You are on page 1of 22

Republic of the Philippines

SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY


Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Disposal of plastic waste in environment is considered to be a big problem due to
its very low biodegradability and presence in large quantities. In recent time significant
research is underway to study the possibility of disposal of these wastes in mass
concrete where strength of concrete may not be major criteria under consideration, such
as heavy mass of concreting in PCC in pavements. If plastic wastes can be mixed in the
concrete mass in some form, without significant effect on its other properties or slight
compromise in strength, we can consume large quantities of plastic waste by mixing it in
the concrete mass. Plastic is one component of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is
becoming a major research issue for its possible use in concrete especially in selfcompacting concrete and light weight concrete. Although some of these materials can
be beneficially incorporated in concrete, both as part of the cementations binder phase
or as aggregates, it is important to realize that not all waste materials are suitable for
such use.
One of the main environmental problems today is the disposal of the waste
plastics. The use of plastics in various places as packing materials and the products
such as bottles, polythene sheets, containers, packing strips etc., are increasing day by
day. This results in production of plastic wastes from all sorts of livings from industrial
1

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
manufacturers to domestic users. To circumvent this pollution crisis, many products are
being produced from reusable waste plastics.
Disposal of used plastics by land filling may be temporary solution and also
affects ground water recharging and soil microbe activities. Incineration of plastic
material will cause air pollution, global warming and monsoon failure. Investigations
done so far have shown that waste plastics can be utilized for making polymer
aggregate blocks with ceramics and granite, which can be used in laying footpaths. The
blocks can take 350 tons of loads and prevents water penetration. They can also be
used in lining of canals. A bitumen blend can be used as a coat over reinforced
cardboard for roofing. Besides enhancing the strength and life of roofing, used by the
poor, the blend will provide better moisture resistant. A blend of waste plastics with
mastic components and flooring materials provides floors of more strength, especially in
industrial units. Waste polymers also infuse greater strength when mixed with cement
as a reinforced concrete.
Concrete has proved to be an excellent disposal means for fly ash, silica fume,
ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), marble powder, and so forth which not
only traps the hazardous material but also enhances the properties of concrete.
Concrete, as a material, has significantly been benefited from the usage of fly ash, silica
fumes, and GGBS. For a constant workability, the reduction in water demand of
concrete due to fly ash is usually between 5 and 15% when compared with Portland
cement only mix. The reduction is large at higher w/c ratio.
2

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
The Philippines concrete industry is today consuming about 400 million tons of
concrete every year and it is expected, that this may reach a billion tones in less than a
decade. All the materials required to produce such huge quantities of concrete, come
from the earths crust, thus depleting its resources every year creating ecological
strains. On the other hand, human activities on earth produce solid wastes in
considerable quantities i.e., over 2500 million tons per year, including industrial wastes,
agricultural wastes and other wastes from rural and urban societies. Disposal of such
solid wastes involves economic issues as well as ecological and environmental
considerations. The major ecological strain in disposal of solid waste may be due to the
presence of waste plastics in it.
The plastic is one of the recent engineering materials which have appeared in the
market all over the world. Some varieties of naturally occurring thermoplastics were
known to Egyptians and Romans who extracted and used these plastics for various
purposes. Plastics were used in bath and sink units, corrugated and plain sheets, floor
tiles, joint less flooring, paints and varnishes and wall tiles. Other than these,
domestically plastics were used in various forms as carry bags, bottles, cans and also in
various medical utilities. There has been a steep rise in the production of plastics from a
mere 30 million kN in 1955, it has touched 1000 million kN at present. It is estimated
that on an average 25% of the total plastic production in the world is used by the
building industry. The per capita consumption of plastics in the developed countries
ranges from 500 to 1000N while in our country, it is only about 2N. There is however

