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ARCHITECTURAL DISSERTATION

ON

HIGH PERFORMANCE ENVELOPES

DISSERTATION GUIDE : MR. SANJAY MEHRA


CO-ORDINATOR:

MR. ASHISH RAKHEJA


MS. NISHITA BADERIA

AAYUSH GAUR
31/VKA/2009
4TH YEAR, B.ARCH, 2012
096371782
VASTU KALA ACADEMY
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
SECULAR HOUSE, 9/1 INSTITUTIONAL AREA,
ARUNA ASAF ALI MARG, NEW DELHI - 110067

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this submission is my own work as a part of 5 - year


undergraduate programme in architecture at Vastu Kala Academy and that, to the
best of my knowledge, it contains no material previously published by another
person nor material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree
of the university, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.

STUDENT NAME:
MR. AAYUSH GAUR .. ..
(SIGNATURE)
CERTIFIED BY:

MR. SANJAY MEHRA .. ..


(SIGNATURE)
GUIDE

MR. ASHISH RAKHEJA.. ..


(SIGNATURE)
CO-ORDINATOR

MS. NISHITA BADERIA.. ..


(SIGNATURE)
CO-ORDINATOR

ACKNOWLEGDEMENT

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the report on "High Performance


Envelopes".
This study would not be complete, had it not been a lot of assistance from a lot of
sources. I take this as an opportunity to extend my gratitude to all those who
have contributed to the completion of this report in any manner large or small.
My greatest gratitude goes to GOD without whom I would not even be alive to
carry out such a research; He is the source of all my ideas and inspiration.
I am especially grateful to my guide Mr. Sanjay Mehra whose remarkable
enthusiasm and valuable words were instrumental in my perceiving things in a
logical manner and formulating a direction of this study. I must also thank my coordinator Mr. Ashish Rakheja and Ms. Nishita Baderia indispensible and
accurate guidance through each stage.
I would also like to express my special thanks to:

The librarian, Vastukala Academy


The librarian, School of Planning and Architecture
My parents, for their help, support and encouragement
To my friends

FOREWARD

The current electricity consumption in commercial buildings in India is


about 8% of the total electricity supplied by utilities. The electricity demand
in commercial buildings is growing annually by 11-12% which is more than
the growth rate of electricity production in the country.

The hospitality sector accounts for a large proportion of energy use in


commercial buildings. In any operational hotel building, electricity accounts
for more than 50% of total energy utilization and is used for heating,
ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC),lighting system etc. Studies have
indicated that there is an enormous potential of saving of electricity by
implementing energy efficiency in this sector.

Review of international experience and several energy audit studies


conducted in India indicate that hotels can effectively reduce 20-30% of
energy use without compromising the quality of hospitality services. In the
process, the lesser energy use will entail cost saving for the hotels. This
report developed is a useful documentation of best practices in hotel
industry. It will serve not only as a guide for hotels intending to take up
energy conservation activities but also as a demonstration for others who
are uncertain of the benefits of the activities. This guidebook aims to
highlight opportunities for energy management within a hotel, and provides
steps to identify energy opportunities.

I am sure that the architects and designers along with the hotel owners will
find this document very useful, and that it would facilitate the process for
achieving improved energy performances in hotel buildings.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER - 1 : INTRODUCTION
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

INTRODUCTION
HYPOTHESIS
NEED OF STUDY
AIM
OBJECTIVE
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER - 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HOTELS


SOURCES OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION
FACTORS AFFECTING EXTERNAL LOADS
ENERGY MODELING

CHAPTER - 3 : CASE STUDIES


3.1
3.2

THE LEELA PALACE, NEW DELHI


RODAS HOTEL AND ITS SIMULATION

CHAPTER - 4 : ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

CHAPTER - 5 : CONCLUSION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The construction sector poses a major challenge to the environment. Globally,
buildings are responsible for at least 40% of energy use. An estimated 42% of the
global water consumption and 50% of the global consumption of raw materials is
consumed by buildings when taking into account the manufacture, construction,
and operational period of buildings. In addition, building activities contribute an
estimated 50% of the worlds air pollution, 42% of its greenhouse gases, 50% of
all water pollution, 48% of all solid wastes and 50% of all CFCs
(chlorofluorocarbons) to the environment.
India too faces the environmental challenges of the construction sector. The
gross built-up area added to commercial and residential spaces was about 40.8
million square metres in 200405, which is about 1% of annual average
constructed floor area around the world and the trends show a sustained growth
of 10% over the coming years. With a near consistent 8% rise in annual energy
consumption in the residential and commercial sectors, building energy
consumption has seen an increase, from a low 14% in the 1970s to nearly 33% in
200405. Energy consumption would continue to rise unless suitable actions to
improve energy efficiency are taken up immediately.
Hotels are large consumers of energy and fossil fuels to provide high quality
services to guests. Indias current growth potential for hotel construction will
continue to result in an increasing energy consumption trend.
The hospitality sector itself accounts for a large proportion of energy use in
commercial buildings. In any operational hotel building, electricity accounts for
more than 50% of total energy utilization and is used for heating, ventilation and
air conditioning (HVAC),lighting system etc.
India is rapidly becoming a preferred destination for tourism, both International as
well as Domestic, with an annual growth of about 15%. The hospitality sector is a
major consumer of energy in different forms for various end-uses.
Hotels have been an exceedingly complex industrial product with a lifetime of
decades. Emerging issues relating to the internal & external environmental
impacts have intensified awareness of the role buildings play on our well being.
While certain efforts have been on going to control and manage individual
aspects of the environmental qualities of hotels (i.e. energy codes, automation &
control schemes and thermal comfort etc.), however, comprehensive approach
has been lacking, particularly in the design stages of a buildings lifespan.

1.2 HYPOTHESIS :
Implementation of passive design strategies in a hotel can reduce the energy
consumption pattern without affecting the guest comfort. Using energy modelling
and performance analysis, the impact of passive features can be exactly
calculated and hence the techniques can be accurately used in best possible
way, to achieve maximum savings and a more eco-friendly and comfortable
hotel.

1.3 NEED FOR STUDY :


For the following reasons, the topic of energy conservation, green and energy
efficient hotels become so important in today's date:

Making the hospitality sector more energy efficient, as India is rapidly


becoming a preferred destination for tourism, both domestically and
internationally with an annual growth of about 15%. The hospitality sector
in India is a major consumer of energy in different forms for various enduses.

The hospitality sector itself accounts for a large proportion of energy use in
commercial buildings. In any operational hotel building, electricity accounts
for more than 50% of total energy utilization and is used for heating,
ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC),lighting system etc. The load on
the mechanical system, if taken care of during the designing stage can be
reduced up to a very high percentage. Thereby reducing the load on the
active system installed in a hotel.

1.4 AIM:

To understand and study the passive design strategies that can be


implemented to reduce the energy consumption of a hotel building.

Using simulation tools, analyze the envelop of a hotel, for it have


maximum energy savings.

1.5 OBJECTIVE:

To study and analyse passive methods for energy conservation.


