You are on page 1of 193

Storm Water Detention Tank to Prevent Flooding and Reuse

of Filtered Storm Water for Domestic Use in the City of


Manila

Project By:

Glenn Mark I. Corvera


Renz Joseph M. Rivera
Raymond C. Silvestre

A CE Project or Thesis Submitted to the


School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering (SCEGE)

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of


Bachelor in Science and Civil Engineering

Mapua Institute of Technology


Muralla st., Intramuros, Manila

March 2014

iii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:

For this project proposal, the researchers were given a chance to provide the Local
Government of Manila a proposal of the storm water detention tank to prevent flooding
and reuse of filtered storm water for domestic use in the city of Manila. This proposal
will provide a solution to the perennial problem about flooding in Manila while having
economic benefits at the same time. Furthermore, this proposal will make the people
understand the benefits of this kind of structure and its advantages.

Table of Contents

Title Page

Approval Page

ii

Executive Summary

iii

Table of Contents

iv

List of Figures and Tables

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Problem Statement

1.2 Problem Objective

1.3 Design Norms Considered

1.4 Major and Minor Areas of Engineering

1.5 Scope and Limitation

1.6 Project Beneficiary

1.7 Innovative Approach

1.8 The Research Component

1.9 Design Component

1.10 Sustainable Development Concept

Chapter 2: Environmental Examination Report

2.1 Project Description

2.1.1 Project Rationale

2.1.2 Project Location

iv

2.1.3 Project Information

2.1.4 Description of Project Phases

2.1.5 Pre-construction/Operational phase

2.1.6 Construction phase

2.1.7 Operational phase

2.1.8 Abandonment phase

2.2 Description of Environmental Setting and Receiving Environment

10

2.2.1 Physical Environment

10

2.2.2 Biological Environment

10

2.2.3 Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Environment

10

2.2.4 Future Environmental Conditions without the Project

10

2.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation

11

2.3.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues/Impacts and their


Level of Significance at Various Stages of Development
12
2.3.2 Brief Discussion of Specific Significant Impacts on the Physical and
Biological Resources
12
2.3.3 Brief Discussion of Significant Socio-economic Effects/Impacts of the
Project
12
2.4 Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures,
Estimated Cost and Responsibilities
13
2.4.2 Brief Discussion of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures

14

2.4.3 Monitoring Plan

14

2.4.4 Contingency

14

2.4.5 Institutional Responsibilities and Agreements

15

iv

Chapter 3: Research Component

16

3.0 Abstract

16

3.1 Introduction

16

3.2 Review of Literature

17

3.2.1 Rainfall Normal Values

17

3.2.2 Nature of Flood

18

3.2.3 Concept of Storm Water Tank

18

3.2.4 Storm Water Tank Performance

18

3.2.5 Storm Water Tank an Effective Solution

19

3.3 Methodology

20

3.4 Results and Discussions

21

3.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

22

Chapter 4: Detail Engineering Design

23

4.0 Introduction

23

4.1 Codes and Loads

23

4.1.1 Dead Loads

23

4.1.2 Live Loads

24

4.1.3 Earthquake Load

24

4.1.4 Load Combination

25

4.2 RIDF

25

4.3 Method of Collection

26

4.4 Design of Structure

29

4.5 Design of Catch Basin

30

iv

4.6 Design of Pipes

32

4.7 Design of Filtration tank

46

4.8 Design of Detention tank

50

4.9 Subsurface Soil Investigation

51

4.9.1 Geology of Site

51

4.9.2 Geotechnical Analysis and Recommendation

51

4.9.3 Further Comments

52

4.10 Design of Foundation

53

4.11 Plan Set

58

4.11.1 Civil-Design site plan

58

4.11.2 Architectural Design

59

4.11.2.1 Elevation Plan


4.11.3 Structural Design
Major Field of Study (Water Engineering)

59
61
63

Minor Field of Study (Geological Engineering)

66

Minor Field of Study (Structural Engineering)

69

Chapter 5: Promotional Materials

74

Chapter 6: Budget Estimation

76

Chapter 7 Project Schedule

77

Conclusion and Summary

81

Recommendations

82

Acknowledgements

83

References

84

Appendices

iv

List of Tables, Illustrations and Figures

Figures:
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.

1.1 Proposed Perspective


1.2 Proposed Perspective
2.1 Actual Photograph of the Proposed Project Site
2.2 Vicinity Map and Study Area
3.1 Methodology Diagram
4.1 Method of Collection
4.2 Pipe Layouts of the city of Manila
4.3 Map of the Study Area
5.1 Promotional Material
5.2 Promotional Material

3
3
7
8
20
27
28
28
74
75

Tables:
Table 2.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted
Environmental Issues/Impacts and
their Level of Significance at
Various Stages of Development
Table 2.2 Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation
and Enhancement Measures, Estimated
Cost and Responsibilities
Table 2.3 Monitoring Plan
Table 3.1 Rainfall Normal Values
Table 4.1 Live Load
Table 4.2 RIDF
Table 4.3 Borehole Information # 1
Table 4.4 Borehole Information # 2
Table 4.5 Unified Soil Classification System
Table 4.6 Summary of the Foundation Design
Table 7.1 Project Duration
Table 7.2 Equipment Utilization
Table 7.3 Project Schedule

12

13
14
17
24
26
52
52
53
57
76
78
79

Chapter 1

Introduction

The Philippines is located within the Pacific typhoon belt with most of the
population vulnerable to the impacts of natural calamities. There is an annual average of
twenty tropical typhoons that enters the Philippines area of responsibility (PAR) which
can be more powerful, more destructive and may even have an increasing number due to
climate change, and because of this, six to eight of these cyclones directly hits the
country causing large water-related destruction and damages to properties and human
lives. According to the report of the Office of Civil Defense and National Risk Reduction
Management Council, approximately five hundred to thousands of people every year are
killed and/or missing due to floods brought by the typhoons.
Intramuros golf field is one of the facilities that were built by the Intramuros
Administration during the rehabilitation and restoration of Intramuros to cater its
historical value and also to bolster the tourism in Manila city. The golf field has a length
of 4,326 yards, quite relatively short compared to other golf fields in metro manila. Still
there are plenty of challenges to have a genuine leisurely fun. The golf field inside
Intramuros is situated at the heart of Manila with major roads surrounding it for instance
the Padre Burgos Ave. That being said, the field and the roads are always flooded
especially during a non-stop torrential rain causing a large volume of traffic congestion
and difficulty for the commuters and people within the vicinity.
This condition led the researchers to come up with a design of a detention tank
using stored water to be reused for domestic purposes by the nearby residents and for the
city government of Manila. Through this project, the water stored inside the detention
tank will be filtered then distributed to the above mentioned which represents a recycling
of urban storm water. The idea of a detention tank and its stored storm water to be used
domestically, will not only give benefit in terms of water supply, but will also greatly
help in the decrease of flooding within the area of the project.

75

1.1

Problem Statement

According to the data, flooding in Manila reaches an average depth of 0.51.5 meters. A heavy torrential rain can reach up to 1.5 meters or more with an
ever increasing height through time due to climate change. The storm water
pumps and pipes used in Manila are either outdated or old. Taking in
consideration that Manila is an area below sea level and is situated in the middle
of Manila Bay and Laguna Lake, turns out to be a catch basin for these two rivers
especially when the river overflows because of continuous rain making the city
flooded of rainwater. With this, the flooding within Manila is a continuous
recurring problem that causes a lot of damage to properties and inconvenience to
human lives.

1.2

Project Objective

The main objective of our project is to design a storm water detention tank
structure within the Intramuros golf field that prevents flooding within the areas
such as Padre Burgos Ave, around Manila City hall and Lawton. It uses stored
filtered water coming from the rain that can be used domestically for the benefit
of the neighbouring establishments. This project will not only help solve the
recurring problem of the city of Manila about flooding but will also help us to
reuse water thus saving a lot of money in the process and avoiding inconvenience
to people and damage to properties. Furthermore, it will also promote the use of
storm water detention tanks to give solution to the flooding within and outside
Manila especially on below sea level and catch basin areas.

1.3 Design Norms Considered

The design norms considered in this project are the structural, hydrological,
environmental and economic aspect.
One design norm considered is its economic aspect which focuses on achieving
the most cost effective design. Since this is a detention tank it means that the structure is
75

mostly under the natural grade line, the simplicity of the architectural aspect of this
project will reduce the cost, which can be one source of large budget cost. Structural
design norm of this project shall include durable and flexible and cost effective materials.
The safety of the people within and outside the area of the project will be assured
by strictly following the codes and the standard procedures.

Figure 1.1 (Proposed Perspective)

Figure 1.2(Proposed Perspective)

75

1.4 Major and Minor Areas of Civil Engineering

The Major area of civil engineering to be covered in this project is the water
resource where it will cover pipe laying, pipe design, dimension of the detention tank and
filtration tank. The minor areas of civil engineering that is covered by the project are the
geotechnical and structural aspect wherein the geotechnical aspect will cover the design
of the substructure, excavation, backfill and the foundation of the structure while the
structural will encompass the structure itself.

1.5 Scope and Limitations

This project covers the design of the storm water detention tank within the area of
Intramuros and its immediate vicinity from Lawton, Manila City Hall, Padre Burgos Ave,
Palacio St., Gen. Luna St., up until Rizal Park. The distribution of filtered water into the
consumers is not included here and the sewerage systems/lines of the coverage of the
study area.

1.6 The Project Beneficiary

The storm water detention tank will benefit the Manila City Government and the
Intramuros Administration by using the stored storm water in the detention tank for
domestic use of the people, giving a long term solution to the recurring problem about
floods and serve as a future deterrent for major catastrophe brought about by powerful
storms thus attracting more investors in the city which helps the economy of the local
government. It will also avoid loss of life and damages to the infrastructures and the
livelihoods of the people living in Manila

75

1.7 Innovative Approach

Various technical applications will be used to finish the project. These programs
are as follows:
o Google SketchUp
This program will be used to do the perspective of the project.
o STAADPro
This program will help design the structure of the project.
o AutoCAD
This software will be used to design the structural and architectural plan
and specification of the project.

1.8

Research Component

The researchers will conduct a research about the proper design of the detention
tank and its capacity and distribution to the sewage treatment plant to properly
accommodate the large volume of water that accumulates within the immediate and the
neighbouring vicinity of the project, and to further determine the materials that will be
used in the structure.
Furthermore, the researchers will conduct a research study about the related
literature for the storm water detention tank that will be constructed in the specific area.
The study of related literature will further be used in presenting the need for structures
like this to prevent and give permanent solution to the flooding in Manila. Moreover, the
cost of this project will be analyzed including the installation and application for this kind
of structure.

75

1.9 Design Component

These are the design components to be considered in this project:


o Tanks
This will serve as the holding area/storage for the storm water that will be
used as a supply for domestic use.
o Pumps
This machine will help pump the storm water from the tanks into the sewer
treatment plant.
o Pipes
This will serve as the pathway for the water to go in and out of the storage
tanks and be conveyed to the sewer treatment plant to be used domestically.
o Substructure
This includes the kind of foundation to be used in the structure with respect
to the soils stability, bearing capacity and seismic force. The design of the
substructure will conform to the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010.

1.10 Sustainable Development Concept

The sustainable development concept involves storm water being filtered using
rapid filtration process in which filter sand and gravels are used before the water goes in
the detention tank for it to be readily used domestically or be dumped in the Pasig river
and/or Manila bay.
The demand of water used for domestic purposes will lessen because of the
recycling and reusing of storm water inside the detention tank. This will diminish the
negative impacts on the environment while solving the problem of shortage in water
supply within the city.

75

Chapter 2

Environmental Examination Report


2.1

Project Description

2.1.1 Project Rationale


As we all know, Manila City is one of the most affected city in terms of flooding
during the rainy season. In addition to this, the increasingly extreme and ever changing
weather brought by climate change, the old, outdated pumps and sewers of the city
including rivers and drainages clogged by garbage and wastes and human negligence for
the environment are the main leading causes of the flooding problem and with potable
water being costly. With these recurring problems, the storm water detention tank will
not only help heighten the prevention of flooding but also help supply water for domestic
use while mitigating the burden of paying water bills.
With citizens and other government officials, having no clue about the benefits of
the detention tank and its lasting solution for the flooding in the metropolis, our project
aims to cater and give awareness and information about the advantages of the project to
those who are curious and interested while giving solution to the ever occurring problem
of the city which is flooding.

2.1.2 Project Location


The storm water detention tank will be constructed here. Our Proposal is in the
Intramuros golf course:

Figure 2.1 (Actual Photograph of the Proposed site project)


75

Figure 2.2 (Vicinity Map and the scope of the study area)

2.1.3 Project Information


This project is a design of a storm water detention tank that has a dimension of
130m x 45m x 16m that can store up to 93,600 m3 of water in which all of the water
inside the detention tank is filtered first and could later be distributed to government
buildings and public and private households for domestic use. This project is located in
the golf course of Intramuros near Padre Burgos Ave. to be able to accommodate and
cater areas prone to flooding such as Lawton, the stretch of Padre Burgos Ave. Rizal Park
and Lagusnilad and also to easily discharge water from the tanks into the bay if needed.

75

2.1.4 Description of Project Phases


This project is made up of four components. These are the pre-construction phase,
construction phase, operational phase and the abandonment phase. The pre-construction
phase includes planning and processing of permits while the construction phase includes
mobilization and preparation of the site. The operational phase includes the structures
function and lastly, the Abandonment phase, which includes what will transpire after the
other three phases.

