

.3

.5
.6
.7

.8
.9

6792.9087
6807.5250
0822.1569
6836.8046
6851.4680

393.1681
393.4833
393.7964
393.1106
293.4348

6866.1471
6880.8419
6895.5524
6910.2786
6935.0205

293.7389
294.0531
294.3673
294.6814
294.9956

CIRCLESContinued.
DIam.

Dlain.

.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9

469

.9

Clrcuin.

.1

.2
.3

.4

Clrcimi.

.7

7466.1913
7481.5144
7496.8532

.8

7.521.2078

.9

7527.5780

298.4513
298.7655
299.0796
299.3938
299.7079

98.0

7542.9640
7558.3656
7573.7830

.4

7604.6648

307.8761
308.1903
308.5044
308.8186
309.1327

300.0221
800.3363
300.6504
300.9646

.5

7620.1293
7635.6095
7651.1054
7666.6170
7682.1444

309.4469
809.7610
310.0752
310.3894
310.7035

7697.6893
7713.2461
7728.8206
7744.4107
7760.0166

311.0177
311.3318
311.6460
311.9602
312.2743

.9

7775.6383
7791.2754
7806.9284
7823.5971
7838.2815

312.5885
312.9026
313.2168
313.5309
313.8451

100.0

7853.9816

314.1593

.6

.1

.2
.3

.6
.7
.8

.1

.2
.3
.4
.5

.6
.7
.8

75892161

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

470

DESIGN.

ROMAN

CIRCULAR MEASURE.
60 seconds (") make
"
60 minutes
"
360 degrees

The

I.

minute
degree

circum. (C).

(').

().

supposed to be divided into 360 equal

parts, called

of the circumference of

is -3^^

any

circle,

small or large.

quadrant

is

III.

'

a fourth of a circumference, or an

VII.
VIII.
IX.

Three.
Four.

'

Five.

'

Six.

Seven.
Eight.
Nine.
Ten.

' '

'

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

'

XIV.

'

'

XL.

'

Twenty.
Thirty.
Forty.

L.

Fifty.

LX.

'

Sixty.

LXX.

'

LXXX.

'

Seventy.
Eighty.
Nfnety-

XC.

'

Twelve.

C.

Thirteen.
Fourteen.

D.

'

'

Fifteen.

X.

Sixteen.

M.

One hundred.

'

M.

'

A degree is divided into 60 parts called minutes,


expressed by the sign ('), and each minute is divided
into 60 seconds, expressed by (") so that the circum-

'

'

XX.

Eleven'.

'

denotes Seventeen.
Eighteen.
Nineteen.

XXX.

'

'

XV.
XVI.

arc of 90 degrees.

Two.

'

V.
VI.

is

degrees.

A degree

'

IV.

circumference of every circle whatever,

XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.

den otes One.

II.

TABLE.

'

Five hundred.

'

One thousand

'

Ten thousand

'

One

million.

GREEK ALPHABET.

ference of any circle contains 21,600

minutes, or

1,296,000 seconds.

=
=
3 feet
55^ yards =
The

foot.

=
furlongs =
=
miles

40 rods

yard.
rod.

8
3

i
I

mile.

league.

mile (5,280 feet) of the above table is the


United States and England, and is

legal mile of the

called the statute mile.

i^

iota

kappa
lambda

2
T

rho

tau

11

mu

T
V

delta

upsilon

epsilon

nu

4>

<!>

phi

zeta

xi

cbi

^
Q

eta

furlong.

common

gamma

r y
A S
E

alpha

K
A

B ^

LONG MEASURE- -MEASURES OF LENGTH.


12 inches

Note.

beta

theta

The

arbitrary signs,

TT

letters of the

and the

(T

omicron

'P

pi

fl

b)

sigma

psi
.

omega

Greek alphabet are used sometimes

letter

tt

(pi)

is

as

used almost universally to

represent the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of the circle.

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

SQUARES, CUBES AND ROOTS.

TABLES

Number.

Of Squares and Cubes, and Square and Cube Roots


numbers from

side of an inscribed

Or
Or

To nd

multiply circumference

0.2251.

divide

"

4.4428.

"

side of an equal square

Multiply diameter

Or
Or
Or

by 0.8862.

divide

"

multiply circumference

"

0.2821.

divide

"

3.545-

1. 1

side multiplied

A
its

circumscribing

A
A

1.0

1.0

9
16

27
64
125

1.414213
1.732050
2.0
2.236068

1.25992
1.44225
1.58740
1.70997

25

by 1.4142 equals diameter

of

its

by 4.443 equals circumference

of

by 1.128 equals diameter

of an

circle.

side multiplied by 3.544 equals circumference

216
343
512
729

2.449489
2.645751

1.81712
1.91293

2828427

2.0

3.0

1000

3.162277

2.08008
2.15443

3.316624
3.464101
3.6055.M
3.741657
3.872983

2.22398
2.28942
2.35133
2.41014
2.46621

4.0

2.51984
2.57128
2.62074
2.66840
2.71441

36
49
64

10

81
100

11
12
13
14
15

121

1331

144
169
196
225

1728
2197
2744
3375

256
289
324
361
400

4096
4913
5832
6859
8000

441
484
529
576
625

9261
10648
12167
13824
15625

676
729
784

.5.196152

3.0

841
900

17576
19683
21952
24389
27000

5.291502
5.385164
5.477225

3.03658
3.07231
3.10723

961
1024
1089
1156
1225

29791
32768
35937
39304
42875

5.567764
5.656854
5.744563
5.830951
5.916079

3.14138
3.17480
3.20753
3.23961
3.27106

1298
1369
1444
1621
1600

46656
50653
54872
59319
64000

6.0

3.30192
3.33333
3.36197
3,39121
3.41995

21

circle.

side multiplied

equal

20

circle.

side multiplied

16
17
18
19

264.

Square
circumscribing

Cube Root.

by 0.7071.
"

Square Root.

6
7

square-

Multiply diameter

Cube.

2
8

4
5

RULES.

To And

Square.

of

(See opposite column.)

to 200.

471

22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
81

32
33
34
35

4.123105
4.242640
4.358898
4.472136
4.582575
4.690415
4.795831
4.898979
5.0

2.75892
2.80203
2.84386
2.88449
2.92401

5.099019

2.962i9

of an equal circle.

side multiplied

an equal

circle.

by 1.273 equals

circle inches of

36
37

38
39
40

6.082763
6.164414
6.244998
6.324555

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

473

TABLES OF SQUARES, CUBES


Nuirflier.

41

42
43
44
45

Square

Cube Root.

AND ROOTS--Continoed.

Square.

Cube.

1681
1764
1849
1936
2025

68921
74088
79507
85184
91125

6.403134
6.480740
6.557438
6.6J3349
6.708303

3.44821
3.47603
3.50339
3 53034
3.55689

81

86
87

lioot.

Number.

83
83
84
85

Square.

Cube.

Square Uoot.

Cube Boot.

