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Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

as part of the future Low


Carbon Transport and
Energy Systems
16th September 2016

Ricardo plc 2015

Objectives for this workshop

Objectives
To provide an overview of hydrogen technology
and its potential role in the transport sector
Information on the drivers for adopting hydrogen
and the barriers currently limiting more
widespread take-up

To showcase examples from around the world of


how the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cells
has been supported
To provide information on how hydrogen can be
applied in the transport and energy sectors
based on real-world examples

Ricardo Energy & Environment in Confidence

Ricardo-AEA Ltd

Agenda

9:10 to 10:45: Introductory session: Overview of hydrogen, key drivers and barriers
10:45 to 11:00: Coffee break
11:00 to 12:30: Session 1 - Overview of regional approaches to supporting deployment
12:30 to 13:45: Lunch
13:45 to 16:00: Session 2: Specific hydrogen applications and case studies

Ricardo Energy & Environment in Confidence

Ricardo-AEA Ltd

Agenda

9:10 to 10:45: Introductory session: Overview of hydrogen, key drivers and barriers
10:45 to 11:00: Coffee break
11:00 to 12:30: Session 1 - Overview of regional approaches to supporting deployment
12:30 to 13:45: Lunch
13:45 to 16:00: Session 2: Specific hydrogen applications and case studies

Ricardo Energy & Environment in Confidence

Ricardo-AEA Ltd

Overview of hydrogen and


key drivers and barriers for
deployment in transport
Sujith Kollamthodi
16th September 2016

Ricardo plc 2015

Overview of hydrogen and key drivers and barriers for deployment


in the transport sector

Sustainability challenges facing the transport sector


Introduction to hydrogen
Hydrogen production routes
Distribution / transportation of hydrogen transportation
Hydrogen refuelling stations
Hydrogen fuel cell technology
Hydrogen fuel cells transport applications

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Sustainability challenges facing the transport sector


Transport is a significant contributor to global
GHG emissions

Also play a major role in poor air quality in


urban areas
Energy security is also an issue - More than
95% of global energy for transport comes from
petroleum-derived fuels
Both supply-side and demand-side measures
will be important for improving energy security
and reducing environmental impact
On the supply-side, alternative fuels will be
important
Electricity
Biofuels
Hydrogen
Hydrogen is one option that could support ultralow emissions transport in future years
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Introduction to hydrogen
Hydrogen is the simplest of all chemical elements and the
most abundant element in the universe.
Can be used as an energy vector a way to move, store
and convert energy
Can be used to support power, heat and transport
applications
It is a flammable gas which allows it to perform almost all
the same heating roles as hydrocarbons
Can be converted into electricity using fuel cells (or through
more conventional combustion in a heat engine such as a
gas turbine)
Main shortcomings are:
its low volumetric energy density
the energy losses when converting it to and from
electricity
Hydrogen is potentially one of the most flexible and broadly
applicable energy vectors available
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Hydrogen production routes


Natural gas reforming (steam methane reforming)
Natural gas is reacted with high-temperature steam
to produce syngas (mix of hydrogen, CO and CO2)
Most economically viable current production
process
Non-renewable process
Electrolysis
Electric current used to split water into hydrogen
and oxygen
Fermentation
Biomass is converted to sugar-rich feedstocks that
can be fermented to give hydrogen
Novel techniques under development
High-temperature water splitting
Photo-biological water splitting
Photo-electrochemical water splitting

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Hydrogen distribution and refuelling


Manifolded cylinder packs
Low cost
For very small-scale applications
Tube trailers
Used for transporting compressed hydrogen
by truck, rail, ship or barges
Expensive and mainly used for distances less
than 300 km
Liquefied hydrogen tankers
Cooled to very low temperatures
Allows hydrogen to be transported efficiently
over long distances
Boil-off is a problem

Pipeline
High fixed costs, low operating costs
Limited option as currently there is very little
pipeline infrastructure
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10s of
kgs

100s of
kgs

1,000s
of kgs

10,000s
of kgs

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Hydrogen refuelling stations


Hydrogen refuelling stations
Range of issues need to be considered
Can take 18 months from project start to
station commissioning
Need to be particularly aware of safety and
planning issues

Secure budget and


identify suitable site
Refuelling station design
and engineering work
Develop safety case

Prepare and submit


planning application
Component procurement

Build hydrogen refuelling


station
Appoint contractors

Installation and
commissioning

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Hydrogen fuel cell technology


Fuel cells convert chemical energy into
electrical energy
All fuel cells have two electrodes (positive and
negative) and an electrolyte
Chemical reactions take place at the
electrodes and the electrolyte carries
electrically charged particles from one
electrode to the other
Hydrogen ions and oxygen molecules then
combine at one of the electrodes to produce
water
Fuel cells are highly efficient at extracting
energy from fuels

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Different types of fuel cells


Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells
PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer as an electrolyte
and porous carbon electrodes containing a
platinum or platinum alloy catalyst
High power density
Low weight and volume compared with other types
of fuel cells
Fast start-up times, low operating temperatures
(80C) and high power density make them suitable
for transport applications
Various other types of fuel cells
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)
Alkaline Fuel Cells
Phosphoric Acid Fuels Cells (PAFC)

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Hydrogen fuel cells - transport applications

Cars

Vans

Buses

Trains

Ships

Aircraft

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Sujith Kollamthodi
Ricardo Energy & Environment
sujith.kollamthodi@ricardo.com