2.1.5 Pre-Construction Phase


It includes mobilization of manpower and equipment, processing of bonds and
permits for the structure, surveying of the project area, soil inspections, excavation and
project scheduling and project budgeting. In this phase, the project implementation and
all other needed things to be processed is synchronized in its project timeline to save
money and to allocate resources accurately up to the critical part of the project for
optimum performance.

2.1.6 Construction Phase


This phase includes clearing the objects that can cause disruption in the project
site, excavation of soil, construction of the detention tank, connecting pipelines to sewers
and sewage treatment plant, site logistics, slope protection of soil, and construction of
pumps.

2.1.7 Operational Phase


This phase includes inspection of the different pollutions caused by the project
and making sure it follows the laws and discusses how the operation works.

2.1.8 Abandonment Phase


This phase includes demobilization, removing waste produced by the
construction, and discussion if the project will be unoccupied. But since our project is a
storm water detention tank, this will always be used especially during rainy seasons.

75

2.2

Description of Environmental Setting and Receiving Environment

2.2.1 Physical Environment


The project is located in the golf course of Intramuros near along Padre Burgos
Street. It has surrounding structures which are schools, residential and government
buildings wherein the filtered water will be connected for domestic use. Also, located in
its southern part is the manila bay where storm water can be discharged easily when
necessary.

2.2.2 Biological Environment


The project site is within the golf field, hence it can sustain life since there is lots
of grass and trees within the area. Only wild birds and insects can be found within the
location.

2.2.3 Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Environment


The effect of the project on socio-cultural aspect is that the people will be more
knowledgeable about the benefits and advantages of the detention tank and will prove
that this kind of structure is one of the long term solutions for the flooding problem of the
city of Manila. In the economic and political aspect, the detention tank will save a lot of
money for the people and the city government of Manila while encouraging investors to
the city to conduct business.

2.2.4 Future Environmental Conditions without the Project


Without the project, it will still be a golf field purposely created for leisure and
attraction for the tourist and locals alike. But with the fast paced world of technology and
innovation, the city government of Manila or the Intramuros Administration will surely
think of a way for the golf field to have a dual purpose that will help raise the living
condition of the nearby population and to give a solution to the perennial problem in the
city which is flooding.

75

2.3

Impact Assessment and Mitigation during Construction


o Air Quality
The Air quality within the project area will be affected mainly by the dust
coming from the excavation, clearing of the site area, and the construction of the
detention tank.
o Odor
There can be a minimal foul smell within the construction site due to the
different materials to be used during its construction, such as cement and
materials used in slope protection.
o Water Pollution
The water quality will not be affected during the construction of the
detention basin even if there will be new pipes that will be connected to the
existing ones.
o Waste
This may come from the chemicals used for the soil and construction
materials.
o Noise Pollution
Noise may come not only from the labourers and the construction of the
structure itself, but also from the construction machinery and equipment.
o Population Density
The project is located within a golf field so there will be minimal people
within the vicinity which is composed mainly of people who plays golf.

o Occupational Health and Safety


The project may cause injury or death to a worker that is why health and
safety is important especially for workers and heavy machinery operators. This
also covers protective equipment such as the personal protective equipment and
safety signboards.

75

2.3.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environment Issues/Impacts and their


Level of Significance at Various Stages of Development

Table 2.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues/Impacts and their


Level of Significance at Various Stages of Development
Environmental Issues/Impacts
Air Quality
Odor
Water Pollution
Waste
Noise Pollution
Population Density
Occupational Health and Safety

Level of Significance
Moderate Impact
Low to Moderate Impact
Low Impact
Low to Moderate Impact
Low to Moderate Impact
Low Impact
High Impact

2.3.2 Brief Discussion of Specific Significant Impacts on the Physical and


Biological Resources
The project site is inside a golf field which means there will be a low impact in
terms of population density because few people use the golf field and the noise pollution
will have low significance since the project is located between one major road, mainly
the Padre Burgos Street, which already produces large quantity of noise pollution due to
cars, trucks, visitors, etc. And since the location is within the golf field, there would be
grass, few trees and somehow wild birds but still will have low impact to the project.

2.3.3 Brief Discussion of Significant Socio-Economic Effects/Impacts of


the Project
In terms of economic effects, the public and private transportation will be
temporarily affected since there will be an increase in traffic congestion within the
project area and while the project is on-going. After the project has been built, there will
be an increase in employment due to additional jobs for maintenance and repairs and also
an increment in the economy of the city through the coming of additional investors and
avoidance of property damage due to the elimination of flooding in the area. In terms of
socio effects, the society will be informed about the advantages and importance of this

75

kind of project to give solution to the recurring problem of the city of Manila with
regards to flooding.

2.4 Environmental Management Plan


2.4.1 Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures,
Estimated Cost and Responsibilities
Table 2.2 Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures,
Estimated Cost and Responsibilities
Impacts
Noise Quality

Traffic Quality

Air Quality

Population Density

Water Quality
Waste

Mitigations
Appropriate schedule of
using
heavy
equipment
machineries;
Proper
handling and maintenance
of construction equipments;
Provide additional traffic
aide, traffic signs and
warnings
Service roads and dust
prone areas should be
sprinkled with water as to
prevent re-suspension of
dust; No burning of waste
in site
Provide safety instructions
and
safety
aides,
disseminate
information
around the perimeter of the
project to prevent accidents;
Use up to date and good
quality equipments
Proper disposal of waste
water and toxins used in site
Proper
segregation;
Monitoring
of wastes
produced by the project

Responsibilities
Contractor

Contractor

Contractor

Contractor

Contractor
Contractor

75

2.4.2 Brief Discussion of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures


The researchers of this proposal used the enhancement measures which includes
air quality, water quality, noise quality, traffic, and waste and population density. For air
quality, it is one of the critical factors since the dust coming from the project site would
not only affect the air, but also to the people and vehicles passing within the vicinity. The
solution for this is to clean the project area and sprinkle water to dust prone areas,
especially during excavation, to decrease dust emission. For water quality, the proper
waste water disposal should be strictly followed to avoid mishaps. For noise quality, the
project area is located in a park along major arterial roads which means there are a lot of
people and vehicle around hence there should be a proper schedule and maintenance of
construction equipment. For traffic, since the project is situated near two important roads,
there should be additional traffic aides and warning signs to avoid road congestion and
confusion. For waste and population, waste coming from the site should be segregated
properly and people should be informed to avoid accidents and overcrowding in the site
area.

2.4.3 Monitoring Plan


Table 2.3 Monitoring Plan
Impact

Measure

Monitoring

Noise Quality

Noise control

Daily

Air Quality

Continuous cleaning of site

Daily

Traffic

Traffic Management and Daily


additional traffic aides and
warning signs

Waste

Proper segregation of waste

Occupational health
safety
Water Quality

Daily

and Proper compliance of safety Daily


and health regulation
Check and Clean
Weekly

2.4.4 Contingency Plan


There are people within the project that knows how to operate emergency devices
such as fire extinguishers in case of fire and a nurse or a doctor in case of accidents that
may occur. Safety information will be disseminated properly to all the personnel that are
75

part of the project while warning signs will be properly situated for the public and
construction personnel to see. Also, construction equipment, especially heavy
machineries should be properly kept safe in an area to avoid accidents.

2.4.5 Institutionalize Responsibilities and Agreements


For institutional responsibility and agreement of this project, the researchers will
comply with the laws and regulation of the national government and also with the local
government of Manila. The design will meet the NSCP standard and the building code of
the Philippines while also coordinating with the Intramuros Administration to have the
proper guidelines and rules to follow so as to avoid any violations during the construction
of the project.

75

Chapter 3
Research Component
3.0 Abstract
Our project proposal is entitled, Proposed Storm Water Detention Tank to
Prevent Flooding and Reused of Filtered Storm Water for Domestic Use in the City of
Manila. This proposal will focus on the hydrological aspects such as correct and proper
design of the piping system of the detention tank and the filtration tank along with its
other two sub-aspects mainly the geotechnical and structural aspects. This project will
help prevent flooding within Manila and will stimulate the reuse of storm water which in
turn gives us an advantage to lessen the cost in terms of water supply in the city which is
very important nowadays.
The existing studies about our proposal will be used in order to support and prove
the feasibility of our project. It will serve as a reference which includes data, tables,
figures and articles that will give proof to our project.

3.1

Introduction

Flooding is one of the most recurring problems in our country. It does not only
affect the livelihood and damage the properties of the people but also give doubts to
future investors to invest which can greatly help in the growth of our economy. This
perennial problem is caused by global warming, which gives off heavy intensity typhoon
and melts the polar ice caps that contribute to the rise in sea level. Lastly, it is caused by
the kind of mentality and attitude of common Filipinos towards their environment, their
country and the future generation.
The storm water detention tank, an underground water storage tank that handles
storms excess water runoff that is caused by paving, natural soil grade line with cement
and asphalt which disrupts the natural flow path and absorption process of the soil. The
storm water detention tank detains the rain water surge, which temporarily reduces the
speed and volume of the surface water and helps prevent flooding.
For this project proposal, the researchers are planning to design the storm water
detention tank for the purpose of helping the City of Manila and its citizens in the
prevention of flood which includes the reuse of the treated water to be used domestically
by the people of the city. The designing of pipes and pumps for this project will also be
done by the researchers as well as the volume capacity of the tank.

75

3.2

Review of Related Literature

3.2.1 Rainfall Normal Values


Statistical parameters of Manila rainfall data are computed and examined using
105 years of record. Variability of the rainfall is high and the distribution is positively
skewed. It is shown also that long periods of Manila rainfall records are necessary to
stabilize the values of mean and standard deviations for both dry and wet months.
Analysis of the variation of 5-term binomially weighted averages of twelve months
rainfall indicates long period oscillations of 33 to 43 years irregular shorter period
oscillations of 5 to 11 years. (Aida M. Jose, PAGASA, 1971)
RAINFALL NORMAL VALUES (mm)

75

Table 3.1

3.2.2 Nature of Flood


"From a strict hydrological sense, flood is defined as a rise, usually brief, in the
water level in a stream to a peak from which the water level recedes at a slower rate. The
episodic behaviour of a river that may be considered flood is then termed "flood event"
which is described as a flow of water in a stream constituting a distinct progressive rise,
culminating in a crest, together with the recession that follows the crest. (Linsley, 1942)

3.2.3 Concept of Storm Water Tank

The

concept of the storm water detention tank is to temporarily store excess


storm water runoff. This is to avoid hydraulic overload of the sewer system, which could
result in the flooding if roads and building with untreated wastewater or its release
directly into the environment, causing pollution. When space is available in the sewer
system, the detained water is released at a rate not exceeding the capacities of the sewer
system, and the tank should be cleaned ready for the next flush. (Mays, Lary W, 2010)

3.2.4 Storm Water Tank Performance


Stormwater tank performance significantly depends on management practices.
This paper proposes a procedure to assess tank efficiency in terms of volume and
pollutant concentration using four different capture tank management protocols. The
comparison of the efficiency results reveals that, as expected, a combined bypass
stormwater tank system achieves better results than a tank alone. The management
practices tested in the tank-only systems provide notably different efficiency results. The
practice of immediately emptying after the end of the event exhibits significant levels of
efficiency and operational advantages. All other configurations exhibit either significant
operational problems or very low performances. The continuous simulation and semiprobabilistic approach for the best tank management practice are compared. The semiprobabilistic approach is based on a Weibull probabilistic model of the main
characteristics of the rainfall process. Following this approach, efficiency indexes were
established. The comparison with continuous simulations shows the reliability of the
75

probabilistic approach even if this last is certainly site sensitive. (Francesco De Paola,
and Flavio De Martino, 17 October 2013)
The use of tanks to harvest and store rainwater has the potential to
simultaneously:
1) augment potable water supplies and 2) restore some aspects of pre-development flow
regimes in receiving waters. However, the use of rainwater tank to achieve these multiple
objectives has not been well quantified. Such quantification is required to assist the
development of computer models of urban water systems capable of up-scaling the
effects of rainwater harvesting at the land-parcel scale to simulate catchment-scale
responses. In this paper, we quantify how the use of rainwater tanks in a temperate
climate (740 mm average annual rainfall) can achieve these multiple objectives at the
land-parcel scale, based on water use measurement from houses with a range of tank
volumes and demands. We use these new empirical data to model a range of typical
rainwater tank scenarios. It is shown that tank yield can be substantial and is not
significantly reduced when tanks are configured for passive irrigation, even though this
design modification significantly improves the capacity of the tanks to retain rainfall
events. We also find that the use of tanks alone cannot completely restore the natural
retention capacity of typical land-parcels. Our results suggest that typical rainwater tank
scenarios can concurrently assist in restoring pre-predevelopment flow regimes and
reliably augment potable supply. If retention capacity is limited by tank volume or a lack
of demands, tanks could be allowed to partly drain to the garden for passive irrigation or
be configured to overflow to infiltration-based retention systems. (Burns M.J., Fletcher
T.D., Duncan H.P., Hatt B.E., Ladson A.R. and Walsh C.J)

3.2.5 Storm Water Tank an Effective Solution

Storm

water is an effective way of reducing peak flow and equalising flow rates
from storm water run-off in the sewer system. Placed strategically, Storm water tanks
mean better utilisation of the existing sewer system, allow for intelligent management of
storm water flows, and ultimately save on infrastructure investments.
Storm water tanks are cost effective solution because sewer lines are already
constructed and generally have a substantial remaining lifetime and existing pipes in an
urban environment is in addition to being very expensive is also troublesome. (Thorkild
Hvitved-Jacobsen, Jes Vollertsen and Asbjrn Haaning Nielsen, Grundfos, 2010)

75

3.3

Methodology

Fig. 3.1 Methodology Diagram

Start

Research and find a location


for the Project Proposal

Study the Soil of the Project


Location

Obtaining the volume of


Rainfall Data within the
Project Location

Design of the Structure

Cost and Material Estimation

Construction of the Project

End

75

The project proposal is focused mainly on the design of the storm water tank and
the use of its treated water to provide supply for domestic use in which the City
Government of Manila and its citizen will benefit.
Upon the realization of the solution to this perennial problem, the researchers will
locate an area suitable for the construction of the project proposal with the help of the
officials in the city engineering department of the city. Then after finding a suitable area,
the researchers will research and analyse the soil and topography of that area to be able to
quantify whether the soil in that vicinity is suitable for a storm detention tank to be built
upon.
The next step would be obtaining the maximum volume of rainfall preferably
from PAGASA to be able to start the design of the volume capacity of the storm water
tanks. Then the researchers will analyse and interpret the obtained rainfall data from the
weather bureau to pinpoint the largest rainfall within the year. After getting the volume, it
can be continued to the design phase where it includes the geotechnical phase, mainly the
foundation of the structure, the hydrological phase where it includes the design proper of
the tanks, the specification of pipes and pumps and lastly, the layout of the pipes within
the tanks.
After all of that, the cost and material estimation is to be computed which also
covers the estimated total cost of the project proposal upon the start and end of the
project.