To study and understand the role of computer simulation in energy
conservation.
To analyse various cases of building simulation done on its envelope.

1.6 LIMITATIONS:

The study will involve analysis of existing hotel buildings.


Due to available time, limited case studies are done, results are based on
those case studies.
The scope of the study is limited to building orientation and its envelope.
The simulation is only limited to the building envelope.

1.7 METHODOLOGY:

LITERATURE REVIEW : (INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE


STUDY) SOURCES BOOKS AND INTERNET
Passive strategies of energy conservation
Energy Modeling
CASE STUDIES: Analysis of techniques used in the building.
Performance analysis of the building, with different materials and
techniques and finding the best possible solution.
Drawing Inferences

2.1 ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HOTELS:

The hotel industry constitues one of the most energy and resource intensive
branches of the tourist industry. Substantial quantities of energy are consumed
provinding comfort and services to guests, many of who are accustomed to, and
willing to pay for exclusive amenities, treatment and entertanment. The energy
efficiency of many different end users in hotel facilities is frequently low, and the
resulting environmental impacts are, therefore, typically greater than those
caused by other types of buildings of similar size. The effects on the environment
are caused by excessive consumption of local/imported resources, as well as by
emissions released to air, water and soil. The large quantities of waste products
generated in hotel facilities pose a further significant environmental threat.
A hotel can be seen as the architectural combination of three distinct zones, all
serving distinctly different purposes:

Guest room area - Individual spaces, often with extensive glazing, non
parallel utilization and varying energy loads.
Public area - Spaces with high rate of heat exchange with outdoor
environment and internal loads.
Service area - Energy intensive areas typically requiring advanced air
handling

There is a widespread misconception in the hotel sector that substantial


reductions in the energy use in hotels can only be achieved by installing
and using advanced, high maintenance, and expensive technologies. While
this may be true in some contexts, in the majority of cases, major savings
can be achieved by adopting various approaches requiring neither
advanced expertise nor excessive investments. This is true when the
concept of energy efficiency and resource conservation are looked into
right from the initial designing stage of a hotel facility.

Fig 1 : Percentage of energy consumption in a hotel


The above graph shows that the outdoor climate has a significant effect on the
overall electricity use. Typically, about half the electrical energy is used for space
conditioning purposes.

5 Star-deluxe,
21650
5 Star, 11136
4 Star, 7330
Licensed, 94324

3 Star, 23061
2 Star, 9422
1 Star, 1816

Fig 2 : Number of rooms available in India

Energy Performance Index of Indian Hotels


120
100
80
60
40
20
0

57

40

Classified

Budget

Luxury

(kWh/room/day)

116

Fig 3 : Energy performance index of Indian hotels


The above graph shows the energy consumption of a particular room in different
types of hotel.

Energy saving potential in Hotels in India


25000

21618

15000
10000

Business ususual

2014-15

2013-14

2012-13

2011-12

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

3631

2007-08

5000

7074

2006-07

(GWh)

20000

Energy efficient

Fig 4 : Energy saving potential in hotels of India


The graph above shows that there is major scope of energy conservation in the
hospitality sector. Hotels can effectively reduce energy use without compromising
the high quality of services for guests and in the process benefit from cost
savings.

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Fig 5 : Passive hotel design features


Hotel design incorporates a number of so-called passive design features,
whereby the use of insulation and building orientation help to maintain a
comfortable and stable interior temperature without the need for active heating
and cooling systems. Similarly, the use of natural light reduces the need for
internal lighting systems.

The most important characteristic of passive solar design is that it relies on the
integration of a building's architecture, materials selection and mechanical
systems to reduce heating and cooling loads. It takes into consideration local
climate conditions, such as temperature, solar radiation and wind; to create
climate responsive, energy conserving structures that can be powered with
renewable energy resources.
Passive solar design also helps conserve valuable fossil fuel resources and
reduces greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. The most important
step in the passive cooling process is to develop an energy efficient building
envelope to minimize heat gains and to catch cooling breezes.
Reducing energy loads is an issue for the hotels. It is important to orient the
building to take advantage of cooling breezes in a hot climate, and sunlight in a
cold climate. To minimize the energy loads, passive solar design can be effective.
Many of these valuable strategies can be employed in the hotel sector.

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2.2 SOURCES OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN A BUILDING

Fig 6 : Typical breakup of heat gain in a building


The envelope of the building is one of the main sources of heat gain in a building.
The envelope of a building is comprised of the surfaces that separate the inside
from the outdoors. The design and construction of the envelope of a hotel
building can have a significant effect on the buildings comfort and energy
consumption.
A buildings envelope continuously interacts with the outside environment, and its
performance has a strong influence on the indoor environment and comfort
conditions. The envelope and the air conditioning system are closely interrelated,
and proper building design can optimize air conditioning system performance,
minimize energy costs and improve comfort.
INTERNAL LOADS & EXTERNAL LOADS

Fig 7 : Types of internal and external load

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2.2.1 INTERNAL LOAD


The heat produced by sources of heat within a building is called internal heat
gain.
The sources of internal heat gains (IHG) include:
1. PEOPLE (sensible and latent heat gain)
2. LIGHTS (sensible heat gain only)
3. EQUIPMENT
(a) Receptacles or electrical plug loads (sensible heat gain only)
(b) Processes such as cooking (sensible and latent heat gain)

2.2.2 EXTERNAL LOAD


There are three forms of building heat transfer:

I.

Conduction :

Conduction is the term applied to heat flow within a solid from a high temperature
lower-temperature region through the molecules in the material. Conduction
requires that surfaces touch in heat to transfer. Because the different materials in
an insulated assembly touch each other, conduction heat loss through solid
components of the building envelope. In the case of a wall, heat is conducted
through the layers within the wall from the warmer side to the cooler side.
Thermal Insulation :
Insulation is one of the most effective way to improve the energy efficiency of a
hotel. Insulation of the building envelope helps keep heat in during the winter, but
let's heat out during summer to improve comfort and save energy

Benefits of insulation:
comfort is improved year-round;
it reduces the cost of heating and cooling by over 40%;
it pays for itself in around five to six years;
there is less need for heating and cooling which saves nonrenewable resources and reduces greenhouse gas emissions;
it virtually eliminates condensation on walls and ceilings;
some insulation materials can also be used for sound proofing

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An un-insulated building is subjected to considerable winter heat losses and


summer heat gains.

Fig 8 : Summer gains in a building

Fig 9 : Winter gains in a building


All materials allow a measure of heat to pass through them. Some, such as
metal, glass or air, allow heat to pass through more easily. Others, including
animal fur or wool, thick clothing and still air, are much more resistant to heat
flow, and are referred to as insulators.
The term insulation refers to materials which provide substantial resistance to
heat flow. When these materials are installed in the ceiling, walls, and floors of a
building, heat flow into and out of the building is reduced, and the need for
heating and cooling is minimised.
Resistance to heat flow is achieved by the use of either bulk insulation or
reflective insulation, which work in different ways.

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Bulk insulation:
Bulk insulation traps millions of tiny pockets of still air or other gases within its
structure. These air pockets provide the resistance to heat flow. Bulk insulation
reduces radiant, convective and conducted heat flow.