9.0

7235

531441
551368
571787
592704
614125

9.055385
9.110438
9.165151
9.218544

4.33674
4.34448
4.36207
4.37951
4.39683

7396
7569
7744
7921
8100

636056
658503
681472
704969
729000

9.273618
9.327379
9.380831
9.433981
9.486833

4.41400
4.43104
4.44796
4.46474
4.48140

8381
8464
8649
8836
9025

753571
778688
804357
830584
857375

9.539392
9.591663
9.643650
9.695359
9.746794

4.49794
4.51435
4.53065
4.54683
4.56290

9316
9409
9604
9801
10000

884736
913673
941193
070399
1000000

9.797959
9.848S57
9.899494
9.949874

4.57785
4.59470
4.61043
4.62606
4.64158

10.049875
10.099504
10.148891
10.198039

10246950

4.65701
4.67233
4.68754
4.70266
4.71769

6561
6734
6889
70.56

46
47
48
49
50

2116
2209
2304
2401
2500

97336
103823
110592
117649
125000

6.783330
6.855654
6.938303
7.071067

3.58304
3.60882
3.63424
3.65930
3.68403

51

132651
14060W
148877
157464
166375

7.141428
7.311102
7.280109
7.348469
7.416198

3.70843
3.73251
3.75628
3.77976
3.80295

91

55

2601
2704
3809
2916
3025

56
57
58
59
60

3136
3349
3364
3481
3600

175616
185193
195112
205379
216000

7.483314
7.549834
7.615773
7.681145
7.745966

3.82586
3.84850
3.87087
3.89299
3.91486

96
97
98
99
100

61
62
63
64
65

8T21

7.810249
7.874007
7.937253
8.063357

3.93649
3.95789
3.97905
4.0
4.02072

101

3844
3989
4096
4225

226981
238328
250047
263144
274625

103
103
104
105

10201
10404
10609
10816
11025

1030301
1061308
1093737
1124864
1157625

66
67
68
69
70

4356
4489
4624
4761
4900

287496
300763
314432
328509
343000

8.124038
8.185352
8.216211
8.306623
8.366600

4.04124
4.06154
4.08165
4.10156
4.12128

106
107
108
109
110

11236
11449
11664
11881
13100

1191016
1225043
1259712
1295029
1331000

10.295630
10.344080
10.392304
10.440306
10.488088

4.73263
4.74745
4.76230
4.77685
4.79143

71

5041
5184
5329
5476
5635

357911
373248
389017
405224
421875

8.436149
8.485281
8.544003
8.603335
8.660354

4.14081
4.16016
4.17933
4.19833
4.21V16

111
112
113
114
115

12321

1367631
1404928
1443897
1481544
1520875

10.535653
10.583005
10.630145
10.677078
10.723805

4 80589

73
78
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

5776
5939
6084
6241
6400

438976
456533
474552
493039
512000

8.717797
8.774964
8.831760
8.888194
8.944271

4.23582
4.25432
4.27265
4.29084
4.30887

116
117
118
119
120

1560896
1601613
1643032
1685159
1728000

10.770329
10.816653
10.862780
10.90871
10.954451

4.87699
4.89097
4.94086
4.91868
4.93242

53
53
54

7.0

8.0

88
89
90

93
93
94
95

12.544

12769
13996
13;'35
134.56

13689
13924
14161
14400

10.0

4.82028
4.83458
4.84880
4.86294

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

TA RT,RS OF

SQUARES, CUBES

473

AND ROOTSContinued.

Cul)e Root.

Nuinlifr.

Square.

Culie.

Square Root.

cube Root.

4.94608
4 95967
4.97319
4.98663

161

5.0

163
163
164
165

25921
26244
26569
26896
27225

4173281
4351538
4330747
4410944
4493125

12.688577
12.727922
12.767145
12.806348
12.845232

5.44012
5.45136
5.43255
5.47370
5.48480

5.01329
5.02653
5.03968
5.05377
5.06579

166
167
168
169
170

27556
27889
28224
28561
28900

4574296
4657463
4741632
4826809
4913000

13.884098
13.923848

13.038404

5.49586
5.50687
5.51784
5.53877
5.53965

11.445523
11.489125
11.532562
11.575836
11.618950

5.07875
5.09164
5.10446
5.11723
5.12992

171
172
173
174
175

29241
29584
29929
30276
p0625

5000211
5088448
5177717
5268024
5359375

13.076696
13.114877
13.153946
13.190906
12.238756

n.55049
6.56139
5.57305
5.58377
5.59344

2515456
2571358
2638072
2685619
2744000

11.661903
11.704699
11.747344
11.789826
11.832159

5.14256
5.15513
5.16764
5.18010
5.19349

176
177
178
179
180

80976
31329
31684
32041
33400

5451776
5545233
5639752
5735339
5833000

13.266499
13.304134
13.341664
13.379088
13.416407

5.60407
5.61467
5.62533
5.63574
5.64621

11.874342
11.916375
11.958260

144
145

2808221
2863288
2924207
2985984
8048625

12.041594

5.20482
5.21710
5.23932
5.24148
5.35358

181

20164
20449
20736
21025

182
183
184
185

32761
33124
33489
33856
34225

5939741
6038568
6138487
6339504
6331625

13.453634
13.490737
13.537749
13.564660
13 601470

5.65665
5.66705
5.67741
5.68773
5.69801

146
147
148
149
150

21316
21609
31904
22201
22500

3112136
3176528
8241792
3307949
3375000

12.083046
12.123455
12.165525
13.266S55
12.347448

5.36563
5.27763
5.38957
5.30145
5.31329

186
187
188
189
190

34596
34969
35344
35721
36100

6434856
6539303
6644672
6751269
6859000

13.638181
13.674794
13.711309
13.747727
13.784048

5.70826
5.71847
5.72865
5.73879
5.74889

151
152
153
154
155

22801
23104
23409
23716
24025

3442951
3511808
3581577
3653264
3733875

13.388305
13.338828
13.369316
12.409673
12.449899

5.33507
5.33680
5.34848
5.36010
5.37168

191
192

193
194
195

36481
36864
37249
37636
38035

6967871
7077888
7189057
7301384
7414875

13 820275
13.856406
13.892444
13.928388

13.964340

5.75896
5.76899
5.778&9
5.78896
5.79889

156
157
158
159
160

24336
24649
24964
35281
25600

3796416
3869893
3944312
4019679
4096000

12.489996
12.529964
13.569805
13.609520
12.649110

S.S8323
5.39469
5.40613
5.41750
5.42883

196
197
198
199
200

38416
38809
39304
39601

7529536
7645373
7763392
7880599
8000000

14.0

5.80878

14.035668
14.071247
14.106736
14.142135

.5.81864

Square Hoot,

Nomber.

Square.

Cube.

121
122
123
124
125

14641
14884
15129
15376
15625

1771561
1815848
1860867
1906634
1S53125

11.045361
11.090536
11.135528
11.180339

1S6
127
128
129
130

15S76
16129
16384
16641
16900

2000376
2048383
2097152
2146689
2197000

11.224972
11.269427
11.313708
11.357816
11.401754

131
132

17161
17424
17689
17956
18225

2348091
2399968
2352637
2406104
2460375

18496
18769
19044

133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143

19321

19600
19881

11.0

13.0

4on(>n

1'3.961481

13.0

5.82847
5.83827
5.84803

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

474

UNITED STATES STANDARD SIZES OF


iDteroal

Inside

External
circum-

Diameter.

ference.

fereocj.

Inside

Actual

Thick-

Actual

ness.

Dom.

outelde
Diameter.

.405
.54
.675
- .840
1.050
1.315

1
i

t
4
\
1

H
\h

1.660
1.90
2.375
2.875
3.50
4.0
4.60
5.0
5.563
6.625
7.625
8.625
9.688
10.750

2'
2J
3
3i
4

41

6
7

8
9
10

.068
.088
.091

.109
.113
.134
.140
.145
.154
.204
.217
.226
.237
.247
.259

.280
.301
.322
.344
.366

0.269
0.364
0.493
0,622
0.824

1.272
1.696
2-121
2.652
3.299

1.047

4.1,34

1.38
1,61

2.067
2.467
3.066
3.548
4.026
4.506
5.045
6.065
7.023
7.981
9.00
10,018

5,215
5.9G9
7.461
9.032
10.996
12,566
14.137
15.708
1-7.475

20.813
23.954
27.096
30.433
33.772

Thread taper three-fourths inch to one


All pipe belo vf lyi inches
to 500 pounds per s quare inch.

is

clrcdm-

0.848
1.144
1.552
1.957
2.589
3.292
4.335
5.061
6.494

7,754
9.636
11.146
12,648
14.153
15.849
19.054
22.063
25.076
28.277
31.475

WROUGHT IRON WELDED

Length of

Length of

pipe per

pipe per

square
foot of

square
loot of

outside
surface

Inside
surface.

9.440
7.075
5.657
4.502
3.G37
2.903
2.301
2.010
1.611
1.328
1.091
.955
.849

765
629
.577
.505
.444
.394
.355

14.15
10.50
7.67
6.13
4.635
3.679
2.768
2.371
1.848
1.547
1.245
1.077
0.949
0.848
0.757
0.630
0.544
0.478

a425
0.381

Lenmh
Biternal

Actual

area,

totoraal
area;

of
pipe con.
talniQg

per foot

one

or length.

cubic

.129
.229
.358
.554
.866
1.357

2.164
2.835
4.430
6.491
9.621
12.566
15.901
1,9.635

24.299
.34.471

45.663
58.426
73.716
90.762

We/ght

28.889
38.727
50.039
63-633
78.838

No. of
threads
per loch
of scrow.