3.4

Results and Discussion

Storm water detention tank, as said before, is an underground water storage tank
that handles storm excess water runoff that is caused by paving natural soil grade line
with cement and asphalt that disrupts the natural flow path and absorption process of the
soil. The storm water detention tank detains the rain water surge which reduces
temporarily the speed and volume of the surface water and helps prevent flooding.
Upon gathering the data, it can be clearly seen that the normal rainfall average
within Manila is 2103.6 where most of its accumulated rainfall is during the months of
August with 420.5mm, September with a 432.4mm and October which has 355.1mm
amount of rainfall. Then with the maximum rainfall experienced within the city, it
received a 472mm of accumulated rainfall within a 22-hour period during Habagat that
pave way for the large part of Manila to be under water within a 24-hour period.

75

3.5

Conclusion and Recommendation

With all the information gathered and analyzed, as time goes by, the intensity and
amount of rainfall are increasing every year. Although repairing and building new pipes
and pumps or even cleaning the drainages can contribute to decrease of flood, it doesnt
really give a permanent solution to the flooding which is very important as to having a
large positive impact for the city government and the people of Manila.
By proposing this project, it will not only give a good amount of benefits and
advantages such as the reuse of the filtered storm water but will also contribute to a
lasting solution in flooding.
Lastly, the researchers proposed this project carefully and intelligently to help
their fellow countryman. This would not only help in economic terms, but also socially.

75

Chapter 4
Detailed Engineering Design
4.0 Introduction
The National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP) 2012, 6 th Edition was
used upon designing the Propose storm water detention tank to prevent flooding and
reuse of filtered storm water for domestic use in the city of Manila.
In addition, the STAAD v8i 2008, was used in designing the structure. The
American Concrete Institute (ACI) code was also used to be able to design the slab and
the tank itself.
This chapter encloses the major factors for the computation of the design of the
tanks, pipes and the foundation of the structure. Also, enclosed is the process of filtration
which is the design innovation of the project.

4.1 Codes and Loads


Section 103: Classification of Structure:
Nature of Occupancy: III Special Occupancy Structure
Section 104: Design Requirements:
104.1 Strength Requirement: Capacity of Detention Tank
104.2 Serviceability Requirements: Stiff and Durable
104.3 Analysis: Load and Resistance Factor Design
104.4 Foundation Investigation
104.5 Design Review: Engr. Paulo Nazareno
Section 106: Specifications, Drawings and Calculations

4.1.1 Dead Load


Based from the minimum design loads of NSCP 2010, 6 th edition
Self-Weight of the Structure
Electrical and Mechanical Duct allowance = 0.3Kpa

75

4.1.2 Live Load


Live loads in the structure were solved using the National Structural Code of the
Philippines 2010 (NSCP 2010).

Table 4.1

NOTE:
Type of Occupancy

- Miscellaneous

Lot Area

- 5860 m2

4.1.3 Earthquake Load


The design earthquake loads are as per the provisions of the National Structural
Code of the Philippines (NSCP 2010) and Uniform Building Code of 1997 which is for
earthquake Zone. These loads are statistically applied to the structure.

Seismic load factor, Z= 0.4 (table 208-3 NSCP 2010)


Type of seismic source = A (table 208-4 NSCP 2010)
Importance Factor, I = 1 (table 208-1 NSCP 2010)
Numerical Coefficient, R = 3.5 (table 208-11B NSCP 2010)
Soil Profile = SD (note in section 208.4.3 NSCP 2010)
Near source factor:
Na = 1.0 (table 208-4 NSCP 2010)
Nb = 1.2 (table 208-5 NSCP 2010)
Seismic Coefficient: C 1 = 0.0488 (section 208.5.22 NSCP 2010)

75

4.1.4 Load Combinations


By using the National Structural Code of the Philippines, the load combination
was determined and was used in StaadPro v8i. Its load combination was also determined
by the combination of live load, dead load and earthquake.
DL+RLL
1.2D+1.6L
1.2DL+1.0 + EQ along X-axis
1.2DL+1.0 + EQ along Z-axis
0.9DL+1.0 + EQ along X-axis
0.9DL + 1.0 + EQ along Z-axis

4.2 Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency


Rainfall intensity duration frequency relationship of rainfall amounts is one of the
most commonly used tools in water resources engineering for planning, design and
operation of water resource projects. It is very useful in the design of structures such as
drainage works, storm sewer culverts and other hydraulic structures. The intensity we
worked on is the 20 year return period.

75

Table 4.2

4.3 Method of Collection


The scope of the underground detention tank would range from Lawton Avenue
and along Padre Burgos Avenue up to the vicinity of Rizal Park.
To collect the storm water from the boundaries of the project, we are to design a
catch basin which is located every 1km in every direction of the storm water detention
tank. We divided the area into four parts to easily pinpoint and design the pipes that will
connect the catch basin, which is circle dot inside the areas 1,2,3,4, into the filtration tank
to the detention tank. The layout of the storm water pipe lines, detention tank of the
project is designated to the lowest elevation within the study area.

75

Figure 4.1

75

Figure 4.2 (Pipe Layouts of the City of Manila)

Figure 4.3 (Map of the Study Area)


75

4.4 Design of the Structure


There 3 areas of engineering considered upon designing and constructing the
project. First is the geotechnical aspect of the structure which covers the foundation of
the structure. Second is the water resource where it covers the pipe laying, dimension of
the tank and pipes to be used. Lastly, is the structural aspect where it covers the design
and built of the detention tank itself.
Water resource engineering is concerned with the problems associated with the
usage and control of water. It is one of the important fields in engineering because it is
the one responsible for the design, built and management of the network of pipes,
drainages, and treating of domestic and industrial wastewaters before discharging it back
to the environment. It also gives solutions to minimize threat to lives and property due to
flooding.
The thesis is entitled Proposed Storm Water Detention Tank to Prevent Flooding
and Reuse of Filtered Storm Water for Domestic Use in the City of Manila where water
resource engineering and other minor field of engineering will be used.
Water resource engineering is considered upon designing the storm water
detention tank and the filtration tank. The detention tank will serve as storage while all
the storm water that will enter the detention tank will be filtered in the filtration tank
using rapid filtration process.
A detention tank is an artificial flow-control structure that is used to contain storm
water and wastewater for a limited period of a time. It can also be incorporated into the
sewer network system at the wastewater treatment plant or at factories. The dimension of
the detention tank is 130 meters in length, 45 meters in width and 16 meters in depth. The
detention tank can store up to 93,600 cubic meters of water based on a 20 year return
period.
Filtration plays an important role in the natural treatment of groundwater as it
percolates through the soil. It is also a major part of most water treatment. Groundwater
that has been softened, or treated through iron and manganese oxidation, requires
filtration to remove floc created by coagulation or oxidation processes. Since surface
water is subject to run-off and does not undergo natural filtration, it must be filtered to
remove particles and impurities. The filtration method use was rapid filtration process in
which filter sands are used specifically for the purpose of water filtration. Most rapid
sand filters contain 24-30 inches of sand, but some newer filters are deeper. The sand
used is generally 0.4 to 0.6 mm in diameter. This is larger than the sand used in slow rate
filtration. The coarser sand in the rapid filters has larger voids that do not fill as easily.
Gravel installed under the sand layer(s) in the filter prevents filter sand from being lost
during filtration. The under-gravel also distributes the backwash water evenly across the

75

total filter. This under-gravel supports the filter sand and is usually graded in three to five
layers, each generally 6-18 inches in thickness, depending on the type of underdrain used.
The foundation is an isolated footing where further details could be seen in the
paper. The structure is designed with the use of Staad V8i therefore a stability and
strength of the structure is established making the structure stand through time.

*** See Appendix A *** See Appendix B

4.5 Design of Catch Basin


Coefficient:

Note:
Relief:
Soil Infiltration:
Vegetal Cover:
Surface Storage:
Intensity:

0.14 low
0.16 Extreme
0.16 Extreme
0.12 Extreme
Based on 20 year returned period
Largest govern = 238.0449

AREA 1: (4 Catch basins)

75

AREA 2: (14 Catch basins)

AREA 3: (16 Catch basins)

AREA 4: (6 Catch basins)

75

4.6 Design of Pipes

Design Factors:

Assume pipe flowing half


full
n = 0.012 0.024
S = 1%

Mannings Formula

Assume: conduct a survey, knowing the length of the road.

AREA 1:
Line CB 1-2

Line CB 2-3

75

Line CB3 area 3

CB 4 Area 3 CB 1

AREA 2:
Line CB 1-2

Line CB 2-3

75

Line CB 3-4

Line CB 6-4

Line CB 4-5

75

Line CB 5-intersection

Line CB 7-8

Line CB 8-9

Line CB 9-10

75

Line CB 10-intersection

Line CB 11-12

Line CB 12-intersection

75

Line intersection-CB 13

Line CB 13- Area 3 CB 14

AREA 3:
Line CB 1-2

Line CB 2-intersection

75

Line intersection-CB 3

Line CB 3-4

Line CB 4-5

75

Line CB 9-10

Line CB 10-5

Line CB 5-intersection

Line Area 2 CB 14-7

75

Line CB 7-intersection

Line intersection-CB 6

Line CB 6-intersection

75

Line intersection-CB 8

Line CB 11-intersection

Line CB 12-intersection

Line CB 8-intersection

75

Line intersection-CB 13

Line CB 13-Main pipe 2

Line CB 14-15

75

Line CB 16-15

Line CB 15-Main Pipe 1

AREA 4:
Line CB 1-Area 3 CB 5

Line CB 2-3

75

Line CB 3-4

Line CB 4-5

Line CB 5-6

Line CB 6-intersection
75

Line intersection-Main Pipe3

75

4.7 Design of Filtration tank

Design Factors of Rapid Filtration


Process:

0.5% of filtered water for backwashing


0.5
used for backwashing
Rate of filtration = 5000
0.5% of Filter bed area
Depth of sand = 1.5m
Depth of gravel = 1m
Free board of 1m
Total area of holes 0.2-0.5% of filter bed area
Center/center of lateral = 30cm
Diameter of holes in lateral pipe = 13mm

75

Let L:W = 3:1

Underdrainage System in Rapid Filtration Process:

Area of lateral = 1
Area of manifold = 1

75

75

Depth of tank = 1+1.5+1+0.45 = 3.95 = 4m

Filtration tank dimension = 10 meters x 3.5 meters x 4 meters

4.8 Design of Detention Tank


Assume: 100% of total flow rate storage capacity
75

Assume depth = 15m


Assume L:W=3:1
Assume 1m free board

Detention Tank Dimension =130 meters x 45 meters x 16 meters

75

4.9 Subsurface Soil Investigation

4.9.1 Geology of the Site


The site is known to be underlain by a thick sequence of gravel bed Tuff and
tuffaceuos sandstone, siltstone and clay stone known as Guadalupe formation with
bedding plains from 5 to 10 degrees to the west. The bulk of the formation consisting of
lithified volcanic ash, lapilli and crystal sands. Beds rich in sand are not directly derived
from volcanic activity and are common especially in the upper stratigraphic section. They
are generally compact and slightly lithified or cemented by precipitated silica and/or clay.
The terrain underlain by tuff immediately East and North of Manila in Paranaque
is characterized by subdued rolling hills with well integrated, consequent, meandering
drainage systems. This formation is composed of interlayer pyrolastics, 30% to 10%
water when deposited, lahar deposits, air fall tephra, fluviodeltaic and paleosols. The
underlying tuff bedrock is generally well consolidated and cemented, however, varying
degrees of chemical decomposition and disintegrated beds alternating with hard and
unaltered layers.