Fig 10 : Bulk Insulation


Reflective insulation:
Reflective insulation works by reducing the radiant heat transfer across an
enclosed space, e.g. between bricks and plasterboard in an insulated brick
veneer wall. Reflective foil in walls or under the roof reflects radiant heat away
from the interior in summer. It works most effectively in conjunction with a still air
layer (enclosed air space) of at least 25 mm (see figure 7.6). Reflective insulation
needs to remain clean and dust-free for best performance.

Fig 11 : Reflective insulation

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All insulation materials are rated for their performance in restricting heat transfer.
This is expressed as the R value, also known as thermal resistance or resistivity.
The R value is a guide to its performance as an insulatorthe higher the R value,
the greater the insulating effect.
R values are expressed using the metric units m2/K/W or h ft2 F/btu.
Sometimes insulation is rated in terms of its U value, rather than its R value. The
U value measures the transfer of heat through a material or a building element
(thermal transmittance), whereas the R value measures the resistance to heat
transfer.
The U value is expressed using the metric units (W/m2/K) or Btu/hr.ft2 F
II.

Convection:

Convection is the process of transferring heat from one place to another by


molecular movement through fluids such as water or air. Heat loss by convection
commonly results from exfiltration or air leakage.
Infiltration and exfiltration are uncontrolled leakage of outside air into and out of
the building through any openings in the building shell. Air leaks are caused by
pressure effects of wind and differences in indoor and outdoor air temperature
and density. Typical sources of air leakage include cracks around windows and
doors, utility penetrations, poorly sealed air dampers, and any locations where
different types of construction meet. The problem of infiltration and exfiltration is
worse in tall buildings due to the stack effect and can be compounded by vertical
shafts such as open stairwells and elevator shafts.

III.

Radiation:

Radiation is the heat transfer by electromagnetic waves from a warmer to a


cooler surface. The transfer of the sun's heat to the earth or the warmth of a
campfire are examples of radiant heat transfer.
Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC or shading coefficient)
These are the indicators of total solar heat gain through a glazing. SHGC is the
ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration area to the
incident solar radiation. Solar heat gains include directly transmitted solar heat
and absorbed solar radiation, which is then re radiated, conducted or convected
into the space. These indices are dimensionless numbers between 0 and 1 that
indicate the total heat transfer of the suns radiation. These properties are widely
used in cooling load calculations. Glass with a lower SHGC or SC (Shading
coefficient) helps in reducing cooling loads in hot climate zones.

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Fig 12 : Forms of building's heat transfer


Heat Gain Through Glass:
Windows can be one of the single largest sources of unwanted heat gain and
loss in the thermal envelope. It is not unusual to find a glass area that comprises
only 15 to 25 percent of the surface area of a building while contributing up to 75
percent of the heat loss. Windows typically lose heat through conduction and air
movement around the frames, and gain heat through solar radiation.
The amount of heat gain is dependent on orientation, season, time of day,
glazing type, and shading by window coverings, overhangs, other buildings and
vegetation. Solar gains through south facing glass will add heat to the building in
the winter. East and west surfaces will gain the greatest amount of heat in the
early morning and late afternoon hours during summer months. Winter heat gains
may be desirable in thermally light buildings while any solar heat gains in a
thermally heavy building will only contribute to the cooling load. East and west
facing glass are primarily a problem during the summer.

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Low sun angles in the morning and late afternoon can result in substantial solar
heat gains as well as unwanted glare. The problem of excess solar heat gains
during the summer can be compounded by the build up of internal heat most
buildings experience late in the day.

Fig 13 : Heat flow through a building

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2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING ENERGY LOADS


2.3.1 BUILDING ORIENTATION
Orientation strongly relates a building to the natural environmentthe sun, wind,
weather patterns, topography, landscape, and views. Decisions made in site
planning and building orientation will have impacts on the energy performance of
the building over its entire life cycle.

Fig 14 : Different building orientations

Orientation is simply what compass direction the building faces. Does it face
directly south? 80 east-northeast?
Orientation can be the one of the most important step in providing a building with
passive thermal and visual comfort. Orientation should be decided together with
massing early in the design process, as neither can be truly optimized without the
other.
Orientation is measured by the azimuth angle of a surface relative to true north.
Successful orientation rotates the building to minimize energy loads and
maximize free energy from the sun and wind.

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Fig 15 : Azimuth angle

Orientation for Visual Comfort

As with massing for visual comfort, buildings should usually be oriented east-west
rather than north-south. This orientation lets you consistently harness daylight
and control glare along the long faces of the building. It also lets you minimize
glare from the rising or setting sun.

Fig 16 : Orientation for day lighting


Orientation #1 is worst for day lighting, #3 is good, and #2 is best.
If the building has cut-outs to maximize day lighting, the orientations of these cutouts should also be chosen to maximize north and south walls. With good
building massing, such cut-outs can also act as their own shading to prevent
glare.

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Orientation for Thermal Comfort: Solar Heat Gain

Different faces of the building get very different amounts of heat from the sun. As
with massing, orientation for thermal comfort is similar to orientation for day
lighting, with some exceptions:

First, the amount of sunlight that is optimal for day lighting is often not
optimal for solar heat gain.

Second, since the sun's heat does not come from all directions like the
sun's light can, walls facing away from the sun's path get no heat gain,
even though they can still get large amounts of diffuse light.

Third, the sun's heat can be stored by thermal mass, which the sun's light
cannot. This can be useful for west-facing walls to store heat for the night.

The buildings that are longer than they are wide should usually be oriented eastwest rather than north-south. This orientation lets you consistently harness
thermal gain, or consistently avoid it, along the long face of the building. It also
lets you minimize the area thats subject to faster energy swings from the rising or
setting sun.
Solar heat gain on the east side can be acceptable or even useful, because it
happens in the morning after the cooler night; but solar heat gain on the west
side is rarely desirable at the end of an already warm day.
Material choices and glazing are part of a building's orientation for thermal
comfort. They can avoid solar heat gain, or--unlike day lighting--they can store
the sun's heat with thermal mass.
The orientation that supplies just enough daylight may supply too much heat, or
vice-versa. Equator-facing sides of the building are well suited to capture and
store the sun's heat via large windows and materials with high thermal mass,
while sides facing away from the sun's path are not.
To even out temperature swings at sunrise and sunset, east sides may benefit
from more window area for direct solar heat gain, while west sides may benefit
from smaller window areas and high thermal mass to absorb the heat and
release it through the night. The right strategy depends on the climate.

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Fig 17 : Orientation for solar heat gain, more glazing to the east and more
thermal mass to the west can even out temperature swings from the suns heat.
In cold climates, sides facing away from the sun's path will usually benefit from
more insulation than sides facing the sun (which means less glazing or higherinsulation glazing), while in hot climates the opposite is true.
Advanced glazing can separate the harvesting of the sun's light from the sun's
heat. It can also pull in daylight from sides facing away from the sun, without
losing too much heat through lack of insulation (low U-value).