Lengtb
perfect

screw

fj'-'t.

.0572 2500.
.1041
,1916
.3048
.5333
.8627
1.496
2.038
3.355
4.783
7.388
9.837
12.730
15.939
19,990

PIPE.

.243
.422
,561
.845

27

1.126
1.670
2.258
2.694
3.667
5.773
7.547
9.055
10.728
12.492
14,564
18.767
23.410
28.348
34.677

14

1385.

751.5
472.4
270,0
166.9
96.25
70.65
42.36
30.11
19.40
14.56
11.31
9.03
7.20

4.98
3.72
2.88
2.26
1.80

40.641'

>

18
18
14

lU
\n

0.54
0.55
0.58
0.89
0.95

11}

Hi
8
8
8
8
8.

8
8
8
8

8
8

0,19
0.29
0,30
0,39
0.40
0.51

1.00
1.05
1.10
1.16
1.26
1..36

1.46
1,57
1.68

foot.

butt-welded, and proved to 300 pou nds per

scluare

inch

i^i inch

and above

is

lap- welded

and proved

||

..

INDEX.
PAGE

Abbreviations and Conventional Signs


21-22
Acute Angle, def
29
Addendum Circle, desc. and illus
279-280
Advantages of Algebra
431
Corliss Valve Gear
390
Logarithms, desc
Algebra Advantages of

433
431

Elements of
Algebraic def. and example
Alphabet, Antique, desc. and illus.
Greek
Altitude of a Pyramid or Cone

430

A Triangle,

31
...

Aluminum, when discovered


Andrews, Pres't of Nebraska

307

Univer-

quotation

205

Angle, Acute, def

29

Designation of by three letters

29

Def
Obtuse and Oblique, def

Of Advance of Eccentric, desc


Angle, to divide into four parts, illus.
and rule
Of Screw Thread, desc. and illus.
To transfer, illus. and rule
To bisect an, illus. and rule. ...
Annular Gear, desc. and illus
.

discovered

Antique Alphabet,

Apex

of

desc.

an Angle, def

and

illus

Tangent and sine

To

322

an

of

find center of

Areas and Circumferences


Tables of
of, desc.

and

illus..

Core, desc

Pit of Boiler, illus.

Atom,

29
29

Axis of the Parabola, def

1S3

207
I2r

431

S5-S6

" Bath "

87

Battery

292

307
52
29

79-80
1S8

Baffle Plates, desc

234
92

350

for Blue Prints, Solution for.

of Boilers, desc

Beam

Compasses, illus
Bearing, illus
Bearing, Self-oiling, desc. and

Bearings

Forms

of, illus,

475

and

195

350
417
1

illus.

desc.

267

Fly-wheel,

3C3

illus,

365-366

317
221-226

220
Stresses Induced by, def
Bevel Gears
282
Desc. and illus
292-299
How to Construct, illus. and desc. 254-297

Bismuth, when discovered


Bipolar Dynamo, def

307

398

Bisect, an Angle, to

87

vStraight Line, to, illus

87

Black Process Copying


Blanking Die, illus. and desc
Block Letters and Numerals
Blocks, Pillow, desc. and illus
Blow=off Pipe, desc
Blue Priut, colored illustration
Blue Printing, desc

192-193

Printing, Test Pieces for

27

403-404
259-260

Bench Drill Press, desc. and illus


Bending Moments, examples of, def.

36

Dabbit, Sectioning of
How shown by colors

Crossed, illus
Details of

372

88

146

390
266-277

Horse Power of, rule and example


269-270
Rules, Forniuhe ami Examples
268-270
for Speed of

397
212

draw

399
400-401

336

def

364
308

461-467

and desc

Attraction, def
" Axis " used in Cabinet Projection.

to

Belts and Pulleys, desc

1S5

Assembled Drawings, def


Atmospheric Electricity, def

how

34

placed

vi'here

Plate,

Bell Crank, desc

312

" Arrow Heads,"

Ash

Bed

33

400

Disc, illus

Steam

Engine, desc
Of a Press, desc

of Circles,

Armature, desc
Construction

PAGE

" Bed "

97

Axiom, def
Axioms, def. and examples

27-29

Right, def

Antimony, when

31

38
212

" Apron " of Lathe, desc


Arc of a Circle, def

52

38

of Pyramid, def

Applied Mechanics, def

46S

def

Altitude of a Triangle, def

sity,

431
...

Apex

" Bath " for, Solution

Blue

Prints,

Mounting

of,

desc

308
54
263-264

339
202

189-192
1

91-192
195

195-196

....

...

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

476

DESIGN.

PAGE

Blue

make Drawings

from.
Blue, Prussian, for Water Colors
Boiler Bracket, illus. and desc
Prints, to

Cornish,

and desc.

illus.

Dome, Development

of, illus.

Fire Box, desc

Brackets Wall,

188

Brass, Sectioning

340-346

How shown

340-345
175-176
344
340-341

and desc
Furnace, illus. and desc

336-337

Galloway,

344-348

Flue,

illus.

illus

and desc
Locomotive, illus. and desc

344-346

Plain Cylindrical, illus

336-337

Lancashire,

illus.

341

Development

Slope Sheet,

of,

176-179

illus

Stays, illus.

and desc

340-346

Vertical, illus. desc

346-347

Water Tube, Dimensions of


Boilers and Engines, desc

a..

of, desc
Grate Surface of, desc
Heating Surface of, desc

Battery

314
80-81

Bridge Wall of Steam Boiler, illus.


and desc
336
" Bromide " Sensitized Paper
194
Bronze Age, Implements used in
307
Brushes, desc
399
Brush Holder Frame, desc. and illus. 403, 405
Reaction, desc. and illus
405-406
Burlingame, L. D., quotation from
address
Butt-joint, illus. and desc

196-197

size of

241

416

def

33

Concentric, def

34

Circumference of a

33

Chord

33

of a

Diameter of a

33

Illus. of

Segment

33

def

of,

33

Rules Relating to

4 1-465

Circles and their Properties

33

Eccentric, def

35

Sector

33
98

of,

def

To Draw through three points.


Circular Measure

'.,.

Velocity, def

Circumference of a

279-280

Circle, def

" Clearance"

how shown by

53
188
colors

1S8

214-215

Sectioning of

78-80

Factors of Safety-bar

Center

217

of a Circle, def

33
27

Line, def

Dead, of Steam Engine, desc.


Chain Riveting, desc. and illus
Changing Gears for Screw Cutting

Chapman, Jno. G. Quotation


Check Nut, desc. and illus
Chimney, desc
Chord of a Circle, def. and illus
Chrome Yellow " for Water Color.
'

'

Cleveland Twist Drill Table of Drill


Speed
Co-abbreviation of Complement,

33
207

Of Safety, def
Cohesion, def
Coloring Drawings

207
18S

210

Combination Die, illus


Combustion, Products of
Commercial Rating of Engines
Commutator, desc

322

Beam, illus
Composition for Brasses, desc
Compound Winding, desc

240

33
188

314

Coefficient, def

Commutator, desc. and

336

33
215

396
308

of Die.

364
250

468
211

Pitch Circle of a Gear

Classification of Machines, desc

423

Cast Iron, desc

336
240

379

a,

249

121-122

Castings,

237

PAGE
Circle, Arc of

Of Electricity

336

423
416
illus..

265
263, 264

of, illus

336

241

Border Lines, when to be used


Bore Dividers, illus
Pen and Pencil, desc. and

Brick, Sectioning

Capital Letters, use of


Carmine for Water Color

346

188

122-127

Weakest Part

Cylinder Head
Table of Tensile Strength of

Desc. and illus


Problems in
" Cap " Drawing Paper,

241

of, for

colors.

350

Stud, desc. and illus

Number

by

Brasses, Compositions for


For Pillow Blocks
Drill Speed for

230

of

79-80

of, illus

113

347-348

262

illus

C^abinet Projection, def

354-356

and

335

336

Steam, desc
Water Tube, desc. and illus
Water Line of, desc
Bolt-head, Square, desc. and illus.
Proportions of, desc. and illus.
Bolt-sheets, desc
Bolts, Stay, illus. and desc

desc.