4.9.2 Geotechnical Analysis and Recommendations


Based on the result of the boreholes, the site subsoil is generally characterized by
the sedimentary deposits consisting of silts sand and clays of varying consistency. The
upper layer consists of loose to medium dense sands as indicated by Standard penetration
test N-values ranging from 5 to 22. Beneath this layer are very loose sands. This layer in
turn is underlain by tiff silts and clays, persisting until a depth of about 24m at a depth of
24m, hard clays/silts as well as siltstone, sandstone was encountered. Rock quality
designation values ranging from 12% to 53% were recorded for the rock formation.
Presumably, this forms as part of the Guadalupe Tuff formation. The water level was
recorded at a depth about 1.50 meters from ground level during the conduct of the field
tests.
The following table summarizes the result of the field drilling and testing for each
borehole:

75

BH-1
Depth (meters)
0.5-4.0

Soil Type
SM

SPT N-Values
5-22

4.0-9.0
9.0-24.0
24.0-30.0

SM
MH/ML/CL
CL

0-4
11-25
75

Relative Condition
Loose to Medium
dense
Very loose to loose
Stiff to very stiff
Hard

Table 4.3

BH-2
Depth
0.5-5.0

Soil Type
SM

SPT N-Values
5-15

5.0-10.0

SM/(ML)

0-4

Remarks
Loose to medium
dense
Very loose to loose

Table 4.4
4.9.3 Further Comments
Stability of Excavation Cuts/Slopes:

During excavation, the stability of open cuts must be ensured. Appropriate


dewatering techniques shall be utilized to ensure that construction of foundations is
undertaken under relatively dry conditions. Adequate support for excavation walls must
be installed to prevent ground deformations or slope failures. It is of primary importance
especially at adjoining roads and properties.
Earth Retaining Structures:
In the analysis and design of earth-relating structures such as excavation supports,
earth pressure may be assumed to increase by 8.0kPa/m with depth, exclusive of
hydrostatic pressure.

75

Table 4.5

4.10 Design of Foundation (Isolated Footing)


Geotechnical engineering is a branch of civil engineering that explains the
mechanics of soil, rock and its application to the development of humankind. It includes,
without being limited to, the analysis, design and construction of foundations, slopes,
retaining structures, embankments, roadways, tunnels, levees, wharves, landfills and
other systems that are made of or are supported by soil or rock. Geotechnical engineers
design structures directly interacting with the subsoil, both onshore and offshore. Risk
assessment associated with geo-hazards such as landslides or earthquakes is another
responsibility of geotechnical engineers. Geotechnical engineering is based on soil and
rock mechanics and testing. Analytical methods play a major role in todays design but
are more and more replaced by numerical methods. Geotechnical engineering shares
common interests with other disciplines such as structural engineering, engineering
geology, material science, or petroleum engineering. Geotechnical engineering is a
truly multi-disciplinary field offering training and research possibilities ranging from
material testing and analytical methods for non-linear numerical modelling of multiphysics problems. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area
which the project will take place. In our proposed project in Intramuros Golf field, the
investigation took place by assessing the possible risk to the neighbouring structures,
Intramuros Administration properties, and the environment from the natural hazard such
as debris flows, rock falls, and sinkholes. The group also considered the pipes
underground that might be affected during the excavation process. In the process of site
investigation such as sampling and laboratory testing of the soil sample retrieved by the
75

geotechnical engineer as well as the group, the soil present at the proposed site consists of
silt clays and sands of varying condition/consistency. Clay soil is a naturally occurring
material composed primarily of fine-grained materials which plasticity through a variable
range of water content, and which can be hardened when dried/ or fired. Clay deposits are
mostly composed of clay minerals, minerals which can impart plasticity. Silt is a granular
material of
a
size
somewhere
between sand and clay whose
mineral
origin
is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil or as sediment mixed in suspension in
a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water
body. Silt has a moderate specific area with a typical non-sticky, plastic feel. Silt usually
has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet. Silt can be visually observed
with a hand lens while is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely
divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and
coarser than silt.

Consideration:
soil = 17.91
Df = 1
fc = 48Mpa

Pu (kN) = 794.56 kN
Qult = 250.2
FS = 2
Fy = 415Mpa

qall =

= 125.10

qeff = (qall soil) (Df) = (125.10 17.91) (1) = 107.19


Aftg =
B=

= 7.41
=

= 2.8m

Solving for new area of the footing:


Aftgnew = B2 = 2.82 = 7.84
qu =
dow =

= 101.35kPa / 1000 = 0.101347MPa


= 110.64

dtw =

75

=-

= 157.85

d is the highest value among dow or dtw: d = 157.85

t = d+105 = 275
w = (qu)(B) = (101.35)(2.8) = 283.77
z=

= 1.08

Solving for ultimate moment


Mu =

= 163.97

dnew = t-105 = 275-105 = 170


Ru =

= 2.251424

=
= 0.005584 > 0.0018
use = 0.005584

As = ()(B)(dnew) = (0.005584)(2800)(170) = 2657.831

75

Solving for No. of Bars

N=

Spacing =

=9

= 320

3t = 3(275) = 825

Use spacing 320mm

75

This is the summarize solution of the equations for each of the isolated footings of
the structure.

Table 4.6

75

4.11 Plan Set

It is the plans that represent the structure using AutoCAD program to project the
properly correct details that is required for the structure.

4.11.1 Civil Design-Site Plan


The civil design-site plan is a plan where the project will be located.

Site Development Plan

75

4.11.2 Architectural Design


Architectural design is composed of the details needed by the structure such as
elevation plans which includes front view, rear view, side view. Also included are the
floor plans and roof framing plans which there is not included on the scope of works of
our project.

4.11.2.1 Elevation Plan

75

75

4.11.3 Structural Design


Structural design includes plans such as beam schedule, slab schedule, foundation
plan and truss in which truss isnt included on our project.

SLAB SCHEDULE

75

75

Major Area of Study: Water Resources Engineering


The Major area of civil engineering to be covered in this project is the water
resource. Hydraulic engineering is the application of fluid mechanics principles to
problems dealing with the collection, storage, control, transport, regulation,
measurement, and use of water. Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one
must figure out how much water is involved. The hydraulic engineer is concerned with
the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial
boundary, and the occurrence of scour and deposition. The hydraulic engineer actually
develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such as
spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways, canals and related
It compasses cover pipe laying, pipe design, dimension of the detention tank and
filtration tank. Detention tanks collect and store storm water runoff during a storm event,
then release it at controlled rates to the downstream drainage system, thereby attenuating
peak discharge rates from the site. With such systems in place, the drainage system as a
whole can cater for higher intensity storms brought about by increasing uncertainties due
to climate change. Detention tanks may be located above ground on buildings, on ground
levels and even underground.
The grading and paving disrupts the historical storm water flow path and the
natural soil absorption process. The resulting soil erosion and transportation of oils and
trash into the surface drainage patterns must be remediated. The surface water speed and
volume is reduced by temporarily "detaining" the rain surge water in ponds or tank
systems and then releasing it more slowly over a period of hours or days to meet
acceptable natural or historic run off rates.
Run off ponds detain the water but do little to remove floating trash and oil. In
addition to being high maintenance, ponds are often an attractive nuisance as well as a
breeding area for mosquitoes, if not properly managed.
Shallow ponds generally take up more space or real estate than an underground
storage tank system. Detention tank systems can be designed to intercept sand, floating
trash, and oils as well as store and release the clarified water at acceptable historic rates.
Periodic maintenance is required on such systems. Sand, oil, and floating trash
accumulation must be monitored and removed as necessary by a vacuum truck. Fine
suspended solids may pass through an upstream baffled interceptor but generally drop out
while water is held in the large quiescent storage tank system. Silt accumulating in the
bottom of the tank must be occasionally removed as well.
The storm water detention tank has a dimension of 130m x 45m x 16m that can
store up to 93,600 m3 of water in which all of the water inside the detention tank is
filtered first and could later be distributed to government buildings and public and private
households for domestic use. This project is located in the golf course of Intramuros near
75

Padre Burgos Ave. to be able to accommodate and cater areas prone to flooding such as
Lawton, the stretch of Padre Burgos Ave. Rizal Park and Lagusnilad and also to easily
discharge water from the tanks into the bay if needed.
Storm water detentions tanks manage storm water quantity flowing to
nearby surface waters. They help prevent flooding and can reduce erosion in rivers and
streams. They do not provide treatment to improve water quality, though some are
attached to a media filter bank to remove pollutants.
Storm water in the detention tank may be discharged either by gravity or through
pumping. In order to ensure that detention volume is available for the next storm event,
discharge systems shall be designed to empty the tank within 4 hours after a storm event.
A gravity discharge system utilizes the head difference between the water in the
detention tank and the receiving drain to discharge the water collected in the detention
tank. Hence, the elevation of the site with respect to the receiving drain will determine
the maximum effective depth of the detention tank. As no pumping is required, gravity
discharge systems generally incur lower operations and maintenance costs as compared
with pumped discharge systems. Where gravity discharge of the storm water is not
feasible due to site constraints, pumped discharge systems may be used.
Discharge of storm water in the detention tank can take place during or after the
storm event, as long as the total peak runoff discharged from the development site is in
compliance with the maximum allowable peak discharge requirement. Systems that are
designed to release the water after the storm event are recommended to have a control
system to activate the discharge so as to ensure reliable operations.
Storm water detention allows for high volume storage of runoff in a small
footprint area. The storage vessels can be made from a variety of materials, including
corrugated metal pipe, aluminum, steel, plastic, fiberglass, pre-cast or poured-inplace concrete.
The detention tanks are typically buried under a parking lot or other open land on
the site. In the latter case this underground vault may be preferable to a surface detention
pond if other uses are intended for the land (e.g. a pedestrian plaza or park). In other
situations a vault is used because installing a pond might pose other problems, such as
attracting unwanted waterfowl or other animals. In some sites a vault may be installed in
the basement of a building, such as a parking garage.
For the inspections of storm water detention tank, it should be carried out at least
once per month and after significant storm events. The detention tank systems should be
75

inspected for the physical condition of the tank stagnant water, clogging at trash racks or
inlet and outlet structures, sedimentation, condition of ancillary fittings and equipment
such as pumps and generators and clearaccess of pathways and openings. Immediate
rectification works should be carried out if the detention system is found not to be in
order.
General maintenance and servicing of mechanical and electrical equipment should
be carried out at least once per year, preferably before the year-end monsoon season.
Where applicable, maintenance works should include desilting/cleaning the detention
tank, cleaning trash screens, servicing/testing the pumps, pump starters and the
instrumentation and control systems and servicing the standby generator. A desilting
pump may be needed to remove silt and sediments from the detention system. If the
pump house is located away from the control room, it should be outfitted with a pressure
gauge so that it can be monitored remotely to ensure that the pumps are working

75

Minor Area of Study: Geotechnical Engineering


One of the minor areas of civil engineering that is covered by the project is
the geotechnical engineering. This branch of civil engineering is concerned with the
analysis, design and construction of foundations, slopes, retaining structures,
embankments, tunnels, levees, wharves, landfills and other systems that are made of or
are supported by soil or rock. . It uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to
investigate subsurface conditions and materials this is to determine the relevant
physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials, to evaluate stability of
natural slopes and man-made soil deposits, to assess risks posed by site conditions;
design earthworks and structure foundations and to monitor site. The geotechnical
research ranges in nature from analytical and numerical study of geotechnical problems
to constitutive modeling, experimental modeling and design. Geo-technology plays a key
role in all civil engineering projects built on or in the ground, and it is vital for the
assessment of natural hazards such as earthquakes, liquefaction, sinkholes, rock falls and
landslides.
Soil properties are the key used by the geotechnical engineers in design
constructions like earthworks, retaining structures and foundations. In geotechnical
engineering, soils are considered a three-phase material composed of: rock or mineral
particles, water and air. The voids of a soil, the spaces in between mineral particles,
contain the water and air. Some of the most important soil properties are the unit weight,
porosity, void ratio, permeability,, compressibility, shear strength and the Atterberg
limits. These properties are critical in designing for the reason that they define the
integrity of the soil.
A building's foundation transmits loads from buildings and other structures to the
earth. Geotechnical engineers design foundations based on the load characteristics of the
structure and the properties of the soils and/or bedrock at the site. In general, geotechnical
engineers estimate the magnitude and location of the loads to be supported, develop an
investigation plan to explore the subsurface, determine necessary soil parameters through
field and lab testing (e.g., consolidation test, tri-axial shear test, vane shear test, standard
penetration test, and design the foundation in the safest and most economical manner.
The primary considerations for foundation support are bearing capacity,
settlement, and ground movement beneath the foundations. Bearing capacity is the ability
of the site soils to support the loads imposed by buildings or structures. Settlement occurs
under all foundations in all soil conditions, though lightly loaded structures or rock sites
may experience negligible settlements. For heavier structures or softer sites, both overall
settlement relative to inbuilt areas or neighboring buildings, and differential settlement
under a single structure, can be concerns. Of particular concern is settlement which
occurs over time, as immediate settlement can usually be compensated for during
construction. Ground movement beneath a structure's foundations can occur due to
shrinkage or swell of expansive soils due to climatic changes, frost expansion of soil,
melting of permafrost, slope instability, or other causes. All these factors must be
considered during design of foundations.
75

Many building codes specify basic foundation design parameters for simple
conditions, frequently varying by jurisdiction, but such design techniques are normally
limited to certain types of construction and certain types of sites, and are frequently very
conservative. In areas of shallow bedrock, most foundations may bear directly on
bedrock; in other areas, the soil may provide sufficient strength for the support of
structures. In areas of deeper bedrock with soft overlying soils, deep foundations are used
to support structures directly on the bedrock; in areas where bedrock is not economically
available, stiff bearing layers are used to support deep foundations instead.
The thesis aims to design a storm water detention tank that can withhold a large
amount of storm water and for this reason, the aspects of geotechnical engineering is
taken into account as one of the minor fields/areas of civil engineering in out thesis.
The footing of the structure is a square footing based on computations.

soil = 17.91
Df = 1
fc = 48Mpa

Pu (kN) = 794.56 kN
Qult = 250.2
FS = 2
Fy = 415Mpa

Aftgnew = B2 = 2.82 = 7.84


qu =
dow =

= 101.35kPa / 1000 = 0.101347MPa


= 110.64

dtw =

=-

= 157.85
75

d is the highest value among dow or dtw: d = 157.85

t = d+105 = 275
w = (qu)(B) = (101.35)(2.8) = 283.77
z=

= 1.08

75

Minor Area of Study: Structural Engineering


Structural engineering is a specialty within the field of civil engineering that
focuses on the framework of structures, and on designing those structures to withstand
the stresses and pressures of their environment and remain safe, stable and secure
throughout their use. In other words, structural engineers make sure that buildings don't
fall down and bridges don't collapse. Structural engineering theory is based upon
applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different
materials and geometries. Structural engineering design utilizes a number of
simple structural elements to build complex structural systems. Structural engineers are
responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and
materials to achieve these goals.