Orientation for Thermal Comfort: Natural Ventilation

Buildings should be oriented to maximize benefits from cooling breezes in hot


weather and shelter from undesirable winds in cold weather. Look at the
prevailing winds for your site throughout the year.
Generally, orienting the building so that its shorter axis aligns with prevailing
winds will provide the most wind ventilation, while orienting it perpendicular to
prevailing winds will provide the least passive
ventilation.

Fig 18 : Orientation for maximum passive ventilation


However, buildings do not have to face directly into the wind to achieve good
cross-ventilation. Internal spaces and structural elements can be designed
to channel air through the building in different directions. In addition, the
prevailing wind directions listed by weather data may not be the actual prevailing
wind directions, depending on local site obstructions, such as trees or other
buildings.

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2.3.2 BUILDING ENVELOPE

The building envelope, or "skin," consists of structural materials and finishes that
enclose space, separating inside from outside. This includes walls, windows,
doors, roofs, and floor surfaces.
Openings are located in the envelope to provide physical access to a building,
create views to the outside, admit daylight and/or solar energy for heating, and
supply natural ventilation. The form, size, and location of the openings vary
depending upon the role they play in the building envelope.
Decisions about construction details also play a crucial role in design of the
building envelope. Building materials conduct heat at different rates. Components
of the envelope such as foundation walls, sills, studs, joists, and connectors,
among others, can create paths for the transfer of thermal energyknown as
thermal bridgesthat conduct heat across the wall assembly. Wise detailing
decisions, including choice and placement of insulation material, are essential to
assure thermal efficiency.
While it consumes no energy itself, the hotel building envelope has a large
influence on a major energy consumer, the HVAC system. The envelope consists
of the buildings outside walls, its roof, windows, shading devices.etc.

Fig 19 : Building envelope

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I.

Roof

Of all the building elements, the roof is most exposed to climatic sources of heat
gain and heat loss. Throughout the day the roof is exposed to direct solar
radiation, which is potentially the most significant source of heat gain.
Conductance of heat from the roof can be very high if not insulated well. This can
result in increased cooling load if the space below is air conditioned or high
discomfort hours if the space below is naturally ventilated.
Daylight can be obtained by either a horizontal (un shaded) or vertical (shaded)
roof lights. In hot climates un shaded roof lights would be quite undesirable as
they would further add to the heat gain. By varying the roof projections with
respect to the building width pressure differences between the windward side and
leeward sides could either be increased or decreased. This would increase or
decrease natural ventilation.
In any climatic context, the roof can be relied upon as a means to enhance the
light levels indoors. The nature of the roof light would change with the climatic
context. In overheated areas, roof lighting would be shaded to prevent heat gain.
In a hot region, the roof should have enough insulating properties to minimize
heat gains. Some roof protection methods are as follows :
II.
III.
IV.

V.

A cover of deciduous plants or creepers can be provided. Evaporation


from leaf surfaces will keep the rooms cool.
The entire roof surface can be covered with inverted earthen pots. It is
also an insulating cover of still air over the roof.
A removable cover is an effective roof-shading device. This can be
mounted close to the roof in the day and can be rolled up to permit
radiative cooling at night. The upper surface of the canvas should be
painted white to minimize the radiation absorbed by the canvas and
consequent conductive heat gain through it.
Effective roof insulation can be provided by using vermiculite concrete.

Fig 20 : Various roof forms and their areas of exposure

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Roof materials determine the amount of heat transfer through the roof inwards or
outwards as well as the time taken for this heat transfer to take place.
In hot and cold climates the roof should have a low transmittance value. This
would ensure maximum heat gain and heat loss, respectively. Using insulation
would minimize the heat stored by the roof. However, in the absence of
insulation, a low U -value would generally imply a high thermal capacity. In warm
humid climates heat storage is undesirable. The roof should, therefore, be light,
probably having high U-values and low heat capacities.
Conventional Case :
Roof finish +150-mm concrete slab + internal plaster : U-value =
0.31 btu/h ft2 F

II.

Walls

Walls are a major part of the building envelope and receive large amounts of
solar radiation. The heat storage capacity and heat conduction property of walls
are key to meeting desired thermal comfort conditions. The wall thickness,
material, and finishes can be chosen based on the heating and cooling needs of
the building.
In designing the walls consideration should be given to the different conditions
that they will be exposed at each time of day and season depending on their
orientation. In some cases there are conflicting opportunities or constraints at
different times of year, e.g. a west facing wall may benefit from the heat of the
sun in winter, but suffer in the summer.
Heat loss in walls is primarily by conduction of energy through the wall
components. Adding insulation will greatly reduce conductive losses, however,
careful consideration must be given to ease of installation to ensure cost
effectiveness.
Appropriate thermal insulation and air cavities in walls reduce heat transmission
into the building, which is the primary aim in a hot region.
Thermal performance of walls can be improved by following ways:
1. Increasing wall thickness
2. Providing air cavity between walls and hollow masonry blocks
3. Applying insulation on the external surface.
4. Applying light coloured distemper on the exposed side of the wall.

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Thermal insulation is of great value when a building requires mechanical heating


or cooling insulation helps reduce the space conditioning loads. Location of
insulation and its optimum thickness are important. In hot climate, insulation is
placed on the outer face (facing exterior) of the wall so that thermal mass of the
wall is likely coupled with the external source and strongly coupled with the
interior (Bansal, Hauser, Minke 1994).
Air cavities within walls or an attic space in the roof ceiling combination reduce
the solar heat gain factor, thereby reducing space-conditioning loads. The
performance improves if the void is ventilated. Heat is transmitted through the air
cavity by convection and radiation. A cavity represent a resistance that is not
proportional to its thickness. For a thickness >20 mm, the resistance to heat flow
remains nearly constant. Ventilated air does not reduce radiative heat transfer
from roof to ceiling.
The radiative component of heat transfer may be reduced by using low emissivity
or high reflective coating (e.g. aluminium foil) on either surface facing the cavity.

Conventional Case:
External plaster + 230-mm brick wall + internal plaster : U-value =
0.329 btu/h ft2 F

III.

Glass

Of all the elements in the building envelope, windows and other glazed areas are
most vulnerable to heat gain or losses. Proper location, sizing, and detailing of
windows and shading form an important part of bioclimatic design as they help to
keep the sun and wind out of a building or allow them when needed.
The location of openings for ventilation is determined by prevalent wind direction.
Openings at higher levels naturally aid in venting out hot air. Size, shape and
orientation of openings moderate air velocity and flow in the room; a small inlet
and large outlet increase velocity and distribution of airflow through the room.
When possible, the house should be so positioned on the site that takes it
advantage of prevailing winds. The prevailing wind direction is from the south/
south-east during summer.

