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International Journal of Forestry and Wood Science

Vol. 2(1), pp. 023-030, January, 2015. www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 2167-0465x

IJFWS

Research Article

Assessments of environment and safety in small and


micro-enterprise: Furniture factory
Pradeep Kumar Poddar1 and Omprakash Sahu2*
1

Department of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Kauntan, Malaysia
Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University (SW), Ethiopia

2*

The dynamic role of micro and small enterprises in developing countries as engines through
which the growth objectives of developing countries can be achieved has long been recognized.
Furniture Factory has its own impact and issue on the society and environment. Wood furniture
manufacturing process uses many chemicals and natural resources. It generates considerable
amounts of waste materials as well. The operations activities include drying, sawing, waxing,
sanding, and finishing, all of which may release pollutants into the air and may contribute to
health concerns in the operation and in the community. In most developing countries, small and
micro industry faces constraints both at start up phases and after their establishment. The
objective of this study has been developed to discover how to Improve work environment and
worker safety and to comply with the standards. Moreover, to further minimize impacts on
human health and the environment.
Keywords: Chemical, environment, healths, waste, recycle
INTRODUCTION
The establishment of the small and micro enterprise
furniture factory producers organization tries to solve
the problem of unemployment and provide quality
products for the society, which simplify the task of
government (Rami and Ahmed, 2007). However, there
are different chemicals, dusts and solid wastes produced
during production process by cutting, splitting to lumber
size, surface coating, preserving of wood by chemicals,
sanding with the combination of chemicals after coating
and applied to increase the attractiveness of the
appearance (Paul and Rahel, 2010). At the end of
production process, these wastes would be released in
the form of gases and solid wastes to the environmental.
Finishing chemicals also released from coated surface in
to the air, which may contribute to health concerns in the
operation and in the community (Dereje, 2008). Moreover
wood furniture manufacturing facilities deal with many
things that can affect the environment (Martin, 2010).
Materials such as paints, wood treatments, stains,

varnishes, polishes, and adhesives can harm the


environment and people if they are not properly
managed. If the current situation continuous in this trend,
the problem will not remain in local rather worse or
aggravates at the national level which directly affected
social economic development of the country (John et al.,
2007).

*Correspondence
author:
Omprakash
Sahu,
Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo
University,
Kombolcha
(SW),
Ethiopia.
Email:ops0121@gmail.com; Tel: +251933520653

Sahu and Poddar

023

It is definite that substantial amount of investment has to


be incurred to replaced old machines by technologically
advanced machines and equipment so as to reduce its
Environmental problem is the current issues on every
parts of the world. Economic growth is the major cause
for existing environmental degradation. The company that
we have focused in our study is one of the economic
developments in the current Ethiopia renaissance
development, but it results to environmental degradation
(FDRE, 2007; 2010). The study would benefit those
people who conduct a similar study on the impact that
furniture production brings to the environment as a base
line or starting point and primarily dedicated microenterprise furniture at which this study was conducted
and even for the same organization who are also
engaged in the furniture production too (Agyapong,
2010). The study again also contributes for similar
furniture industries to fulfil all the necessary requirements
in waste management, and get control over pollutions
that may be emerged while doing with furniture making
process (Mulugeta, 2007). Generally, the need for the
accomplishment of this study is to create more attention
on the environmental impacts of industrial growth related
to furniture producing sector and forwarding
recommendation points on how to minimize, if possible
eliminate its total impact on the environment in order to
recognize just inability natural resource and save the life
on human beings (Enock, 2010). If the current situation
continuous in this trend, the problem will not remain in
local rather worse or aggravates at the national level
which directly affected social economic development of
the country. It is definite that substantial amount of
investment has to be incurred to replaced old machines
by technologically advanced machines and equipment so
as to reduce its harmful discharges that directly gave the
welfare of external environment future sustainable
development. Generally, this is the major problem that
initiates and pushes the researchers to conduct the study
under the situation.
This study has been developed to improve work
environment and worker safety and to comply with the
standards while manufacturing furniture even while using
them. Moreover, the objective is to further minimizing
impacts on human health and the environment.
Suggestions for changes in workplace practices and
behaviours are provided that can be implemented to
improve a furniture production environmental and
economic performance. Generally, the major objective of
the study is to assessing the impacts of furniture
industries on the environment.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Method of Data Collection
The primary data was collected from the organization
called Micro-Enterprise Furniture Factory located in