Structural building engineering includes all structural engineering related to the


design of buildings. It is the branch of structural engineering that is close to architecture.
Structural building engineering is primarily driven by the creative manipulation of
materials and forms and the underlying mathematical and scientific ideas to achieve an
end which fulfills its functional requirements and is structurally safe when subjected to
all the loads it could reasonably be expected to experience. This is subtly different from
architectural design, which is driven by the creative manipulation of materials and forms,
mass, space, volume, texture and light to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional
and often artistic.
The architect is usually the lead designer on buildings, with a structural engineer
employed as a sub-consultant. The degree to which each discipline actually leads the
design depends heavily on the type of structure. Many structures are structurally simple
75

and led by architecture, such as multi-storey office buildings and housing, while other
structures, such as tensile structures, shells and grid shells are heavily dependent on their
form for their strength, and the engineer may have a more significant influence on the
form, and hence much of the aesthetic, than the architect.
The structural design for a building must ensure that the building is able to stand
up safely, able to function without excessive deflections or movements which may cause
fatigue of structural elements, cracking or failure of fixtures, fittings or partitions, or
discomfort for occupants. It must account for movements and forces due to temperature,
creep, cracking and imposed loads. It must also ensure that the design is practically

buildable within acceptable manufacturing tolerances of the materials. It must allow the
architecture to work, and the building services to fit within the building and function
The National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP) 2012, 6th Edition was
used upon designing the Propose storm water detention tank to prevent flooding and
reuse of filtered storm water for domestic use in the city of Manila.
In addition, the STAAD v8i 2008, was used in designing the structure. The
American Concrete Institute (ACI) code was also used to be able to design the slab and
the tank itself.

75

In designing the detention tank, identification of the flow of water is first to be


considered so that we can determine the capacity of the tank, the size and lay out of
pipelines that we are going to be needed in the project.
Coefficient:

Note:
Relief:

0.14 low

Soil Infiltration:

0.16 Extreme

Vegetal Cover:

0.16 Extreme

Surface Storage:

0.12 Extreme

Intensity:

Based on 20 year returned period


Largest govern = 238.0449

PIPE SIZE
Design Factors:

Assume pipe flowing half full


n = 0.012 0.024
S = 1%

Mannings Formula

75

The tank also has its three large filter installed to cleanse the storm water that is being
collected and to distribute these water to neighboring establishments.

Design Factors of Rapid Filtration


Process:

0.5% of filtered water for backwashing


0.5

used for backwashing

Rate of filtration = 5000


0.5% of Filter bed area
Depth of sand = 1.5m
Depth of gravel = 1m
Free board of 1m
Total area of holes 0.2-0.5% of filter bed area
Center/center of lateral = 30cm
Diameter of holes in lateral pipe = 13mm

75

75

Chapter 5
Promotional Material
The promotional material is entirely made up of programs namely Google
Sketchup and Photoshop CS3 which helped us make our promotional material a
possibility.
Google Sketch up is a 3D modelling program that is used in fields such as civil,
architectural, mechanical, electrical and even gaming software. This program uses an
application known as 3D warehouse which used to relieve online storage location of
model assemblies such as walls, wall partitions, windows, doors and many more. Also, it
enhances the model subject by using rendering applications such as Shaderlight and VRay. Rendering the structures makes it more realistic which is very helpful in presenting
the project to the owner/client.
Photoshop CS3 is image-editing software that enables the users to perform a
variety of image-altering tasks such as recoloring, cropping, resizing and enhancing of
the image. This software is one of the most used photo-editing programs by
professionals.

Figure 5.1

75

Figure 5.2

75

Chapter 6
Budget Estimation
The bill of quantities is an itemized list of the materials, labors, parts, equipments
and permits that is needed to construct the project. It also includes corresponding costs of
each scope of works and the summation of all the cost to be needed and used in the
project. It is used to provide sufficient information on the quantities of works to be
performed to enable bids to be prepared efficiently and accurately. It is also used in the
periodic valuation of works executed.
For this project, the total incurred cost is sixty million, three hundred one
thousand one hundred sixty five pesos and two centavos (Php 60,301,165.02). In which
fifty three million four hundred fifty five thousand six hundred three pesos and forty
centavos (Php 53,455,603.40), almost 90% of the total cost, is for material costing. And
the remaining 10% which is six million eight hundred forty five thousand five hundred
sixty one pesos and sixty two centavos (Php 6,845,561.62) is for manhour/labor costing.
The budget estimation of the project was done using Microsoft Excel.

75

PROJECT: DETENTION TANK


Item I.D.
A.

MAT'L COSTING

Item Description

Unit

General Requirements
1 Mobilization/ Demobilization
2 Safety Requirements
3 Permits & Licenses

Lot
Lot
Lot

Quantity

1.00
1.00
1.00

Unit Cost

TOTAL COST

Php2,000,000.00
Php300,000.00
Php500,000.00

Sub-Total A
B.

Earthworks
1.1 Clearing and Grubbing
1.2 Structural Excavation
1.3 Compaction

Php2,800,000.00

sq.m.
cu.m.
cu.m.

25,083.00

21,500.00
21,500.00

Php20.00
Php200.00
Php150.00

Sub-Total B
C.

Php2,000,000.00
Php300,000.00
Php500,000.00

Php501,660.00
Php4,300,000.00
Php3,225,000.00
Php8,026,660.00

Structural Works
1 Concrete
6000psi (41 Mpa)
7000psi (48 Mpa)

cu.m.
cu.m.

2 Reinforcing Steel Bars

kg

1,842.80
2,764.20

Php4,222.50
Php4,417.50

Php7,781,223.00
Php12,210,853.50

581,203.00

Php18.70

Php10,868,496.10

75

3 Formworks
Phenolic Plywood (1.2x2.4m) GRADE A
Vertical Frame 190cm/170cm HT
Jack base (flat head)
jack base (u head)
cross brace (2.2m)
walking board
aluma beam 12"
end frame

sq.m.
pcs.
pcs.
pcs.
pcs.
pcs.
pcs.
pcs.

5,850.00
21,650.00
5,500.00
6,000.00
3,000.00
1,000.00
2,000.00
1,500.00

Php110.00
Php200.00
Php80.00
Php80.00
Php150.00
Php100.00
Php50.00
Php150.00

Sub-Total C
D.

Plumbing Works
1 HDPE Pipelines
HDPE Pipe Fittings

Php37,629,072.60

pcs.
pcs.

6,727.00
12

Php1,500.00
Php4,000.00

Sub-Total D
E.

Sanitary Works

TOTAL COST

Php10,090,500.00
Php48,000.00
Php10,138,500.00

Php800,000.00
Sub-Total E

Php643,500.00
Php4,330,000.00
Php440,000.00
Php480,000.00
Php450,000.00
Php100,000.00
Php100,000.00
Php225,000.00

Php800,000.00
Php800,000.00
Php59,394,232.60

MANHOUR COSTING
Description
FORMWORKS
REBAR
CONCRETE
PLUMBING INSTALLATION
TOTAL COST
PROJECT COST

QTY
5,850
581,203
4,607
161,000

UNIT
sq.m.
kgs
cu.m.
sq.m.

UMH USUB
4
0.1 4.25
4
0.15

MANHOUR
23,400
58,120
18,428
24,150.00
124,098

LABOR COST
1,450,800.00
3,603,458.60
1,142,536.00
1,497,300.00
7,694,094.60

SUBCON COST
2,470,112.75

2,470,112.75

DIRECT COST
1,450,800.00
6,073,571.35
1,142,536.00
1,497,300.00
10,164,207.35

69,558,439.95

Chapter 7
Project Schedule
The construction of the proposed project Storm water Detention Tank which
reuses the collected filtered water in the area of the Intramuros Golf Course is planned to
be accomplished in 20 months time period. To be able to compute the duration of the
project and its critical path, Microsoft Project is used. Five major components of the
construction project are present in the computation of the project duration.
A.
B.
C.

D.
E.

Classification
General Requirements
Earthworks
Structural works
1. Concrete Works
2. Rebar Works
3. Formworks
Plumbing Works
Sanitary Works

Duration
20 months
18 months
19 months
19 months
19 months
19 months
5 months

Table 7.1 summary of project duration

The Manpower distribution and Equipment Utilization Schedules vary depending


priorities of each activity and the availability of man power and equipment.
Designation
1. Project Manager
2. Structural Engineer
3. Quality Assurance and Control
Engineer
4. Surveyor
5. Mechanical Engineer
6. Sanitary Engineer
7. Office Engineer
8. Foreman
9. Carpenter
10. Steel Man
11. Masonry
12. Welder
13. Laborer
Equipment
1. Excavator
2. Dump Truck

Quantity (person/s)
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
5
5
3
20
Quantity
1
1

75

3.
4.
5.
6.

Concrete Mixer
Vibrator
Air Compressors
Surveying Equipments
Table 7.2 Equipment Utilization

1
2
2
1

Microsoft Project is used for making the computation of the project duration orderly. By
using this application, GANNT chart and S Curve is made.

75

Conclusion and Summary


Our thesis is entitled Proposed storm water detention tank to prevent flooding
and reuse of filtered storm water for domestic use in the city of Manila. This study aims
to mitigate the perennial problem in the city of Manila which is flooding that causes large
destruction and damage to human lives and properties as well as using the filtered storm
water inside the detention tank to be used domestically. It will also help disseminate
information and give awareness about the benefits that this project would produce so that
they would understand the importance of the structure and its long term solution that it
can provide for a city that always has a problem with flooding.
The structure consists of three filtration tanks that are attached above the
detention tank. All of the storm water that went in the catch basin will be going directly
to the filtration tank, by pipes, and will be filtered properly using the rapid sand filter
process in which filter sands and graded gravel are used. The filtered storm water will
then be used domestically which will help water consumers to lessen their water
consumption and help them and the local government of Manila to save money and at the
same time attract businesses and investors due to decrease in the cost of living which in
turn will generate more income for the city.
The structure is rectangular in shape with a 130m x 45m x 16m dimension and
made up reinforced concrete in which Type II cement was used in the concrete. The yield
strength of the concrete is 48 Mpa or 6,961.8096 psi and 415 Mpa yield strength of steel.
The researchers used StaadPro v8i to be able to compute the design of the project. The
structure is designed to accommodate 93,600 cubic meters of water for a 20 year period
return.

75

Recommendations
It is recommended by the researchers of this study for further research on how to
improve the storm water detention tank and at the same time think of more innovations
that can be included or added in the detention tank to further the present advantages and
benefits that it yields as of now.
The structure designed and presented here has an intensity of 20 years return
period. It can be recommended that to further lessen the cost and be more economical, the
next set of researchers could lower down the intensity to 5-10 year return period,
resulting in smaller dimension which means lower cost or it could be recommended that
the whole detention tank could be divided by into many smaller detention tanks and is
installed in different parts of the city to cover more grounds and have more flexibility.
The distribution of filtered water should also be recommended to be improved.
Finally, the researchers recommend that this kind of project, the storm water
detention tank, should be given more consideration and be built in increasing numbers to
mitigate the recurring problem of the city of Manila which is flooding. In addition, it will
also give the nation an awareness and exposure to this kind of structure which will give
us a long term solution and benefits and in turn, it will make our country more
competitive on global stage.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our deepest and immense gratitude to the various
individuals who contributed and supported us from the start until the completion of our
thesis study.
First, we would like to thank our thesis adviser, Engr. Paulo Nazareno, for
guiding us from the very beginning until the very end of this Thesis Project, for being
patient in reading, understanding, and editing every work and for believing that we will
finish this Thesis Project on time.
To Engr. Ivan Marquez, who serves as our main consultant and second adviser in
the absence or our adviser, for reading our Thesis Project and adding some important
points for our design even if he had busy schedule.
To Engr. Rameil Reonal, for helping us in our design project and giving some of
the important related topics in our Thesis Project.
To Mr. Pips Kelly Serveno, our contact person in FBDC (Fort Bonifacio
Development Corporation), for preparing all the important papers and data that we are
asking about detention tanks that will serve as our main reference in this Thesis Project.
To Ms. April Rose Enerio, who serves as our contact in PAGASA (Philippine
Atmospheric Geophysical & Astronomical Services Administration), for providing us all
the information that we are asking especially the RIDF (Rainfall Intensity Duration
Frequency) data that will make our Thesis Project be possible?
To Manila City Hall, especially for the office of City Engineers, for making
themselves available even at the time of work when we are visiting them to ask some
questions related to our Thesis Project and requesting for representative as our
beneficiary in Final Defense.