26

Fig 21 : Location of openings


High windows act as ventilation points and also allow for the best distribution of
light from overcast skies. Low windows do not allow much ventilation but allow an
even distribution of ground reflected light. Middle windows allow for even
ventilation but does not distribute the light as well. Light shelves allow for this.
An ideal case fenestration positioning : Openings (windows), are placed on two
external walls with the door on one internal wall. If air is incident on any of the
external windows, then the fenestration configuration not only ensures a good
distribution of air but also has a larger outlet area than inlet area. If the air is
incident on any of the other walls then the door could act as the inlet into the
room. Once again the outlet would be larger than the inlet and the configuration
would allow good air distribution.
In composite zone where all three conditions may occur, window shades hold
the key. The shades must cut off summer sun but permit winter heat gain. The
window area would be determined by the duration of each season. If the winters
or humid season is long, large windows are preferred. Window location makes a
difference to the quality of light obtained indoors. High windows (ventilators)
provide the best distribution of the direct and diffuse light. However, they also
maximize the potential for glare and should have baffles. Low windows allow
ground reflected light. Light being reflected from the ceiling provides the most
uniform ventilation. The middle located window, in comparison, distributes neither
sky light nor ground reflected light well. Some basic thumb rules can be followed,
in the positioning of windows, to enhance air movement. Windows should be
staggered rather than aligned (unless the incident wind is already at an angle)
Partitions should not be placed near windows causing an abrupt change of wind
direction.

Conventional Case:
Single Glazed Unit : U-value = 1.084 btu/h ft2 F. , SHGC = 0.81 , VLT = 0.88

27

IV.

Shading Devices:

Fig 22 : Location of shading devices


It is another basic, yet largely neglected technique for reducing a building's
energy consumption. Each wall of a building may require a different treatment
depending on its exposure.
To capitalize on glare free natural light, the best exposure for a wall with large
glass areas in north. Planting deciduous trees along the west wall with large
glass areas in north. Planting deciduous trees along the west wall of a low
building provides shade in summer, when the trees are in leaf, and admits solar
radiation in winters, when heat gain is beneficial.
Canopies, projecting mullions, louvers, grill work, awnings and solar glass
screens can all drastically reduce summer heat gains. Shaded glass admits only
a minor fraction of radiant heat admitted by unshaded glass exposed to sunlight.
Heat gain through windows is determined by the overall heat loss coefficient Uvalue(W/sqmK). and the solar energy gain factor, and is much higher as
compared to that through solid wall.
External shading of glazed surfaces will reduce the amount of radiation
(especially the direct radiation) striking the glazing, thereby influencing the
temperature of the space behind the glazing. The effectiveness of this type of
shading, though, is limited, and depends on the type of shading and its
placement relative to the glass. When radiation strikes a shading device a part of
it is reflected outwards from its surface, another part is reflected onto the glazing
(depending on the geometry of the shading device) and remaining part is
absorbed by the shading element itself, causing it to heat up. Therefore, there is
a certain flow of heat from the shading element by conduction (airflow around it)
and radiation. It is, therefore, preferred that the shading device be made of a nonreflective material, with minimal heat capacity.

28

Internal shading (for instance, Venetian blinds or curtains) is thermally ineffective.


In such a case, radiation strikes the glazing with no interference, penetrating into
the internal space, causing the shading element to heat up, and from there,
heating up the room by both long wave radiation and by conduction. Radiation
emitted from the shading device itself is already of the long wave type, thus it is
trapped by the glazing in front of it in the same way as any other long wave
radiation from the interior. This phenomenon is exacerbated when the internal
shading is not white. One should, therefore, not depend on internal shading
(behind the glazing) for neutralizing the effect of heating by radiation.
The functional requirements for shading change with region and climate. Besides
the variation in solar geometry and intensity in various locations, it should also be
noted that the sun's path in the sky and the intensity of its radiation do not match
the annual variability of temperatures: in the northern hemisphere maximum solar
radiation occurs on the longest day, July 21, and the minimum on December 21.
However, because of the earth's own heat capacity, maximum temperatures exist
in July and August, and minimum temperatures are measured during January
and February.
For the designer who wishes to use solar energy in buildings but at the same
time avoid summer overheating, the orientation of the building is the most
important consideration.

South Orientation

South openings can be used as solar radiation collectors during winter, and by
using the appropriate shading device direct radiation can be avoided during
summer.The benefits from the south orientation are the following:

Better distribution of solar gains through the day than to other orientations.
Energy savings in heating.
Less risk of overheating than East and West orientation in summer.
Simple horizontal sun-shading devices, (overhangs, balconies) are
effective.

The following best practice guidelines are valid for south oriented buildings and
facades:

Larger south-facing windows lead to an increase in the thermal solar gains


(direct gains) and therefore to a decrease of the final energy consumption
and improvement of indoor thermal comfort during the heating season.
In order to secure privacy, safety, protection from noise, etc., a
combination of direct gain with other passive solar systems such as masswall, trombe-wall, sunspace, etc. can be used.
A proper arrangement of interior spaces improves the efficiency of the
building.
If the size of the windows is increased the insulation of the envelope
should be reinforced in order to conserve thermal solar gains to the
building.

29

Fig 23 : Daylight during the whole period of the year for south oriented buildings

Night time insulation of the windows should be provided where possible.


Controlled ventilation of the spaces should be ensured.
Avoid planting evergreen trees or anything else that would cause
overshadowing in the front of the building.
The thermal capacity of the floor that directly absorbs the solar radiation
should not be insulated by laying carpets or furniture on it.

Fig 24 : Day lighting through an opening on south

North Orientation

North openings provide better quality of lighting to a space because they only
allow diffused light and not direct. They are more useful during summer, but they
should be of a limited size because otherwise they cause high thermal losses
during winter.

30

The following best practice guidelines are valid for north oriented buildings and
facades:

The openings' surface area should be kept as large as it is necessary for


lighting and natural ventilation purposes.
The insulation of the building's envelope should be increased by 25%
compared to the usual standard, in order to reach the level of energy
consumption of a building with south orientation.
Use of double or special insulated glass panes is recommended.

Fig 25 : Openings on north

East - West Orientation

East and west openings have very few advantages throughout the year, which is
why it is advisable to have them only if it is absolutely necessary for lighting
reasons or in order to have a view. West openings, especially, increase the
temperature and therefore the cooling load, of interior spaces during summer, as
they allow direct radiation in the afternoon. Generally, if there are East or West
openings then the shading devices that should be used, must be external and
vertical in order to be effective.
The following are the best practice guidelines:

Appropriate shading devices should be installed in order to avoid


overheating during summer.
Where possible cross ventilation in the rooms should be provided for
natural cooling.
In offices, shopping centres, etc. special types of glass-panes, such as
reflecting or absorbing glasses, can be used in order to reduce solar glare
and heat gain.
Large windows should be avoided as the risk of overheating is increased
in the summer.