350-355

336

Horse Power of, desc


Steam Space of, desc

PAGE

196

.340, 341, 347

Cylindrical Tubular.

Compasses,

desc.

Compressive
Concave, def
Concentric

and

313
346, 347

367

399
401-402

illus

414-415

illus

Strain, def

Circles, def

417
264
406-407
.

217

33

34

INDEX.
Cone, def and
.

PAGE
38

illus

Pulleys, desc.

and

illus

ConicaUhead
desc.

Construction

37, 160, 161

Rivet,

and

How

Draw,

to

illus

244

Line, def

27

Materials for, def

Of Armature, desc. and


Of Commutator
Contents, Table of

illus.

400-401

21

Double, def
Copper, Factor of Safety for
of

33
217

in Colors

18S

Work

xii

Corliss Engine, Fishkill Landing, desc.

and

Valves, desc

Valve Gear, illus


Releasing Gear, illus
Cornish Boiler, illus. and desc.
Corollary, def
Co-sine, Abbreviation of
Of an Arc, illus

Cotangent

Rivet,

243, 244

396
27

desc.

and

illus

illus.

Rack def

To Draw by Isometric

384-385

Development of

tersection, desc.

to

and

379
169-172

Draw by Orthographic

Projection

156-159

Cylindrical Boiler, plain

336-337

Tubular Boiler, desc. and illus. 340, 345


Ring, How to Draw by Ortho.

graphic Projection

370

Damper, Chimney,
Dash

Pot, Corliss

desc

Circle of

Gear Wheel.

Dedication by Author
Definitions and Terms

vii

Algebraic
Definitions and General Considerations Relating to Machine De-

144

336
390

43

207-2 1

Paper, Size of ...

Design, Machine

Designing

458
279, 280

27-40

Steam

Boiler, desc

of a Boiler

A Four-part
A Tee Pipe

Elbow,

Dome,

423
213
205-206

350

Machines, six points in


Detailed Drawings, def

307
183
illus..

illus

175-176
172-175
165-169

Of the Slope Sheet of a Locomotive Boiler, illus

Right Elbow
Surfaces, def

and desc
Surfaces, problems in
Diagonal, def
Surfaces, illus.

Their Inillus

" Dedendum "

Development

Projec-

32
457

Equivalents of Millimeters and


Fractions

sign

285-293

429
364

" Demy " Drawing


" Density," def

37
362

Thickness of

desc

Decagon, def
Decimal Equivalents, Table of

2S5-286

tion, illus
H6-11S
To Draw a, by Cabinet Projection 123-125
With Square Flange, How to
Draw
145
Walls, etc
of Steam Engine,

Cylinders

Data and Rules, useful


"Dead Center" of Steam Engine,

420-422

292

Cylinder, def. and illus


Of a Steam Engine, desc
Of Corliss Engine, illus

249

382

Draw

to

Cycloid, The, def. and illus


Cycloidal Gear Teeth, def. and

244

desc, 390
388

How

Electricity, def

How
127

37
122

Curved Line, def


Curves and Sweeps,

33

127,

and def
To Draw a, by a Cabinet Projec-

Current

34

Stroke of

388

illus.

Cup-head

85

33

tion

.340, 341, 347

of a Circle, illus

Pin Dimensions of
Shaft of Steam Engine

Cube,

388

Pin

383-390
386-387

Countersunk-rivet, How to Draw,


desc. and illus
Coupling, Flange, illus
Cover Plate Joint, illus. and desc
Cranic, Rule for Finding Length of
Bell, illus

388-390

illus

119

To Draw by Cabinet Projection.


125
Crosshead, desc
389
Guides of the Steam Engine.
362-364
Of Steam Engine, desc. and illus.
382

xix

Table of

Copyright

tion

401-402

Conventional Method of Showing


Square Headed Screws, illus.
241
Signs for Drawing Threads
235-237
Convex, def
33

How Shown

PAGE

214-215

.-

477

Crauk, To Draw by Isometric Projec-

275, 277

Conic Sections, def

Stays, desc

Diagram,

Indicator, desc. and illus. 375,


Of Dimensions of Horizontal En-

gines

Way

Read Drawings
Zenner's, illus. and desc
Diameter of a Circle, illus
Of Journals, example
Of

to

176-179
162-164
113

162-179
162-179
32

340
376, 378

369
190
377

33
258

...

..

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

478

PAGE

Diameter

of Screw, desc

" Diametral Pitch,"

233
280

def

Die, Blanking, desc. and illus

Disc, Cutting, desc. and


Male and Female, desc

Dies and Presses,

illus.

and illus
Blanking, illus. and desc
Drawing, desc. and illus.
Gang of, desc. and illus
Punches, Groups of
Dimension Line, def

308

How

Marking

308

" Dimensions "

313

.310, 312-313

Lines

Written

Drawings
Of Drawings
Of Horizontal Steam Engines
Of Pulleys
Dimensions of Steam Boilers

415
23

416

32,40

Draft, Split, desc

To Scale, Instructions for


With Relation to Shop Work.

desc.

422-423
416-417
413
424-425
196-198

and

illus. ...

Speeds Table of
Driving Pulleys, desc
Ductility, def

Dynamic

Electricity, def

Dynamics, def

Dynamo Bipolar,
Electric,

def

Machinery, desc

Illus

of

word

Circles, def.

and

illus

Desc. 370, illus

Eccentric, Rule for Finding Length of


Stroke of
Strap and Rod, desc. and
Eccentricity, Radius of, def

" Efficiency," def


Of Electric Motor, desc
" Effort," def

" Elasticity,"
Modulus

def
of,

def

illus.

397, 398

393

Ellipse, def

36, 160

Drawing

an, illus

38, 106, 107

Produced by Cutting Cone


E.

M.

F. Abbreviation, def.

Energy, def

for, illus.

398

Fishkill

393

Lathe, desc
Left-hand, desc. and illus
Main Shaft of a Steam

207

207
209, 217, 218

and

of, illus

illus

399

397
207

363-364

Cylinder

Cylinder of Corliss,

35
207

desc

397
212

370

160

.Xt-.,.

:..,..

Engine, Belt Fly Wheel

illus

370, 374

399
399
391-407

396-398

Valve Gear,

370, 373

172-175

Def
Electro-motive Force, def

Corliss

35

illus.

Electricity, Classification of

207-213

398

162-164

Electric Motor, The, desc


Motor, EiEciency of, desc
Electrical Machines, desc. and illus.

Corliss

398
398-399

Electric, desc

PAGE

Elbow, Development of a Right


Development of Four Part,

314
266

398

Multipolar, def

Eccentric

317

394, 395

Meaning

Unipolar, def

25-81

Good ones Necessary

Bench,

Drill Press

341

228-230

Pen, illus
Tools,

Drawing-board, illus
Class, Eugene C. Peck's method
of Conducting, Note
413
Dies, desc. and illus
310, 312-313

The

411-426
^

189-190
4o-4i

230

Drafting-room as an Interpreter to
the Shop
197
Drawing a Cup-Head Rivet
243-244
A Hexagonal-nut, desc. and illus. 237-239
Helix
Instruments
Linear, Subject of
Paper

196

Tracing of

85-1 10

36
400

Bow, illus
Dodecagon, def
Double Threaded Screw, desc

Prints

417-418
314-317

352-354

Division, sign of

To Make from Blue

Ink
Drilling Machines

369
272-273

Directrix, def

184

Geometrical

184-187

Disc Armature, note


Dividers, desc. and illus

of

27

185

184-187

of

85- '.86

on

188

Dimensioning

308
.

Coloring of

308
308
3o8-3>5

desc.

Drawings, Working, General Subject. 181-199

384
383
3S4-385

Cylinder of Steam, desc

Landing

362

Corliss, desc

Note, Relating to Position of


Reciprocating Steam, desc

Right-hand, desc. and


Rotary Steam, desc

...