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
now increase in awareness regarding the utilization of plastic as a useful building
material in our country. These types of usages normally generate more amounts of
wastes which are to be disposed of properly.
Environmentally sensitive aware people condemn the use of plastics for amount
of pollution caused by them in disposal. However this is not a serious problem in
comparison to the waste and pollution generated by a host of other industries. The nonbiodegradable plastic products used for soft drink bottles, milk and juice bottles, bread
bags, syrup bottles, coffee cups, plastics utensils etc., can be conveniently recycled into
sharpest, detergent bottle, drainage pipes, fencing, handrails, grocery bags, car battery
cases, pencil holders, benches, picnic tables, road side posts etc,. The developing
construction field consumes a huge amount of concrete and it leads to the depletion of
natural products and causes environmental pollution.
Plastics are normally stable and not biodegradable. So, their disposal poses
problems. Research works are going on in making use of plastics wastes effectively as
additives in bitumen mixes for the road pavements. Reengineered plastics are used for
solving the solid waste management problems to great extent. This study attempts to
give a contribution to the effective use of waste plastics in concrete in order to prevent
the ecological and environmental strains caused by them, also to limit the high amount
of environmental degradation.
Four types of plastic materials were selected to mix along with the concrete: (1)
Polythene Sheet (2) Raw Plastics (3) Road Wastes (4) Plastic Straw to study their
4

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
behavior in conjunction with concrete. The properties of the materials used in the
present investigations were completely studied and the optimum mix of the above
plastic materials was found based on their compressive, split tensile, flexural strengths.
After finding the optimum mix percentages in compression, RC columns were cast and
tested for its compressive strength. From the investigation, the road waste mixed
concrete was found to take more loads in compression. Raw plastic mixed concrete as
well as plastic straw mixed concrete were also found to give better strength than the
reference RC column.
The use of plastic hollow blocks has been consolidated due to the advantages
they provide where performance and costs are concerned, combining quality,
productivity

and

mainly

dimensional

accuracy.

Studies

(MARCHAND et

al.,

1996, SIDDIQUE and KLAUS, 2009, CASSAGNABRE et al., 2010) have showed that
the use of mineral admixtures and mortar in concrete afforded porous structure
refinement, increasing resistance to compression and bending while for the action of
sulfates, it reduced the effects of alkali-aggregate reaction and its potential for
efflorescence, increasing, thereby, the durability. However, the durability is not the
materials specific property but the result of an interaction between the material and the
surrounding environment (John and Sato, 2006). Brick walls are susceptible to
problems caused by water such as those caused by infiltration, capillary soil water, rain
washing and the preservation of external seals. According to Sabbatini (1998), this latter
aspect can represent a degradation of between 40 to 70% in facades. In porous solids,

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
water permeability is usually the determining factor in the rate of deterioration; however,
not only porosity but also the diameter and interconnecting pores directly do influence
the penetrating capacity of water which causes all problems related to concrete
durability (Metha and Monteiro, 2008). Hydrolysis occurs when the components are
under the effect of flowing water; the solution is diluted and the Ca(OH) 2 is removed by
leaching, exposing the components to cement chemical decomposition which reduces
resistance and may lead to the total degradation of the concrete. The efflorescence
effects from the reaction of Ca(OH) 2 leached with carbon dioxide (CO 2), present in the
air, result in the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) as a white crust on the
surface of the concrete ( Fernandez, 2008). According to Roziere et al. (2009), this
plays an important role in leaching the external attack by sulfates, for portlandite (Ca
(OH) 2) leaching facilitates the invasion.
Plastic Aggregate hollow block as a livelihood is a source of income for
sustainable life for many countries. It is a way of uplifting the lives of many facilities. For
that reason, this study will determine the viability of establishing of Plastic Aggregate
Concrete in Tandag City. This study can affect the economic condition of the place. It
can creates job opportunities, save money, eliminates landfill waste and it can protects
environments. Moreover, it creates new market establishments.