31

2.6 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY MODELING

Architectural energy analysis rely on the use of models which describe the
energy performance of buildings. They are representations of buildings as energy
systems and include only those characteristics and relationships which determine
their energy performance.
Quantitative models used in energy analysis are mathematical representations of
complex thermodynamic or luminous behaviour of buildings. Everything is
described numerically; the weather, the building and its operation, the consumed
energy. The behaviour of buildings is simplified in models.
Quantitative models offer convenient parametric analysis of energy performance:
the effect of planned change in a single energy parameter of a building.
Properties of buildings or the characteristics of their use are changed by
modifying values which represent them. Long-term change (eg. performance over
a whole year) can be simulated and analyzed in a short time.
Simulations are developed by combining the conduction, convection and
radiation relationships which describe the heat-flow rates occurring in a building.
The choice of building simulation software depends upon user requirements and
the capabilities of the building simulation program. With the growing trend
towards environmental protection, the design of energy efficient buildings from
the point of view of the building owner as well as the society will surely gain
attention. Computer aided building simulation is important in the study of energy
performance and the design and operation of energy efficient buildings. Building
simulation is one of the key technologies that contribute to the construction of
future buildings which will be more energy efficient, health responsive and
environmental friendly. Future development and application of information
technology in the building industry will lead to completely new building design
philosophy and methodology.
2.6.1 NEED AND ADVANTAGES OF ENERGY MODELING

Determining the energy performance characteristics of individual design


elements : This for example, may mean to discover whether a certain
element has the desired energy conserving effect. It may also indicate the
best position and orientation of the element, its optimal size and condition
under which it is most effective.
Establishing the energy performance of the whole building : Overall
performance is the sum of performances of individual components of the
building. The components interact with each other and affect each other's
performance. Energy analysis can provide the comprehensive
understanding of how much is contributed by which component.

32

Making trade-offs: Architects, for various reasons, often cannot select the
most energy-conserving materials or solutions. Comparative estimates of
the extent to which each choice affects the building's energy performance
are important in making of trade-offs.
Deciding how to proceed with design: It helps in deciding which design
alternative is more energy efficient and which one should be pursued.
Understanding how different conditions of use affect the building's energy
performance: Energy consumption in a building is a function of its use and
changing weather. Energy analysis allows the architect to understand how
to deal with the peculiarities of the weather.

2.6.2 ENERGY SIMULATION AS PER LEED REQUIREMENT:


The Minimum Energy Performance Credit in LEED rating system requires
preparing a detailed simulation model for the proposed building which is then
compared to the ASHRAE 90.1 Budget building the base case. The energy
results of two simulation models are compared to assess the performance of the
proposed building. Additional Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) are then
added to the proposed model in order to increase the energy savings. The ECMs
are evaluated and ranked on the basis of their life cycle costs- including energy
costs, first costs, and operation/maintenance costs - assuming a defined building
life. This is a valuable exercise for the building owners, since it enables them to
make value based judgements regarding various energy conservation measures.

2.6.3 LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF ENERGY MODELLING


Limitation of architectural energy analysis are inherent in the methods of analysis
used. Quantitative models of buildings are representations of reality as seen by
the model designers.
If a building or the objective of analysis not fit this view, useful results can be
obtained only when the model is modified. The performance of passive solar
hotel for example cannot be properly simulated with a model designed
specifically for the analysis of high rise offices.
As in any design, each model has explicit and implicit assumptions. Assumptions
are the only means of dealing with aspects of reality which are not understood,
cannot be controlled, or cannot be modelled. They are always made about the
simulated weather, the zoning of the building, and the performance of lighting
control systems. Explicit assumptions are usually stated in very general terms. It
is sometimes difficult to interpret how they specifically affect the simulation of a
particular building. Implicit assumptions are even worse.

33

It is often necessary to understand physics or computer science to become


aware of them. Difficulties in dealing with assumptions increase with the
complexity of the model.
The accuracy of results is of course affected by our ignorance. Our
understanding of the processed and relationships which determine energy
performance of buildings is limited. Their descriptions are incomplete, imperfect
and sometimes inaccurate.
Some limitations of analysis are due to the design process itself. A building is
much better defined at the end of its design than at its beginning. Detailed
information about the building, required by some complex models of energy
performance, must be estimated early in the design process. As the architect
designs the building in snore detail, some of his guesses prove to be wrong.
What is finally built often differs substantially in its energy performance
characteristics from the building described for architectural energy analysis.

In brief,
Elements of simulation :
The essential elements of building simulation include:

Load Calculation : The peak loads of the building are estimated in order to
determine the size of HVAC plant and equipment.
Energy Calculation: The annual energy requirements are calculated on the
basis of the required loads.

Objectives :

To optimize the use of resources


To minimise the building's life cycle cost
To ensure a comfortable indoor environment

Output:

Energy demand and consumption levels


Indoor quality and environment
Plant and equipment performance

34

3.1 CASE STUDY : THE LEELA PALACE NEW DELHI

Fig 26 : Sketch of the Leela hotel, Chnakyapuri


The 16 floor, five-star luxury hotel, the Leela Palace in New Delhi, opened in April
2011 and is owned and managed by Hotel Leela Venture Limited. Located in the
diplomatic enclave area of New Delhi, the hotel has 260 guest rooms, Banquet
Halls, Restaurants, Lobbies, BOH, Retails, Kitchen, Service cores, MEP Rooms
etc.
Reflecting the stateliness and grandeur of Edward Lutyens Delhi, The Leela
Palace New Delhi is an elegant exemplar of Victorian style architectural
splendour.
The Leela Palace at New Delhi has a conditioned area of approximately 2,60,000
sq.ft with triple basement parking facilities.

3.1.1 ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT:


The building has been designed by studying the macro and micro climate of the
site, applying bioclimatic architectural principles to combat the adverse
conditions, and taking advantage of the desirable conditions.
The basic design is an inward looking plan with a central courtyard. The central
courtyard acts as a climate modifier for the hotel rooms opening towards it. The
external skin is treated as a solid insulated wall with recessed windows to bring in
diffused daylight.

35

3.1.2 ORIENTATION AND BUILDING SHAPE:


The building orientation has been a significant design consideration at The Leela
Palace. The hotel being situated in a composite climate with climatic extremes,
the building adopts an angular 'L' shape configuration which is going up to 10
floors. Another wing, attached to it is a double storey structure consisting of
Banquet halls and club rooms.
The 'L' shape blocking ensures that part of the facade is always shaded. The two
facades of the building are placed on a southwest - northeast and east-west axis
respectively.
A wide range of individual Energy Conservation Measures such as Envelope
(insulation for roofs, walls), Windows (type of windows), Lighting (lighting controls
& systems), Central plant (chillers type, sizing) were added in the hotel.

G + 10
G+1

G + 10

N
Fig 27 : Site plan of Leela Hotel

36

3.1.3 BUILDING ENVELOPE:

I.

Walls :

Fig 28 : Wall section


Material Specification R Value
1) Outside Air Film : 0.17
2) 20 mm thick stone : 0.20
3) 50 mm XPS : 10.00
4) Air Gap (Cavity + MS Section) : 1.00
5) 9 Concrete block : 0.90
6) Cement Plaster : 0.10
7) Inside Wall Air Film : 0.68
13.05 h ft2 F/btu

Therefore,
R Value - 13.05 h ft2 F/btu.
U Value - 1 / R - 1 / 13.05 - 0.077 btu/h ft2 F.

37

II.