388
321-322
367
362

368

362

illus

367
362

Engines and Boilers, desc


Commercial Rating of
Engines, Multi-cylinder Steam, desc.
Newcomen, desc
Overrunning, illus. and desc.
Right and Left Hand, illus
.

335

367
.

366, 367

335
367, 36S

Steam, desc
Table of Dimensions of Horizontal Steam Engines
The Fire and Heat, desc
Underruning, illus. and desc.
367,
.

367
362

369
335
368

'

INDEX

479

PAGE

Engines, Vertical, desc

Envelope

368, illus. 371

of a Solid, def

Epicycloid, def. and


Equality, sign of

37
2S6, 287

illus

25

Equation, def

431

Equilateral Triangle, def


To Construct
Erasing, How Best Done

30

92-93
189

Evaporation, Equivalent
Of Steam Boilers

355, 356
350, 352

Tensile Strength, illus

Example

for Figuring

219

Engine Horse

Power

37S

Exercises in Geometrical Drawing.

...

" pace" of Gear-tooth, desc. and illus.


Factor, def

113

208

Shaft of Lathe, desc. and illus.


Field Magnet, desc
Fifteen Degree Lines, illus. and desc.
Figures, Straight-sided, defs

How to Draw
With Bolts, How to Draw

45

30

Cylinder,

and

Floor Stands or Pedestals, desc


Flue Boiler, illus. and de.sc
Fly Wheels, desc. and illus
Rim Speed of
Foci of an Ellipse, def

Focus

of the Parabola, def

336
322
399

"Finished," def
Fire=box Boiler, desc
Tubes, illus. and desc
Flange Coupling, illus

of Gear-tooth, illus.

279, 280

207
210

Of Safety, def
False Perspective, def
Fatigue of Metals, def
Feed-pipe, desc

" Flank"

87

PAGE
46S

Foot, def
Sign for
Force, def

132

207

Electro-motive, def

Moment
Formula

of,

397-398
220

def

256-25S

gine

For Figuring H. P. of Steam


Engine
Lathe Gear Changes
Size of Connecting Rod
Thickness of Steam Engine Piston

376
326
388
3S1

Prof. Unwin's, for Pulleys

To Find the Pressure


Head on Guide

of

273

Cross
382

Formulae for Belt Speeds


26S
For Screw Cutting in Lathe. 326, 32S-329
Reading of
431-432
Forty-five Degree Line, illus. and
desc

45

Foundations for Steam Engine


Four Part Elbow, Development of, illus.
Fractions, How Placed in Dimension
Lines

364
72- 1 75

Function of Slide Valve, desc


Furlong, def
Furnace, Boiler, illus. and desc

33^-337

(jalloway

344-348

397
368

468

Boiler, illus.

Gamboge for Water


Gang Die, illus. and

36

Gas and Vapor,

36

Gaseous

and desc

Color

188

308-312

desc

Difference Between.

Bodies, Mechanics of

Spur, def

282

Worm

298,

Def

How

to

" Gelatine "

Draw

2S2

194

Four Pole, desc

The

300-302
230

Sensitized Paper

Generator

399
398-399
85-1 10

Electric, desc

Geometrical Drawing

213
212

24

Glass Gauge, desc. and illus


Grate Surface of Boilers, desc
Gravity, def
Greek Alphabet

Handhole

266

364
366

27

Frictlonal Electricity, def

340-341

304

Gears, Bevel, def


2S2
How to Draw, illus
292, 294-299
For Screw Cutting in Lathe.
322-329
280-282
Rules for Pitch of

Proportion, sign of

145

127

278-304
300-303
278-280

Magnitudes.

127

desc. 279, 2S0

292

285-293
282-2S4

55
208

Franklin Institute Standard Table.

Free-hand Lettering Specimen


Friction, def

338

232

184

Trains of

356

87
86

86

344
340

338
33S-339

Exercises in
Tools L'sed in

and illus
Glass, desc. and illus
Pressure and Total Heat, Table.
Steam, desc. and illus
Gear Annular, desc. and illus
Teeth Cycloidal, def. and illus.
Involute, desc. and illus
Wheels, desc. and illus
Dimensions for, desc. and rules.
Speeds of, rule and ex
desc.

Horse Power
Crank Shaft of Steam En-

for Estimating

of

PAGE

Gauge Cock,

Hanger,

of

Steam

338-339
336
208

468

Boiler, illus

Seller's Adjustable, illus

339-34

and
260-262

desc

Hangers,

desc.

and

260-262

illus

Hawkins' Treatise on
Recommended

the Indicator
375

..

AND

ROGERS' DRAWING

480

...

DESIGN.
PAGE

" Head=stock "

of Lathe,

desc.

illus

Illustration, Colored, Blue Print

199

Lancashire

322, 324, 325

423

no

Imperial Drawing Paper,


Inch, Sign for

Lap=joints, desc. and illus


Lap of Valve, Outside and Inside of

356

India Ink, desc

" Heart Wheel," Drawing a, illus


Heat, Total, Table of Gauge Pressure.
Heating Surface of Boilers, desc
Surface of Steam Boiler's Ratio
to Grate Surface

Helix,

How

Draw, desc. and

to

illus.

Heptagon, def
Hexagon, def

How to Construct by Instruments


To Construct on
To Inscribe in a
Hexagonal Nut,
and illus

a Line,

illus.

to

336
352
228-230

Lines
Line, def

..

Of

illus

loi

Instruments, Drawing
List and Selection of

376
354-356

Boilers, desc

and

Laws, Newton's,

426

212

Johnson, Wm. Quotation

212

Joints, Riveted,

108

288-289

illus.

of

Journals, desc. and example


Diameter of, example

214

230
.

367
63

53-64
55

Letters, Block, and Numerals

Use

Reference,

54

of

53

When

to be

Used on

Drawings

187
27

Center, def

27

93

Cun'ed, def

27
27
:.."..'

27

Dotted, def

27

245-251

Dot and Dash, def

27

249-251

Full, def

27

258-259

Horizontal, def.

28

258

Inclined, def

28

258

Irregular Curved, def

27

28
"8

40

Plumb, def.
Regular Curved, def
.

Kinematics, def

472

Triangle, illus

Oblique, def

illus

372
322

85

85

and

illus.

def

Hypothesis, def
def.

214
,

Lettering, Examples
Subject Treated on

31

Icosahedron,

330-332

def

Hypothenuse, def

Pressure on, example

326-32S, 329

30

Riveted,

321-322

Line, Broken, def

212

36, 161, illus. 38

249
372
320-322

Cutting

Of Motion, three, def


Lead of Valve
Screw of Lathe, desc. and
League, def

Capital,

341

320, 321

Def
Dimension, def

and desc

Lemma,

190

illus.

214-215

Hydrodynamics, def

Left Handed Screw, desc


Hand Engines, illus. and desc.

oy Water Color. ...


188
Meteoric, Note
307
Wrought, desc
217
Wrought, Factors of Safety for.
217
Isometric Projection, desc. and illus. 1 14-120
Problems in, illus
115-120

To Construct an

37
282-284

How Shown

Isosceles Triangle

desc.

Shafting, desc. and illus

360

314
217

Factors of Safety for

Hydrostatics, def

illus

Speed for

256

Hyperbola, def
Drawing an, illus
Hypocycloid, def. and

Iron, Cast, desc

Transmitted by Shafts
Drawings, Diagram
Hydraulics, def

How to Read

and

Lathe, desc. and illus


Engine, desc
Formulae for Screw
Gears

Lathe-speed

424
411-426
,

Boiler, illus.

375
208

359, 360, 361

Intersection of Solids, def. of term..


' Involute " Gear Teeth, def
Drill

378

Recom-

Operate

to

Inking, Instruction for

Horse Power of Belts, Rule for


269-270
Of Steam Boiler, Rating of
350
Of Steam Engine, Rule for Finding

How

Parts of, desc.

102

369
42
28

illus. 375, 376,

mended
Injector,

50

40
of.

418

Hawkins' Treatise on.

32

155

and illus
Horizontal Engines, Dimensions

417, illus. 418

" Inertia," def

153, def. 37

def.

132

to Prepare

32

147, 237, 239

How to Draw
Pyramid, How to Draw

How

size of

Indicator Diagram, desc. and

Draw, desc.