To our families, Corvera, Rivera and Silvestre Family, for always being there
supporting us right from the very beginning. For the patience and love that they gave
especially during the hard times and might have disappointed them for quite sometime.
They serve as our inspiration thats why we are more focused and determined to finish
this Thesis Project. And most importantly we give thanks to God for the blessings and
giving us these wonderful people and the knowledge and the strength to finish our thesis
project.

REFERENCES

An analysis of Manila rainfall data (Aida M. Jose, PAGASA, 1971)


http://www.concrete-pipe.org/pdfdd/DD_11.pdf
http://www.udfcd.org/downloads/pdf/tech_manuals/UDFCD_Pipe_Material_Tech_Mem
o_2010.pdf
http://draftingmanuals.tpub.com/14276/css/14276_253.htm
Urban and Highway Stormwater Pollution: Concepts and Engineering (Thorkild HvitvedJacobsen, Jes Vollertsen and Asbjrn Haaning Nielsen, Grundfos, 2010)
Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks,
Second Edition
(Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen, Jes Vollertsen and Asbjrn Haaning
Nielsen, Apr 23, 2013)
The Stormwater Retention Performance of Rainwater Tanks at the Landparcel Scale
(Burns M.J., Fletcher T.D., Duncan H.P., Hatt B.E., Ladson A.R. and Walsh C.J)
The performance of rainwater tanks for stormwater retention and water supply at the
household scale: an empirical study (Burns M.J., Fletcher T.D., Duncan H.P., Hatt B.E.,
Ladson A.R. and Walsh C.J)
Stormwater Tank Performance: Design and Management Criteria for Capture Tanks
Using a Continuous Simulation and a Semi-Probabilistic Analytical Approach (Francesco
De Paola, and Flavio De Martino, 17 October 2013)
Water Resources Engineering, 2nd Edition (Mays, Lary W, 2010)

APPENDIX A
STAAD MODEL

STAAD MODEL

3D Model

Front and Rear side view

Right and Left side view

Loadings

APPENDIX B
GENERAL NOTES
AND
SPECIFICATIONS

General Notes and Specifications

1.0 WORKING DRAWINGS


1.1 This "General Notes and Specifications for Structural Works" shall form part of the
Structural Plan.
1.2 In the interpretation of these structural plans, indicated dimensions shall govern and
distances or sizes shall not be scaled for construction purposes.
1.3 In cases of conflict in details or dimensions between the Architectural and
Structural plans refer to the Structural Engineer or his authorized representative for final
decision.
1.4 In cases of conflict between the Structural Plans and the General Notes
And Specifications, the Plans shall govern.

2.0 DESIGN LOADS


Methods and criteria for designing all the structural members are based from National
Structural Code of the Philippines Edition 2010 (NSCP 2010).
2.1 Dead Loads
The design of dead loads unless otherwise specified in the structural plans are as follows:
Electrical and Mechanical Duct Allowance = 0.3 kPa
Any loading different from or exceeding these loads should get an approval from the Structural
Engineer.
2.2 Live Loads
The design live loads unless otherwise specified in the plans are as follows

These design live loads shall never be exceeded at any time during the life of the structure
without the written consent of the Structural Engineer.

2.3 EARTHQUAKE LOADS

The design earthquake loads are as per the provisions of the National Structural Code of
the Philippines (NSCP 2010) and Uniform Building Code of 1997 which is for earthquake Zone.
These loads are statistically applied to the structure.

Seismic load factor, Z= 0.4 (table 208-3 NSCP 2010)


Type of seismic source = A (table 208-4 NSCP 2010)
Importance Factor, I = 1 (table 208-1 NSCP 2010)
Numerical Coefficient, R = 3.5 (table 208-11B NSCP 2010)
Soil Profile = SD (note in section 208.4.3 NSCP 2010)
Near source factor:
N a = 1.0 (table 208-4 NSCP 2010)
N b = 1.2 (table 208-5 NSCP 2010)
Seismic Coefficient: C 1 = 0.0488 (section 208.5.22 NSCP 2010)

2.4 LOAD COMBINATION

DL+RLL
1.2D+1.6L
1.2DL+1.0 + EQ along X-axis
1.2DL+1.0 + EQ along Z-axis
0.9DL+1.0 + EQ along X-axis
0.9DL + 1.0 + EQ along Z-axis

3.0 REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION


3.1 Cement shall conform to Portland Cement ASTM C150
3.2 Concrete aggregates shall conform to ASTM C33 except the aggregates failing to
meet these specifications but \which have produced concrete of adequate
Strength hand durability may be used to the approval of the Structural Engineer.

3.3 Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oil,
acids, alkalis, salts, organic material or other deleterious to concrete or steel.
3.4 Reinforcing bars shall conform to ASTM A615

3.5 Admixtures to be used in concrete shall be subject to prior approval by the Structural
Engineer.
3.6 Cement and aggregates shall be stored in such a manner as to prevent their
deterioration or the intrusion of foreign matter.
3.7 Concrete cylinder samples for strength tests of each class of concrete shall be taken
not less than twice a day nor less than once for each 110 cu.m. of concrete or for each 490 sq.m.
of surface area place. The cylinder samples for strength tests shall be taken cured and tested in
accordance with ASTM C172, ASTM C31, andASTM C39.
3.8 Acceptance of Concrete
Concrete poured will be considered satisfactory if the average of all sets of these
consecutive strength tests results equal or exceeds the required concrete strength(fc') and not
individual strength test falls below the required fc' by more than 500 psi.
3.9 Core Tests and Load Tests
If individual tests of laboratory cured cylinder samples produced strength
More than 500 psi below fc' core test and or load tests may be resorted subject to the approval by
the Structural Engineer.
3.10Mixing of Concrete
All concrete shall be mixed until there is a uniform distribution of the material sand shall
be discharged completely before the mixer is recharged.
3.11Conveying of Concrete
Concrete shall be conveyed from the mixer to the place of final deposit by methods that
will prevent the separation or loss of materials.
3.12Depositing of Concrete
Concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practicable in its final position to avoid
segregation due to re-handling or flowing.
3.13Curing
Concrete shall be maintained in a moist condition for at least 7 days after placing. Wet
burlap may be laid over the slab constantly applied with water.
4.0 CONCRETE MIXES
The minimum 28 day cylinder compressive strength shall be as shown:

5.0 FOOTINGS
5.1 Footings shall be designed as isolated footings as recommended in the soil
investigation report.
5.2 Existing underground pipes, tunnels, etc., shall be brought to the attention of the
Structural Engineer for evaluation.
5.3 All earth fill supporting ground slabs for flooring, parking sidewalk, etc., shall be
compacted 90% proctor to layers of 0.30m unless otherwise specified by the Structural Engineer.
6.0 REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS

6.1 If slabs are reinforced both ways, bar along the shorter span shall be placed below
those along the long span at the center and over the longer span bars near the supports.
6.2 Lengths of bar cut off shall be as specified in General Structural Notes.
6.3 Concrete covering shall be 20mm but 75mm for those exposed on earth.
6.4 Unless otherwise specified by the Structural Engineer, bar chairs shall be provided
atleast 600mm each way to support top and bottom bars separately.
9.0CONCRETE PROTECTIONS FOR REINFORCEMENT
The following minimum concrete cover shall be provided for reinforcing bars,
prestressing tendons or ducts. For bar bundles, the minimum cover shall equal the equivalent
diameter of the bundled bars needed but not more than 2 inches on the tabulated minimum
whichever is greater.
Cast -in-place concrete: (Non-Pre-stressed Concrete Construction)
a.) Cast against and permanently exposed to earth 75mm
b.) Exposed to earth or weather 20mm diameter and larger50mm
c.) Not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, slabs, walls and joints.
36mm diameter and smaller = 19mm
No. 14 and No. 18 = 38mm
Beams, girders and columns
Principal reinforcements, ties, stirrups or spirals = 38mm
10.0REINFORCING BARS
All reinforcing bars shall be deformed conforming to ASTM A615-68. Unless otherwise
noted in plans, the minimum yield strength of the reinforcing bars to be used corresponding to
the structural member shall be as enumerated below:
a.) fy = 40,000 psi for 12mm and smaller sizes
b.) fy = 60,000 psi for 16mm and larger sizes

Equivalent metric size bars when used shall be as per tabulations below:
No.3
No.4
No.5
No.6
No.8
No.9
No.10
No.11

10 mm
12 mm
16 mm
20 mm
25 mm
28 mm
32 mm
36 mm

11.0 STANDARD HOOK


A standard hook for rebar if required shall be either of the following:
a.) A semicircular turn plus an extension of at least 4 bar diameter but not less than 62mm at the
free end of the bar.
b.) A 90-degree turn plus an extension of at least 12 bar diameter at the free end of the bar.
Minimum diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar shall be as follows:
10 mm to 25 mm - 6 bar diameter
28 mm to 36 mm - 8 bar diameter
No. 14 to No. 18 -10 bar diameter
12.0REMOVAL OF FORMS AND SHORES
Forms shall be removed in such a manner as to ensure complete safety of
The structure .Unless otherwise specified by the Structural Engineer, the following shall be the
basis of removal of forms and shoring for reinforced concrete construction.
Age of Concrete:
Beam side forms 2 days
Column side forms 2 days
Slab bottom forms 7 days

APPENDIX C
ARTICLE TYPE PAPER

Proposed Storm Water Detention Tank to Prevent Flooding and


Reuse of Filtered Storm Water for Domestic Use in the City of
Manila (Areas from Lawton to Rizal Park)

Glenn Mark I. Corvera, Renz Joseph M. Rivera, Raymond C. Silvestre, Engr. Paulo Nazareno

MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering (SCEGE)

March 2014

ABSTRACT

For this project proposal, the researchers were given a chance to provide the Local
Government of Manila a proposal of the storm water detention tank to prevent flooding and
reuse of filtered storm water for domestic use in the city of Manila. This proposal will provide a
solution to the perennial problem about flooding in Manila while having economic benefits at the
same time. Furthermore, this proposal will make the people understand the benefits of this kind
of structure and its advantages. The Civil Engineering areas to be covered are water resource,
geotechnical and structural.

Keywords: Water Detention Tank, filtered water

Acronyms / Abbreviations
ACI
AISC
CAD
NSCP
NCR
SRC

American Concrete Institute


American Institute of Steel Construction
Computer Aided Design
National Structural Code of the Philippines
National Capital Region
Steel Reinforced Concrete

1 Intoduction
The Philippines is located within the Pacific typhoon belt with most of the population
vulnerable to the impacts of natural calamities. There is an annual average of twenty tropical
typhoons that enters the Philippines area of responsibility (PAR) which can be more powerful,
more destructive and may even have an increasing number due to climate change, and because of
this, six to eight of these cyclones directly hits the country causing large water-related
destruction and damages to properties and human lives. According to the report of the Office of
Civil Defense and National Risk Reduction Management Council, approximately five hundred to
thousands of people every year are killed and/or missing due to floods brought by the typhoons.
Intramuros golf field is one of the facilities that were built by the Intramuros
Administration during the rehabilitation and restoration of Intramuros to cater its historical value
and also to bolster the tourism in Manila city. The golf field has a length of 4,326 yards, quite
relatively short compared to other golf fields in metro manila. Still there are plenty of challenges
to have a genuine leisurely fun. The golf field inside Intramuros is situated at the heart of Manila
with major roads surrounding it for instance the Padre Burgos Ave. That being said, the field and
the roads are always flooded especially during a non-stop torrential rain causing a large volume
of traffic congestion and difficulty for the commuters and people within the vicinity.
This condition led the researchers to come up with a design of a detention tank using
stored water to be reused for domestic purposes by the nearby residents and for the city
government of Manila. Through this project, the water stored inside the detention tank will be
filtered then distributed to the above mentioned which represents a recycling of urban storm
water. The idea of a detention tank and its stored storm water to be used domestically, will not
only give benefit in terms of water supply, but will also greatly help in the decrease of flooding
within the area of the project.

1.1 Problem Statement


According to the data, flooding in Manila reaches an average depth of 0.5-1.5 meters. A
heavy torrential rain can reach up to 1.5 meters or more with an ever increasing height through
time due to climate change. The storm water pumps and pipes used in Manila are either outdated
or old. Taking in consideration that Manila is an area below sea level and is situated in the
middle of Manila Bay and Laguna Lake, turns out to be a catch basin for these two rivers
especially when the river overflows because of continuous rain making the city flooded of
rainwater. With this, the flooding within Manila is a continuous recurring problem that causes a
lot of damage to properties and inconvenience to human lives.