Roof:

Fig 29 : Roof section


Material Specification R Value
1) Outside Air Film : 0.17
2) 20 mm thick. stone : 0.20
3)20 mm Screed : 0.20
4) 30 mm XPS : 8.17
5) 12 Concrete Slab : 1.20
6) Cement Plaster : 0.10
7) Air Gap (False Ceiling) : 1.00
8) 1 Gypsum board : 0.20
9) Inside Ceiling Air Film : 0.61
11.85 h ft2 F/btu

Therefore,
R Value of horizontal surface ( Roof ) - 11.85 h ft2 F/btu.
U Value - 1 / R - 1 / 11.85 - 0.084 btu/h ft2 F.

38

III.

Windows:

WWR is the ratio of window area ( glass and frame ) to the exterior wall area: the
zone floor to floor height times the zone width. The gross WWR for the Leela is
30%.
Double Glazed Unit : U-value = .20 W/m2-K , SHGC = 0.28 , VLT = 0.48
The efficient building envelope reduces the cooling demand.
The glazing for the building has been designed to maximize the effect of natural
light, largely eliminating the need for artificial light during day time. At the same
time, the high performance window glass, while allowing light inside, does not
allow heat.

3.1.4 SPACE CONDITIONING


The Proposed system comprises of water cooled chilled water system having one
827 TR Vapour absorption machine & one 400 TR water cooled screw chiller as
working & two 600 TR water cooled centrifugal chiller as standby. VFDs on all
AHUs & TFAs. VAV system for meeting room, conference room, board room &
offices.
I.

HVAC System:

II.

AHUs with variable frequency drives.


CO2 sensors installed in public areas.
CO Sensors in basements.
Heat recovery wheel installed.
Central plant:

Vapour Absorption chillers with COP of 1.39.


Water cooled screw chillers with COP 6.1 at ARI.
VSDs on Secondary pumps and Cooling towers.
Premium efficiency pumps.
Boilers with 90% efficiency.

It is determined via simulation that the project saves 51.22% in Energy costs over
the ASHRAE 90.12004 baseline.

39

3.2 CASE STUDY : RODAS HOTEL MUMBAI

Fig 30 : Rodas hotel, Mumbai


The Rodas is a popular hotel located in Mumbai managed by the Hiranandani
Group, with its neo-classical arched faade and modern interiors designed by
renowned Architect Hafeez Contractor, displays a distinct combination of
contemporary design and an old world charm.
Acclaimed as one of the best 3 star hotels in Mumbai, Rodas Hotel consists of
Ground +8 floors and one basement. It has 36 well-appointed rooms offering a
comfortable stay. There are two types of rooms at the hotel in Mumbai- Deluxe
room & Executive Deluxe rooms. The banquet facilities at the terrace in Powai
can accommodate up to 400 people.
The charm of the Hiranandani Gardens and the Powai Lake add more magic to
the entire appeal of the hotel.

3.2.1 ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT:


The buildings design responds to the corner location of the plot. Being open on
all three sides, the architects were driven to come up with such a form.
The focus of the designers has been to produce a hotel with efficiently working
active systems. Much of passive design strategies havent been incorporated in
the blocking of this hotel.
LEED gold rating has been attained by Rodas hotel, owing to the effective
performance of its active energy systems.

40

3.2.2 ORIENTATION AND BUILDING SHAPE:


The building orientation is significant as the location of the plot was at the corner
of the street, the architect wanted to take full advantage of the prime location.
The distorted 'L' shape of this hotel controls the consistent shading of this portion
of the building. The two facades of the building are placed on a southwest northeast and on east-west axis respectively.
The hotel has a very inviting facade due to its colonnaded arches.

G+8

N
Fig 31 : Site Plan

41

3.3.3 BUILDING ENVELOPE:

I.

Walls:

Fig 32 : Wall section

Therefore,
R Value - 3.05 h ft2 F/btu.
U Value - 1 / R - 1 / 3.05 - 0.33 btu/h ft2 F.

42

II.

Roof:

Fig 33 : Roof section

Material Specification R Value

200mm thick RCC slab : 0.787


50mm thick rock wool : 5.90
100mm screed : 0.787
10mm thick china mosaic tile : 0.0787

Therefore,
R Value - 8.62 h ft2 F/btu.
U Value - 1 / R - 1 / 8.62 - 0.116 btu/h ft2 F.

43

III.

Windows:

The gross WWR for the Rodas Hotel is 20%.


Double Glazed Unit : U-value = 1.4 W/m2-K , SHGC = 0.20 , VLT = 0.24

3.2.4 SPACE CONDITIONING

I.

HVAC System:

II.

AHUs with constant frequency drives.


CO2 sensors installed in public areas.
CO Sensors in basements.
Central plant:

Water cooled screw chillers with COP 4.8 at ARI.


VSDs on Secondary pumps and Cooling towers.
High efficiency pumps.
Natural Gas operated boilers with 93% efficiency.

44

4. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS


We know that in an internal load dominated building, like a hotel; carefully
selected materials and fenestration designs have the potential to reduce the
lighting and HVAC costs. To explore this potential, evaluation of a building
envelope design was carried out to analyze its effect. The parameters taking into
consideration for this purpose are:

Roof
Walls
Glass
Shading devices

For the purpose of evaluation the building has been modelled in eQuest. It is
simulation software which helps in evaluating the energy performance of the
building through simulating and accounts for the many energy related
components. The goal of eQuest is to accurately predict the energy use of a
building to either test the energy performance of the building with regards to an
established standard, or to compare and contrast two buildings in order to find
the resulting energy savings.
Plans showing model zoning :

Ground floor plan

Typical floor plan

Seventh floor plan

Eighth floor plan

Fig 34 : Zoning Plans on e-quest

45

Fig 35 : 3-D View of model graphic rendering

For the purpose of comparison, the ASHRAE base case is considered as


the base model which is compared to the as designed case. The simulation
is done on the as designed case and the model was run parametrically with
incremental improvement in envelope parameters and their impact on
envelope load reduction was evaluated.

% OF HEAT LOAD FROM ENVELOPE

%
Reduction
in Heat
0%

AS
DESIGNED
ASHRAE
BASECASE
WALL
OPTIMIZATIO
ROOF
OPTIMIZATIO
GLASS
OPTIMIZATIO
SHADING
DEVICES

WALL
ROOF
Fig 36 : Heat load from envelope

10.6%
11.6%
30.3%
50.0%

GLASS

SHADING
DEVICES

46

Detailed energy inputs have been specified below :

As designed case:

Exterior walls :

U value : 0.33 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Roof :

U- value : 0.116 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Glazing :

Wall window ratio : 20 %


U-value : .24
SC : 0.20

Shading devices :

600 mm recessed windows

Peak Envelope load : 2.24 watts / sq.ft

ASHRAE Base case:

Exterior walls :

U value : 0.124 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Roof :

U- value : 0.063 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Glazing :

Wall window ratio : 40 %


U-value : 1.20
SC : 0.29

Shading devices :

None

Peak Envelope load : 2.20 watts / sq.ft


The graph clearly shows that on comparison of the ASHRAE base case,
with the as designed case, the walls and the roof of the base case have a
lower U-value than that of the as designed case, hence would conduct less
heat through them. In case of the glass and shading devices used in the as
designed case, they have a lower shading coefficient and have used
shading devices as compared to the ASHRAE base case. Hence the as
designed case has a better glazing system. Overall, the peak envelope load
is lower in the base case.