Prism,

Hexahedron,

Circle

How

PAGE

and

208

27

..
.
.

..

INDEX.

481

PAGE
Line, Right, def

27

Shade, def
To Divide a Straight Line
Vertical, def

27
91

28

Waved, def
Linear Drawing, Subject of

27
25, 81

Velocity, def

211

Lines, Border, When to be Used


Fifteen Degree, illus. and desc.
Forty-five Degree, illus. and desc.
Parallel, def

Seventy-five

Degree,

illus.

45
45
28

and

desc

45

Shade, desc. and illus


Sixty Degree, illus. and desc ....
Thirty Degree, illus. and desc.
,

To Draw
Vertical

Parallel

65-73
45
45

90

and Horizontal,

def. ...

Liquid, def

44
213
20S-209

Load, def

Locomotive

423

Boiler, illus.

and

desc.

Logarittimic Table

344-349
433
433-434

Table Use of
Logarithms, desc
Rules for Application
Tables of
Advantages of
Measure, rule

PAGE

Machines, Metal Working,

desc.

illus

307-332

illus, and desc ....316, 318-319


Six Points in Designing
307
Magnetic Field, desc
399
Magneto Electricity, def
397

Milling,

Main Shaft of the Steam Engine,


Male and Female Die, desc
" Man as a Machine, " Note
Manganese, When Discovered
Manhole, desc. and illus
Masonry, Factors of Safety
" Mass," def

desc.

for

Materials for Construction, def


214-215
Strength of, def
210
Matter, Properties of, def
212-213
Three States of, def
213
McWhinney, Quotation by Prof
Mean Effective Pressure, Rule for
Finding
377

Measure, Circular
Long
Mechanics, Applied, def

433-434

Squares, Note

434
435-456

Theoretical

46S
468
212

205

Metals, Discovery

Man

216

Fatigue

209

Meteoric Iron, Note

a,

Note

Tool

Machines,

Pullej's,

speed of

Classification of, desc

Desc

270
215

215-216

Drilling
Electrical, desc.

313-315

314, 316-317

and

illus

391-407

of,

desc

Mixed Line,

of a Circle,

def

209
222-223
212

def

209

Difference Between

Weight and.

Of Force, def

Momentum,

209
209-210

Motion, def
Three Laws

of,

def

214

Motor Electric, Efficiency of,


The Electric, desc
Mounting Blue Prints, desc
Mud Drum, desc. and illus
Multi-cylinder

213
220

def

Engines,

desc.

399
399
195-196
348

desc.

and
366-367

illus

Multiplication, Sign of

23

Multipolar Dynamo, def

398

Illus

394-395

.316,
illus.

Negative

Electricity, def

396-398

Quantity, def

431

Newcomen

307
468

Engine, desc
Newton's Laws, def
Laws, What they tell us
Nickel, Note Relating to
Plated Sheet Steel Scale, desc.
When Discovered
Nozzles of Steam Injector, desc

127

Numerals, Roman

423

307
208

def

Mile, Common, def


Milling Cutter, illus
Machines, illus. and desc.
Machine, Vertical Spindle,

Minutes, Part

205

307-332

illus
of,

209
209

29
205

iVlachine Design
as

Moment,

217

433
468

Modulus of a, def
Punching and Shearing

Molecule, def

213

209, 217-218

Section, def

308
216

339

209

Of Elasticitj', def
Of a Machine, def
Of Resistance, def
Of Rupture, def

362

307

Mechanism, Theory of
" Medium " Drawing Paper, Size of.
Metal Working Machines, desc. and

Long

Modulus, def

and

318-319
318-319
34
28

Nut, Square, desc. and illus


Check, desc. and illus
Hexagonal, How to Draw
Nuts, Proportions of, desc. and

335
214
214

307
.

425

307
360
46S
240

240
147
illus.

237

.
.
.

..

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

482

PAGE

PAGE

Oblique Angle, def


Line, def

29

Pentagon, def

32

28

To

104

Objects, Orthographic Projection


of
149-159

Obtuse Angle, def

29

Octagon, def

32

How to Construct by Instruments


To
To
To

Describe on a Line,

Describe in a Square,

illus.-.

Inscribe in a Circle, illus.

Octahedron,

def.

and

IC2

illus

desc.

370

128-161

Size for Patent

Drawings

423

a, illus

107
160-161

36-38
Parallel Lines, def
Illus.

To Draw

28

a, illus.

and rule

90

Parallelogram, def

To Construct
Patent

Drawing

Paper

423

Peck's, Eugene C, M. E., Method of


Conducting a Drawing Class,
Note
Pedestals and Pillow Blocks, desc.

and illus
Pen, Drawing, illus

Made

for

31

96-97

Office, Size of Official

Round

413

416-417

Writing, illus

Pencil Bow, illus


Penciling, Instruction for
Pencils, Hard and Soft, How to Sharpen

29

and

rule.

89
113

212
212

and

illus

263, 264

Pipe

Brassesfor

263, 264

Development of Tee
How to Draw a,

165-169

by Orthographic

Table of Standard
Area, Rule for Finding

Sizes,

Piston

Rod

of

Steam Engine

vSteam, desc

459
377
362, 3S0-3S2
3S0

Pitch Circle, illus. desc


" Pitch " of Rivets, desc. and illus.
Of Screw, desc
Of Screw, Rule How to Find.
Pivots and Journals, Pressure on

279, 280
.

56
416

424
422

246

25S, 259

xvii

30
318
28

def

Pneumatics, def

Polygons, Note Relating to.


Polyhedron, def. and illus
" Pores," def
Positive Electricity, def
Quantity, def

212

27

399
30
103

Polygon, def

To Draw on a Line, illus


To Inscribe in a Circle, illus

232
233

Plan of the Work


Plane Figure, def
" Platen " of the Milling Machine

Plumb Line,

Sources

104
32

40
213
396, 398

431

210
of,

desc

255
xv-xviii

Preface
Presses, Dies and, desc. and illus
Prime Movers, Useful Work of

308-315
255

Principle of Work
Printing, Blue

-211

189-192

Frame, desc. and


Frames, Note

illus

190
191

Paper, Sensitizing of

193-195

Prism, Hexagonal, def

How to Draw
How to Draw

37
153

by Orthographic

Projection

142

Point, def
Pole=pieces, desc

263-266

a, illus.

Projection

Problems in, illus


132-159
Of Oblique Objects, illus. ..... 149-159
Oval, to Draw by Circular Arcs, illus.
105

r aper,

Draw

Perspective, False, def


Physics, Object of Study of
Def
Pillow Blocks and Pedestals, desc.

and
113,

37

Line, to

40
431

illus

Parabola, Drawing

Pentagonal Prism, def


Perpendicular Line, def

105

illus

Operation, Algebraic, example


Of Slide Valve, desc. and

Orthographic Projection,

51

103

illus

Inscribe in a Circle, illus. ...

PAGE

Power, def

132,

148-149

Pentagonal, def
Quadrangular, def

Prisms,

37
37

illus

37

Triangular.

37

Problem, def

85, 431

Problems

in Cabinet Projection, illus.


In Development of Surfaces.
In Isometric Projection, illus.
In Orthographic Projection, illus
Projection, Cabinet, desc. and illus.
.

and

115-120

132-159
121-127

illus

Orthographic, desc. and illus.


" Projections," General Subject of.

162-179

Isometric, desc.

122-125

14-120

128-161

113-179

Properties of Circles
33
Of Matter, def
212-213
Proportion of Bolt-heads, desc. and
illus

237

Of Nuts, desc. and illus


237
Proportions for Arms of Gear Wheels. 300-303
" Proposition," def
85
Protractor, illus. and desc
Prussian Blue for Water Colors
Pulleys, Anns of, desc. and illus
Cone, desc. and illus

420
188

274
275-277

..

INDEX.
PAGE
Pulleys, Crowning of, desc
272
Dimensions of, ill us. and example 272-273
Proportions for Arms of ...
274
Proportions for Bulbs of
272-273
.

and
and

Rules, examples

illus.

of

Step Cone, desc.


illus,
Thickness of Rims of

277
272

and Loose, desc

Ti;lit

273

Punch and Die, illus. and desc


Punching and Shearing Machine
Pyramid, Hexagonal,

How

271-277

to

308
313-315

Draw.