1.2 Project Objective


The main objective of our project is to design a storm water detention tank structure
within the Intramuros golf field that prevents flooding within the areas such as Padre Burgos
Ave, around Manila City hall and Lawton. It uses stored filtered water coming from the rain that
can be used domestically for the benefit of the neighbouring establishments. This project will not
only help solve the recurring problem of the city of Manila about flooding but will also help us to
reuse water thus saving a lot of money in the process and avoiding inconvenience to people and
damage to properties. Furthermore, it will also promote the use of storm water detention tanks to
give solution to the flooding within and outside Manila especially on below sea level and catch
basin areas.
1.3 Design Norms Considered
The design norms considered
environmental and economic aspect.

in

this

project are the structural,

hydrological,

One design norm considered is its economic aspect which focuses on achieving the most
cost effective design. Since this is a detention tank it means that the structure is mostly under the
natural grade line, the simplicity of the architectural aspect of this project will reduce the cost,
which can be one source of large budget cost. Structural design norm of this project shall include
durable and flexible and cost effective materials.
The safety of the people within and outside the area of the project will be assured by
strictly following the codes and the standard procedures.
1.4 The Project Beneficiary
The storm water detention tank will benefit the Manila City Government and the
Intramuros Administration by using the stored storm water in the detention tank for domestic use
of the people, giving a long term solution to the recurring problem about floods and serve as a
future deterrent for major catastrophe brought about by powerful storms thus attracting more
investors in the city which helps the economy of the local government. It will also avoid loss of
life and damages to the infrastructures and the livelihoods of the people living in Manila.

1.5 The Innovative Approach


Various technical applications will be used to finish the project. These programs are as
follows:
o Google SketchUp
This

program

will

be

used

to

do

the

perspective

of

the

project.

o STAADPro
This program will help design the structure of the project.
o AutoCAD
This software will be used to design the structural and architectural plan and
specification of the project.
1.6 The Research Component
The researchers will conduct a research about the proper design of the detention tank and
its capacity and distribution to the sewage treatment plant to properly accommodate the large
volume of water that accumulates within the immediate and the neighbouring vicinity of the
project, and to further determine the materials that will be used in the structure
Furthermore, the researchers will conduct a research study about the related literature for
the storm water detention tank that will be constructed in the specific area. The study of related
literature will further be used in presenting the need for structures like this to prevent and give
permanent solution to the flooding in Manila. Moreover, the cost of this project will be analyzed
including the installation and application for this kind of structure.
1.7 The Design Component
These are the design components to be considered in this project:
o Tanks
This will serve as the holding area/storage for the storm water that will be used as a
supply for domestic use.
o Pumps
This machine will help pump the storm water from the tanks into the sewer treatment
plant.
o Pipes

This will serve as the pathway for the water to go in and out of the storage tanks and
be conveyed to the sewer treatment plant to be used domestically.
o Substructure
This includes the kind of foundation to be used in the structure with respect to the
soils stability, bearing capacity and seismic force. The design of the substructure will
conform to the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010.
1.8 Sustainable Development Concept
The sustainable development concept involves storm water being filtered using rapid
filtration process in which filter sand and gravels are used before the water goes in the detention
tank for it to be readily used domestically or be dumped in the Pasig river and/or Manila bay.
The demand of water used for domestic purposes will lessen because of the recycling and
reusing of storm water inside the detention tank. This will diminish the negative impacts on the
environment while solving the problem of shortage in water supply within the city.

2 Environmental

Examination Report

2.1 Project Description


As we all know, Manila City is one of the most affected city in terms of flooding during
the rainy season. In addition to this, the increasingly extreme and ever changing weather brought
by climate change, the old, outdated pumps and sewers of the city including rivers and drainages
clogged by garbage and wastes and human negligence for the environment are the main leading
causes of the flooding problem and with potable water being costly. With these recurring
problems, the storm water detention tank will not only help heighten the prevention of flooding
but also help supply water for domestic use while mitigating the burden of paying water bills.
With citizens and other government officials, having no clue about the benefits of the
detention tank and its lasting solution for the flooding in the metropolis, our project aims to cater
and give awareness and information about the advantages of the project to those who are curious
and interested while giving solution to the ever occurring problem of the city which is flooding.

2.2 Impact Assessment and Mitigation


Discussion of Environmental Impacts
2.2.1 Air Quality (Moderate Impact)

The Air quality within the project area will be affected mainly by the dust coming from
the excavation, clearing of the site area, and the construction of the detention tank.
2.2.2 Odor (Low to Moderate Impact)

There can be a minimal foul smell within the construction site due to the different
materials to be used during its construction, such as cement and materials used in slope
protection.
2.2.3 Water Pollution (Low Impact)

The water quality will not be affected during the construction of the detention basin even
if there will be new pipes that will be connected to the existing ones.
2.2.4 Waste (Low to Moderate Impact)

This may come from the chemicals used for the soil and construction materials.
2.2.5 Noise Pollution (Low to Moderate Impact)

Noise may come not only from the labourers and the construction of the structure itself,
but also from the construction machinery and equipment.
2.2.6 Population Density (Low Impact) Population Density

The project is located within a golf field so there will be minimal people within the
vicinity which is composed mainly of people who plays golf.
2.2.7 Occupational Health and Safety (High Impact)

The project may cause injury or death to a worker that is why health and safety is
important especially for workers and heavy machinery operators. This also covers protective
equipment such as the personal protective equipment and safety signboards.

3 The Research Component


3.1 Introduction
Flooding is one of the most recurring problems in our country. It does not only affect the
livelihood and damage the properties of the people but also give doubts to future investors to
invest which can greatly help in the growth of our economy. This perennial problem is caused by
global warming, which gives off heavy intensity typhoon and melts the polar ice caps that
contribute to the rise in sea level.
The storm water detention tank, an underground water storage tank that handles storms
excess water runoff that is caused by paving, natural soil grade line with cement and asphalt
which disrupts the natural flow path and absorption process of the soil. The storm water
detention tank detains the rain water surge, which temporarily reduces the speed and volume of
the surface water and helps prevent flooding.
For this project proposal, the researchers are planning to design the storm water detention
tank for the purpose of helping the City of Manila and its citizens in the prevention of flood
which includes the reuse of the treated water to be used domestically by the people of the city.
3.2 Review of Related Literature
3.2.1

Rainfall Normal Values

Statistical parameters of Manila rainfall data are computed and examined using 105
years of record. Variability of the rainfall is high and the distribution is positively skewed. It is
shown also that long periods of Manila rainfall records are necessary to stabilize the values of
mean and standard deviations for both dry and wet months. Analysis of the variation of 5-term
binomially weighted averages of twelve months rainfall indicates long period oscillations of 33
to 43 years irregular shorter period oscillations of 5 to 11 years. [1]
3.2.2

Nature of Flood

"From a strict hydrological sense, flood is defined as a rise, usually brief, in the water
level in a stream to a peak from which the water level recedes at a slower rate. The episodic
behaviour of a river that may be considered flood is then termed "flood event" which is described
as a flow of water in a stream constituting a distinct progressive rise, culminating in a crest,
together with the recession that follows the crest. [2]
1
2

Aida M. Jose, PAGASA, 1971 Analysis of Rainfall Data


Linsley, 194

3.2.3

Concept of Storm Water Tank

The

concept of the storm water detention tank is to temporarily store excess storm water

runoff. This is to avoid hydraulic overload of the sewer system, which could result in the
flooding if roads and building with untreated wastewater or its release directly into the
environment, causing pollution. When space is available in the sewer system, the detained water
is released at a rate not exceeding the capacities of the sewer system, and the tank should be
cleaned ready for the next flush. [3]
3.2.4

Storm Water Tank Performance

Stormwater tank performance significantly depends on management practices. This


paper proposes a procedure to assess tank efficiency in terms of volume and pollutant
concentration using four different capture tank management protocols. The comparison of the
efficiency results reveals that, as expected, a combined bypassstormwater tank system
achieves better results than a tank alone. The management practices tested in the tank-only
systems provide notably different efficiency results. The practice of immediately emptying after
the end of the event exhibits significant levels of efficiency and operational advantages. All other
configurations exhibit either significant operational problems or very low performances. The
continuous simulation and semi-probabilistic approach for the best tank management practice are
compared. The semi-probabilistic approach is based on a Weibull probabilistic model of the
main characteristics of the rainfall process. Following this approach, efficiency indexes were
established. The comparison with continuous simulations shows the reliability of the
probabilistic approach even if this last is certainly site sensitive. [4]
The use of tanks to harvest and store rainwater has the potential to simultaneously:
1) augment potable water supplies and 2) restore some aspects of pre-development flow regimes
in receiving waters. However, the use of rainwater tank to achieve these multiple objectives has
not been well quantified. Such quantification is required to assist the development of computer
models of urban water systems capable of up-scaling the effects of rainwater harvesting at the
land-parcel scale to simulate catchment-scale responses. In this paper, we quantify how the use
of rainwater tanks in a temperate climate (740 mm average annual rainfall) can achieve these
multiple objectives at the land-parcel scale, based on water use measurement from houses with a
range of tank volumes and demands. We use these new empirical data to model a range of
typical rainwater tank scenarios. It is shown that tank yield can be substantial and is not

Storm, Water Tanks.pdf (Storm Water Tanks Recommendations and Layout by Mays, Lary)

Francesco De Paola, and Flavio De Martino, 17 October 2013)

significantly reduced when tanks are configured for passive irrigation, even though this design
modification significantly improves the capacity of the tanks to retain rainfall events. We also
find that the use of tanks alone cannot completely restore the natural retention capacity of typical
land-parcels. Our results suggest that typical rainwater tank scenarios can concurrently assist in
restoring pre-predevelopment flow regimes and reliably augment potable supply. If retention
capacity is limited by tank volume or a lack of demands, tanks could be allowed to partly drain
to the garden for passive irrigation or be configured to overflow to infiltration-based retention
systems. [5]
3.2.5

Storm Water Tank an Effective Solution

Storm

water is an effective way of reducing peak flow and equalising flow rates from
storm water run-off in the sewer system. Placed strategically, Storm water tanks mean better
utilisation of the existing sewer system, allow for intelligent management of storm water flows,
and ultimately save on infrastructure investments.
Storm water tanks are cost effective solution because sewer lines are already
constructed and generally have a substantial remaining lifetime and existing pipes in an urban
environment is in addition to being very expensive is also troublesome. [6]

3.3 Methodology
The project proposal is focused mainly on the design of the storm water tank and the use of its
treated water to provide supply for domestic use in which the City Government of Manila and its
citizen will benefit.
Upon the realization of the solution to this perennial problem, the researchers will locate
an area suitable for the construction of the project proposal with the help of the officials in the
city engineering department of the city. Then after finding a suitable area, the researchers will
research and analyse the soil and topography of that area to be able to quantify whether the soil
in that vicinity is suitable for a storm detention tank to be built upon.
The next step would be obtaining the maximum volume of rainfall preferably from
PAGASA to be able to start the design of the volume capacity of the storm water tanks. Then the

Burns M.J., Fletcher T.D., Duncan H.P., Hatt B.E., Ladson A.R. and Walsh C.J

Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen, Jes Vollertsen and Asbjrn Haaning Nielsen, Grundfos, 2010

researchers will analyse and interpret the obtained rainfall data from the weather bureau to
pinpoint the largest rainfall within the year. After getting the volume, it can be continued to the
design phase where it includes the geotechnical phase, mainly the foundation of the structure, the
hydrological phase where it includes the design proper of the tanks, the specification of pipes and
pumps and lastly, the layout of the pipes within the tanks.
After all of that, the cost and material estimation is to be computed which also covers the
estimated total cost of the project proposal upon the start and end of the project.

4 Results and Discussions


Storm water detention tank, as said before, is an underground water storage tank that
handles storm excess water runoff that is caused by paving natural soil grade line with cement
and asphalt that disrupts the natural flow path and absorption process of the soil. The storm water
detention tank detains the rain water surge which reduces temporarily the speed and volume of
the surface water and helps prevent flooding.
Upon gathering the data, it can be clearly seen that the normal rainfall average within
Manila is 2103.6 where most of its accumulated rainfall is during the months of August with
420.5mm, September with a 432.4mm and October which has 355.1mm amount of rainfall. Then
with the maximum rainfall experienced within the city, it received a 472mm of accumulated
rainfall within a 22-hour period during Habagat that pave way for the large part of Manila to
be under water within a 24-hour period.

5 Conclusion
Our thesis is entitled Proposed storm water detention tank to prevent flooding and reuse
of filtered storm water for domestic use in the city of Manila. This study aims to mitigate the
perennial problem in the city of Manila which is flooding that causes large destruction and
damage to human lives and properties as well as using the filtered storm water inside the
detention tank to be used domestically. It will also help disseminate information and give
awareness about the benefits that this project would produce so that they would understand the
importance of the structure and its long term solution that it can provide for a city that always has
a problem with flooding.
The structure consists of three filtration tanks that are attached above the detention tank.
All of the storm water that went in the catch basin will be going directly to the filtration tank, by
pipes, and will be filtered properly using the rapid sand filter process in which filter sands and
graded gravel are used. The filtered storm water will then be used domestically which will help
water consumers to lessen their water consumption and help them and the local government of

Manila to
save money and at the same time attract businesses and investors due to decrease
in the cost of living which in turn will generate more income for the city.
The structure is rectangular in shape with a 130m x 45m x 16m dimension and made up
reinforced concrete in which Type II cement was used in the concrete. The yield strength of the
concrete is 48 Mpa or 6,961.8096 psi and 415 Mpa yield strength of steel. The researchers used
StaadPro v8i to be able to compute the design of the project. The structure is designed to
accommodate 93,600 cubic meters of water for a 20 year period return.

