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Turks
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Move into Byzantium
Anatolian Turks saw themselves as Ghazis (warriors for Islam)
Formed military societies
Followed an Emir (leader)
Followed strict Islamic code of conduct
Raided territories of infidels (people who don’t believe in Islam) lived on
frontiers of Byzantine Empire
o Osman Establishes a State
 Most successful ghazi
 Aka “Othman”, called his followers Ottomans
 Built Muslim state in Anatolia between 1300 and 1326
 Expanded by: buying land, forming alliances, conquering others
 Success: gunpowder, replaced archers with musket foot soldiers,
cannons
 2nd leader: Orkhan I, son of Osman
 Declared himself “sultan” (overlord) (one with power)
 1361 captured Adrianople (2nd most important city in Byzantine
Empire
 Kind to people they conquered
 Ruled through local officials appointed by Sultan
 Muslims required to serve in Turkish army but did not have to pay
personal tax
 Non-Muslims did not have to serve in the army but had to pay tax
o Timur the Lame Halts Expansion
 Rise interrupted in 1400s by rebellious warrior
 Timur the Lame “Tamerlane” from Samarkand
 Burned Baghdad and crushed the Ottoman force at Battle of Ankara
in 1402
Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
o Timur decided to invade China
o Caused war between sons, Mehmed I defeated brothers, took throne
o Murad II (son) defeated the Venetians, invaded Hungary, defeated Italian
crusaders in Belkans
 First powerful sultan that lead expansion of Ottoman Empire
through 1566
o Mehmed II Conquers Constantinople
 Son of Murad,
 Aka Mehmed the Conqueror
 Took power in 1451, age of 21
 Controlled the Bosporus Strait
 Choke traffic between Ottoman’s territories in Asia and the
Balkans
 Black sea and Mediterranean sea
 1453, attacked Constantinople
 Cannons, one of which was a 26-foot gun that fired 1,200lbs
boulders

trained as soldiers o Janissaries  Soldiers loyal to the Sultan only o Millets: communities or nations  Allowed each millet to follow its own religious laws and practices  Kept religious conflicts to a minimum  Cultural Flowering .000 personal slaves that staffed the palace bureaucracy  Drafted boys from conquered Christian territories. Suleyman the Magnificent  The Empire Reaches its limits o Conquered Belgrade in 1521 o 1522 captured island pf Rhodes in the Mediterranean o Captured Tripoli o 1526 advanced to Hungary and Austria (Vienna)  Highly Structured Social Organization o Crowning achievement: binding the Ottoman Empire together in a workable social structure  Required an efficient government structure and social organization o Created a law code: criminal and civil actions o Simplified taxation. which they educated and converted to Islam.   Chain across the Golden horn between Bosporus Strait and Sea of Marmara kept Turkish fleet out of the city’s harbor  Dragged 70 ships over a hill on greased runners from Bosporus  Attacked now on two sides  Held out for 7 weeks until Turks found a break in the wall and entered the city  Constantinople is now called Istanbul Ottomans take Islam’s Holy Cities  Selim the Grim (Mehmed’s grandson)  Came into power in 1512  1514 defeated the Safavids of Persia at the Battle of Chaldiran  Captured Mecca and Medina (Holiest cities of Islam)  Took Cairo (intellectual center of the Muslim world) Suleyman the Lawgiver  Suleyman I (Selim’s son)  Came to the throne in 1520  Ruled for 46 years  Aka Suleyman the Lawgiver. reduced government bureaucracy o Devshirme system  20.

drove another to exile.Sinan’s Mosque of Suleyman – largest mosque in the Ottoman Empire The Empire Declines Slowly o Suleyman killed ablest son. 3 rd son Selim II inherited the throne o Custom of to have brothers strangled o  .