Illus

155

38-39

PAGE

Reading of Formulae
Working Drawings
Reciprocating Steam Engine, desc

Reference Letters, When to be


on Drawings
Resistance, Modulus of, desc
Theoretical and Practical

Rhomboid,

Angled

31

Handed Screw,
Hand Engines,

to,

illus.

and
88

rule

Quotation from American Machinist


Jno. G.

vii

Chapman

Burlingame Relating to
Drafting Room and Shop .... 196-197
Opposite Title Page
xi
D.

L.

Andrews Relating
Machine Design
Prof. McAMiinney
President

Will.

to

205

Johnson

Raabe's, H.E.
ments

List of

Drawing Instru-

Rack Cycloidal, desc

292

Radiated

396

Electricity, def

Radii of a Circle, def

Radius

of a Circle, def.

33

and

illus

Eccentricity, def

"

Ram "

of a Press, desc

33
35

30S

Ratio Between Heating and Grate Surfaces

Velocity, def

352
211

187

209
209

29

triangle, def

31

desc

230

and desc

367

Line, def

To

27

Trisect, illus.

and

88

rule

Ring, Cylindrical, How to Draw


Rivet, Length of
Riveted Joints, Breaking of
Illus. and desc

144
245

Strength of

of, desc.

and

250
243
243-251
246

illus
.

from

of the Milling

illus.

for Finding the

87
15

468
24

362

56

Piston

377

Diameter of Piston Rod


381-382
Finding the Mean Effective Pressure on Piston.
377
Horse Power of Steam Engine.
376
Horse Power of Belts
269
How to Find " Pitch " of Screw.
233
How to Use Logarithms
433, ex. 434
To Find Length of Stroke Crank
and Eccentric
370
Rules and Data, Useful
429
.

And Examples for Safety Valve.


And Scales, desc. and illus

318

357-358
419

For Application of Logarithms.


434
For Finding Dimensions of
Gear Wheels.
300-303
Horse Power of Shafts
257
Pitch of Gears
280-2S2
Proportioning Pulleys

268-269

Relating to Circle
Relating to Square
Speed of Driver and Follower

Ruling Pen.

469

416

Engine, desc. and


367-36S

Rupture, Modulus

" Saddle "

461

268, 269

ilUis

" Running Under "

of,

def

of the Milling

209

Machine.

Safety, Coefficient of, def


Factor of, def
Valve Rules and Examples

Scale,

Ma-

241

Area of a Steam

illus

468

Roebling, Statement by Chas. G


Roman Numerals, def. and illus
Root, Sign of
Rotary Steam Engine, desc
chine

250
1

Rod, def

"Rotary Table"

426

and

Pulleys
247

Staggering of, desc. and illus.


Robinson's, A.W., Office Rules, Quotation

245
245-251

247-249

Riveting, Chain, desc. and illus


Punching Holes for
Rivets and Joints
Diagonal Pitch of, desc
Pitch

426

I'sed

.\ngle, def

illus.

Rule

30
iSS

31

34
.\ngle,

96

desc.

Drawing

Writing, Specimen

31

31

Quadrant, def
Quadrisect an

Round-Headed Screws,

def

37

Right

198

362

def

Quadrangular Prism, def

PAGE
Rouillon's, Louis, List of
Instruments

431-432

Rectangle, def
To Construct a, illus. and rule
Rectilinear Figure, def
Red, Vermilion, for Water Color

Rhombus,

Quadrilateral Figure, def

483

illus

Flat Box-wood, desc

318
210

210
for.

357-35S
20
426

..

...

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

484

PAGE
Scale, Nickel Plated Sheet Steel, desc.
Used in Lettering
Scales, Rules and, desc. and illus

Scholium, def

Screw

425
53

419
85

Changing Gears

Cutting,

for.

Diameter of, desc


Double Threaded desc
Gears for Lathe

322
233

230

322-329

I^eft-handed, desc

230

" Pitch " of, desc


Right-handed, desc

232

and

Set, desc.

230
240-241

illus

Single-threaded, desc

230

Thread Angle of, desc. and illus.


234
Threads Conventional Signs for
Drawing
235-237
Threads, Note
230
Threads, Table of

IT.

S.

Standard.

Triple-threaded, desc

Screws and

232

Bolts

228-241

Round-headed, desc. and

Seconds (Part

illus.

of a Circle), def

222-223
78-80
33

Segment

33
illus.

desc

Screw Thread, desc


Semicircle, def
Sensitizing of Printing Paper

" Sepia "

Water Colors
Series Winding, desc. and illus
Set=screw, desc. and illus
for

Squares, illus

Use of

Shade

Line, Specimens of

241

34
77-8'

Section Lining, illus. and desc


Modulus, def
Sectioning Metals, etc
Sector of a Circle, illus. and def
of a Circle, def
Seller's Adjustable Hanger,

232

and

PAGE

Shading, Parallel Line, illus. and desc.


74-77
" Shaft-feed " of Lathe, desc
322
Shafting Lathe, desc. and illus
330-332
Proper Speed of
258
Rviles for Horse Power of
257
Shafts and Shafting
256-258
Formulae for Strength of
257-258
Horse Power Transmitted by
256
Strains Produced in, desc
256
" Shank " of a Punch, desc
308
Shearing Strain, def
217
Strength, def

So, 81

196-198

to

406-407
188

Signs, Conventional
21 -22
For Designing Screw Threads.
235-237
Sine of an Arc, def
34
Single Threaded Screw, desc
230
Sixty Degree Lines, illus. and desc ...
45
Slide Valve, Function of, desc
36S
Operation of, desc. and illus.
370-375
.

340
a,

by Circular

illus

Solid, def

A, def
260-262
232

33
193-195
18S

"Solution"

Printing

For Sensitizing Paper, Recipe..

Specimens of Lettering
Speed Lathe, illus. and desc

rule

Inscribe

\.

Of Machine Tool Pulleys

27a

Shafts, Proper, desc

25S

Gear Wheels, rule and example. 278-280


Sphere, def. and illus
40
Spiral, Drawing a, illus.
loS-iog

loi

396
212

Statics, def

Stay Bolts, illus. and desc


Stays, Boiler, illus. and desc
Through and Diagonal

346
340-346

340

Boilers, desc

Evaporation of

240-241

Static Electricity, def

Boilers,

53-64
320-321

and rule
100
Squares and Cubes and Square and
Cube Roots, Tables of
469-471
Mechanics', Note
29
Staggering of Rivets, desc. and illus..
250
Standards, Brasses for, desc. and illus.
265

27-37

193
192-193

48-49
240

in a Circle,\illus.

Designing

406, 407

43-44
45-48
65-73

and

To

Boilers,

Bath Used in Blue

241

Rules Relating to
469
Thread, def
230-234
To Construct a, illus. and rule.
95
To Describe about a Circle, illus.

109
213
for

31

Headed Screws Conventional


Method of Representing, illus.
How to Construct by Instruments
Nut, desc. and illus

Steam

.\rcs,

282

Square, def

220

Sheet Metal, Sectioning of, illus


Shop Work, Drawing withtRelation
Shunt Winding, desc. and illus
" Sienna," Raw, for Water Color

Smoke^box, desc
" Snail," Drawing

Spur Gears, def

a,

336
350-354

desc

350-352

Chest, desc

379

Engine, Formula for Strength of


Shaft
256
Engine, Horse Power, Example
of Figuring
378
Engine, Parts of
362-364
Engines, desc
362
Gauge, desc. and illus
338
Piston,

Rule for Finding Area

of.

Piston, desc

377
380

Ports, desc

380

..

INDEX.

485
PAGE

steam Rating

Horse Power

of

350

Space of Boilers, desc


Total Heat Units in, Table

Works,

336
356

Steel, desc

215

Factors of Safety for

How Shown

by Water Color.

217
.

79,

314
314

87

and desc

gi

Strain, def
Strains Produced in Shafts, desc

210
256

Tensile, def

210

247-249
220

Tensile, def

210

Ultimate, def

Bolt, desc.

and

illus

Stuffing Box of the Steam Engine.