6 Recommendation
It is recommended by the researchers of this study for further research on how to improve
the storm water detention tank and at the same time think of more innovations that can be
included or added in the detention tank to further the present advantages and benefits that it
yields as of now.
The structure designed and presented here has an intensity of 20 years return period. It
can be recommended that to further lessen the cost and be more economical, the next set of
researchers could lower down the intensity to 5-10 year return period, resulting in smaller
dimension which means lower cost or it could be recommended that the whole detention tank
could be divided by into many smaller detention tanks and is installed in different parts of the
city to cover more grounds and have more flexibility. The distribution of filtered water should
also be recommended to be improved.
Finally, the researchers recommend that this kind of project, the storm water detention
tank, should be given more consideration and be built in increasing numbers to mitigate the
recurring problem of the city of Manila which is flooding. In addition, it will also give the nation
an awareness and exposure to this kind of structure which will give us a long term solution and
benefits and in turn, it will make our country more competitive on global stage.

7 Acknowledgment
We would like to express our deepest and immense gratitude to the various individuals
who contributed and supported us from the start until the completion of our thesis study.
First, we would like to thank our thesis adviser, Engr. Paulo Nazareno, for guiding us
from the very beginning until the very end of this Thesis Project, for being patient in reading,
understanding, and editing every work and for believing that we will finish this Thesis Project on
time.
To Engr. Ivan Marquez, who serves as our main consultant and second adviser in the
absence or our adviser, for reading our Thesis Project and adding some important points for our
design even if he had busy schedule.

To Engr. Rameil Reonal, for helping us in our design project and giving some of the
important related topics in our Thesis Project.
To Mr. Pips Kelly Serveno, our contact person in FBDC (Fort Bonifacio Development
Corporation), for preparing all the important papers and data that we are asking about detention
tanks that will serve as our main reference in this Thesis Project.
To Ms. April Rose Enerio, who serves as our contact in PAGASA (Philippine
Atmospheric Geophysical & Astronomical Services Administration), for providing us all the
information that we are asking especially the RIDF (Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency) data
that will make our Thesis Project be possible?
To Manila City Hall, especially for the office of City Engineers, for making themselves
available even at the time of work when we are visiting them to ask some questions related to our
Thesis Project and requesting for representative as our beneficiary in Final Defense.
To our families, Corvera, Rivera and Silvestre Family, for always being there supporting
us right from the very beginning. For the patience and love that they gave especially during the
hard times and might have disappointed them for quite sometime. They serve as our inspiration
thats why we are more focused and determined to finish this Thesis Project. And most
importantly we give thanks to God for the blessings and giving us these wonderful people and
the knowledge and the strength to finish our thesis project.

REFERENCES

An analysis of Manila rainfall data (Aida M. Jose, PAGASA, 1971)


http://www.concrete-pipe.org/pdfdd/DD_11.pdf
http://www.udfcd.org/downloads/pdf/tech_manuals/UDFCD_Pipe_Material_Tech_Memo_2010.
pdf
http://draftingmanuals.tpub.com/14276/css/14276_253.htm
Urban and Highway Stormwater Pollution: Concepts and Engineering (Thorkild HvitvedJacobsen, Jes Vollertsen and Asbjrn Haaning Nielsen, Grundfos, 2010)
Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second
Edition (Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen, Jes Vollertsen and Asbjrn Haaning Nielsen, Apr 23,
2013)
The Stormwater Retention Performance of Rainwater Tanks at the Landparcel Scale (Burns M.J.,
Fletcher T.D., Duncan H.P., Hatt B.E., Ladson A.R. and Walsh C.J)
The performance of rainwater tanks for stormwater retention and water supply at the household
scale: an empirical study (Burns M.J., Fletcher T.D., Duncan H.P., Hatt B.E., Ladson A.R. and
Walsh C.J)
Stormwater Tank Performance: Design and Management Criteria for Capture Tanks Using a
Continuous Simulation and a Semi-Probabilistic Analytical Approach (Francesco De Paola, and
Flavio De Martino, 17 October 2013)
Water Resources Engineering, 2nd Edition (Mays, Lary W, 2010)

APPENDIX D
ASSESSMENT SHEET

APPENDIX E
ENGLISH EDITOR

APPENDIX F
CONSULTATION
FORMS

APPENDIX G
ASSESSMENT
FORMS

APPENDIX H
PROJECT POSTER

APPENDIX I
PHOTOCOPY OF
RECEIPTS

APPENDIX J
RELEVANT PHOTOS

APPENDIX K
OTHER REQUIRED
FORMS

APPENDIX L
STUDENT
REFLECTIONS

Corvera, Glenn Mark I.

Reflection

I graduated high school on the year 2008 and decided to take the Civil Engineering
program at Mapua Institue of Technology. Right now, i am happy at the same time proud that I
have graduated in one of the prestigious school here in the country. The inspiration for taking up
this course was my father who is a Civil Engineer also.
From the date of my graduation, three years from now, I have achieved being a licensed
Civil Engineer and was able to finish my masters degree and other specializations that I may
like. By this time I am working in my fathers construction company as a field engineer and
would have enough experience in the field that I may be promoted and be able to handle many
more projects and able at the same time to expand my understanding and technicalities in the
field of Civil Engineering in terms of installation, concreting, plumbing, rebar works and even
formworks.
After five years and more, I would have sufficient wisdom, knowledge and experience
that I can co-lead the company with my father and be able to further expand the company. When
the time is ripe, Ill replace my father and lead the company further.

RIVERA, Renz Joseph M.


Reflection:

In 3 years, as a Licensed Civil Engineer, I will have a stable starting job in one of the
biggest construction company in the Philippines. In this company I am a field Engineer that will
monitor all the Rebar works, Concreting works, form works, etc. Because I learned many things
in construction when I was in my OJT period this will help a lot for me to understand all the
importance of all the works done in the construction site. Also, this will help a lot for me to
excellently make all my jobs as Field Engineer.

In 5 years, as a Licensed Civil Engineer, I think I have enough experience so that my


position in the construction company will be promoted because I have enough knowledge to
prove that I am worth it to be promoted by the company in all the good things I have done to this
company. At this time, coming from being a field or site engineer, I will be a Project in charge or
Supervisor in the field or in a specific construction site.

In 10 years, as a Licensed Civil Engineer, in many experienced I have done and many
construction site problems I had encountered and solved, I think this is the right time for me to
be a Project Manager. I know that in this time of my career, I have enough knowledge to face all
the problems that will be possibly encountered in the site and because I am prepared and focused
to my job as Project Manager, Im sure that I can make this all happen possible.

In more than 10 years, I think I have the skill and experienced to have my own
construction company. Also, at this point I have the capital to start my own company. This can
be a partnership company or a Corporation company depends on how it goes. But for sure this is
possible to my plan if I will be more focused on my job and to all the things that Im doing
starting now.

SILVESTRE, Raymond C.

Reflection

After graduating high school I have already decided that I would take up Civil
Engineering course and the only school that I have chosen to study at is the Mapua Institute of
Technology. In my childhood days, I was very amazed on how buildings, bridges and other
structures are made and I told myself that someday, I am going to build some of those structures
of my own. And that is the reason why I have chosen the Civil Engineering field. Now that I
have finished the Civil Engineering Course, I am very proud of myself that I have survived an
engineering course in Mapua Institute of Technology in which I believe to be the best
engineering school in the country and a school which advance globally compared to other
schools.

In five years, I see myself as a successful engineer working overseas, practicing the
expertise that I have learned in the Philippines. Continuing to grow my knowledge in
construction by comparing different structural cultures all over the world and meeting different
professionals which may help me learn and understand the construction field more and to learn
on how to deal with struggles in construction field. Upon having enough resources, I will return
to my country and start a construction business of my own and adapt the knowledge of
construction that I have learned in private construction companies abroad that a have worked at
to help develop our own land.

And lastly, I see myself five years from now having a family of my own, a good provider,
and a loving husband to my wife and a dedicated father to my kids. I want my family to live with
respect to one another and have the value of humility. I see myself having a happy family
enjoying life to the fullest and living in a good environment providing everything my family
needs and wants.

RESUME

GLENN MARK I. CORVERA


Blk. 1 Lot 15 Dionisio Royale Executive Homes
#38 Beethoven Street, Sauyo, Quezon City
Telephone: (632)-454-9105 (Home)
09158596572 (Mobile)
Email: gm_the_gm@yahoo.com

Objective
To acquire the necessary training to gain and enhance further skills in the field of Civil Engineering; To be
able to work in a company where I can apply my knowledge and perform my service; To work in an
environment where I can develop self-esteem in relation to work.

Education

2008-2015

Mapua Institute of Technology


Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila
Candidate for a degree in Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineer

2004-2008

Diliman Preparatory School


Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City

Skills
Efficient in Microsoft Office such as Word, Excel, Powerpoint
Proficient in English and Filipino
Knowledgeable in Autocad, Staad
Good presentation skills

Certification
Certificate of Completion in Civil Engineering Internship Program (Makati Development Corporation)

Attainment
January - March 2014

On-the-Job Training
Makati Development Corporation (MDC) Building 6 Project

July August 2014

Makati Development Corporation (MDC) Avida Towers BGC, 9th ave.


corner 39th Street, Fort Bonifacio, Global City

August September 2014

Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Road Construction


in Radial 10 (R-10) Zaragoza St. to Sandico St. Port Area, Manila.

Personal Details
Passport
Driving license
Health

Non-professional driving license


Excellent

Date of birth: February 10, 1992


Place of birth: Quezon City
Age: 23

Character References
Engr. Art Molina
Contact number (Office): 441-26-41
Head Operations: Gac Construction Company
Archi. Justin Amurao
Contact number: 09153418690
Senior Architect: Gac Construction Company

Religion: Born-again Christian


Civil status: Single
Nationality: Filipino

Renz Joseph M. Rivera


Blk 15 Lot 3 & 5 Green Estate Subd., Tiaong, Guiguinto, Bulacan
Telephone: +639177272336 (mobile)
Email: renzjosephrivera@yahoo.com

Objective:
To be able to work as an intern as a Civil Engineering student in a career oriented and
challenging environment that promotes personal growth, and uplifts professional
developments.

Work Experience:
Advanced Foundation Construction System Corporation (AFCSC) Makati Development
Corporation (MDC) Avida Towers Asten, Malugay Street, Makati City
Internship
April June 2014
Makati Development Corporation (MDC) Avida Towers BGC, 9th avenue corner 39th
street, Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City
Internship
July August 2014
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Road Construction in Radial Road
(R-10), Zaragoza Street to Sandico Street, Port Area, Manila
Internship
August September 2014

Education:
2009 -2015 Mapua Institute of Technology
Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

2005 2009 Colegio de San Pascual Baylon


Pag-asa, Obando, Bulacan
Secondary Education

Skills:
Literate in Microsoft Office applications such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.
Fluent in English and Filipino language.
Skillful in conducting presentations and reports
Has good communication skills
Trained to work under pressure and with minimal supervision.
Can manage multi-tasking and usually works ahead of time.

Affiliations:
American Concrete Institute - Mapua Institute of Technology Student Chapter (ACI-MSC)
Member
2012-present

References:
Engr. Paulo Nazareno
Engineer, Professor
Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila
09177911764
Engr. Ivan Marquez
Engineer, Professor
Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila
09179553519

RAYMOND C. SILVESTRE
B.S. in Civil Engineering
Address
Mobile
Date of Birth
E-mail
Parent/ Guardian

:
:
:
:
:

985 Capalangan, Apalit, Pampanga


0949-341-9763
26 January 1992
rcsilvestre17@gmail.com
Rodolfo L. Silvestre

I.

CAREER OBJECTIVE
To obtain a working position that would enable me to put forth my acquired skills and
knowledge into practice in the field of civil engineering and further to develop my
abilities so as to contribute improvement and success of the company I will work for

II.

ON THE JOB TRAINING


Makati Development Corporation
Avida Prime Towers Taft Project
Monolith Construction & Development Corporation
Techzone Philippines Project
Department of Public Works & Highways
Radial Road 10 Project

III.

ACADEMIC INFORMATION
A. Education
2008 2015

Mapua Institute of Technology


Muralla St.,
Intramuros, Manila
B.S. in Civil Engineering
College

2004 2008

Philippine Community School


Tripoli, Libya
High School

B. Software Proficiency
AutoCAD
STAAD
Microsoft Office
MS Project

C. Hardware Proficiency
Basic Carpentry
Basic Masonry
Field Surveying
D. Seminars and Training Attended
Seminar on Waste as Resource for Environmental Protection and
sustainability, January 25, 2012
Seminar on Exploring Windows 7 & PC Security, February 26, 2011
Seminar on Communication Skills, August 17, 2009
Seminar on Engrng Innovation through Research towards Academic
Excellence, June 15, 2013
Seminar on Discovering New Solutions Towards Disaster Resilient
and Sustainability Oriented Philippine Built Infrastructures (The
SHIMIZU Open Academic International Conference), July 18, 2014
E. Extra-Curricular Activities
Officer (Project Commissioner) ROTARACT Mapua (2011-2012)
Feeding program in Delpan (2011-2012)
Member - Sports fest participant (2011)
Member Mapua Book Lovers Club (2008)
F. Talent/ Skills / Interest
Computer and Cellphone Softwares
Drafting
Playing Football

I hereby attest that all data contained herein are true and correct.

RAYMOND C. SILVESTRE
Name and Signature

Date