harmful discharges that directly gave the welfare of


external environment future sustainable development
(Banerjee and Duflo, 2008; Haftu et al., 2009).
industrial
zone
at
Adama
(Ethiopia)
Africa.
Questionnaires and observation methods were used to
collecting the data in the study. The questionnaire was
distributed through judgments sampling method. Out of
the total number of 42 workers 20 of them were selected
to collecting the data. The selection criterion for the
sample was based on their skills.
Method of Data Analysis
The method of data analysis for this study is a descriptive
type. This type of analysis is preferred because of
unavailability of the numerical data on the some aspects
of the organization. Primary data is the bases for the
study. Information and data from different sources are
also used. The gathered information and data are
presented in tabular, graphic and theoretical form
(Richter and Steiner, 2008).
Organization of the Study
This research paper is organized in the form of section,
the section describing the main the present conditions.
Out of 100 samples size, only 20 persons are selected
from different area of professions and work experience
within the organization. Based on those professions and
work experience samples questions and respondent
answers are presented in the form of graphs respectively.
The descriptions of the respondent age and the work
experience also included under the topic. In addition to
the primary purpose of the study to ensure that our
reader can understand that from what type of individuals
the data are collected.
Site description
The name of the organization known as Small and Microenterprise furniture factory, which is located Industrial
Zone in the northwest kebele 05 Adama Town with 99
km distance from Addis Ababa in Oromia regionEthiopia.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Employees age group
The employment of age group is shown in Fig. 1. It was
found that the age composition of the respondents within
the organizations employees. Here, among these
respondents 4(20%) of them were found between the age
of 18 to 25,5 (25%) were ranged between 26 to 35,9
(45%) of them were between 36 to 45,2(10%)were also
between 46 to 55, and finally, as it is depicted on the
above table, there was no age group above 56 years

Int. J. Forestry Wood Sci.

024

Figure 1. The organizations employees age group

Figure 2. The organizations respondent experience

from all the respondents. The results showed that most of


the respondents were ranged in the age between 36 to
45and 45% of the total sample respondents within the
organization. From this information, we confidentially
conclude that almost all the researchers data for this
paper are collected from the matured individuals found in
the research area (Bidzakin, 2009).
Respondent experience
The organization respondent experiences are depicted in

Fig.2. The respondents work experiences by emanating


on the duration of the respondents have stayed within the
organization. Among these respondents, 4 (20%) of them
were less than one year work duration; hence they were
not much experienced. On the other hand, 7(35%) of
them were found between 1 to 3 years experienced and
45% of the respondents were found between 4 to 6
years. As can be plainly seen inFig.2, the majority of the
respondents 45% and 35% of the total sample size were
work experienced individuals. Therefore, most of the
research data survey was generally based on the well

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025

Figure 3. Background of the environmental condition

Figure 4. Level of environmental protection by the government

experienced people that were found in the organization


(Enock, 2010)
.
Environmental condition
The background of the environmental conditions is shown
in Fig. 3. The background of surrounding environmental
condition before the organization was established in the
area to provide a deepest knowledge of the past when
compared to todays situation. Hence, out of the total of
20 respondents, about 2(10%) of the respondents,
replied that the environmental condition before was that
much; which means there is a change in the

environmental condition before, but that changes was not


in an immense way of degradation. Also, 3(15%) of them
replied nothing, which belongs to the idea of there is no
significant change they were ever considered and those
respondents may be new employees to the organization
who may not well experienced the past environmental
situation of the area. On the other hand, 6(30%) of them
replied there were a good environmental condition before
and finally, 8(40%) of respondents replied that very good
and excellent environmental condition were identified
before the establishment of the organization. From this
data the researcher can understand the environmental
condition before the establishment of the organization

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026

Figure 5. Awareness of the organization for the environmental law

was very good. This result indicates that the


establishment of the organization has a negative impact
on the environment (Mulugeta, 2010).
Environmental protection by government
The environmental protection by the government is
shown in Fig. 4. Recognizes the level of environmental
protection by the government and the respondents view
of ideas were depicted thoroughly. This is useful in
knowing how the government has contributed for the
social and environmental well-being and useful also in
predicting the future outcome and results obtained. Here
above, it was clearly indicated that 8(40%) of
respondents replied that the government environmental
protection is enough which is contradicted to the idea of
many environmental group. Conversely, 12(60%) of them
replied that the environmental protection by the
government is not enough still and further considerations
were expected which was replied by the majority of the
total respondents. This indicates that the researchers
understand the environmental protection by the
government is still too low that means a great deal of
attention is needed about the environmental protection.
Totally, the issue of the environment is not only the
concern of government, but also the social should stand
all together with the government to ensure and create a
better harmony in decreasing and minimizing this
tremendous toll (Katwalo and Madichie, 2008).
Contribution of organization
The awareness of the organization for the environmental
law is presented in Fig. 5. The organization perception
and awareness in promoting environmental law identified

by the government. Thus, among the total sample 2(10%)


of them replied nothing; which means that the
organization doesnt care about the environment. Also,
4(20%) of them replied that a very good awareness of the
environment were in practice by the organization.
Similarly, 5(25%) of them replied good, and finally 9(45%)
of the respondents replied the awareness of the
organization for the environment is that much which
means there is no considerable level of awareness and,
as a result, it needs further demonstration to be
undertaken by the organization. As can be drawn from
this result, the majority of the respondents (45%) of the
total sample size responses the awareness of the
organization for the environment is that much. This
indicates that the organization still not engaged in the
environmental protection. Therefore, the manager of the
organization should make a brief plan in understanding
and practicing awareness of the environment (Carrier,
2008).
Sources of waste
The main source of waste generation is presented in Fig.
6. The source of waste generation in the organization
was identified in the furniture production process. Hence,
this sub discussion generalize the major key
environmental pollution arises from the very beginning of
using the prepared raw material up to the final production
of units operation of furniture production. The result
shows that 1(5%) of sample respondents replied that the
main source of the waste generation in the organization
is from wooden material, 4(20%) of them replied that the
main source of waste in the organization is from other
sources, 6(30%) of them replied that glue used is the
main source of the waste generation, and finally, 9(45%)