47

Wall optimization:
U value : 0.07 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Exterior walls :

Material
Outside Air Film
Ext. Plaster
AAC Block
XPS
Int. Plaster
Inside Air Film
Resultant U Value

Thickness
(inch)
NA

R-Value per inch

0.17
8.00
1.00
0.17
NA
9.34
0.07

Resultant R
(F-sqft - hr / Btu)
0.30
1.00
5.20
0.30

0.17
0.05
8.00
5.20
0.05
0.68
14.15

Btu/hr - Sqft -F

Roof :

U- value : 0.063 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Glazing :

Wall window ratio : 30 %


U-value : 1.22
SC : 0.29

Shading devices :

None

Peak Envelope load : 1.97 watts / sq.ft

As we can see in the graph, due to the optimization of walls by applying


insulation on them the U-value is reduced, there is 10.6 % of reduction in
the heat load as compared to the ASHRAE base case.
The peak envelope load is also reduced.

48

Roof optimization:

Exterior walls :

U value : 0.07 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Roof :

U- value : 0.05 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Material
Outside Air Film
Screed
Geotextile
Damp Proof membrane
Insulation
Water Proof Layer
RCC Slab
Inside Air Film
Resultant U Value

Thickness
(inch)
NA

R-Value per inch

2.00
0.04
0.04
3.00
0.04
6.00

Resultant R
(F-sqft - hr / Btu)
0.17
5
5
5.20
6.5
0.10

NA
0.05

0.17
0.34
0.20
0.20
15.60
0.26
0.60
0.92
18.29

Btu/hr - Sqft -F

Glazing :

Wall window ratio : 30 %


U-value : 1.22
SC : 0.29

Shading devices :

None

Peak Envelope load : 1.94 watts / sq.ft

The insulation is provided on the roof which thereby decreases the U -value
of the roof. Since the building is a G+8 structure the insulation on the roof
provided leads to negligible variation in the reduction of the heat load.
There is 11.6 % of reduction in the heat load as compared to the ASHRAE
base case.

49

Glass Optimization :

Exterior walls :

U value : 0.07 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Roof :

U- value : 0.05 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Glazing :

Wall window ratio : 20 %


U-value : .24
SC : 0.20

Shading devices :

None

Peak Envelope load : 1.53 watts / sq.ft

Since the glazing used in the as designed case is an efficient option, there
is no change in the glass type. There is 30.3 % of reduction in the heat load
as compared to the ASHRAE base case.

Shading Devices :

Exterior walls :

U value : 0.07 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Roof :

U- value : 0.05 Btu/hr.ft2 F

Glazing :

Wall window ratio : 20 %


U-value : .24
SC : 0.20

Shading devices :

750mm recessed windows

Peak Envelope load : 1.11 watts / sq.ft

The depth of the shading devices are increased from 600mm to 750mm.
There is 50 % of reduction in the heat load as compared to the ASHRAE
base case.

50

5. CONCLUSIONS :

ENVELOPE

BASECASE

AS-DESIGNED
CASE

PROPOSED
CASE

EXTERIOR LOADS
Walls

Roof

U-Value:
Btu/hrft
F
U-Value:
Btu/hrft
F

U- 0.124

0.33

0.07

U-0.063

0.116

0.05

WINDOWS

Glazing

Shades

Window
Wall Ratio

40%
(Uniformly
distributed)

20%

20%

U-Value :
Btu/hrft
F

1.20

.24

.24

SC

0.29

0.20

0.20

VLT : %

N/A

24%

24%

Type

N/A

600mm deep

750mm deep

Fig 37 : Comparison of heat gain

51

The graph shown above depicts that the envelope load of the as designed
building is the highest : 2.24 W/sqft. Therefore the envelope parameters
for the as designed case are the worst.

The ASHRAE base case performs slightly better than the as designed
case, having the envelope load of 2.20 W/sqft.

Further improvement in the walls, roof, glass and shading devices reduce
the envelope load to 1.11 W/sqft.

It can be seen that Rodas although is a LEED Gold rated hotel building, its
envelope does not even meet the ASHRAE base case.

The designers did not focus on design and envelope parameters in the
early design stage.

Efficient building envelope helps in reduction of HVAC load, thus a smaller


energy efficient HVAC system is capable of catering to the cooling
requirement of the hotel. As the system size is reduced the intial
investments are also reduced along with the life cycle cost.

This kind of analysis should be done after the design has been conceived
for a building in order to achieve maximum benefit. Buildings already
constructed can be retrofitted with other materials or construction details
after their simulation is done but this shall not reap as good results as it
would have before the construction.

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LIST OF FIGURES:
Fig 1 : Percentage of energy consumption in a hotel
Fig 2 : Number of rooms available in India
Fig 3 : Energy performance index of Indian hotels
Fig 4 : Energy saving potential in hotels of India
Fig 5 : Passive hotel design features
Fig 6 : Typical breakup of heat gain in a building
Fig 7 : Types of internal and external load
Fig 8 : Summer gains in a building
Fig 9 : Winter gains in a building
Fig 10 : Bulk Insulation
Fig 11 : Reflective insulation
Fig 12 : Forms of building's heat transfer
Fig 13 : Heat flow through a building
Fig 14 : Different building orientations
Fig 15 : Azimuth angle
Fig 16 : Orientation for day lighting
Fig 17 : Orientation for solar heat gain
Fig 18 : Orientation for maximum passive ventilation
Fig 19 : Building envelope
Fig 20 : Various roof forms and their areas of exposure
Fig 21 : Location of openings
Fig 22 : Location of shading devices
Fig 23 : Opening on south
Fig 24 : Day lighting through an opening on south

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Fig 25 : Openings on north


Fig 26 : Sketch of the Leela hotel, Chnakyapuri
Fig 27 : Site plan of Leela Hotel
Fig 28 : Wall section
Fig 29 : Roof section
Fig 30 : Rodas Hotel, Mumbai
Fig 31 : Site plan of Rodas Hotel
Fig 32 : Wall section
Fig 33 : Roof section
Fig 34 : Zoning Plans on e-quest
Fig 35 : 3-D View of model graphic rendering
Fig 36 : Heat load from envelope
Fig 37 : Comparison of heat gain

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Climate responsive architecture - Arvind Krishnan


Manual of tropical housing and building climate design - Koenigsberger
Energy Profile and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Indian Hotels - TERI
Buildotech, March 2011
Practical strategies in Green Buildings - LEED
Energy Management in hotels - BEE
GRIHA Manual - TERI
www.learn.londonmet.ac.uk
www.sustainable-energy.vic.gov.au
www.energyss.com
Sustainable hotel case studies - Michele L. Diener
Introduction : Energy use in buildings - Bruce D Hunn
www.sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com
www.ashraeindia.org

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