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
Statement of the Problem
In this study, the researchers aspired to prepare a feasibility study in establishing
JAM MC COLEN: Plastic Aggregate Hollow Blocks in. It attempts to undertake through
analysis of this project especially, so to answer following questions.
1. What is the profile of the respondents as to:
1.1 Employment
1.2 Civil Status
1.3 Educational attainments
1.4 Monthly Income
2. What is the extent of feasibility analysis for establishing JAM MC COLEN:
Plastic Aggregate Hollow Blocks as to:
2.1 Product demand
2.2 Price
3. What is the feasibility aspects of JAM MC COLEN: Plastic Aggregate Hollow
Blocks in terms of:
3.1 Management Aspect
3.2 Technical Aspect
3.3 Marketing Aspect
3.4 Financial Aspect
4. What plan of action maybe proposed as an output of the study?

Conceptual Framework
The researchers claim that the JAM MC COLEN: Plastic Aggregate Hollow
blocks are not an available business in Tandag City.
The first box contains the profile of the respondents.

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
The second box contains of Feasibility Analysis in terms of: Product Demand and
Price and Feasibility Aspects in terms of: Management Aspect, Technical Aspect,
Marketing Aspect and Financial Aspect of business in which it is deemed as a scientific
tool to obtain relevant information about the realities of the proposed market. This will
benefit the investor in showing the business feasibility to be studied and its preference
over alternative investment opportunities, subsequently, making the suitable decision
either by proceeding further to the next stage of the economical feasibility study, or
putting off the idea of the business under study. Also, is an extremely important step
after completing identifying the investment opportunities, and the initial feasibility study
thereof, so that is possible to start the detailed economical feasibility study, in which the
market analysis topic is the first stage, since it is the scientific base of the business
establishment justification.
The
third
plan. Analysis
The researchers sought
to findplan
out what
Profile
of box
the contains the action
Feasibility
Business
respondents in
in terms of:
of JAM MC
particular terms
plan of:
of action may be applied based on the problem encountered
COLEN: by the
Product demand
Plastic
business.
Employment
Aggregate
Price
Hollow Blocks
Civil status
Number of purchase
Educational
Purchase method
Attainment
Monthly income

Feasibility Aspects
in terms of:
Financial Aspects
Technical Aspects
Management
Aspects
Marketing Aspects

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT

Figure1. Schematic Diagram of the Study

Significance of the Study


The findings of the study will give relevant information and benefits to the
following:

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
City Government. This study will be spring board to success and dynamic of
Tandag City. Be the presence of JAM MC COLEN: Plastic Aggregate Hollow Blocks, it
generates and augments the income and capital of the City that could be the ways of
becoming competitive to other City.

Community. The findings of this study will help them to realize and understand
the significance and importance of the JAM MC COLEN: Plastic Aggregate Hollow
Blocks and for them to know the potential waste uptake of existing cement. Also placing
an absolute priority on ensuring a safe and healthy workplace for employees and
contractors.

Future Researchers. The study will give more information and it will serve as
their guide in their future research.

Future Entrepreneur. This kind of study will serve as guide on how to start such
kind of business, most importantly to know how the business operation works.
Proponents. This study will be a sore group on how this kind of project is
conducted. The proponents will able to come up with the business operation successful.

Market Seller .This will be provided as excellent information to determine those


good products offered by when and where the product can be bought.

10

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study will focus in assessing the feasibility of Establishing JAM MC COLEN:
Plastic Aggregate Hollow Blocks in Tandag City. The respondents of the study were the
hardwares owner, and hollow block makers. This study was conducted during the 1 st
Semester of the Academic year 2016.

Definition of Terms

Aggregates. Refer to the inert granular material such as fine and coarse
aggregates
or crushed stone, which with the water and Portland cement, are common ingredients of
concrete. Rafaneli (2015)
11

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT

Cement. A powdery substance made with calcined lime and clay. It is mixed with
water to form mortar or mixed with sand, gravel, and water to make concrete
.BurhsanAlam (2012)

Construction. The act or process of biding something (such as house or road).