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027

Figure 6. The source of waste generation in the organization

Figure 7. The location of waste disposal

of them replied that waste generation relies on the


painting materials (Tegegne and Meheret, 2010). This
implies that the painting materials (45%) and wooden
adhesives (20%) are the most and the main source of the
total waste generation in the organization, respectively.
From this data, the researchers concluded that those
individual are victim of the respiratory disease caused
form the emission of solvents to the atmosphere during
finishing and assembling of furniture (Adil, 2007).
Waste disposal
The location of the waste disposal is shown in Fig. 7. It is
depicted that none of the respondents replied I dont

know where the waste is disposed. Hence, all of them


knows where those wastes are disposed, and 5(25%) of
the employees witnessed that the location of waste
disposal is far from the organization, 6(30%) of them
responded that waste is disposed near the organization,
and finally 9(45%) of the respondents replied that waste
is disposed around the organization (Bulti, 2008). Here,
9(45%) and 6(30%) replied that the location of the waste
disposal is around and near the organization,
respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the
society was prone from waste disposed the organization.
Severe damage to the society around the organization
and they are suffer from this cause of waste disposed.
From this point of view, it can be maintained that the

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028

Figure 8.The level in which chemicals and smokes emission from the organization

Figure 9. Mechanism of waste disposal

organization should use the correct waste disposal


methods properly. The government should also motivate
them to ensure that they will be willingness for the future
environmental protection (Vandenberg, 2006)
.
Smokes emission

respectively. As it can be seen from the above figure


there is high value from 8(40%) respondent of the
chemicals and smoke emission in the organization. The
employees should use general safety materials properly
and continuous health treatment (Sievers and
Vandenberg, 2007).

The chemical and smoke emission from the organization


is presented in Fig.8. The level in which chemicals and
smokes emission from the organization are responded as
2(10%), 4(20%), 6(30%), and 8(40%) of them responded
that there is nothing, somewhat, very high, and high
chemical and smokes emission in the organization

Waste disposal
The waste disposal is shown in Fig.9. From this point of
view the researcher indicate that the most waste disposal
methods are land filling (30%) and incineration (50%)
used in the organization commonly (Tilahun, 2007).

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029

Figure 10. The employees related problem

Those will be the source of different type chemicals and


smoke emissions generate in to the underground water
and air respectively without the application of recycling
waste disposal mechanism. In the mechanism of waste
disposal, it is clearly shown that 4(20%) of the
respondents replied other waste disposal methods,
6(30%) of them replied land filling waste disposal
method, and also 10(50%) of the respondent said that the
use of incineration waste disposal methods are common
within the organization (Debissa, 2006).
Employees problem
The problem of the employees is depicted in Fig.10. The
employees related problem shown in figure, its indicate
that 1(5%) is the result of Adhesive emission, 4(20%) of
them are Sound noise, 5(25%) of the others are emission
of finishing material, and 10(50%) of the rests were an
emission of exposure from dusts occur in the
organization (Wubalem et al, 2007). Therefore, the
researcher can easily understand from 5(25%) of the
emission were released from the finishing material and
10(50%) of the other were emission of exposure from
dusts occur in the organization. The dust exposure is
higher agent among others. Therefore, the employees
should use musk as safety material. In order to increase
such problems in the organization, it is recommended to
use some advanced technological techniques in the
production process by using dust collector as well as
standard ventilator finishing room (Catherine, 2009).
CONCLUSION
It is concluding that the environmental condition before
the establishment of the organization was very good. The

manager of the organization and government should


make a brief plan in understanding and practicing
awareness of the environment. The main source of the
total waste generation in the organization is from
paintings and adhesive materials. The most waste
disposal methods are land filling and incineration
commonly used in the organization. Those will be the
source of different type chemicals and smoke emissions
generate in to the underground water and air respectively
without the application of recycling waste disposal
mechanism. Therefore, the researcher can easily
understand the emission was released from the finishing
material and other emission of exposure from dusts
occurs in the organization. The dust exposure is higher
agent among others. To reduce the level of impact, the
employees should use musk as safety material.
Therefore, to reduce suchlike of problem in the
organization, we recommend uses some advanced
technological techniques in the production process by
using dust collector, well ventilator finishing room.
Therefore, the establishment of this organization has a
negative impact on the environment. But, in the
production of timber furniture, it has been found that the
use of even small amounts of other materials (such as
metal or plastic trim, glues and varnishes) drastically
increases the environmental impact of the furniture.
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Accepted 10 December, 2014.
Citation: Sahu O, Poddar PK (2014). Assessments of
Environemnt and Safety in Small and Micro- Enterprise:
Furniture Factory. Int. J. Forestry Wood Sci. 2(1): 023030.

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