Surface, def
As a Magnitude
Surfaces, Development of, illus. and
.

desc
1 able.

Logarithmic, begin at page

Example

Total Heat Units in Steam

356

of Use of
Of Contents.
Of Contents
Of Decimal Equivalents of Millimeters and Fractions
Of Decimal Equivalents, J" iV

PAGE

Through Stays, desc


Thumb=Tacks, How Secured

340
to Board

423

Tight and Loose Pulleys, desc


Timber, Factors of Safety for
Tints and Colors
Tool Chest, to Draw by Isometric Pro-

273

jection

369
241

461-467

Circles

Tail-stock of Lathe
Tangent, Abbreviation of
Of an Arc, def
To Draw to a Circle,

322-327
34
34
illus.

and
98-100

rules

1 enacity, def

241

Tensile-strength

362

Illus

27

Def..

33
42

210

Table for Bolts.

219
210

Tensile Strain, def

Terms and

241

217
27-40

Definitions

Test Pieces for Blue Printing


Tetrahedron, def. and illus

191-192
40

TooURest

of Lathe, desc. and illus.


323
Tools Used in Geometrical Drawing.
86
Tracing Cloth, Smooth and Dull Side of
189
Of Drawings
189-190
Tracings, Order to be Followed in
.

illus.

and rule

31

Trapezoid, def
Triangle, Altitude of a
Def

31
31

30

How to Construct by Instruments


Illus

50
43-44

To Construct a, rule and illus.


Triangles
Triangular Prism
Triple Threaded Screw, de.sc
Trisect a Right Angle, to, illus. and
.

rule

94

30
37
232

88

Truncated Pyramid, illus


Tubes, Fire, illus. and desc. ........

205

Resistance, def

210

Ultimate Strength, def


Unipolar Dynamo, def

205

I'nit Stress

234
230

Un-vWn's, Prof., Formula for Belts.


Use of Logarithmic Table
U. S. Standard Screw Threads

38-40

340

85, 431

Theory of Mechanism,
Thread Square, desc

def

457

92
255

Trapezium, def

Theoretical Mechanics, def

S9

304

433
xix

458

Making Lines
Trains of Gear Wheels
Transferring an Angle,
Transmission, def

Theorem,

21

188

126

435

def

217

119

Cabinet Projection

30S

162-179

352

U. S. Standard Threads
232
Tables of Logarithms
435-460
Of Squares and Cubes and Square
and Cube Roots
469-471
And Index
427-485
Of Areas and Circumferences of

Of a Circle, illus
Tee-square, illus. and desc

30

314

220

210, 217-228

459

Speeds
Evaporation of Coal
Dimensions of Horizontal Steam
Engines
Tensile Strength of Bolts

210, 218

Stresses, def
Induced by Bending, def
Stripper " of a Die, illus

464

249

Drill

217

Strengtli of Materials, def


Riveted Joints
Shearing, def

Stud

80

80, 81

a, illus.

188

of, illus

Soft, Drill Speed for


Stone, Sectioning of, illus
Stop=clutch, desc. and illus
Straight Line to Bisect a

To Divide

of Plates

ix

illus

Sectioning

Table of Standard Wire Gauges


Of Standard Pipe Sizes .......
Diameter of Rivets and Thickness

desc. 230, illus. 231,

Thirty Degree Lines,

illus.

and desc.

45

and

210-218
398
21S

Strain, def
.

273

433-434
232

ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.

486

PAGE

PAGE

Valve, Functions
Valves,

of,

desc

368
388

Corliss, desc

Gear, Corliss, desc. and


Corliss, desc.

and

illus.

388-390
3S3

illus

Mechanism of the Steam Engine


Steam Engine, illus. and desc
.

Safety, rule

Vapor, Difference Between Gas and.


Velocity, def. and ratio

362

376
357-358
213

213

VThread,

230

Explanatory Note
Preparing for

339
344

Principle of

desc. 230, illus. 231

^Vater Column,
Leg

desc.

and

illus

of Boiler, desc

Line of Boilers, desc

Tube

Boiler, illus

Boiler,

Dimensions of

Circular, def

211

Linear, def

211

Waved

Ratio, def

211

Wedge, How

Vermilion, for Water Color


Vertex of an Angle, def
Vertical Boiler, illus. and desc.
Engines, desc

188

Boilers, desc.

.346, 347, 351

28,

Spindle Milling Machine, illus.


"View" in Drawing to be Drawn First.
Vis=viva, def
Voltaic Electricity, def
.

44
318, 319
153

211

397

to

Draw
Draw by Orthographic

to

Weight and Moment,


Wheel,

350
347- 348

147

132

Difference Be-

tween

213

Belt, Fly, illus

363

Winding

Series, desc

Shunt, desc. and illus


Wire Gauges, Table of Standard
Wood, Sectioning of, illus

Work,

406, 407

def

Working

211
211

423-424
211

Drawings, General Subject.. 181-199

Reading of

198

Worm

Gears
Def
Wrench Proportioning

298, 300-302

282
of, desc.

and

illus

262
27

Projection

36S, illus. 371

Lines, def

Line, def

How

29

336
354-355

and illus
Wall-brackets, desc. and illus

210, 211

PAGE

" Volume," def

242

Use of, for Tightening Bolts, desc.

Wrist Plate, desc


Wrought Iron, desc

ip

Factors of Safety for.


Sectioning of, illus

Yard,

242

390
215
."....

def

217
78-80

468

Yellow, Chrome, for Water Color

188

406-407
460
80

Aeuner's Diagram,

illus.

and desc.

377-378

"

"W 'W l^F "W ^^" "


"Knowledge

is

A GOOD BOOK

power^ and the price of Jcnowledge


is continued study

|S

A GOOD FRIEND

To Our

SELF-HELP

The good

I*

BOOKS

books,

more than

serve

MECHANICAL

Readers

here

described,

under each

ing

that

title

indicates only their wide scope,

the

de-

a passing notice, consider-

brief description

and

is

merely suggestive of the mine of useful infor-

mation contained

each of the volumes.

in

Written so they can be easily

FOR

HOME STUDY

under-

stood,

and covering the fundamental prin-

ciples

of engineering, presenting the latest

developments and the accepted practice, giving a working knowledge of practical things,

AND

with reliable and

REFERENCE

helpful

information

for

ready reference.

These books are self-educators, and "he


runs may read" and improve his present knowledge in the wide field of modern

who

engineering practice.
Sincerely,

Theo. Audel

& Co.

Publishers

l'^

THEO. AUDEL & COMPANY


EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHERS
72

FIFTH AVE.

^'

.-.

.-.

72 5th Ave., N. Y.

NEW YORK

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It is a complete course in
Mathematics.
All
calculations are in plain arithmetical figures, so
that they can be understood at a glance.

Refriger-

operative

information useful to the student.

Hawkins* Steam Engine Catechism.


This work
for

is

a practical

detailed

gotten up to

book.

descriptions

It

for

fill

a long-felt need

gives directions

$2

Hawkins' Steam Engine Indicator.

and

This work is designed for the use of erecting


and operating engineers, superintendents and

running the various

types of steam engines in use.

students

of steam engineering, relating,


does, to the economical use of steam.

The book

also treats generously upon MaLocomotive and Gas Engines, and will be
found valuable to all users of these motive
rine,

This instructive book on Boiler Room


Practice is indispensable to Firemen, Engineers
and all others wishing to perfect themselves in
this important branch of Steam Engineering.
Besides a
ary,
sixty

and

full descriptive treatise

Marine and Locomotive

management

cautions,

boilers,
all

$2

diagrams.

Guarantee.
These books we guarantee

to be in every
represented, and if not found
satisfactory can be returned promptly and
the amount paidwill be willingly refunded.

way as

on Stationit

it

profusely illustrated with working


cards taken from every day use, and gives many
plain and valuable lessons derived from the

powers,

Hawkins* Steam Boiler Practice.

as

The work is

contains

necessary rules

All books shipped post paid.


Remittances are best sent by Check,
Post Office or Express Money Orders.

specifications for boilers, including riveting,

bracing, finding pressure, strain on bolts, etc.,

thus being a complete hand-book on the subject.

JUN

~0

!9'i2

$1