Squicciarini (2011)

Allowable Compressive Crushing Strength. Refers to the allowable ratio of the


sforce to the cross-sectional area of the sample where the stress is being applied.
Corvalis, Ore (2016)

Compressive/crushing strength. Refers to the amount of stress developed when


an external force tends to press or shorten a body. Mac, Carthy David (2011)

Concrete. Refers to a construction material that consists of cement (commonly


Portland cement) as well as other cementation materials such as fly ash and slag
cement, aggregate and chemical admixtures. Phelps, John (2013)

12

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW AND STUDIES
This chapter contains related literature and studies in both foreign and local
sources which will enrich the discussion of the study.
Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic organic materials used in a wide range of
commercial and industrial applications. They are typically polymers of high molecular
13

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
mass and often incorporate additives to improve performance and/or decrease
production costs. Plastics make up a vast array of products that humans interact with
daily. Its usage has grown exponentially over the past century and continues to grow.
Thus, it is of the utmost urgency that we address their production, usage, and waste.
Concrete is defined as a mixture of cement, water and aggregates in which the
cement and water combine to act as a binder to hold the aggregate particles together
into a plastic mixture. The mixture of water and cement results in a chemical exothermic
reaction called hydration as concrete changes from plastic to a solid state, in a process
called curing. It has been observed that concrete continues to gain strength as it cures.
Related Literature
Foreign
According to Chirag Garg and Aakash Jain (2008), stated that concrete is an
environmental friendly material and the overall impact on the environment per ton of
concrete is limited and usage of waste materials in concrete like fly ash ascementitious
material, fly ash aggregates, stone crusher waste as fine aggregates, Recycled
concrete and masonry as aggregates, marble waste as filler material, waste plastic as
concrete composite. He concluded that an increasing trend and incentives for the
greater use of manufactured and recycled aggregates in construction and use of
concrete products like green concrete in future will not only reduce the emission of CO2
in environment and environmental impact but it is also economical to produce.

14

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
Marzouk et al (2010), studied the effects of plastic wastes on the density and
compressive strength of concrete. The study clearly showed that shredded PET fibres
may be successfully used as sand substitution aggregate in concrete mortar. But it was
also noticed that if PET aggregate exceeded 50% by volume of sand .The density and
compressive strength of concrete were between 1000-2000kg/m3 and 5-60 MPa
respectively. Studies have also shown that it is possible to use plastic fibers in mortars
and concrete as binder thus substituting cements with various types of glycols and
metal acetates to be used as catalysts.

There are 50 billion water bottles consumed every year which means that there
are also 50 billion water bottle wastes. Waste plastic bottles are one of the major
problems of todays society. Using waste plastic bottles as an aggregate non-load
bearing panel is one of the possible answers to lessen wastes. This research is a
solution to diminish the abundance of waste plastic bottles. This research aims to
assess the strength of the aggregate sand/mud filled plastic bottles as non-load bearing
wall panel (Schriever (2013).

Local

According to the Philippine Trade Standard Specification for Concrete Hollow


Blocks, the following are the procedures in conducting compressive strength test of
concrete hollow blocks. Measure the dimension of each unit then cap the bearing
surface with gypsum plaster filler to a thickness of not more than 3 mm. (1/8 inch). Allow
15

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
the captor solidify for a minimum of 2 hours before testing. Set the specimen concrete
hollow blocks on the lower bearing block and center it beneath the upper bearing block.
The upper bearing should be firmly attached at the center of the sensitive platen of the
universal testing machine. Apply the load at a uniform rate until failure occurs. Record
the maximum load, and then calculate the compressive strength by dividing the
maximum load by the gross cross-sectional area of the unit in square centimeters.

In the Philippines, MyShelter Foundation began with the first bottle school in San
Pablo, Laguna in November 2010, an initiative launched in partnership with Pepsi.
Volunteers and community members filled thousands of plastic bottles with liquefied
adobe and left them to dry for 12 hours.

Lightweight Ultralite Hollow Block product consists of portland cement and


expanded perlite, manufactured in the same shape. dimension and design as the
ordinary concrete hollow blocks. It is widely used in the USA Europe and other
advanced countries of the world like Japan and Korea, for the simple reason that it is
lightweight, acoustic, and has very good thermal insulation and other properties. It is
used for firewall, room partition and when considering additional floors in residential,
commercial, industrial and in high rise buildings where deadload counts, also in bank
vault, cold storage, music recording studios, theaters and audio auditoriums, where
heat, cold, and sound insulation is a paramount concern. (VBV Trading (2015)

16

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
Based on established properties (compressive strength, density) determined in
this study, mix designs could be researched with to achieve increased compressive
strength. The effect of decrease in the plastic aggregates size and the use of
admixtures, among other alterations should be also studied for increasing strength. In
addition a complete cost analysis can be done to determine the cost effectiveness of
production and operating with the plastic aggregate blocks. With the availability of
specific instruments, further mechanical tests and a microscopic analysis can be carried
out to improvise the process and develop a superior quality product. Also use of PET
fibres with industrial wastes like Blast furnace slag, fly ash, foundry slag etc as
aggregate replacement can be researched and analyzed upon. Possible application of
continuous PET strips in mono or bi directional reinforcements for concrete slabs and
pavements can also be studied. Research could be conducted to analyze and increase
the bonding strength between PET Fibers and concrete matrix.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the discussion on research design, research locale,
research instrument, respondents of the study, survey instrument, data gathering
procedure and statistical treatment.
Research Design
17

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
The study made use of a descriptive quantitative method research that focuses
the groups relevant to the target market on one to one interviews listing the answers
using survey questionnaire as main tool in gathering data respectively. Descriptive
research is obtaining information concerning the current status of the phenomena to
describe what exist with respect to variables conditions in a situation (Grahamrobb,
2008)
Research Locale
This study will be conducted in Tandag City. The JAM MC COLEN: Plastic
Aggregate Hollow Blocks will be located at Tandag City. The proposed area is suitable
for the clients since it has a large area to accommodate.

18

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT

Figure 3. MAP OF TANDAG CITY


Research Instrument
The proponents will use a researchers-made questionnaire in conducting the
study and gathering the data. The questionnaire was divided into three parts; Part 1
intends to determine the profile of the respondents; Parts 2 intends to determine the
extent of the demand; and Part 3 intends to determine the feasibility aspects in terms of:
Technical, Marketing and Environment aspects.
Respondents of the Study

19

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
The respondents of this study were the Hollow block maker and Hardware owner
in Tandag City. The proponents choose the Hollow block makers and Hardware owners
as the respondents of the study for they will be the prospect customers that will avail the
services offered by the JAM MC COLEN: Plastic Aggregate Hollow Blocks that will be
established by the proponents. With a total number of 25 hollow block makers and
Hardwares owner. The respondents of the study will use universal sampling as a
process of determining the sample. Hence the total number of respondents of the study
is 25.

Data Gathering
The proponents gathered more information regarding study on the proposed in
Tandag City, before distributing the questionnaire to the respondents.
The proponents made first an authorization letter to be sign by the CBM Dean,
then to the office of City Mayor. After which the questionnaire had been distributed to
the respondents. After they will answer the questionnaire it will be retrieved, tallied,
tabulated, analyzed and interpreted.
20

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
Statistical Treatment
The respondents answers will be tally and organized according to the criteria
specified in the questionnaire. The statistical treatments used to answer the problems
are the following;
Frequency Counting, Mean, Median and Mode.
Frequency Counting it is used to tabulate if how many times a certain variable occurs
within a calculation. This will be used to determine the demographic profile of the
respondents and the level of demand of the product.
Mean it will be used to compute the average, it will be used to determine the demand of
the product.
Median it is the middle value in a series of values arranged from smallest to largest. It
will be used to compute the monthly income and level of demand in terms of price.
Mode it is the most frequent value of a set of data. This will be used to treat the question
number, 1.1, 1.2 1.3, 2.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4.

21

Republic of the Philippines


SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tandag City
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT

22